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The 1990 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency
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Communists: several hundred, est., primarily as an insurgent group on the northeast frontier

Other political or pressure groups: Kachin Independence Army; Karen National Union, several Shan factions (all insurgent groups); Burmese Communist Party (BCP)

Member of: ADB, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IRC, ITU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador U MYO AUNG; Chancery at 2300 S Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-9044 through 9046; there is a Burmese Consulate General in New York; US—Ambassador Burton LEVIN; Embassy at 581 Merchant Street, Rangoon (mailing address is G. P. O. Box 521, Rangoon or Box B, APO San Francisco 96346); telephone 82055 or 82181

Flag: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing, all in white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel containing a stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent the 14 administrative divisions

- Economy Overview: Burma is one of the poorest countries in Asia, with a per capita GDP of about $280. The government reports negligible growth for FY88. The nation has been unable to achieve any significant improvement in export earnings because of falling prices for many of its major commodity exports. For rice, traditionally the most important export, the drop in world prices has been accompanied by shrinking markets and a smaller volume of sales. In 1985 teak replaced rice as the largest export and continues to hold this position. The economy is heavily dependent on the agricultural sector, which generates about 40% of GDP and provides employment for more than 65% of the work force.

GDP: $11.0 billion, per capita $280; real growth rate 0.2% (FY88 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 22.6% (FY89 est.)

Unemployment rate: 10.4% in urban areas (FY87)

Budget: revenues $4.9 billion; expenditures $5.0 billion, including capital expenditures of $0.7 billion (FY89 est.)

Exports: $311 million (f.o.b., FY88 est.) commodities—teak, rice, oilseed, metals, rubber, gems; partners—Southeast Asia, India, China, EC, Africa

Imports: $536 million (c.i.f., FY88 est.) commodities—machinery, transport equipment, chemicals, food products; partners—Japan, EC, CEMA, China, Southeast Asia

External debt: $5.6 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate - 1.5% (FY88)

Electricity: 950,000 kW capacity; 2,900 million kWh produced, 70 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood and wood products; petroleum refining; mining of copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer

Agriculture: accounts for about 40% of GDP (including fish and forestry); self-sufficient in food; principal crops—paddy rice, corn, oilseed, sugarcane, pulses; world's largest stand of hardwood trees; rice and teak account for 55% of export revenues; 1985 fish catch of 644 million metric tons

Illicit drugs: world's largest illicit producer of opium poppy and minor producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; opium production is on the increase as growers respond to the collapse of Rangoon's antinarcotic programs

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $158 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $3.8 billion; Communist countries (1970-88), $424 million

Currency: kyat (plural—kyats); 1 kyat (K) = 100 pyas

Exchange rates: kyats (K) per US$1—6.5188 (January 1990), 6.7049 (1989), 6.3945 (1988), 6.6535 (1987), 7.3304 (1986), 8.4749 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications Railroads: 3,991 km total, all government owned; 3,878 km 1.000-meter gauge, 113 km narrow-gauge industrial lines; 362 km double track

Highways: 27,000 km total; 3,200 km bituminous, 17,700 km improved earth or gravel, 6,100 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial vessels

Pipelines: crude, 1,343 km; natural gas, 330 km

Ports: Rangoon, Moulmein, Bassein

Merchant marine: 45 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 595,814 GRT/955,924 DWT; includes 3 passenger-cargo, 15 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off, 1 vehicle carrier, 1 container, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 5 chemical, 16 bulk

Civil air: 17 major transport aircraft (including 3 helicopters)

Airports: 88 total, 81 usable; 29 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 37 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: meets minimum requirements for local and intercity service; international service is good; radiobroadcast coverage is limited to the most populous areas; 53,000 telephones (1986); stations—2 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV (1985); 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower: eligible 15-49, 20,294,848; of the 10,135,886 males 15-49, 5,438,196 are fit for military service; of the 10,158,962 females 15-49, 5,437,518 are fit for military service; 434,200 males and 423,435 females reach military age (18) annually; both sexes are liable for military service

Defense expenditures: $315.0 million, 21.0% of central government budget (FY88) —————————————————————————— Country: Burundi - Geography Total area: 27,830 km2; land area: 25,650 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: 974 km total; Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km, Zaire 233 km

Coastline: none—landlocked

Maritime claims: none—landlocked

Climate: temperate; warm; occasional frost in uplands

Terrain: mostly rolling to hilly highland; some plains

Natural resources: nickel, uranium, rare earth oxide, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum (not yet exploited), vanadium

Land use: 43% arable land; 8% permanent crops; 35% meadows and pastures; 2% forest and woodland; 12% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: soil exhaustion; soil erosion; deforestation

Note: landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed

- People Population: 5,645,997 (July 1990), growth rate 3.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 111 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 50 years male, 54 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Burundian(s); adjective—Burundi

Ethnic divisions: Africans—85% Hutu (Bantu), 14% Tutsi (Hamitic), 1% Twa (Pygmy); other Africans include about 70,000 refugees, mostly Rwandans and Zairians; non-Africans include about 3,000 Europeans and 2,000 South Asians

Religion: about 67% Christian (62% Roman Catholic, 5% Protestant), 32% indigenous beliefs, 1% Muslim

Language: Kirundi and French (official); Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)

Literacy: 33.8%

Labor force: 1,900,000 (1983 est.); 93.0% agriculture, 4.0% government, 1.5% industry and commerce, 1.5% services; 52% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: sole group is the Union of Burundi Workers (UTB); by charter, membership is extended to all Burundi workers (informally); figures denoting active membership unobtainable

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Burundi

Type: republic

Capital: Bujumbura

Administrative divisions: 15 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi

Independence: 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)

Constitution: 20 November 1981; suspended following the coup of 3 September 1987

Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

Executive branch: president, Military Committee for National Salvation, prime minister, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale) was dissolved following the coup of 3 September 1987

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Leaders: Chief of State—President Pierre BUYOYA (since 9 September 1987);

Head of Government Prime Minister Adrien SIBOMANA (since 26 October 1988)

Political parties and leaders: only party—National Party of Unity and Progress (UPRONA), a Tutsi-led party, Libere Bararunyeretse, coordinator of the National Permanent Secretariat

Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

Elections: National Assembly—dissolved after the coup of 3 September 1987; no elections are planned

Communists: no Communist party

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, EAMA, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Julien KAVAKURE; Chancery at Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington DC 20007; telephone (202) 342-2574; US—Ambassador Cynthia Shepherd PERRY; Embassy at Avenue du Zaire, Bujumbura (mailing address is B. P. 1720, Bujumbura); telephone 234-54 through 56

Flag: divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white disk superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two stars below)

- Economy Overview: A landlocked, resource-poor country in an early stage of economic development, Burundi is predominately agricultural with only a few basic industries. Its economic health is dependent on the coffee crop, which accounts for an average 90% of foreign exchange earnings each year. The ability to pay for imports therefore continues to rest largely on the vagaries of the climate and the international coffee market.

GDP: $1.3 billion, per capita $255; real growth rate 2.8% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.4% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $213 million; expenditures $292 million, including capital expenditures of $131 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $128 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—coffee 88%, tea, hides and skins; partners—EC 83%, US 5%, Asia 2%

Imports: $204 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities—capital goods 31%, petroleum products 15%, foodstuffs, consumer goods; partners—EC 57%, Asia 23%, US 3%

External debt: $795 million (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: real growth rate 5.1% (1986)

Electricity: 51,000 kW capacity; 105 million kWh produced, 19 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of imports; public works construction; food processing

Agriculture: accounts for 60% of GDP; 90% of population dependent on subsistence farming; marginally self-sufficient in food production; cash crops—coffee, cotton, tea; food crops—corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc; livestock—meat, milk, hides, and skins

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $68 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $10 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $32 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $175 million

Currency: Burundi franc (plural—francs); 1 Burundi franc (FBu) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Burundi francs (FBu) per US$1—176.20 (January 1990), 158.67 (1989), 140.40 (1988), 123.56 (1987), 114.17 (1986), 120.69 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Highways: 5,900 km total; 400 km paved, 2,500 km gravel or laterite, 3,000 km improved or unimproved earth

Inland waterways: Lake Tanganyika

Ports: Bujumbura (lake port) connects to transportation systems of Tanzania and Zaire

Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft

Airports: 8 total, 7 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; none with runways 1,220 to 2,439 m

Telecommunications: sparse system of wire, radiocommunications, and low-capacity radio relay links; 8,000 telephones; stations—2 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: Army (includes naval and air units); paramilitary Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,230,559; 642,927 fit for military service; 61,418 reach military age (16) annually

Defense expenditures: 3.1% of GDP (1987) —————————————————————————— Country: Cambodia - Geography Total area: 181,040 km2; land area: 176,520 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Oklahoma

Land boundaries: 2,572 km total; Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km

Coastline: 443 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: offshore islands and three sections of the boundary with Vietnam are in dispute; maritime boundary with Vietnam not defined; occupied by Vietnam on 25 December 1978

Climate: tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to October); dry season (December to March); little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north

Natural resources: timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential

Land use: 16% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 3% meadows and pastures; 76% forest and woodland; 4% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: a land of paddies and forests dominated by Mekong River and Tonle Sap

Note: buffer between Thailand and Vietnam

- People Population: 6,991,107 (July 1990), growth rate 2.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 39 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 16 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 128 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 47 years male, 50 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Cambodian(s); adjective—Cambodian

Ethnic divisions: 90% Khmer (Cambodian), 5% Chinese, 5% other minorities

Religion: 95% Theravada Buddhism, 5% other

Language: Khmer (official), French

Literacy: 48%

Labor force: 2.5-3.0 million; 80% agriculture (1988 est.)

Organized labor: Kampuchea Federation of Trade Unions (FSC); under government control

- Government Long-form name: none

Type: disputed between the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea (CGDK) led by Prince NORODOM SIHANOUK and the People's Republic of Kampuchea (PRK) led by HENG SAMRIN

Capital: Phnom Penh

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (khet, singular and plural) and 1 autonomous municipality* (rottatheanei, singular and plural); Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Kracheh, Mondol Kiri, Phnum Penh*, Pouthisat, Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanokiri, Siemreab-Otdar Meanchey, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev; note—there may be a new province of Banteay Meanchey and Siemreab-Otdar Meanchey may have been divided into two provinces named Siemreab and Otdar Meanchey

Independence: 9 November 1953 (from France)

Constitution: 27 June 1981

National holidays: CGDK—Independence Day, 17 April (1975); PRK—Liberation Day, 7 January (1979)

Executive branch: CGDK—president, prime minister; PRK—chairman of the Council of State, Council of State, chairman of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: CGDK—none; PRK—unicameral National Assembly

Judicial branch: CGDK—none; PRK—Supreme People's Court

Leaders: Chief of State—CGDK—President Prince NORODOM SIHANOUK (since NA July 1982); PRK—Chairman of the Council of State HENG SAMRIN (since 27 June 1981);

Head of Government—CGDK—Prime Minister SON SANN (since NA July 1982); PRK—Chairman of the Council of Ministers HUN SEN (since 14 January 1985)

Political parties and leaders: CGDK—three resistance groups including Democratic Kampuchea (DK, also known as the Khmer Rouge) under Khieu Samphan, Khmer People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF) under Son Sann, and National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC) under Prince Norodom Sihanouk; PRK—Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Party (KPRP) led by Heng Samrin

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: CGDK—none;

PRK—National Assembly—last held 1 May 1981; in February 1986 the Assembly voted to extend its term for five years (next to be held by March 1990); results—KPRP is the only party; seats—(123 total) KPRP 123

Member of: ADB, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IRC, ITU, Mekong Committee (inactive), NAM, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO for CGDK; none for PRK

Diplomatic representation: none

Flag: CGDK—red with the yellow silhouette of a stylized three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat in the center;

Non-Communists—three horizontal bands of blue, red (double width), and blue with a white stylized temple representing Angkor Wat centered on the red band;

PRK—red with the yellow silhouette of a stylized five-towered temple representing Angkor Wat in the center

- Economy Overview: Cambodia is a desperately poor country whose economic development has been stymied by deadly political infighting. The economy is based on agriculture and related industries. Over the past decade Cambodia has been slowly recovering from its near destruction by war and political upheaval. It still remains, however, one of the world's poorest countries, with an estimated per capita GDP of about $130. The food situation is precarious; during the 1980s famine has been averted only through international relief. In 1986 the production level of rice, the staple food crop, was able to meet only 80% of domestic needs. The biggest success of the nation's recovery program has been in new rubber plantings and in fishing. Industry, other than rice processing, is almost nonexistent. Foreign trade is primarily with the USSR and Vietnam. Statistical data on the economy continues to be sparse and unreliable.

GDP: $890 million, per capita $130; real growth rate 0% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Exports: $32 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—natural rubber, rice, pepper, wood; partners—Vietnam, USSR, Eastern Europe, Japan, India

Imports: $147 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities—international food aid; fuels, consumer goods; partners—Vietnam, USSR, Eastern Europe, Japan, India

External debt: $600 million (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 126,000 kW capacity; 150 million kWh produced, 21 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining

Agriculture: mainly subsistence farming except for rubber plantations; main crops—rice, rubber, corn; food shortages—rice, meat, vegetables, dairy products, sugar, flour

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $719 million; Western (non-US) countries (1970-85), $270 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $950 million

Currency: riel (plural—riels); 1 riel (CR) = 100 sen

Exchange rates: riels (CR) per US$1—218 (November 1989) 100.00 (1987), 30.00 (1986), 7.00 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 612 km 1.000-meter gauge, government owned

Highways: 13,351 km total; 2,622 km bituminous; 7,105 km crushed stone, gravel, or improved earth; 3,624 km unimproved earth; some roads in disrepair

Inland waterways: 3,700 km navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6 meters; 282 km navigable to craft drawing 1.8 meters

Ports: Kampong Saom, Phnom Penh

Airports: 22 total, 9 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: service barely adequate for government requirements and virtually nonexistent for general public; international service limited to Vietnam and other adjacent countries; stations—1 AM, no FM, 1 TV

- Defense Forces Branches: PRK—People's Republic of Kampuchea Armed Forces; Communist resistance forces—National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (Khmer Rouge); non-Communist resistance forces—Sihanoukist National Army (ANS) and Khmer People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF)

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,857,129; 1,025,456 fit for military service; 61,649 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: NA —————————————————————————— Country: Cameroon - Geography Total area: 475,440 km2; land area: 469,440 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries: 4,591 km total; Central African Republic 797 km, Chad 1,094 km, Congo 523 km, Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298 km, Nigeria 1,690 km

Coastline: 402 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Territorial sea: 50 nm

Disputes: exact locations of the Chad-Niger-Nigeria and Cameroon-Chad-Nigeria tripoints in Lake Chad have not been determined, so the boundary has not been demarcated and border incidents have resulted; Nigerian proposals to reopen maritime boundary negotiations and redemarcate the entire land boundary have been rejected by Cameroon

Climate: varies with terrain from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot in north

Terrain: diverse with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau in center, mountains in west, plains in north

Natural resources: crude oil, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower potential

Land use: 13% arable land; 2% permanent crops; 18% meadows and pastures; 54% forest and woodland; 13% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: recent volcanic activity with release of poisonous gases; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification

Note: sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa

- People Population: 11,092,470 (July 1990), growth rate 2.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 42 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 120 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 49 years male, 53 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Cameroonian(s); adjective—Cameroonian

Ethnic divisions: over 200 tribes of widely differing background; 31% Cameroon Highlanders, 19% Equatorial Bantu, 11% Kirdi, 10% Fulani, 8% Northwestern Bantu, 7% Eastern Nigritic, 13% other African, less than 1% non-African

Religion: 51% indigenous beliefs, 33% Christian, 16% Muslim

Language: English and French (official), 24 major African language groups

Literacy: 56.2%

Labor force: NA; 74.4% agriculture, 11.4% industry and transport, 14.2% other services (1983); 50% of population of working age (15-64 years) (1985)

Organized labor: under 45% of wage labor force

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Cameroon

Type: unitary republic; one-party presidential regime

Capital: Yaounde

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est, Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest

Independence: 1 January 1960 (from UN trusteeship under French administration; formerly French Cameroon)

Constitution: 20 May 1972

Legal system: based on French civil law system, with common law influence; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day, 20 May (1972)

Executive branch: president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982)

Political parties and leaders: only party—Cameroon People's Democratic Movement (RDPC), Paul Biya, president

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections: President—last held 24 April 1988 (next to be held April 1993); results—President Paul Biya reelected without opposition;

National Assembly—last held 24 April 1988 (next to be held April 1993); results—RDPC is the only party; seats—(180 total) RDPC 180

Communists: no Communist party or significant number of sympathizers

Other political or pressure groups: Cameroon People's Union (UPC), remains an illegal group with its factional leaders in exile

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, EAMA, ECA, EIB (associate), FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB—Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ISO, ITU, Lake Chad Basin Commission, NAM, Niger River Commission, OAU, OIC, UDEAC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Paul PONDI; Chancery at 2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 265-8790 through 8794; US—Ambassador Frances COOK; Embassy at Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde (mailing address is B. P. 817, Yaounde); telephone p237o 234014; there is a US Consulate General in Douala

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and yellow with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

- Economy Overview: Over the past decade the economy has registered a remarkable performance because of the development of an offshore oil industry. Real GDP growth annually averaged 10% from 1978 to 1985. In 1986 Cameroon had one of the highest levels of income per capita in tropical Africa, with oil revenues picking up the slack as growth in other sectors softened. Because of the sharp drop in oil prices, however, the economy is now experiencing serious budgetary difficulties and balance-of-payments disequalibrium. Oil reserves currently being exploited will be depleted in the early 1990s, so ways must be found to boost agricultural and industrial exports in the medium term. The Sixth Cameroon Development Plan (1986-91) stresses balanced development and designates agriculture as the basis of the country's economic future.

GDP: $12.9 billion, per capita $955; real growth rate - 8.6% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.6% (FY88)

Unemployment rate: 7% (1985)

Budget: revenues $2.17 billion; expenditures $2.17 billion, including capital expenditures of $833 million (FY88)

Exports: $2.0 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—petroleum products 56%, coffee, cocoa, timber, manufactures; partners—EC (particularly the Netherlands) about 50%, US 3%

Imports: $2.3 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities—machines and electrical equipment, transport equipment, chemical products, consumer goods; partners—France 42%, Japan 7%, US 4%

External debt: $4.9 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate - 6.4% (FY87)

Electricity: 752,000 kW capacity; 2,940 million kWh produced, 270 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: crude oil products, small aluminum plant, food processing, light consumer goods industries, sawmills

Agriculture: the agriculture and forestry sectors provide employment for the majority of the population, contributing nearly 25% to GDP and providing a high degree of self-sufficiency in staple foods; commercial and food crops include coffee, cocoa, timber, cotton, rubber, bananas, oilseed, grains, livestock, root starches

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $400 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $3.9 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $29 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $120 million

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural—francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1—287.99 (January 1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications Railroads: 1,003 km total; 858 km 1.000-meter gauge, 145 km 0.600-meter gauge

Highways: about 65,000 km total; includes 2,682 km bituminous, 30,000 km unimproved earth, 32,318 km gravel, earth, and improved earth

Inland waterways: 2,090 km; of decreasing importance

Ports: Douala

Merchant marine: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 24,122 GRT/33,509 DWT

Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft

Airports: 61 total, 54 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good system of open wire, cable, troposcatter, and radio relay; 26,000 telephones; stations—10 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force; paramilitary Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,553,867; 1,286,831 fit for military service; 121,773 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 1.7% of GDP, or $219 million (1990 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: Canada - Geography Total area: 9,976,140 km2; land area: 9,220,970 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than US

Land boundaries: 8,893 km with US (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

Coastline: 243,791 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: maritime boundary disputes with France (St. Pierre and Miquelon) and US

Climate: varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

Terrain: mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast

Natural resources: nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, crude oil, natural gas

Land use: 5% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 3% meadows and pastures; 35% forest and woodland; 57% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: 80% of population concentrated within 160 km of US border; continuous permafrost in north a serious obstacle to development

Note: second-largest country in world (after USSR); strategic location between USSR and US via north polar route

- People Population: 26,538,229 (July 1990), growth rate 1.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 5 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 81 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Canadian(s); adjective—Canadian

Ethnic divisions: 40% British Isles origin, 27% French origin, 20% other European, 1.5% indigenous Indian and Eskimo

Religion: 46% Roman Catholic, 16% United Church, 10% Anglican

Language: English and French (both official)

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 13,380,000; services 75%, manufacturing 14%, agriculture 4%, construction 3%, other 4% (1988)

Organized labor: 30.6% of labor force; 39.6% of nonagricultural paid workers

- Government Long-form name: none

Type: confederation with parliamentary democracy

Capital: Ottawa

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces and 2 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*

Independence: 1 July 1867 (from UK)

Constitution: amended British North America Act 1867 patriated to Canada 17 April 1982; charter of rights and unwritten customs

Legal system: based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Commons

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Raymond John HNATSHYN (since 29 January 1990);

Head of Government—Prime Minister (Martin) Brian MULRONEY (since 4 September 1984); Deputy Prime Minister Donald Frank MAZANKOWSKI (since NA June 1986)

Political parties and leaders: Progressive Conservative, Brian Mulroney; Liberal, John Turner; New Democratic, Audrey McLaughlin

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: House of Commons—last held 21 November 1988 (next to be held by November 1993); results—Progressive Conservative 43.0%, Liberal 32%, New Democratic Party 20%, other 5%; seats—(295 total) Progressive Conservative 170, Liberal 82, New Democratic Party 43

Communists: 3,000

Member of: ADB, CCC, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth, DAC, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IDB—Inter-American Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC—International Whaling Commission, IWC—International Wheat Council, NATO, OAS, OECD, PAHO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Derek BURNEY; Chancery at 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202) 785-1400; there are Canadian Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Cleveland, Dallas, Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Seattle; US—Ambassador Edward N. NEY; Embassy at 100 Wellington Street, K1P 5T1, Ottawa (mailing address is P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY 13669); telephone (613) 238-5335; there are US Consulates General in Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, and Vancouver

Flag: three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white (double width, square), and red with a red maple leaf centered in the white band

- Economy Overview: As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada today closely resembles the US in per capita output, market-oriented economic system, and pattern of production. Since World War II the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. In the 1980s Canada registered one of the highest rates of growth among the OECD nations, averaging about 4%. With its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital plant, Canada has excellent economic prospects. In mid-1990, however, the long-simmering problems between English- and French-speaking areas became so acute that observers spoke openly of a possible split in the confederation; foreign investors were becoming edgy.

GDP: $513.6 billion, per capita $19,600; real growth rate 2.9% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.0% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 7.5% (1989)

Budget: revenues $79.2 billion; expenditures $102.0 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.8 billion (FY88 est.)

Exports: $127.2 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities—newsprint, wood pulp, timber, grain, crude petroleum, natural gas, ferrous and nonferrous ores, motor vehicles; partners—US, Japan, UK, FRG, other EC, USSR

Imports: $116.5 billion (c.i.f., 1989); commodities—processed foods, beverages, crude petroleum, chemicals, industrial machinery, motor vehicles, durable consumer goods, electronic computers; partners—US, Japan, UK, FRG, other EC, Taiwan, South Korea, Mexico

External debt: $247 billion (1987)

Industrial production: growth rate 2.3% (1989)

Electricity: 103,746,000 kW capacity; 472,580 million kWh produced, 17,960 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, transportation equipment, chemicals, fish products, petroleum and natural gas

Agriculture: accounts for 3% of GDP; one of the world's major producers and exporters of grain (wheat and barley); key source of US agricultural imports; large forest resources cover 35% of total land area; commercial fisheries provide annual catch of 1.5 million metric tons, of which 75% is exported

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market

Aid: donor—ODA and OOF commitments (1970-87), $2.2 billion

Currency: Canadian dollar (plural—dollars); 1 Canadian dollar (Can$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$1—1.1714 (January 1990), 1.1840 (1989), 1.2307 (1988), 1.3260 (1987), 1.3895 (1986), 1.3655 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications Railroads: 80,095 km total; 79,917 km 1.435-meter standard gauge (includes 129 km electrified); 178 km 0.915-meter narrow gauge (mostly unused); two major transcontinental freight railway systems—Canadian National (government owned) and Canadian Pacific Railway; passenger service—VIA (government operated)

Highways: 884,272 km total; 712,936 km surfaced (250,023 km paved), 171,336 km earth

Inland waterways: 3,000 km, including St. Lawrence Seaway

Pipelines: oil, 23,564 km total crude and refined; natural gas, 74,980 km

Ports: Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Saint John (New Brunswick), St. John's (Newfoundland), Toronto, Vancouver

Merchant marine: 78 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 555,749 GRT/774,914 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 5 short-sea passenger, 2 passenger-cargo, 12 cargo, 2 railcar carrier, 1 refrigerated cargo, 8 roll-on/roll-off, 1 container, 29 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 6 chemical tanker, 1 specialized tanker, 10 bulk; note—does not include ships used exclusively in the Great Lakes ships

Civil air: 636 major transport aircraft; Air Canada is the major carrier

Airports: 1,359 total, 1,117 usable; 442 with permanent-surface runways; 4 with runways over 3,659 m; 30 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 322 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: excellent service provided by modern media; 18.0 million telephones; stations—900 AM, 29 FM, 53 (1,400 repeaters) TV; 5 coaxial submarine cables; over 300 satellite earth stations operating in INTELSAT (including 4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and domestic systems

- Defense Forces Branches: Mobile Command, Maritime Command, Air Command, Communications Command, Canadian Forces Europe, Training Commands

Military manpower: males 15-49, 7,174,119; 6,251,492 fit for military service; 187,894 reach military age (17) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.0% of GDP, or $10 billion (1989 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: Cape Verde - Geography Total area: 4,030 km2; land area: 4,030 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 965 km

Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; warm, dry, summer precipitation very erratic

Terrain: steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic

Natural resources: salt, basalt rock, pozzolana, limestone, kaolin, fish

Land use: 9% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 6% meadows and pastures; NEGL% forest and woodland; 85% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: subject to prolonged droughts; harmattan wind can obscure visibility; volcanically and seismically active; deforestation; overgrazing

Note: strategic location 500 km from African coast near major north-south sea routes; important communications station; important sea and air refueling site

- People Population: 374,984 (July 1990), growth rate 3.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 49 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 8 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 65 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 59 years male, 63 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Cape Verdean(s); adjective—Cape Verdean

Ethnic divisions: about 71% Creole (mulatto), 28% African, 1% European

Religion: Roman Catholicism fused with indigenous beliefs

Language: Portuguese and Crioulo, a blend of Portuguese and West African words

Literacy: 48% (1986)

Labor force: 102,000 (1985 est.); 57% agriculture (mostly subsistence), 29% services, 14% industry (1981); 51% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: Trade Unions of Cape Verde Unity Center (UNTC-CS) closely associated with ruling party

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Cape Verde

Type: republic

Capital: Praia

Administrative divisions: 12 districts (concelhos, singular—concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Fogo, Maio, Paul, Praia, Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Sao Nicolau, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal; there may be 2 new districts named Porto Novo and Santa Cruz

Independence: 5 July 1975 (from Portugal)

Constitution: 7 September 1980, amended 12 February 1981 and December 1988

National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1975)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, deputy minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Assembly (Assembleia Nacional Popular)

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Supremo Tribunal de Justia)

Leaders: Chief of State—President Aristides Maria PEREIRA (since 5 July 1975);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Pedro Verona Rodrigues PIRES, (since 5 July 1975); Deputy Minister Aguinaldo Liboa RAMOS (since NA February 1990)

Political parties and leaders: only party—African Party for Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV), Aristides Maria Pereira, secretary general

Suffrage: universal at age 15

Elections: President—last held 13 January 1986 (next to be held January 1991); results—President Aristides Maria Pereira (PAICV) was reelected without opposition;

National People's Assembly—last held 7 December 1985 (next to be held December 1990); results—PAICV is the only party; seats—(83 total) PAICV 83

Communists: a few Communists and some sympathizers

Member of: ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, IPU, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jose Luis FERNANDES LOPES; Chancery at 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20007; telephone (202) 965-6820; there is a Cape Verdean Consulate General in Boston; US—Ambassador Terry McNAMARA; Embassy at Rua Hojl Ya Yenna 81, Praia (mailing address is C. P. 201, Praia); telephone p238o 614-363 or 253

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and green with a vertical red band on the hoist side; in the upper portion of the red band is a black five-pointed star framed by two corn stalks and a yellow clam shell; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Guinea-Bissau which is longer and has an unadorned black star centered in the red band

- Economy Overview: Cape Verde's low per capita GDP reflects a poor natural resource base, a 17-year drought, and a high birth rate. The economy is service oriented, with commerce, transport, and public services accounting for 60% of GDP during the period 1984-86. Although nearly 70% of the population lives in rural areas, agriculture's share of GDP is only 16%; the fishing and manufacturing sectors are 4% each. About 90% of food must be imported. The fishing potential of the islands is not fully exploited (the fish catch—mostly lobster and tuna—came to only 10,000 tons in 1985). Cape Verde annually runs a high trade deficit, financed by remittances from emigrants, cash grants, food aid, and foreign loans.

GDP: $158 million, per capita $494; real growth rate 6.1% (1987)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.8% (1987)

Unemployment rate: 25% (1988)

Budget: revenues $80 million; expenditures $87 million, including capital expenditures of $45 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $8.9 million (f.o.b., 1987); commodities—fish, bananas, salt; partners—Portugal, Angola, Algeria, Belgium/Luxembourg, Italy

Imports: $124 million (c.i.f., 1987); commodities—petroleum, foodstuffs, consumer goods, industrial products; partners—Portugal, Netherlands, Spain, France, US, FRG

External debt: $140 million (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 0% (1986 est.)

Electricity: 14,000 kW capacity; 18 million kWh produced, 50 kWh per capita (1989)

Industry: fish processing, salt mining, clothing factories, ship repair

Agriculture: accounts for 16% of GDP; largely subsistence farming; bananas are the only export crop; other crops—corn, beans, sweet potatoes, coffee; growth potential of agricultural sector limited by poor soils and limited rainfall; annual food imports required; fish catch provides for both domestic consumption and small exports

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY75-88), $83 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $540 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $12 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $36 million

Currency: Cape Verdean escudo (plural—escudos); 1 Cape Verdean escudo (CVEsc) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Cape Verdean escudos (CVEsc) per US$1—72.31 (February 1990), 74.86 (December 1989), 72.01 (1988), 72.5 (1987), 76.56 (1986), 85.38 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Ports: Mindelo and Praia

Merchant marine: 5 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 9,308 GRT/16,172 DWT

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 6 total, 6 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: interisland radio relay system, high-frequency radio to mainland Portugal and Guinea-Bissau; 1,740 telephones; stations—5 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 2 coaxial submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: People's Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARP); Army, Navy, and Air Force are separate components of FARP

Military manpower: males 15-49, 68,776; 40,731 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 11.8% of GDP (1981) —————————————————————————— Country: Cayman Islands (dependent territory of the UK) - Geography Total area: 260 km2; land area: 260 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 160 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and cool, relatively dry winters (November to April)

Terrain: low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs

Natural resources: fish, climate and beaches that foster tourism

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 8% meadows and pastures; 23% forest and woodland; 69% other

Environment: within the Caribbean hurricane belt

Note: important location between Cuba and Central America

- People Population: 26,356 (July 1990), growth rate 4.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 33 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 80 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Caymanian(s); adjective—Caymanian

Ethnic divisions: 40% mixed, 20% white, 20% black, 20% expatriates of various ethnic groups

Religion: United Church (Presbyterian and Congregational), Anglican, Baptist, Roman Catholic, Church of God, other Protestant denominations

Language: English

Literacy: 98%

Labor force: 8,061; 18.7% service workers, 18.6% clerical, 12.5% construction, 6.7% finance and investment, 5.9% directors and business managers (1979)

Organized labor: Global Seaman's Union; Cayman All Trade Union

- Government Long-form name: none

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: George Town

Administrative divisions: 12 districts; Bodden Town, Creek, East End, George Town, Jacksons, North Side, Prospect, South Town, Spot Bay, Stake Bay, West Bay, West End

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Legal system: British common law and local statutes

Constitution: 1959, revised 1972

National holiday: Constitution Day (first Monday in July), 3 July 1989

Executive branch: British monarch, governor, Executive Council (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly

Judicial branch: Grand Court, Cayman Islands Court of Appeal

Leaders: Chief of State—Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Alan James SCOTT (since NA 1987);

Head of Government—Governor and President of the Executive Council Alan James SCOTT (since NA 1987)

Political parties and leaders: no formal political parties

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: Legislative Assembly—last held NA November 1988 (next to be held November 1992); results—percent of vote NA; seats—(15 total, 12 elected)

Communists: none

Member of: Commonwealth

Diplomatic representation: as a dependent territory of the UK, Caymanian interests in the US are represented by the UK; US—none

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Caymanian coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms includes a pineapple and turtle above a shield with three stars (representing the three islands) and a scroll at the bottom bearing the motto HE HATH FOUNDED IT UPON THE SEAS

- Economy Overview: The economy depends heavily on tourism (70% of GDP and 75% of export earnings) and offshore financial services, with the tourist industry aimed at the luxury market and catering mainly to visitors from North America. About 90% of the islands' food and consumer goods needs must be imported. The Caymanians enjoy one of the highest standards of living in the region.

GDP: $238 million, per capita $10,000 (1989 est.); real growth rate 12% (1987 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.4% (1986)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $46.2 million; expenditures $47.0 million, including capital expenditures of $9.1 million (1986)

Exports: $2.2 million (f.o.b., 1986 est.); commodities—turtle products, manufactured consumer goods; partners—mostly US

Imports: $134 million (c.i.f., 1986 est.); commodities—foodstuffs, manufactured goods; partners—US, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, Netherlands Antilles, Japan

External debt: $15 million (1986)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 59,000 kW capacity; 213 million kWh produced, 8,960 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, banking, insurance and finance, real estate and construction

Agriculture: minor production of vegetables, fruit, livestock; turtle farming

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $26.7 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $32.2 million

Currency: Caymanian dollar (plural—dollars); 1 Caymanian dollar (CI$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Caymanian dollars (CI$) per US$1—0.835 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications Highways: 160 km of main roads

Ports: George Town, Cayman Brac

Merchant marine: 32 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 355,055 GRT/576,622 DWT; includes 1 passenger-cargo, 8 cargo, 8 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 4 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 1 specialized tanker, 1 liquefied gas carrier, 8 bulk; note—a flag of convenience registry

Airports: 3 total; 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 2,439 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 35,000 telephones; telephone system uses 1 submarine coaxial cable and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station to link islands and access international services; stations—2 AM, 1 FM, no TV

- Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK —————————————————————————— Country: Central African Republic - Geography Total area: 622,980 km2; land area: 622,980 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: 5,203 km total; Cameroon 797 km, Chad 1,197 km, Congo 467 km, Sudan 1,165 km, Zaire 1,577 km

Coastline: none—landlocked

Maritime claims: none—landlocked

Climate: tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers

Terrain: vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills in northeast and southwest

Natural resources: diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil

Land use: 3% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 5% meadows and pastures; 64% forest and woodland; 28% other

Environment: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern areas; poaching has diminished reputation as one of last great wildlife refuges; desertification

Note: landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa

- People Population: 2,877,365 (July 1990), growth rate 2.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 44 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 18 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 141 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 45 years male, 48 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Central African(s); adjective—Central African

Ethnic divisions: about 80 ethnic groups, the majority of which have related ethnic and linguistic characteristics; 34% Baya, 27% Banda, 10% Sara, 21% Mandjia, 4% Mboum, 4% M'Baka; 6,500 Europeans, of whom 3,600 are French

Religion: 24% indigenous beliefs, 25% Protestant, 25% Roman Catholic, 15% Muslim, 11% other; animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the Christian majority

Language: French (official); Sangho (lingua franca and national language); Arabic, Hunsa, Swahili

Literacy: 40.2%

Labor force: 775,413 (1986 est.); 85% agriculture, 9% commerce and services, 3% industry, 3% government; about 64,000 salaried workers; 55% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: 1% of labor force

- Government Long-form name: Central African Republic (no short-form name); abbreviated CAR

Type: republic, one-party presidential regime since 1986

Capital: Bangui

Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular—prefecture) and 2 economic prefectures* (prefectures economiques, singular—prefecture economique); Bamingui-Bangoran, Basse-Kotto, Gribingui*, Haute-Kotto, Haute-Sangha, Haut-Mbomou, Kemo-Gribingui, Lobaye, Mbomou, Nana-Mambere, Ombella-Mpoko, Ouaka, Ouham, Ouham-Pende, Sangha*, Vakaga; note—there may be a new autonomous commune of Bangui

Independence: 13 August 1960 (from France; formerly Central African Empire)

Constitution: 21 November 1986

Legal system: based on French law

National holiday: National Day (proclamation of the republic), 1 December (1958)

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress consists of an upper house or Economic and Regional Council (Conseil Economique et Regional) and a lower house or National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—President Andre-Dieudonne KOLINGBA (since 1 September 1981)

Political parties and leaders: only party—Centrafrican Democrtic Rally Party (RDC), Andre-Dieudonne Kolingba

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections: President—last held 21 November 1986 (next to be held November 1993); results—President Kolingba was reelected without opposition;

National Assembly—last held 31 July 1987 (next to be held July 1992); results—RDC is the only party; seats—(total) RDC 52

Communists: small number of Communist sympathizers

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Conference of East and Central African States, EAMA, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAU, OCAM, UDEAC, UEAC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jean-Pierre SOHAHONG-KOMBET; Chancery at 1618 22nd Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 483-7800 or 7801; US—Ambassador Daniel H. SIMPSON; Embassy at Avenue du President David Dacko, Bangui (mailing address is B. P. 924, Bangui); telephone 61-02-00 or 61-25-78, 61-43-33

Flag: four equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, green, and yellow with a vertical red band in center; there is a yellow five-pointed star on the hoist side of the blue band

- Economy Overview: The Central African Republic (CAR) is one of the poorest countries in Africa, with a per capita income of roughly $450 in 1988. Subsistence agriculture, including forestry, is the backbone of the economy, with over 70% of the population living in the countryside. In 1988 the agricultural sector generated about 40% of GDP, mining and manufacturing 14%, utilities and construction 4%, and services 41%. Agricultural products accounted for about 60% of export earnings and the diamond industry for 30%. Important constraints to economic development include the CAR's landlocked position, a poor transportation infrastructure, and a weak human resource base. Multilateral and bilateral development assistance plays a major role in providing capital for new investment.

GDP: $1.27 billion, per capita $453; real growth rate 2.0% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): - 4.2% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: 30% in Bangui (1988 est.)

Budget: revenues $132 million; current expenditures $305 million, including capital expenditures of $NA million (1989 est.)

Exports: $138 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities—diamonds, cotton, coffee, timber, tobacco; partners—France, Belgium, Italy, Japan, US

Imports: $285 million (c.i.f., 1988 est.); commodities—food, textiles, petroleum products, machinery, electrical equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, consumer goods, industrial products; partners—France, other EC, Japan, Algeria, Yugoslavia

External debt: $660 million (December 1989)

Industrial production: 1.9% (1987 est.)

Electricity: 35,000 kW capacity; 84 million kWh produced, 30 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: sawmills, breweries, diamond mining, textiles, footwear, assembly of bicycles and motorcycles

Agriculture: accounts for 40% of GDP; self-sufficient in food production except for grain; commercial crops—cotton, coffee, tobacco, timber; food crops—manioc, yams, millet, corn, bananas

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $44 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.3 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $6 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $38 million

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural—francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1—287.99 (January 1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Highways: 22,000 km total; 458 km bituminous, 10,542 km improved earth, 11,000 unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 800 km; traditional trade carried on by means of shallow-draft dugouts; Oubangui is the most important river

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 66 total, 49 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system; network relies primarily on radio relay links, with low-capacity, low-powered radiocommunication also used; 6,000 telephones; stations—1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 642,207; 335,863 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 1.8% of GDP, or $23 million (1989 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: Chad - Geography Total area: 1,284,000 km2; land area: 1,259,200 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than three times the size of California

Land boundaries: 5,968 km total; Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km

Coastline: none—landlocked

Maritime claims: none—landlocked

Disputes: Libya claims and occupies a small portion of the Aozou Strip in far north; exact locations of the Chad-Niger-Nigeria and Cameroon-Chad-Nigeria tripoints in Lake Chad have not been determined—since the boundary has not been demarcated, border incidents have resulted

Climate: tropical in south, desert in north

Terrain: broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south

Natural resources: small quantities of crude oil (unexploited but exploration beginning), uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)

Land use: 2% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 36% meadows and pastures; 11% forest and woodland; 51% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; drought and desertification adversely affecting south; subject to plagues of locusts

Note: landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel

- People Population: 5,017,431 (July 1990), growth rate 2.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 42 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 22 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 136 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 38 years male, 40 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Chadian(s); adjective—Chadian

Ethnic divisions: some 200 distinct ethnic groups, most of whom are Muslims (Arabs, Toubou, Fulbe, Kotoko, Hausa, Kanembou, Baguirmi, Boulala, and Maba) in the north and center and non-Muslims (Sara, Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye, Moudang, Moussei, Massa) in the south; some 150,000 nonindigenous, of whom 1,000 are French

Religion: 44% Muslim, 33% Christian, 23% indigenous beliefs, animism

Language: French and Arabic (official); Sara and Sango in south; more than 100 different languages and dialects are spoken

Literacy: 25.3%

Labor force: NA; 85% agriculture (engaged in unpaid subsistence farming, herding, and fishing)

Organized labor: about 20% of wage labor force

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Chad

Type: republic

Capital: N'Djamena

Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular—prefecture); Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile

Independence: 11 August 1960 (from France)

Constitution: 22 December 1989

Legal system: based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day (founding of the Third Republic), 7 June (1982)

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Consultative Council (Conseil National Consultatif)

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—President Hissein HABRE (since 19 June 1982)

Political parties and leaders: National Union for Independence and Revolution (UNIR) established June 1984 with Habre as President; numerous dissident groups (most significant opponents have returned to the government since mid-1986)

Suffrage: universal at age NA

Elections: President—last held 10 December 1989 (next to be held December 1996); results—President Habre was reelected without opposition

Communists: no front organizations or underground party; probably a few Communists and some sympathizers

Other political or pressure groups: NA

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CEAO, Conference of East and Central African States, EAMA, ECA, EC (associate), FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IDB—Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, Lake Chad Basin Commission, NAM, OAU, OCAM, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Mahamat Ali ADOUM; Chancery at 2002 R Steet NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 462-4009; US—Ambassador-designate Richard W. BOGOSIAN; Charge d'Affaires, Julius WALKER; Embassy at Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena (mailing address is B. P. 413, N'Djamena); telephone p235o (51) 32-69 or 35-13, 28-62, 23-29, 32-29, 30-94, 28-47

Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; similar to the flag of Andorra which has a national coat of arms featuring a quartered shield centered in the yellow band; also similar to the flag of Romania which has a national coat of arms featuring a mountain landscape centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France

- Economy Overview: The climate, geographic location, and lack of infrastructure and natural resources potential make Chad one of the most underdeveloped countries in the world. Its economy is slowly recovering from the ravaging effects of prolonged civil war, conflict with Libya, drought, and food shortages. In 1986 real GDP returned to its 1977 level, with cotton, the major cash crop, accounting for 43% of exports. Over 80% of the work force is employed in subsistence farming and fishing. Industry is based almost entirely on the processing of agricultural products, including cotton, sugarcane, and cattle. Chad is still highly dependent on foreign aid, with its economy in trouble and many regions suffering from shortages.

GDP: $902 million, per capita $190; real growth rate 7.0% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): - 3.0% (1987)

Unemployment rate: NA

Budget: revenues $61 million; expenditures $85 million, including capital expenditures of NA (1988 est.)

Exports: $432 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—cotton 43%, cattle 35%, textiles 5%, fish; partners—France, Nigeria, Cameroon

Imports: $214 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities—machinery and transportation equipment 39%, industrial goods 20%, petroleum products 13%, foodstuffs 9%; partners—US, France

External debt: $360 million (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate - 7.0% (1986)

Electricity: 38,000 kW capacity; 70 million kWh produced, 14 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: cotton textile mills, slaughterhouses, brewery, natron (sodium carbonate)

Agriculture: accounts for 45% of GDP; largely subsistence farming; cotton most important cash crop; food crops include sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc; livestock—cattle, sheep, goats, camels; self-sufficient in food in years of adequate rainfall

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $178 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.2 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $28 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $71 million

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural—francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1—287.99 (January 1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Highways: 31,322 km total; 32 km bituminous; 7,300 km gravel and laterite; remainder unimproved

Inland waterways: 2,000 km navigable

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

Airports: 71 total, 55 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 24 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system of radiocommunication stations for intercity links; 5,000 telephones; stations—3 AM, 1 FM, limited TV service; many facilities are inoperative; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie, Presidential Guard

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,163,312; 603,923 fit for military service; 50,255 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 3.5% of GDP (1987) —————————————————————————— Country: Chile - Geography Total area: 756,950 km2; land area: 748,800 km2; includes Isla de Pascua (Easter Island) and Isla Sala y Gomez

Comparative area: slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana

Land boundaries: 6,171 km total; Argentina 5,150 km, Bolivia 861 km, Peru 160 km

Coastline: 6,435 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 nm;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: short section of the southern boundary with Argentina is indefinite; Bolivia has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in 1884; dispute with Bolivia over Rio Lauca water rights; territorial claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps Argentine claim

Climate: temperate; desert in north; cool and damp in south

Terrain: low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes in east

Natural resources: copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum

Land use: 7% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 16% meadows and pastures; 21% forest and woodland; 56% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: subject to severe earthquakes, active volcanism, tsunami; Atacama Desert one of world's driest regions; desertification

Note: strategic location relative to sea lanes between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage)

- People Population: 13,082,842 (July 1990), growth rate 1.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 21 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 18 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 77 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Chilean(s); adjective—Chilean

Ethnic divisions: 95% European and European-Indian, 3% Indian, 2% other

Religion: 89% Roman Catholic, 11% Protestant, and small Jewish population

Language: Spanish

Literacy: 94%

Labor force: 3,840,000; 38.6% services (including 12% government), 31.3% industry and commerce; 15.9% agriculture, forestry, and fishing; 8.7% mining; 4.4% construction (1985)

Organized labor: 10% of labor force (1989)

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Chile

Type: republic

Capital: Santiago

Administrative divisions: 13 regions (regiones, singular—region); Aisen del General Carlos Ibanez del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania, Atacama, Biobio, Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los Lagos, Magallanes y Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region Metropolitana, Tarapaca, Valparaiso

Independence: 18 September 1810 (from Spain)

Constitution: 11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended 30 July 1989

Legal system: based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and subsequent codes influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 September (1810)

Executive branch: president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional) consisting of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or Chamber of Deputies

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—President Patricio AYLWIN (since 11 March 1990)

Political parties and leaders: National Renovation (RN), Sergio Jarpa, president; Radical Party (PR), Enrique Silva Cimma; Social Democratic Party (PSD), Eugenio Velasco; Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Andres Zaldivar; Party for Democracy, Ricardo Lagos; Socialist Party, Clodomiro Almeyda; other parties are Movement of United Popular Action (MAPU), Victor Barrueto; Christian Left (IC), Luis Maira; Communist Party of Chile (PCCh), Volodia Teitelboim; Movement of the Revolutionary Left (MIR) is splintered, no single leader; several leftist and far left parties formed a new coalition in November 1988 with Luis Maira as president; the 17-party Concertation of Parties for Democracy backed Patricio Aylwin's presidential candidacy in December 1989

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Elections: President—last held 14 December 1989 (next to be held December 1993 or January 1994); results—Patricio Aylwin 55.2%, Hernan Buchi 29.4%, other 15.4%;

Senate—last held 14 December 1989 (next to be held December 1993 or January 1994); seats—(47 total, 38 elected) 17-party Concertation of Parties for Democracy 22;

Chamber of Deputies—last held 14 December 1989 (next to be held December 1993 or January 1994); seats—(120 total) Concertation of Parties for Democracy 69

Communists: 120,000 when PCCh was legal in 1973; 50,000 (est.) active militants

Other political or pressure groups: revitalized university student federations at all major universities dominated by opposition political groups; labor—United Labor Central (CUT) includes trade unionists from the country's five-largest labor confederations; Roman Catholic Church

Member of: CCC, CIPEC, ECOSOC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB—Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, LAIA, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Octavio ERRAZURIZ; Chancery at 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202) 785-1746; there are Chilean Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco; US—Ambassador Charles A. GILLESPIE, Jr.; Embassy at Codina Building, 1343 Agustinas, Santiago (mailing address is APO Miami 34033); telephone p56o (2) 710133 or 710190, 710326, 710375

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center; design was based on the US flag

- Economy Overview: In 1989 the economy grew at the rate of 9.9%, reflecting substantial growth in industry, agriculture, and construction. Copper accounts for nearly 50% of export revenues; Chile's economic well-being thus remains highly dependent on international copper prices. Unemployment and inflation rates have declined from their peaks in 1982 to 5.3% and 21.4%, respectively, in 1989. The major long-term economic problem is how to sustain growth in the face of political uncertainties.

GDP: $25.3 billion, per capita $1,970; real growth rate 9.9% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 21.4% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 5.3% (1989)

Budget: revenues $4.9 billion; expenditures $5.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $0.6 billion (1986)

Exports: $7.0 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—copper 48%, industrial products 33%, molybdenum, iron ore, wood pulp, fishmeal, fruits; partners—EC 34%, US 22%, Japan 10%, Brazil 7%

Imports: $4.7 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—petroleum, wheat, capital goods, spare parts, raw materials; partners—EC 23%, US 20%, Japan 10%, Brazil 9%

External debt: $16.3 billion (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 7.4% (1989)

Electricity: 4,044,000 kW capacity; 17,710 million kWh produced, 1,380 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, wood and wood products

Agriculture: accounts for about 8% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); major exporter of fruit, fish, and timber products; major crops—wheat, corn, grapes, beans, sugar beets, potatoes, deciduous fruit; livestock products—beef, poultry, wool; self-sufficient in most foods; 1986 fish catch of 5.6 million metric tons net agricultural importer

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $521 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.3 billion; Communist countries (1970-88), $386 million

Currency: Chilean peso (plural—pesos); 1 Chilean peso (Ch$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Chilean pesos (Ch$) per US$1—296.68 (January 1990), 267.16 (1989), 245.05 (1988), 219.54 (1987), 193.02 (1986), 161.08 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 8,613 km total; 4,257 km 1.676-meter gauge, 135 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 4,221 km 1.000-meter gauge; electrification, 1,578 km 1.676-meter gauge, 76 km 1.000-meter gauge

Highways: 79,025 km total; 9,913 km paved, 33,140 km gravel, 35,972 km improved and unimproved earth (1984)

Inland waterways: 725 km

Pipelines: crude oil, 755 km; refined products, 785 km; natural gas, 320 km

Ports: Antofagasta, Iquique, Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas, Valparaiso, San Antonio, Talcahuano, Arica

Merchant marine: 35 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 498,354 GRT/804,809 DWT; includes 13 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 3 combination ore/oil, 10 bulk; note—in addition, 1 naval tanker and 1 military transport are sometimes used commercially

Civil air: 22 major transport aircraft

Airports: 392 total, 352 usable; 49 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 11 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 57 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: modern telephone system based on extensive radio relay facilities; 768,000 telephones; stations—159 AM, no FM, 131 TV, 11 shortwave; satellite stations—2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 3 domestic

- Defense Forces Branches: Army of the Nation, National Navy, Air Force of the Nation, Carabineros of Chile

Military manpower: males 15-49, 3,491,854; 2,610,048 fit for military service; 118,569 reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: 4.0% of GDP (1987) —————————————————————————— Country: China (also see separate Taiwan entry) - Geography Total area: 9,596,960 km2; land area: 9,326,410 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than the US

Land boundaries: 23,213.34 km total; Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km, Hong Kong 30 km, India 3,380 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Laos 423 km, Macau 0.34 km, Mongolia 4,673 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, USSR 7,520 km, Vietnam 1,281 km

Coastline: 14,500 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: boundary with India; bilateral negotiations are under way to resolve four disputed sections of the boundary with the USSR (Pamir, Argun, Amur, and Khabarovsk areas); a short section of the boundary with North Korea is indefinite; Hong Kong is scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region in 1997; Portuguese territory of Macau is scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region in 1999; sporadic border clashes with Vietnam; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam; maritime boundary dispute with Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin; Paracel Islands occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; claims Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands)

Climate: extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north

Terrain: mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east

Natural resources: coal, iron ore, crude oil, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, world's largest hydropower potential

Land use: 10% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 31% meadows and pastures; 14% forest and woodland; 45% other; includes 5% irrigated

Environment: frequent typhoons (about five times per year along southern and eastern coasts), damaging floods, tsunamis, earthquakes; deforestation; soil erosion; industrial pollution; water pollution; desertification

Note: world's third-largest country (after USSR and Canada)

- People Population: 1,118,162,727 (July 1990), growth rate 1.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 22 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 34 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 69 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Chinese (sing., pl.); adjective—Chinese

Ethnic divisions: 93.3% Han Chinese; 6.7% Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities

Religion: officially atheist, but traditionally pragmatic and eclectic; most important elements of religion are Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism; about 2-3% Muslim, 1% Christian

Language: Standard Chinese (Putonghua) or Mandarin (based on the Beijing dialect); also Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, and minority languages (see ethnic divisions)

Literacy: over 75%

Labor force: 513,000,000; 61.1% agriculture and forestry, 25.2% industry and commerce, 4.6% construction and mining, 4.5% social services, 4.6% other (1986 est.)

Organized labor: All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) follows the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party; membership over 80 million or about 65% of the urban work force (1985)

- Government Long-form name: People's Republic of China; abbreviated PRC

Type: Communist Party-led state

Capital: Beijing

Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions* (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 3 municipalities** (shi, singular and plural); Anhui, Beijing**, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai**, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tianjin**, Xinjiang*, Xizang*, Yunnan, Zhejiang; note—China considers Taiwan its 23rd province

Independence: unification under the Qin (Ch'in) Dynasty 221 BC, Qing (Ch'ing or Manchu) Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 February 1912, People's Republic established 1 October 1949

Constitution: 4 December 1982

Legal system: a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely criminal law; rudimentary civil code in effect since 1 January 1987; new legal codes in effect since 1 January 1980; continuing efforts are being made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial law

National holiday: National Day, 1 October (1949)

Executive branch: president, vice president, premier, three vice premiers, State Council, Central Military Commission (de facto)

Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Congress (Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui)

Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government (de facto)—DENG Xiaoping (since mid-1977);

Chief of State—President YANG Shangkun (since 8 April 1988); Vice President WANG Zhen (since 8 April 1988);

Head of Government—Premier LI Peng (Acting Premier since 24 November 1987, Premier since 9 April 1988); Vice Premier YAO Yilin (since 2 July 1979); Vice Premier TIAN Jiyun (since 20 June 1983); Vice Premier WU Xueqian (since 12 April 1988)

Political parties and leaders: only party—Chinese Communist Party (CCP), Jiang Zemin, general secretary of the Central Committee

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: President—last held 8 April 1988 (next to be held March 1993); Yang Shangkun was elected by the Seventh National People's Congress;

National People's Congress—last held NA March 1988 (next to be held March 1993); results—CCP is the only party; seats—(2,970 total) CCP 2,970 (indirectly elected)

Communists: about 45,000,000 party members (1986)

Other political or pressure groups: such meaningful opposition as exists consists of loose coalitions, usually within the party and government organization, that vary by issue

Member of: ADB, CCC, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, ITU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador ZHU Qizhen; Chancery at 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 328-2500 through 2502; there are Chinese Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco; US—Ambassador James R. LILLEY; Embassy at Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, Beijing (mailing address is FPO San Francisco 96655); telephone p86o (1) 532-3831; there are US Consulates General in Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, and Shenyang

Flag: red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner

- Economy Overview: Beginning in late 1978 the Chinese leadership has been trying to move the economy from the sluggish Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more productive and flexible economy with market elements—but still within the framework of monolithic Communist control. To this end the authorities have switched to a system of household responsibility in agriculture in place of the old collectivization, increased the authority of local officials and plant managers in industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale enterprise in services and light manufacturing, and opened the foreign economic sector to increased trade and joint ventures. The most gratifying result has been a strong spurt in production, particularly in agriculture in the early 1980s. Otherwise, the leadership has often experienced in its hybrid system the worst results of socialism (bureaucracy, lassitude, corruption) and of capitalism (windfall gains and stepped-up inflation). Beijing thus has periodically backtracked, retightening central controls at intervals and thereby undermining the credibility of the reform process. Open inflation and excess demand continue to plague the economy, and political repression, following the crackdown at Tiananmen in mid-1989, has curtailed tourism, foreign aid, and new investment by foreign firms. Popular resistance and changes in central policy have weakened China's population control program, which is essential to the nation's long-term economic viability.

GNP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate 4% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 19.5% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 3.0% in urban areas (1989)

Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $52.5 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities—manufactured goods, agricultural products, oilseeds, grain (rice and corn), oil, minerals; partners—Hong Kong, US, Japan, USSR, Singapore, FRG (1989)

Imports: $59.1 billion (c.i.f., 1989); commodities—grain (mostly wheat), chemical fertilizer, steel, industrial raw materials, machinery, equipment; partners—Hong Kong, Japan, US, FRG, USSR (1989)

External debt: $51 billion (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 8.0% (1989)

Electricity: 110,000,000 kW capacity; 560,000 million kWh produced, 500 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: iron, steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles, petroleum

Agriculture: accounts for 26% of GNP; among the world's largest producers of rice, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, and pork; commercial crops include cotton, other fibers, and oilseeds; produces variety of livestock products; basically self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 8 million metric tons in 1986

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $220.7 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $11.1 billion

Currency: yuan (plural—yuan); 1 yuan (Y) = 10 jiao

Exchange rates: yuan (Y) per US$1—4.7221 (January 1990), 3.7651 (1989), 3.7221 (1988), 3.7221 (1987), 3.4528 (1986), 2.9367 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: total about 54,000 km common carrier lines; 53,400 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; 600 km 1.000-meter gauge; all single track except 11,200 km double track on standard-gauge lines; 6,500 km electrified; 10,000 km industrial lines (gauges range from 0.762 to 1.067 meters)

Highways: about 980,000 km all types roads; 162,000 km paved roads, 617,200 km gravel/improved earth roads, 200,800 km unimproved natural earth roads and tracks

Inland waterways: 138,600 km; about 109,800 km navigable

Pipelines: crude, 6,500 km; refined products, 1,100 km; natural gas, 6,200 km

Ports: Dalian, Guangzhou, Huangpu, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Xingang, Zhanjiang, Ningbo

Merchant marine: 1,373 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 13,303,685 GRT/ 20,092,833 DWT; includes 25 passenger, 41 short-sea passenger, 17 passenger-cargo, 7 cargo/training, 766 cargo, 10 refrigerated cargo, 65 container, 17 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 multifunction barge carriers, 173 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 9 chemical tanker, 237 bulk, 2 vehicle carrier, 1 liquefied gas; note—China beneficially owns an additional 175 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling approximately 5,380,415 DWT that operate under the registry of Panama, UK, Hong Kong, Liberia, and Malta

Airports: 330 total, 330 usable; 260 with permanent-surface runways; fewer than 10 with runways over 3,500 m; 90 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 200 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: domestic and international services are increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed internal system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and most townships; 11,000,000 telephones (December 1989); stations—274 AM, unknown FM, 202 (2,050 relays) TV; more than 215 million radio receivers; 75 million TVs; satellite earth stations—4 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, and 55 domestic

- Defense Forces Branches: Chinese People's Liberation Army (CPLA), CPLA Navy (including Marines), CPLA Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 330,353,665; 184,515,412 fit for military service; 11,594,366 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: $5.28 billion (1988) —————————————————————————— Country: Christmas Island (territory of Australia) - Geography Total area: 135 km2; land area: 135 km2

Comparative area: about 0.8 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 138.9 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds

Terrain: steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau

Natural resources: phosphate

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: almost completely surrounded by a reef

Note: located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean

- People Population: 2,278 (July 1990), growth rate 0.0% (1990)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Christmas Islander(s), adjective—Christmas Island

Ethnic divisions: 61% Chinese, 25% Malay, 11% European, 3% other; no indigenous population

Religion: NA

Language: English

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: NA; all workers are employees of the Phosphate Mining Company of Christmas Island, Ltd.

Organized labor: NA

- Government Long-form name: Territory of Christmas Island

Type: territory of Australia

Capital: The Settlement

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

Constitution: Christmas Island Act of 1958

Legal system: under the authority of the governor general of Australia

National holiday: NA

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general of Australia, administrator, Advisory Council (cabinet)

Legislative branch: none

Judicial branch: none

Leaders: Chief of State—Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government—Administrator A. D. TAYLOR (since NA)

Communists: none

Diplomatic representation: none (territory of Australia)

Flag: the flag of Australia is used

- Economy Overview: Phosphate mining is the only significant economic activity, but in November 1987 the Australian Government announced that the mine would be closed because of labor unrest. Plans are under way to build a casino and hotel to develop tourism.

GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 0%

Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $NA; commodities—phosphate; partners—Australia, NZ

Imports: $NA; commodities—NA; partners—NA

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 11,000 kW capacity; 38 million kWh produced, 16,680 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: phosphate extraction (near depletion)

Agriculture: NA

Aid: none

Currency: Australian dollar (plural—dollars); 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1—1.2784 (January 1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987), 1.4905 (1986), 1.4269 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications Ports: Flying Fish Cove

Airports: 1 usable with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 4,000 radios (1982)

- Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia —————————————————————————— Country: Clipperton Island (French possession) - Geography Total area: undetermined

Comparative area: undetermined

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 11.1 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: coral atoll

Natural resources: none

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other (coral)

Environment: reef about 8 km in circumference

Note: located 1,120 km southwest of Mexico in the North Pacific Ocean

- People Population: uninhabited

- Government Long-form name: none

Type: French possession administered by High Commissioner of the Republic Jean MONTPEZAT, resident in French Polynesia

- Economy Overview: no economic activity

- Communications Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

- Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of France —————————————————————————— Country: Cocos (Keeling) Islands (territory of Australia) - Geography Total area: 14 km2; land area: 14 km2; main islands are West Island and Home Island

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