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The 1990 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency
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GDP: $225.6 million, per capita $1,285; real growth rate 6% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 14% (1988 est.)

Budget: revenues $94.6 million; expenditures $74.3 million, including capital expenditures of $33.9 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $120 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—sugar, clothing, seafood, molasses, citrus, wood and wood products; partners—US 47%, UK, Trinidad and Tobago, Canada (1987)

Imports: $176 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities—machinery and transportation equipment, food, manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals; partners—US 55%, UK, Netherlands Antilles, Mexico (1987)

External debt: $140 million (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 6% (1988)

Electricity: 34,000 kW capacity; 88 million kWh produced, 500 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: sugar refining, clothing, timber and forest products, furniture, rum, soap, beverages, cigarettes, tourism

Agriculture: accounts for 30% of GDP (including fish and forestry); commercial crops include sugarcane, bananas, coca, citrus fruits; expanding output of lumber and cultured shrimp; net importer of basic foods

Illicit drugs: an illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; eradication program cut marijuana production from 200 metric tons in 1987 to 66 metric tons in 1989; transshipment point for cocaine

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $94 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $194 million

Currency: Belizean dollar (plural—dollars); 1 Belizean dollar (Bz$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Belizean dollars (Bz$) per US$1—2.00 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications Highways: 2,575 km total; 340 km paved, 1,190 km gravel, 735 km improved earth, and 310 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 825 km river network used by shallow-draft craft; seasonally navigable

Ports: Belize City, Belize City Southwest

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 38 total, 30 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 2,439 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 8,650 telephones; above-average system based on radio relay; stations—6 AM, 5 FM, 1 TV, 1 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: British Forces Belize, Belize Defense Force, Coast Guard, Police Department

Military manpower: males 15-49, 50,988; 30,502 fit for military service; 2,500 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.0% of GDP, or $4.6 million (1989 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: Benin - Geography Total area: 112,620 km2; land area: 110,620 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries: 1,989 km total; Burkina 306 km, Niger 266 km, Nigeria 773 km, Togo 644 km

Coastline: 121 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains

Natural resources: small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble, timber

Land use: 12% arable land; 4% permanent crops; 4% meadows and pastures; 35% forest and woodland; 45% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north in winter; deforestation; desertification

Note: recent droughts have severely affected marginal agriculture in north; no natural harbors

- People Population: 4,673,964 (July 1990), growth rate 3.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 50 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 16 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 121 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 52 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Beninese (sing., pl.); adjective—Beninese

Ethnic divisions: 99% African (42 ethnic groups, most important being Fon, Adja, Yoruba, Bariba); 5,500 Europeans

Religion: 70% indigenous beliefs, 15% Muslim, 15% Christian

Language: French (official); Fon and Yoruba most common vernaculars in south; at least six major tribal languages in north

Literacy: 25.9%

Labor force: 1,900,000 (1987); 60% agriculture, 38% transport, commerce, and public services, less than 2% industry; 49% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: about 75% of wage earners

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Benin

Type: dropped Marxism-Leninism December 1989; democratic reforms adopted February 1990; transition to multiparty system by 1991 planned

Capital: Porto-Novo (official), Cotonou (de facto)

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces; Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou, Mono, Oueme, Zou

Independence: 1 August 1960 (from France; formerly Dahomey)

Constitution: 23 May 1977 (nullified 1 March 1990); new constitution to be drafted by April 1990

Legal system: based on French civil law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day, 30 November (1975)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Revolutionary Assembly (Assemblee Nationale Revolutionnaire) dissolved 1 March 1990 and replaced by a 24-member interim High Council of the Republic during the transition period

Judicial branch: Central People's Court (Cour Central Populaire)

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 27 October 1972)

Political parties and leaders: only party—People's Revolutionary Party of Benin (PRPB), President Mathieu Kerekou, chairman of the Central Committee

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: President—last held July 1989 (next to be held July 1994); results—President Mathieu Kerekou was reelected by the National Revolutionary Assembly;

National Revolutionary Assembly—dissolved 1 March 1990 and replaced by a 24-member interim High Council of the Republic with legislative elections for new institutions planned for February 1991

Communists: dropped Marxism-Leninism December 1989

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CEAO, EAMA, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, Niger River Commission, OAU, OCAM, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Theophile NATA; Chancery at 2737 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 232-6656; US—Ambassador Harriet ISOM; Embassy at Rue Caporal Anani Bernard, Cotonou (mailing address is B. P. 2012, Cotonou); telephone p229o 30-06-50

Flag: green with a red five-pointed star in the upper hoist-side corner

- Economy Overview: Benin is one of the least developed countries in the world because of limited natural resources and a poorly developed infrastructure. Agriculture accounts for almost 45% of GDP, employs about 60% of the labor force, and generates a major share of foreign exchange earnings. The industrial sector contributes only about 15% to GDP and employs 2% of the work force. Persistently low prices in recent years have limited hard currency earnings from Benin's major exports of agricultural products and crude oil.

GDP: $1.7 billion, per capita $335; real growth rate 1.8% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.3% (1988)

Unemployment: NA

Budget: revenues $168 million; expenditures $317 million, including capital expenditures of $97 million (1989)

Exports: $226 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—crude oil, cotton, palm products, cocoa; partners—FRG 36%, France 16%, Spain 14%, Italy 8%, UK 7%

Imports: $413 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco, petroleum products, intermediate goods, capital goods, light consumer goods; partners—France 34%, Netherlands 10%, Japan 7%, Italy 6%, US 5%

External debt: $1.0 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate - 0.7% (1988)

Electricity: 28,000 kW capacity; 24 million kWh produced, 5 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: palm oil and palm kernel oil processing, textiles, beverages, petroleum

Agriculture: small farms produce 90% of agricultural output; production is dominated by food crops—corn, sorghum, cassava, beans, and rice; cash crops include cotton, palm oil, and peanuts; poultry and livestock output has not kept up with consumption

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $41 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.0 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $19 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $101 million

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural—francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1—287.99 (January 1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 578 km, all 1.000-meter gauge, single track

Highways: 5,050 km total; 920 km paved, 2,600 laterite, 1,530 km improved earth

Inland waterways: navigable along small sections, important only locally

Ports: Cotonou

Merchant marine: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) of 2,999 GRT/4,407 DWT

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

Airports: 6 total, 5 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 2,439 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system of open wire, submarine cable, and radio relay; 16,200 telephones; stations—2 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT satellite earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower: eligible 15-49, 2,015,206; of the 950,921 males 15-49, 486,620 are fit for military service; of the 1,064,285 females 15-49, 537,049 are fit for military service; about 55,550 males and 53,663 females reach military age (18) annually; both sexes are liable for military service

Defense expenditures: 1.7% of GDP, or $28.9 million (1988 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: Bermuda (dependent territory of the UK) - Geography Total area: 50 km2; land area: 50 km2

Comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 103 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter

Terrain: low hills separated by fertile depressions

Natural resources: limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 20% forest and woodland; 80% other

Environment: ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; consists of about 360 small coral islands

Note: 1,050 km east of North Carolina; some reclaimed land leased by US Government

- People Population: 58,337 (July 1990), growth rate 1.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 6 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 12 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Bermudian(s); adjective—Bermudian

Ethnic divisions: 61% black, 39% white and other

Religion: 37% Anglican, 14% Roman Catholic, 10% African Methodist Episcopal (Zion), 6% Methodist, 5% Seventh-Day Adventist, 28% other

Language: English

Literacy: 98%

Labor force: 32,000; 25% clerical, 22% services, 21% laborers, 13% professional and technical, 10% administrative and managerial, 7% sales, 2% agriculture and fishing (1984)

Organized labor: 8,573 members (1985); largest union is Bermuda Industrial Union

- Government Long-form name: none

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Hamilton

Administrative divisions: 9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint George's, Sandys, Smiths, Southampton, Warwick

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Constitution: 8 June 1968

Legal system: English law

National holiday: Bermuda Day, 22 May

Executive branch: British monarch, governor, deputy governor, premier, deputy premier, Executive Council (cabinet)

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Sir Desmond LANGLEY (since NA October 1988);

Head of Government—Premier John William David SWAN (since NA January 1982)

Political parties and leaders: United Bermuda Party (UBP), John W. D. Swan; Progressive Labor Party (PLP), Frederick Wade; National Liberal Party (NLP), Gilbert Darrell

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections: House of Assembly—last held 9 February 1989 (next to be held by February 1994); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(40 total) UBP 23, PLP 15, NLP 1, other 1

Communists: negligible

Other political or pressure groups: Bermuda Industrial Union (BIU), headed by Ottiwell Simmons

Member of: INTERPOL, WHO

Diplomatic representation: as a dependent territory of the UK, Bermuda's interests in the US are represented by the UK; US—Consul General James M. MEDAS; Consulate General at Vallis Building, Par-la-Ville Road (off Front Street West), Hamilton (mailing address is P. O. Box 325, Hamilton, or FPO New York 09560); telephone (809) 295-1342

Flag: red with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (white and blue shield with a red lion holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag

- Economy Overview: Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, having successfully exploited its location by providing luxury tourist facilities and financial services. The tourist industry attracts more than 90% of its business from North America. The industrial sector is small, and agriculture is severely limited by a lack of suitable land. About 80% of food needs are imported.

GDP: $1.3 billion, per capita $23,000; real growth rate 2.0% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.8% (1988)

Unemployment: 2.0% (1988)

Budget: revenues $280 million; expenditures $279 million, including capital expenditures of $34 million (FY89 est.)

Exports: $23 million (f.o.b.,1985); commodities—semitropical produce, light manufactures; partners—US 25%, Italy 25%, UK 14%, Canada 5%, other 31%

Imports: $402 million (c.i.f., 1985); commodities—fuel, foodstuffs, machinery; partners—US 58%, Netherlands Antilles 9%, UK 8%, Canada 6%, Japan 5%, other 14%

External debt: NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 134,000 kW capacity; 446 million kWh produced, 7,680 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, finance, structural concrete products, paints, pharmaceuticals, ship repairing

Agriculture: accounts for less than 1% of GDP; most basic foods must be imported; produces bananas, vegetables, citrus fruits, flowers, dairy products

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $34 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $267 million

Currency: Bermudian dollar (plural—dollars); 1 Bermudian dollar (Bd$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bermudian dollar (Bd$) per US$1—1.0000 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications Highways: 210 km public roads, all paved (about 400 km of private roads)

Ports: Freeport, Hamilton, St. George

Merchant marine: 93 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,163,947 GRT/7,744,319 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 10 cargo, 4 refrigerated cargo, 5 container, 10 roll-on/roll-off, 27 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 1 combination ore/oil, 10 liquefied gas, 20 bulk; note—a flag of convenience registry

Civil air: 16 major transport aircraft

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runways 2,440-3,659 m

Telecommunications: modern with fully automatic telephone system; 46,290 telephones; stations—5 AM, 3 FM, 2 TV; 3 submarine cables; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

- Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK —————————————————————————— Country: Bhutan - Geography Total area: 47,000 km2; land area: 47,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than half the size of Indiana

Land boundaries: 1,075 km total; China 470 km, India 605 km

Coastline: none—landlocked

Maritime claims: none—landlocked

Climate: varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas

Terrain: mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna

Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide

Land use: 2% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 5% meadows and pastures; 70% forest and woodland; 23% other

Environment: violent storms coming down from the Himalayas were the source of the country name which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon

Note: landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes

- People Population: 1,565,969 (July 1990), growth rate 2.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 17 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 137 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 50 years male, 48 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Bhutanese (sing., pl.); adjective—Bhutanese

Ethnic divisions: 60% Bhote, 25% ethnic Nepalese, 15% indigenous or migrant tribes

Religion: 75% Lamaistic Buddhism, 25% Indian- and Nepalese-influenced Hinduism

Language: Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects—most widely spoken dialect is Dzongkha (official); Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects

Literacy: 5%

Labor force: NA; 95% agriculture, 1% industry and commerce; massive lack of skilled labor (1983)

Organized labor: not permitted

- Government Long-form name: Kingdom of Bhutan

Type: monarchy; special treaty relationship with India

Capital: Thimphu

Administrative divisions: 3 regions and 1 division*; Central Bhutan, Eastern Bhutan, Southern Bhutan*, Western Bhutan; note—there may now be 18 districts (dzong, singular and plural) named Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang, Daga, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang, Tashigang, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdiphodrang

Independence: 8 August 1949 (from India)

Constitution: no written constitution or bill of rights

Legal system: based on Indian law and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day (Ugyen Wangchuck became first hereditary king), 17 December (1907)

Executive branch: monarch, chairman of the Royal Advisory Council, Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde), chairman of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Tshogdu)

Judicial branch: High Court

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972)

Political parties: no legal parties

Suffrage: each family has one vote in village-level elections

Elections: no national elections

Communists: no overt Communist presence

Other political or pressure groups: Buddhist clergy, Indian merchant community, ethnic Nepalese organizations

Member of: ADB, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, IDA, IFAD, IMF, NAM, SAARC, UNESCO, UPU, UN, WHO

Diplomatic representation: no formal diplomatic relations, although informal contact is maintained between the Bhutanese and US Embassies in New Delhi (India); the Bhutanese mission to the UN in New York has consular jurisdiction in the US

Flag: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper triangle is orange and the lower triangle is red; centered along the dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from the hoist side

- Economy Overview: The economy is based on agriculture and forestry, which provide the main livelihood for 90% of the population and account for about 50% of GDP. One of the world's least developed countries, rugged mountains dominate and make the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction for tourists are its most important natural resources.

GDP: $273 million, per capita $199; real growth rate 6.3% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1989 est.)

Unemployment: NA

Budget: revenues $99 million; expenditures $128 million, including capital expenditures of $65 million (FY89 est.)

Exports: $70.9 million (f.o.b., FY89); commodities—cardamon, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit; partners—India 93%

Imports: $138.3 million (c.i.f., FY89 est.); commodities—fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts, vehicles, fabrics; partners—India 67%

External debt: $70.1 million (FY89 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate - 12.4% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 353,000 kW capacity; 2,000 million kWh produced, 1,300 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: cement, chemical products, mining, distilling, food processing, handicrafts

Agriculture: accounts for 50% of GDP; based on subsistence farming and animal husbandry; self-sufficient in food except for foodgrains; other production—rice, corn, root crops, citrus fruit, dairy, and eggs

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $85.8 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $11 million

Currency: ngultrum (plural—ngultrum); 1 ngultrum (Nu) = 100 chetrum; note—Indian currency is also legal tender

Exchange rates: ngultrum (Nu) per US$1—16.965 (January 1990), 16.226 (1989), 13.917 (1988), 12.962 (1987), 12.611 (1986), 12.369 (1985); note—the Bhutanese ngultrum is at par with the Indian rupee

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications Highways: 1,304 km total; 418 km surfaced, 515 km improved, 371 km unimproved earth

Civil air: 1 jet, 2 prop

Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 2,439 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: inadequate; 1,890 telephones (1985); 15,000 radio receivers (1987 est.); 85 TV sets (1985); stations—20 AM, no FM, no TV

- Defense Forces Branches: Royal Bhutan Army

Military manpower: males 15-49, 389,142; 208,231 fit for military service; 17,203 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: NA —————————————————————————— Country: Bolivia - Geography Total area: 1,098,580 km2; land area: 1,084,390 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries: 6,743 km total; Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km, Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km

Coastline: none—landlocked

Maritime claims: none—landlocked

Disputes: has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in 1884; dispute with Chile over Rio Lauca water rights

Climate: varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid

Terrain: high plateau, hills, lowland plains

Natural resources: tin, natural gas, crude oil, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron ore, lead, gold, timber

Land use: 3% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 25% meadows and pastures; 52% forest and woodland; 20% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: cold, thin air of high plateau is obstacle to efficient fuel combustion; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Note: landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Peru

- People Population: 6,706,854 (July 1990), growth rate 2.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 35 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 125 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 52 years male, 56 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Bolivian(s); adjective Bolivian

Ethnic divisions: 30% Quechua, 25% Aymara, 25-30% mixed, 5-15% European

Religion: 95% Roman Catholic; active Protestant minority, especially Evangelical Methodist

Language: Spanish, Quechua, and Aymara (all official)

Literacy: 63%

Labor force: 1,700,000; 50% agriculture, 26% services and utilities, 10% manufacturing, 4% mining, 10% other (1983)

Organized labor: 150,000-200,000, concentrated in mining, industry, construction, and transportation; mostly organized under Bolivian Workers' Central (COB) labor federation

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Bolivia

Type: republic

Capital: La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat of judiciary)

Administrative divisions: 9 departments (departamentos, singular—departamento); Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, El Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija

Independence: 6 August 1825 (from Spain)

Constitution: 2 February 1967

Legal system: based on Spanish law and Code Napoleon; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 August (1825)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional) consists of an upper chamber or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—President Jaime PAZ Zamora (since 6 August 1989); Vice President Luis OSSIO Sanjines (since 6 August 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Movement of the Revolutionary Left (MIR), Jaime Paz Zamora; Nationalist Democratic Action (ADN), Hugo Banzer Suarez; Nationalist Revolutionary Movement (MNR), Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozada; United Left (IU), coalition of leftist parties which includes Free Bolivia Movement (MBL), led by Antonio Aranibar, Patriotic National Convergency Axis (EJE-P) led by Walter Delgadillo, and Bolivian Communist Party (PCB) led by Humberto Ramirez; Conscience of the Fatherland (CONDEPA), Carlos Palenque Aviles; Revolutionary Vanguard-9th of April (VR-9), Carlos Serrate Reich

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18 (married) or 21 (single)

Elections: President—last held 7 May 1989 (next to be held May 1993); results—Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozada (MNR) 23%, Hugo Banzer Suarez (ADN) 22%, Jaime Paz Zamora (MIR) 19%; no candidate received a majority of the popular vote; Jaime Paz Zamora (MIR) formed a coalition with Hugo Banzer (ADN); with ADN support Paz Zamora won the congressional runoff election on 4 August and was inaugurated on 6 August;

Senate—last held 7 May 1989 (next to be held May 1993); results—percent of vote NA; seats (27 total) MNR 9, ADN 8, MIR 8, CONDEPA 2;

Chamber of Deputies—last held 7 May 1989 (next to be held May 1993); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats (130 total) MNR 40, ADN 38, MIR 30, IU 10, CONDEPA 9, VR-9 3

Member of: FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IATP, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB—Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC—International Wheat Council, LAIA, NAM, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jorge CRESPO; Chancery at 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 483-4410 through 4412; there are Bolivian Consulates General in Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco; US—Ambassador Robert GELBARD; Embassy at Banco Popular del Peru Building, corner of Calles Mercado y Colon, La Paz (mailing address is P. O. Box 425, La Paz, or APO Miami 34032); telephone p591o (2) 350251 or 350120

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band

- Economy Overview: The Bolivian economy steadily deteriorated between 1980 and 1985 as La Paz financed growing budget deficits by expanding the money supply and inflation spiraled—peaking at 11,700%. An austere orthodox economic program adopted by newly elected President Paz Estenssoro in 1985, however, succeeded in reducing inflation to between 10% and 20% annually during 1987 and 1989, eventually restarting economic growth. President Paz Zamora has pledged to retain the economic policies of the previous government in order to keep inflation down and continue the growth begun under his predecessor. Nevertheless, Bolivia continues to be one of the poorest countries in Latin America, and it remains vulnerable to price fluctuations for its limited exports—mainly minerals and natural gas. Moreover, for many farmers, who constitute half of the country's work force, the main cash crop is coca, which is sold for cocaine processing.

GNP: $4.6 billion, per capita $660; real growth rate 2.8% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15.5% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 20.7% (1988)

Budget: revenues $2,867 million; expenditures $2,867 million, including capital expenditures of $663 million (1987)

Exports: $634 million (f.o.b., 1989); commodities—metals 45%, natural gas 32%, coffee, soybeans, sugar, cotton, timber, and illicit drugs; partners—US 23%, Argentina

Imports: $786 million (c.i.f., 1989); commodities—food, petroleum, consumer goods, capital goods; partners—US 15%

External debt: $5.7 billion (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 8.1% (1987)

Electricity: 817,000 kW capacity; 1,728 million kWh produced, 260 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverage, tobacco, handicrafts, clothing; illicit drug industry reportedly produces the largest revenues

Agriculture: accounts for 20% of GDP (including forestry and fisheries); principal commodities—coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, timber; self-sufficient in food

Illicit drugs: world's second-largest producer of coca (after Peru) with an estimated 54,000 hectares under cultivation; government considers all but 12,000 hectares illicit and subject to eradication; intermediate coca products and cocaine exported to or through Colombia and Brazil to the US and other international drug markets

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $909 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.4 billion; Communist countries (1970-88), $340 million

Currency: boliviano (plural—bolivianos); 1 boliviano ($B) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: bolivianos ($B) per US$1—2.6917 (1989), 2.3502 (1988), 2.0549 (1987), 1.9220 (1986), 0.4400 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 3,675 km total; 3,643 km 1.000-meter gauge and 32 km 0.760-meter gauge, all government owned, single track

Highways: 38,836 km total; 1,300 km paved, 6,700 km gravel, 30,836 km improved and unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 10,000 km of commercially navigable waterways

Pipelines: crude oil 1,800 km; refined products 580 km; natural gas 1,495 km

Ports: none; maritime outlets are Arica and Antofagasta in Chile and Matarani in Peru

Merchant marine: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 14,051 GRT/22,155 DWT; note—1 is owned by the Bolivian Navy

Civil air: 56 major transport aircraft

Airports: 636 total, 551 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 8 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 110 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: radio relay system being expanded; improved international services; 144,300 telephones; stations—129 AM, no FM, 43 TV, 68 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: Bolivian Army, Bolivian Navy, Bolivian Air Force (literally, the Army of the Nation, the Navy of the Nation, the Air Force of the Nation)

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,629,154; 1,060,187 fit for military service; 70,528 reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: 3% of GNP (1987) —————————————————————————— Country: Botswana - Geography Total area: 600,370 km2; land area: 585,370 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: 4,013 km total; Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe 813 km

Coastline: none—landlocked

Maritime claims: none—landlocked

Disputes: short section of the boundary with Namibia is indefinite; quadripoint with Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement

Climate: semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

Terrain: predominately flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwest

Natural resources: diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver, natural gas

Land use: 2% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 75% meadows and pastures; 2% forest and woodland; 21% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: rains in early 1988 broke six years of drought that had severely affected the important cattle industry; overgrazing; desertification

Note: landlocked; very long boundary with South Africa

- People Population: 1,224,527 (July 1990), growth rate 2.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 43 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 58 years male, 64 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun and adjective—Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

Ethnic divisions: 95% Batswana; about 4% Kalanga, Basarwa, and Kgalagadi; about 1% white

Religion: 50% indigenous beliefs, 50% Christian

Language: English (official), Setswana

Literacy: 60%

Labor force: 400,000; 163,000 formal sector employees, most others are engaged in cattle raising and subsistence agriculture (1988 est.); 19,000 are employed in various mines in South Africa (1988)

Organized labor: 19 trade unions

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Botswana

Type: parliamentary republic

Capital: Gaborone

Administrative divisions: 10 districts; Central, Chobe, Ghanzi, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Ngamiland, North-East, South-East, Southern; note—in addition, there may now be 4 town councils named Francistown, Gaborone, Lobaste, Selebi-Pikwe

Independence: 30 September 1966 (from UK; formerly Bechuanaland)

Constitution: March 1965, effective 30 September 1966

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Botswana Day, 30 September (1966)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or House of Chiefs and a lower house or National Assembly

Judicial branch: High Court, Court of Appeal

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—President Quett K. J. MASIRE (since 13 July 1980); Vice President Peter S. MMUSI (since 3 January 1983)

Political parties and leaders: Botswana Democratic Party (BDP), Quett Masire; Botswana National Front (BNF), Kenneth Koma; Botswana People's Party (BPP), Knight Maripe; Botswana Independence Party (BIP), Motsamai Mpho; Botswana Progressive Union (BPU), Daniel Kwele

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections: President—last held 7 October 1989 (next to be held October 1994); results—President Quett K. J. Masire was reelected by the National Assembly;

National Assembly—last held 7 October 1989 (next to be held October 1994); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(34 total, 30 elected) BDP 31, BNF 3

Communists: no known Communist organization; Koma of BNF has long history of Communist contacts

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAU, Southern African Customs Union, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Botsweletse Kingsley SEBELE; Chancery at Suite 404, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 244-4990 or 4991; US—Ambassador-designate David PASSAGE; Deputy Chief of Mission Johnnie CARSON; Embassy at Botswana Road, Gaborone (mailing address is P. O. Box 90, Gaborone); telephone p267o 353982 through 353984

Flag: light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center

- Economy Overview: The economy has historically been based on cattle raising and crops. Agriculture today provides a livelihood for over 80% of the population, but produces only about 50% of food needs and contributes a small 5% to GDP. The driving force behind the rapid economic growth of the 1970s and 1980s has been the mining industry. This sector, mostly on the strength of diamonds, has gone from generating 25% of GDP in 1980 to over 50% in 1988. No other sector has experienced such growth, especially not that of the agricultural sector, which is plagued by erratic rainfall and poor soils. The unemployment rate remains a problem at 25%. A scarce resource base limits diversification into labor-intensive industries.

GDP: $1.87 billion, per capita $1,600; real growth rate 8.4% (FY88)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.45% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 25% (1987)

Budget: revenues $1,235 million; expenditures $1,080 million, including capital expenditures of NA (FY90 est.)

Exports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—diamonds 88%, copper and nickel 5%, meat 4%, cattle, animal products; partners—Switzerland, US, UK, other EC-associated members of Southern African Customs Union

Imports: $1.1 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities—foodstuffs, vehicles, textiles, petroleum products; partners—Switzerland, US, UK, other EC-associated members of Southern African Customs Union

External debt: $700 million (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 16.8% (FY86)

Electricity: 217,000 kW capacity; 630 million kWh produced, 510 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: livestock processing; mining of diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, soda ash, potash; tourism

Agriculture: accounts for only 5% of GDP; subsistence farming predominates; cattle raising supports 50% of the population; must import large share of food needs

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $242 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.6 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $43 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $24 million

Currency: pula (plural—pula); 1 pula (P) = 100 thebe

Exchange rates: pula (P) per US$1—1.8734 (January 1990), 2.0125 (1989), 1.8159 (1988), 1.6779 (1987), 1.8678 (1986), 1.8882 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications Railroads: 712 km 1.0 67-meter gauge

Highways: 11,514 km total; 1,600 km paved; 1,700 km crushed stone or gravel, 5,177 km improved earth, 3,037 km unimproved earth

Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft

Airports: 99 total, 87 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 23 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: the small system is a combination of open-wire lines, radio relay links, and a few radiocommunication stations; 17,900 telephones; stations—2 AM, 3 FM, no TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Air Wing, Botswana Police

Military manpower: males 15-49, 249,480; 131,304 fit for military service; 14,363 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.2% of GNP (1987) —————————————————————————— Country: Bouvet Island (territory of Norway) - Geography Total area: 58 km2; land area: 58 km2

Comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 29.6 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 10 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 4 nm

Climate: antarctic

Terrain: volcanic; maximum elevation about 800 meters; coast is mostly inacessible

Natural resources: none

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: covered by glacial ice

Note: located in the South Atlantic Ocean 2,575 km south-southwest of the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa

- People Population: uninhabited

- Government Long-form name: none

Type: territory of Norway

- Economy Overview: no economic activity

- Communications Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Telecommunications: automatic meteorological station

- Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of Norway —————————————————————————— Country: Brazil - Geography Total area: 8,511,965 km2; land area: 8,456,510 km2; includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo

Comparative area: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries: 14,691 km total; Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia 1,643 km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km, Peru 1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km

Coastline: 7,491 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 200 nm

Disputes: short section of the boundary with Paraguay (just west of Guaira Falls on the Rio Parana) is in dispute; two short sections of boundary with Uruguay are in dispute (Arroyo de la Invernada area of the Rio Quarai and the islands at the confluence of the Rio Quarai and the Uruguay); claims a Zone of Interest in Antarctica

Climate: mostly tropical, but temperate in south

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt

Natural resources: iron ore, manganese, bauxite, nickel, uranium, phosphates, tin, hydropower, gold, platinum, crude oil, timber

Land use: 7% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 19% meadows and pastures; 67% forest and woodland; 6% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: recurrent droughts in northeast; floods and frost in south; deforestation in Amazon basin; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo

Note: largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador

- People Population: 152,505,077 (July 1990), growth rate 1.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 69 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 68 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Brazilian(s); adjective—Brazilian

Ethnic divisions: Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, black, Amerindian; 55% white, 38% mixed, 6% black, 1% other

Religion: 90% Roman Catholic (nominal)

Language: Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French

Literacy: 76%

Labor force: 57,000,000 (1989 est.); 42% services, 31% agriculture, 27% industry

Organized labor: 13,000,000 dues paying members (1989 est.)

- Government Long-form name: Federative Republic of Brazil

Type: federal republic

Capital: Brasilia

Administrative divisions: 24 states (estados, singular—estado), 2 territories* (territorios, singular—territorio), and 1 federal district** (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa*, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal**, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima*, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins; note—the territories of Amapa and Roraima will become states on 15 March 1991

Independence: 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

Constitution: 5 October 1988

Legal system: based on Latin codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 September (1822)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congresso Nacional) consists of an upper chamber or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara dos Deputados)

Judicial branch: Supreme Federal Tribunal

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—President Fernando Affonso COLLOR de Mello (since 15 March 1990); Vice President Itamar FRANCO (since 15 March 1990)

Political parties and leaders: National Reconstruction Party (PRN), Daniel Tourinho, president; Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), Ulysses Guimaraes, president; Liberal Front Party (PFL), Hugo Napoleao, president; Workers' Party (PT), Luis Ignacio (Lula) da Silva, president; Brazilian Labor Party (PTB), Luiz Gonzaga de Paiva Muniz, president; Democratic Labor Party (PDT), Doutel de Andrade, president; Democratic Social Party (PDS), Jarbas Passarinho, president; Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB), Mario Covas, president; Brazilian Communist Party (PCB), Salomao Malina, secretary general; Communist Party of Brazil (PCdoB), Joao Amazonas, president

Suffrage: voluntary at age 16; compulsory between ages 18 and 70; voluntary at age 70

Elections: President—last held 15 November 1989, with runoff on 17 December 1989 (next to be held November 1994); results—Fernando Collor de Mello 53%, Luis Inacio da Silva 47%; first free, direct presidential election since 1960;

Senate—last held 15 November 1986 (next to be held 3 October 1990); results—PMDB 60%, PFL 21%, PDS 8%, PDT 3%, others 8%; seats—(66 total) PMDB 43, PFL 15, PDS 6, PDT 2, others 6; note—as of 1990 Senate has 75 seats;

Chamber of Deputies—last held 15 November 1986 (next to be held 3 October 1990); results—PMDB 53%, PFL 23%, PDS 7%, PDT 5%, other 12%; seats—(495 total) PMDB 258, PFL 114, PDS 33, PDT 24, others 58; note—as of 1990 Chamber of Deputies has 570 seats

Communists: about 30,000

Other political or pressure groups: left wing of the Catholic Church and labor unions allied to leftist Worker's Party are critical of government's social and economic policies

Member of: CCC, FAO, G-77, GATT, Group of Eight, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB—Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, IPU, IRC, ISO, ITU, IWC—International Wheat Council, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Marcilio Marques MOREIRA; Chancery at 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 745-2700; there are Brazilian Consulates General in Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, and New York, and Consulates in Dallas, Houston, and San Francisco; US—Ambassador Richard MELTON; Embassy at Avenida das Nocoes, Lote 3, Brasilia, Distrito Federal (mailing address is APO Miami 34030); telephone p55o (6) 321-7272; there are US Consulates General in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, and Consulates in Porto Alegre and Recife

Flag: green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 23 white five-pointed stars (one for each state) arranged in the same pattern as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)

- Economy Overview: The economy, a mixture of private enterprises of all sizes and extensive government intervention, experienced enormous difficulties in the late 1980s, notably declining real growth, runaway inflation, foreign debt obligations of more than $100 billion, and uncertain economic policy. Government intervention includes trade and investment restrictions, wage/price controls, interest and exchange rate controls, and extensive tariff barriers. Ownership of major industrial facilities is divided among private interests, the government, and multinational companies. Ownership in agriculture likewise is varied, with the government intervening in the politically sensitive issues involving large landowners and the masses of poor peasants. In consultation with the IMF, the Brazilian Government has initiated several programs over the last few years to ameliorate the stagnation and foreign debt problems. None of these has given more than temporary relief. The strategy of the new Collor government is to increase the pace of privatization, encourage foreign trade and investment, and establish a more realistic exchange rate. One long-run strength is the existence of vast natural resources.

GDP: $377 billion, per capita $2,500; real growth rate 3% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1,765% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 2.5% (December 1989)

Budget: revenues $27.8 billion; expenditures $40.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $8.8 billion (1986)

Exports: $34.2 billion (1989 est.); commodities—coffee, metallurgical products, chemical products, foodstuffs, iron ore, automobiles and parts; partners—US 28%, EC 26%, Latin America 11%, Japan 6% (1987)

Imports: $18.0 billion (1989 est.); commodities—crude oil, capital goods, chemical products, foodstuffs, coal; partners—Middle East and Africa 24%, EC 22%, US 21%, Latin America 12%, Japan 6% (1987)

External debt: $109 billion (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.2% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 52,865,000 kW capacity; 202,280 million kWh produced, 1,340 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: textiles and other consumer goods, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, steel, motor vehicles and auto parts, metalworking, capital goods, tin

Agriculture: accounts for 12% of GDP; world's largest producer and exporter of coffee and orange juice concentrate and second-largest exporter of soybeans; other products—rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, beef; self-sufficient in food, except for wheat

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis and coca, mostly for domestic consumption; government has an active eradication program to control cannabis and coca cultivation

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $2.5 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $9.5 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $284 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $1.3 billion

Currency: novo cruzado (plural—novos cruzados); 1 novo cruzado (NCr$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: novos cruzados (NCr$) per US$1—2.83392 (1989), 0.26238 (1988), 0.03923 (1987), 0.01366 (1986), 0.00620 (1985); note— 25 tourist/parallel rate (December 1989)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 29,694 km total; 25,268 km 1.000-meter gauge, 4,339 km 1.600-meter gauge, 74 km mixed 1.600-1.000-meter gauge, 13 km 0.760-meter gauge; 2,308 km electrified

Highways: 1,448,000 km total; 48,000 km paved, 1,400,000 km gravel or earth

Inland waterways: 50,000 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil, 2,000 km; refined products, 3,804 km; natural gas, 1,095 km

Ports: Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Manaus, Paranagua, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, Salvador, Santos

Merchant marine: 271 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,855,708 GRT/9,909,097 DWT; includes 2 passenger-cargo, 68 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 12 container, 9 roll-on/roll-off, 56 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 15 chemical tanker, 10 liquefied gas, 14 combination ore/oil, 82 bulk, 2 combination bulk

Civil air: 176 major transport aircraft

Airports: 3,774 total, 3,106 usable; 386 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 21 with runways 2,240-3,659 m; 503 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good system; extensive radio relay facilities; 9.86 million telephones; stations—1,223 AM, no FM, 112 TV, 151 shortwave; 3 coaxial submarine cables 3 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations with total of 3 antennas; 64 domestic satellite stations

- Defense Forces Branches: Brazilian Army, Navy of Brazil, Brazilian Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 39,620,936; 26,752,307 fit for military service; 1,617,378 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 0.6% of GDP, or $2.3 billion (1989 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: British Indian Ocean Territory (dependent territory of the UK) - Geography Total area: 60 km2; land area: 60 km2

Comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 698 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Disputes: Diego Garcia is claimed by Mauritius

Climate: tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds

Terrain: flat and low (up to 4 meters in elevation)

Natural resources: coconuts, fish

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: archipelago of 2,300 islands

Note: Diego Garcia, largest and southernmost island, occupies strategic location in central Indian Ocean

- People Population: no permanent civilian population; formerly about 3,000 islanders

Ethnic divisions: civilian inhabitants, known as the Ilois, evacuated to Mauritius before construction of UK and US defense facilities

- Government Long-form name: British Indian Ocean Territory (no short-form name); abbreviated BIOT

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: none

Leaders: Chief of State—Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government—Commissioner R. EDIS (since NA 1988), Administrator Robin CROMPTON (since NA 1988); note—both officials reside in the UK

Diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: the flag of the UK is used

- Economy Overview: All economic activity is concentrated on the largest island of Diego Garcia, where joint UK-US defense facilities are located. Construction projects and various services needed to support the military installations are done by military and contract employees from the UK and US. There are no industrial or agricultural activities on the islands.

Electricity: provided by the US military

- Communications Highways: short stretch of paved road between port and airfield on Diego Garcia

Ports: Diego Garcia

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runways over 3,659 m on Diego Garcia

Telecommunications: minimal facilities; stations (operated by the US Navy)—1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK —————————————————————————— Country: British Virgin Islands (dependent territory of the UK) - Geography Total area: 150 km2; land area: 150 km2

Comparative area: about 0.8 times the size of Washington, DC

Coastline: 80 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds

Terrain: coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep, hilly

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: 20% arable land; 7% permanent crops; 33% meadows and pastures; 7% forest and woodland; 33% other

Environment: subject to hurricanes and tropical storms from July to October

Note: strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico

- People Population: 12,258 (July 1990), growth rate 1.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 20 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 3 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 14 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 77 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—British Virgin Islander(s); adjective—British Virgin Islander

Ethnic divisions: over 90% black, remainder of white and Asian origin

Religion: majority Methodist; others include Anglican, Church of God, Seventh-Day Adventist, Baptist, and Roman Catholic

Language: English (official)

Literacy: 98%

Labor force: 4,911 (1980)

Organized labor: NA

- Government Long-form name: none

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Road Town

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Constitution: 1 June 1977

Legal system: English law

National holiday: Territory Day, 1 July

Executive branch: British monarch, governor, chief minister, Executive Council (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor John Mark Ambrose HERDMAN (since NA 1986);

Head of Government—Chief Minister H. Lavity STOUTT (since NA 1986)

Political parties and leaders: United Party (UP), Conrad Maduro; Virgin Islands Party (VIP), H. Lavity Stoutt; Independent People's Movement (IPM), Cyril B. Romney

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: Legislative Council—last held 30 September 1986 (next to be held by September 1991); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(9 total) UP 2, VIP 5, IPM 2

Communists: probably none

Member of: Commonwealth

Diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Virgin Islander coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts a woman flanked on either side by a vertical column of six oil lamps above a scroll bearing the Latin word VIGILATE (Be Watchful)

- Economy Overview: The economy is highly dependent on the tourist industry, which generates about 21% of the national income. In 1985 the government offered offshore registration to companies wishing to incorporate in the islands, and, in consequence, incorporation fees generated about $2 million in 1987. Livestock raising is the most significant agricultural activity. The islands' crops, limited by poor soils, are unable to meet food requirements.

GDP: $106.7 million, per capita $8,900; real growth rate 2.5% (1987)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.7% (January 1987)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $26.2 million; expenditures $25.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1988 est.)

Exports: $2.3 million (f.o.b., 1985); commodities—rum, fresh fish, gravel, sand, fruits, animals; partners—Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

Imports: $72.0 million (c.i.f., 1985); commodities—building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs, machinery; partners—Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

External debt: $4.5 million (1985)

Industrial production: growth rate - 4.0% (1985)

Electricity: 13,500 kW capacity; 59 million kWh produced, 4,870 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete block, offshore financial center

Agriculture: livestock (including poultry), fish, fruit, vegetables

Aid: NA

Currency: US currency is used

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications Highways: 106 km motorable roads (1983)

Ports: Road Town

Airports: 3 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways less than 1,220 m

Telecommunications: 3,000 telephones; worldwide external telephone service; submarine cable communication links to Bermuda; stations—1 AM, no FM, 1 TV

- Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK —————————————————————————— Country: Brunei - Geography Total area: 5,770 km2; land area: 5,270 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Delaware

Land boundary: 381 km with Malaysia

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient that divides the country

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy

Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, timber

Land use: 1% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 1% meadows and pastures; 79% forest and woodland; 18% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare

Note: close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave of Malaysia

- People Population: 372,108 (July 1990), growth rate 7.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 23 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 52 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 77 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Bruneian(s); adjective—Bruneian

Ethnic divisions: 64% Malay, 20% Chinese, 16% other

Religion: 60% Muslim (official); 8% Christian; 32% Buddhist and indigenous beliefs

Language: Malay (official), English, and Chinese

Literacy: 45%

Labor force: 89,000 (includes members of the Army); 33% of labor force is foreign (1988); 50.4% production of oil, natural gas, and construction; 47.6% trade, services, and other; 2.0% agriculture, forestry, and fishing (1984)

Organized labor: 2% of labor force

- Government Long-form name: Negara Brunei Darussalam

Type: constitutional sultanate

Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan

Administrative divisions: 4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular—daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong

Independence: 1 January 1984 (from UK)

Constitution: 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January 1984)

Legal system: based on Islamic law

National holiday: National Day, 23 February (1984)

Executive branch: sultan, prime minister, Council of Cabinet Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (Majlis Masyuarat Megeri)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—Sultan and Prime Minister Sir Muda HASSANAL BOLKIAH Muizzaddin Waddaulah (since 5 October 1967)

Political parties and leaders: Brunei National United Party (inactive), Anak Hasanuddin, chairman; Brunei National Democratic Party (the first legal political party and now banned) Abdul Latif bin Abdul Hamid, chairman

Suffrage: none

Elections: Legislative Council—last held in March 1962; in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive body by decree of the sultan and no elections are planned

Communists: probably none

Member of: ASEAN, ESCAP (associate member), IMO, INTERPOL, OIC, UN

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Dato Paduka Haji MOHAMED SUNI bin Haji Idris; Chancery at 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Washington DC 20037; telephone (202) 342-0159; US—Ambassador Christopher H. PHILLIPS; Embassy at Teck Guan Plaza (corner of Jalan McArthur), Bandar Seri Begawan (mailing address is P. O. Box 2991, Bandar Seri Begawan); telephone p673o (2) 29670

Flag: yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands

- Economy Overview: The economy is a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation and welfare measures, and village tradition. It is almost totally supported by exports of crude oil and natural gas, with revenues from the petroleum sector accounting for more than 70% of GDP. Per capita GDP of $9,600 is among the highest in the Third World, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements domestic production. The government provides for all medical services and subsidizes food and housing.

GDP: $3.3 billion, per capita $9,600; real growth rate 2.5% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1989 est.)

Unemployment: 2.5%, shortage of skilled labor (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $1.2 billion (1987); expenditures $1.6 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (1989 est.)

Exports: $2.07 billion (f.o.b., 1987); commodities—crude oil, liquefied natural gas, petroleum products; partners—Japan 55% (1986)

Imports: $800 million (c.i.f., 1987); commodities—machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods; food, beverages, tobacco; consumer goods; partners—Singapore 31%, US 20%, Japan 6% (1986)

External debt: none

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 310,000 kW capacity; 890 million kWh produced, 2,580 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, liquefied natural gas, construction

Agriculture: imports about 80% of its food needs; principal crops and livestock include rice, cassava, bananas, buffaloes, and pigs

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $20.6 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $143.7 million

Currency: Bruneian dollar (plural—dollars); 1 Bruneian dollar (B$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bruneian dollars (B$) per US$1—1.8895 (January 1990), 1.9503 (1989), 2.0124 (1988), 2.1060 (1987), 2.1774 (1986), 2.2002 (1985); note—the Bruneian dollar is at par with the Singapore dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 13 km 0.610-meter narrow-gauge private line

Highways: 1,090 km total; 370 km paved (bituminous treated) and another 52 km under construction, 720 km gravel or unimproved

Inland waterways: 209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 meters

Ports: Kuala Belait, Muara

Merchant marine: 7 liquefied gas carriers (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 348,476 GRT/340,635 DWT

Pipelines: crude oil, 135 km; refined products, 418 km; natural gas, 920 km

Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft (3 Boeing 757-200, 1 Boeing 737-200)

Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway over 3,659 m; 1 with runway 1,406 m

Telecommunications: service throughout country is adequate for present needs; international service good to adjacent Malaysia; radiobroadcast coverage good; 33,000 telephones (1987); stations—4 AM/FM, 1 TV; 74,000 radio receivers (1987); satellite earth stations—1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

- Defense Forces Branches: Royal Brunei Armed Forces, including air wing, navy, and ground forces; British Gurkha Battalion; Royal Brunei Police; Gurkha Reserve Unit

Military manpower: males 15-49, 104,398; 60,242 fit for military service; 3,106 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: $197.6 million, 17% of central government budget (FY86) —————————————————————————— Country: Bulgaria - Geography Total area: 110,910 km2; land area: 110,550 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries: 1,881 km total; Greece 494 km, Romania 608 km, Turkey 240 km, Yugoslavia 539 km

Coastline: 354 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: Macedonia question with Greece and Yugoslavia

Climate: temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly mountains with lowlands in north and south

Natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land

Land use: 34% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 18% meadows and pastures; 35% forest and woodland; 10% other; includes 11% irrigated

Environment: subject to earthquakes, landslides; deforestation; air pollution

Note: strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia

- People Population: 8,933,544 (July 1990), growth rate - 0.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 12 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 4 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 13 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Bulgarian(s); adjective—Bulgarian

Ethnic divisions: 85.3% Bulgarian, 8.5% Turk, 2.6% Gypsy, 2.5% Macedonian, 0.3% Armenian, 0.2% Russian, 0.6% other

Religion: religious background of population is 85% Bulgarian Orthodox, 13% Muslim, 0.8% Jewish, 0.7% Roman Catholic, 0.5% Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian, and other

Language: Bulgarian; secondary languages closely correspond to ethnic breakdown

Literacy: 95% (est.)

Labor force: 4,300,000; 33% industry, 20% agriculture, 47% other (1987)

Organized labor: all workers are members of the Central Council of Trade Unions (CCTU); Pod Krepa (Support), an independent trade union, legally registered in January 1990

- Government Long-form name: People's Republic of Bulgaria

Type: Communist state, but democratic elections planned for 1990

Capital: Sofia

Administrative divisions: 8 provinces (oblasti, singular—oblast) and 1 city* (grad); Burgas, Grad Sofiya*, Khaskovo, Lovech, Mikhaylovgrad, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Sofiya, Varna

Independence: 22 September 1908 (from Ottoman Empire)

Constitution: 16 May 1971, effective 18 May 1971

Legal system: based on civil law system, with Soviet law influence; judicial review of legislative acts in the State Council; has accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Anniversary of the Socialist Revolution in Bulgaria, 9 September (1944)

Executive branch: president, chairman of the Council of Ministers, four deputy chairmen of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Narodno Sobranyie)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—President Petur Toshev MLADENOV (chairman of the State Council since 11 November 1989; became president on 3 April 1990 when the State Council was abolished);

Head of Government—Chairman of the Council of Ministers Andrey LUKANOV (since 3 February 1990); Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers Chudomir Asenov ALEKSANDROV (since 8 February 1990); Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers Belcho Antonov BELCHEV (since 8 February 1990); Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers Konstantin Dimitrov KOSEV (since 8 February 1990); Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers Nora Krachunova ANANIEVA (since 8 February 1990)

Political parties and leaders: Bulgarian Communist Party (BKP), Aleksandur Lilov, chairman; Bulgarian National Agrarian Union (BZNS), Angel Angelov Dimitrov, secretary of Permanent Board; Bulgarian Social Democratic Party, Petur Dentlieu; Green Party; Christian Democrats; Radical Democratic Party; others forming

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Elections: Chairman of the State Council—last held 17 June 1986 (next to be held 10 and 17 June 1990); results—Todor Zhivkov reelected but was replaced by Petur Toshev Mladenov on 11 November 1989;

National Assembly—last held 8 June 1986 (next to be held 10 and 17 June 1990); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(400 total) BKP 276, BZNS 99, others 25

Communists: 932,055 party members (April 1986)

Other political or pressure groups: Union of Democratic Forces (umbrella organization for opposition groups); Ecoglenost, Podkrepa Independent Trade Union, Fatherland Front, Communist Youth Union, Central Council of Trade Unions, National Committee for Defense of Peace, Union of Fighters Against Fascism and Capitalism, Committee of Bulgarian Women, All-National Committee for Bulgarian-Soviet Friendship; Union of Democratic Forces, a coalition of about a dozen dissident groups; numerous regional and national interest groups with various agendas

Member of: CCC, CEMA, FAO, IAEA, IBEC, ICAO, ILO, ILZSG, IMO, IPU, ITC, ITU, IWC—International Wheat Council, UN, UNESCO, UPU, Warsaw Pact, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Velichko Filipov VELICHKOV; Chancery at 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 387-7969; US—Ambassador Sol POLANSKY; Embassy at 1 Alexander Stamboliski Boulevard, Sofia (mailing address is APO New York 09213); telephone p359o (2) 88-48-01 through 05

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red with the national emblem on the hoist side of the white stripe; the emblem contains a rampant lion within a wreath of wheat ears below a red five-pointed star and above a ribbon bearing the dates 681 (first Bulgarian state established) and 1944 (liberation from Nazi control)

- Economy Overview: Growth in the sluggish Bulgarian economy fell to the 2% annual level in the 1980s, and by 1989 Sofia's foreign debt had skyrocketed to $10 billion—giving a debt service ratio of more than 40% of hard currency earnings. The post-Zhivkov regime faces major problems of renovating an aging industrial plant, keeping abreast of rapidly unfolding technological developments, investing in additional energy capacity (the portion of electric power from nuclear energy reached 37% in 1988), and motivating workers, in part by giving them a share in the earnings of their enterprises. A major decree of January 1989 summarized and extended the government's economic restructuring efforts, which include a partial decentralization of controls over production decisions and foreign trade. The new regime promises more extensive reforms and eventually a market economy. But the ruling group cannot (so far) bring itself to give up ultimate control over economic affairs exercised through the vertical Party/ministerial command structure. Reforms have not led to improved economic performance, in particular the provision of more and better consumer goods. A further blow to the economy was the exodus of 310,000 ethnic Turks in mid-1989, which caused temporary shortages of skilled labor in glassware, aluminum, and other industrial plants and in tobacco fields.

GNP: $51.2 billion, per capita $5,710; real growth rate - 0.1% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12% (1989)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $26 billion; expenditures $28 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA billion (1988)

Exports: $20.3 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—machinery and equipment 60.5%; agricultural products 14.7%; manufactured consumer goods 10.6%; fuels, minerals, raw materials, and metals 8.5%; other 5.7%; partners—Socialist countries 82.5% (USSR 61%, GDR 5.5%, Czechoslovakia 4.9%); developed countries 6.8% (FRG 1.2%, Greece 1.0%); less developed countries 10.7% (Libya 3.5%, Iraq 2.9%)

Imports: $21.0 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—fuels, minerals, and raw materials 45.2%; machinery and equipment 39.8%; manufactured consumer goods 4.6%; agricultural products 3.8%; other 6.6%; partners—Socialist countries 80.5% (USSR 57.5%, GDR 5.7%), developed countries 15.1% (FRG 4.8%, Austria 1.6%); less developed countries 4.4% (Libya 1.0%, Brazil 0.9%)

External debt: $10 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 0.9% (1988)

Electricity: 11,500,000 kW capacity; 45,000 million kWh produced, 5,000 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food processing, machine and metal building, electronics, chemicals

Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GNP; climate and soil conditions support livestock raising and the growing of various grain crops, oilseeds, vegetables, fruits and tobacco; more than one-third of the arable land devoted to grain; world's fourth-largest tobacco exporter; surplus food producer

Aid: donor—$1.6 billion in bilateral aid to non-Communist less developed countries (1956-88)

Currency: lev (plural—leva); 1 lev (Lv) = 100 stotinki

Exchange rates: leva (Lv) per US$1—0.84 (1989), 0.82 (1988), 0.90 (1987), 0.95 (1986), 1.03 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 4,294 km total, all government owned (1986); 4,049 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 245 km narrow gauge; 908 km double track; 2,342 km electrified

Highways: 37,397 km total; 33,352 km hard surface (including 228 km superhighways); 4,045 km earth roads (1986)

Inland waterways: 470 km (1986)

Pipelines: crude, 193 km; refined product, 418 km; natural gas, 1,400 km (1986)

Ports: Burgas, Varna, Varna West; river ports are Ruse, Vidin, and Lom on the Danube

Merchant marine: 108 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 1,240,204 GRT/1,872,723 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 32 cargo, 2 container, 1 passenger-cargo training, 5 roll-on/roll-off, 16 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 railcar carriers, 48 bulk

Civil air: 65 major transport aircraft

Airports: 380 total, 380 usable; about 120 with permanent-surface runways; 20 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 20 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations—15 AM, 16 FM, 13 TV; 1 Soviet TV relay; 2,100,000 TV sets; 2,100,000 radio receivers; at least 1 satellite earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: Bulgarian People's Army, Bulgarian Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Frontier Troops

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,177,404; 1,823,111 fit for military service; 66,744 reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: 1.6051 billion leva (1989); note—conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the official administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading results —————————————————————————— Country: Burkina - Geography Total area: 274,200 km2; land area: 273,800 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Colorado

Land boundaries: 3,192 km total; Benin 306 km, Ghana 548 km, Ivory Coast 584 km, Mali 1,000 km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km

Coastline: none—landlocked

Maritime claims: none—landlocked

Disputes: the disputed international boundary between Burkina and Mali was submitted to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in October 1983 and the ICJ issued its final ruling in December 1986, which both sides agreed to accept; Burkina and Mali are proceeding with boundary demarcation, including the tripoint with Niger

Climate: tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers

Terrain: mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and southeast

Natural resources: manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of gold, antimony, copper, nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc, silver

Land use: 10% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 37% meadows and pastures; 26% forest and woodland; 27% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: recent droughts and desertification severely affecting marginal agricultural activities, population distribution, economy; overgrazing; deforestation

Note: landlocked

- People Population: 9,077,828 (July 1990), growth rate 3.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 50 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 17 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 3 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 121 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 51 years male, 52 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Burkinabe; adjective—Burkinabe

Ethnic divisions: more than 50 tribes; principal tribe is Mossi (about 2.5 million); other important groups are Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande, and Fulani

Religion: 65% indigenous beliefs, about 25% Muslim, 10% Christian (mainly Roman Catholic)

Language: French (official); tribal languages belong to Sudanic family, spoken by 90% of the population

Literacy: 13.2%

Labor force: 3,300,000 residents; 30,000 are wage earners; 82% agriculture, 13% industry, 5% commerce, services, and government; 20% of male labor force migrates annually to neighboring countries for seasonal employment (1984); 44% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: four principal trade union groups represent less than 1% of population

- Government Long-form name: Burkina Faso

Type: military; established by coup on 4 August 1983

Capital: Ouagadougou

Administrative divisions: 30 provinces; Bam, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Kadiogo, Kenedougou, Komoe, Kossi, Kouritenga, Mouhoun, Namentenga, Naouri, Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga, Seno, Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Yatenga, Zoundweogo

Independence: 5 August 1960 (from France; formerly Upper Volta)

Constitution: none; constitution of 27 November 1977 was abolished following coup of 25 November 1980

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 4 August (1983)

Executive branch: chairman of the Popular Front, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale) was dissolved on 25 November 1980

Judicial branch: Appeals Court

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—Chairman of the Popular Front Captain Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October 1987)

Political parties and leaders: all political parties banned following November 1980 coup

Suffrage: none

Elections: the National Assembly was dissolved 25 November 1980 and no elections are scheduled

Communists: small Communist party front group; some sympathizers

Other political or pressure groups: committees for the defense of the revolution, watchdog/political action groups throughout the country in both organizations and communities

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, EAMA, ECA, EIB (associate), Entente, FAO, GATT, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB—Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, NAM, Niger River Commission, OAU, OCAM, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Paul Desire KABORE; Chancery at 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-5577 or 6895; US—Ambassador David H. SHINN; Embassy at Avenue Raoul Follerau, Ouagadougou (mailing address is B. P. 35, Ouagadougou); telephone p226o 30-67-23 through 25

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

- Economy Overview: One of the poorest countries in the world, Burkina has a high population density, few natural resources, and relatively infertile soil. Economic development is hindered by a poor communications network within a landlocked country. Agriculture provides about 40% of GDP and is entirely of a subsistence nature. Industry, dominated by unprofitable government-controlled corporations, accounted for 13% of GDP in 1985.

GDP: $1.43 billion, per capita $170; real growth rate 7.7% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.3% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $422 million; expenditures $516 million, including capital expenditures of $25 million (1987)

Exports: $249 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—oilseeds, cotton, live animals, gold; partners—EC 42% (France 30%, other 12%), Taiwan 17%, Ivory Coast 15% (1985)

Imports: $591 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—grain, dairy products, petroleum, machinery; partners—EC 37% (France 23%, other 14%), Africa 31%, US 15% (1985)

External debt: $969 million (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 7.1% (1985)

Electricity: 121,000 kW capacity; 320 million kWh produced, 37 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: agricultural processing plants; brewery, cement, and brick plants; a few other small consumer goods enterprises

Agriculture: cash crops—peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, cotton; food crops—sorghum, millet, corn, rice; livestock; not self-sufficient in food grains

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $271 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $2.5 billion; Communist countries (1970-88), $94 million

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural—francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1—284.55 (January 1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 620 km total; 520 km Ouagadougou to Ivory Coast border and 100 km Ouagadougou to Kaya; all 1.00-meter gauge and single track

Highways: 16,500 km total; 1,300 km paved, 7,400 km improved, 7,800 km unimproved (1985)

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 50 total, 43 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 7 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: all services only fair; radio relay, wire, and radio communication stations in use; 13,900 telephones; stations—2 AM, 2 FM, 2 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,775,143; 904,552 fit for military service; no conscription

Defense expenditures: 3.1% of GDP (1987) —————————————————————————— Country: Burma - Geography Total area: 678,500 km2; land area: 657,740 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: 5,876 km total; Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km, Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km

Coastline: 1,930 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April)

Terrain: central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands

Natural resources: crude oil, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas

Land use: 15% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 1% meadows and pastures; 49% forest and woodland; 34% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: subject to destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides common during rainy season (June to September); deforestation

Note: strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes

- People Population: 41,277,389 (July 1990), growth rate 2.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 33 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 97 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 53 years male, 56 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Burmese; adjective—Burmese

Ethnic divisions: 68% Burman, 9% Shan, 7% Karen, 4% Rakhine, 3% Chinese, 2% Mon, 2% Indian, 5% other

Religion: 85% Buddhist, 15% animist beliefs, Muslim, Christian, or other

Language: Burmese; minority ethnic groups have their own languages

Literacy: 78%

Labor force: 16,036,000; 65.2% agriculture, 14.3% industry, 10.1% trade, 6.3% government, 4.1% other (FY89 est.)

Organized labor: Workers' Asiayone (association), 1,800,000 members, and Peasants' Asiayone, 7,600,000 members

- Government Long-form name: Union of Burma; note—the local official name is Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw which has been translated as Union of Myanma or Union of Myanmar

Type: military government

Capital: Rangoon (sometimes translated as Yangon)

Administrative divisions: 7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular—yin) and 7 states (pyine-mya, singular—pyine); Chin State, Irrawaddy*, Kachin State, Karan State, Kayah State, Magwe*, Mandalay*, Mon State, Pegu*, Rakhine State, Rangoon*, Sagaing*, Shan State, Tenasserim*

Independence: 4 January 1948 (from UK)

Constitution: 3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988)

Legal system: martial law in effect throughout most of the country; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 January (1948)

Executive branch: chairman of the State Law and Order Restoration Council, State Law and Order Restoration Council

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Pyithu Hluttaw) was dissolved after the coup of 18 September 1988

Judicial branch: Council of People's Justices was abolished after the coup of 18 September 1988

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—Chairman of the State Law and Order Restoration Council and Prime Minister Gen. SAW MAUNG (since 18 September 1988)

Political parties and leaders: National League for Democracy, U Tin Oo and Aung San Suu Kyi; League for Democracy and Peace, U Nu; National Unity Party (promilitary); over 100 other parties

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: People's Assembly—last held 6-20 October 1985, but dissolved after the coup of 18 September 1988; next scheduled 27 May 1990); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(NA total) number of seats by party NA

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