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The 1990 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency
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Note: straddles Equator; very narrow strip of land is only outlet to South Atlantic Ocean

- People Population: 36,589,468 (July 1990), growth rate 3.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 103 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 51 years male, 55 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Zairian(s); adjective—Zairian

Ethnic divisions: over 200 African ethnic groups, the majority are Bantu; four largest tribes—Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu), and the Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) make up about 45% of the population

Religion: 50% Roman Catholic, 20% Protestant, 10% Kimbanguist, 10% Muslim, 10% other syncretic sects and traditional beliefs

Language: French (official), Lingala, Swahili, Kingwana, Kikongo, Tshiluba

Literacy: 55% males, 37% females

Labor force: 15,000,000; 75% agriculture, 13% industry, 12% services; 13% wage earners (1981); 51% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: National Union of Workers of Zaire (UNTZA) is the only trade union

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Zaire

Type: republic with a strong presidential system

Capital: Kinshasa

Administrative divisions: 8 regions (regions, singular—region) and 1 town* (ville); Bandundu, Bas-Zaire, Equateur, Haut-Zaire, Kasai-Occidental, Kasai-Oriental, Kinshasa*, Kivu, Shaba; note—there may now be 10 regions with the elimination of Kivu and addition of Maniema, Nord-Kivu, and Sud-Kivu

Independence: 30 June 1960 (from Belgium; formerly Belgian Congo, then Congo/Leopoldville, then Congo/Kinshasa)

Constitution: 24 June 1967, amended August 1974, revised 15 February 1978

Legal system: based on Belgian civil law system and tribal law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Anniversary of the Regime (Second Republic), 24 November (1965)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Executive Council (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Legislative Council (Conseil Legislatif National)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Leaders: Chief of State—President Marshal MOBUTU Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga (since 24 November 1965);

Head of Government—Prime Minister LUNDA Bululu (since 25 April 1988)

Political parties and leaders: only party—Popular Movement of the Revolution (MPR)

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Elections: President—last held 29 July 1984 (next to be held July 1991); results—President Mobutu was reelected without opposition;

National Legislative Council—last held 6 September 1987 (next to be held September 1992); results—MPR is the only party; seats—(210 total) MPR 210

Communists: no Communist party

Member of: ACP, AfDB, APC, CCC, CIPEC, EAMA, EIB (associate), FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OCAM, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador (vacant), Charge d'Affaires MUKENDI Tambo a Kabila; Chancery at 1800 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 234-7690 or 7691; US—Ambassador William C. HARROP; Embassy at 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa (mailing address is APO New York 09662); telephone 243o (12) 25881 through 25886; there is a US Consulate General in Lubumbashi

Flag: light green with a yellow disk in the center bearing a black arm holding a red flaming torch; the flames of the torch are blowing away from the hoist side; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

- Economy Overview: In 1988, in spite of large mineral resources and one of the most developed and diversified economies in Sub-Saharan Africa, Zaire had a GDP per capita of $195, one of the lowest on the continent. Agriculture, a key sector of the economy, employs 75% of the population but generates under 30% of GDP. The main impetus for economic development has been the extractive industries. Mining and mineral processing account for about one-third of GDP and two-thirds of total export earnings. During the period 1983-88 the economy experienced slow growth, high inflation, a rising foreign debt, and a drop in foreign exchange earnings. Recent increases in foreign prices for copper—a key export earner—and other minerals offer some hope of reversing the economic decline. Zaire is the world's largest producer of diamonds.

GDP: $6.5 billion, per capita $195; real growth rate 2.8% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 82% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $856 million; expenditures $2.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $655 million (1988)

Exports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—copper 37%, coffee 24%, diamonds 12%, cobalt, crude oil; partners—US, Belgium, France, FRG, Italy, UK, Japan

Imports: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—consumer goods, foodstuffs, mining and other machinery, transport equipment, fuels; partners—US, Belgium, France, FRG, Italy, Japan, UK

External debt: $8.6 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 2,574,000 kW capacity; 5,550 million kWh produced, 160 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining, mineral processing, consumer products (including textiles, footwear, and cigarettes), processed foods and beverages, cement, diamonds

Agriculture: cash crops—coffee, palm oil, rubber, quinine; food crops—cassava, bananas, root crops, corn

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for domestic consumption

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $998 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $6.0 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $35 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $263 million

Currency: zaire (plural—zaire); 1 zaire (Z) = 100 makuta

Exchange rates: zaire (Z) per US$1—465.000 (January 1989), 381.445 (1989), 187.070 (1988), 112.403 (1987), 59.625 (1986), 49.873 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 5,254 km total; 3,968 km 1.067-meter gauge (851 km electrified); 125 km 1.000-meter gauge; 136 km 0.615-meter gauge; 1,025 km 0.600-meter gauge

Highways: 146,500 km total; 2,550 km bituminous, 46,450 km gravel and improved earth; remainder unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 15,000 km including the Congo, its tributaries, and unconnected lakes

Pipelines: refined products 390 km

Ports: Matadi, Boma, Banana

Merchant marine: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 41,802 GRT/60,496 DWT; includes 1 passenger cargo, 3 cargo

Civil air: 38 major transport aircraft

Airports: 312 total, 258 usable; 25 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 71 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: barely adequate wire and radio relay service; 31,200 telephones; stations—10 AM, 4 FM, 18 TV; satellite earth stations—1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 14 domestic

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Logistics Corps, Special Presidential Division

Military manpower: males 15-49, 7,970,619; 4,057,561 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: $67 million (1988) —————————————————————————— Country: Zambia - Geography Total area: 752,610 km2; land area: 740,720 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Texas

Land boundaries: 5,664 km total; Angola 1,110 km, Malawi 837 km, Mozambique 419 km, Namibia 233 km, Tanzania 338 km, Zaire 1,930 km, Zimbabwe 797 km

Coastline: none—landlocked

Maritime claims: none—landlocked

Disputes: quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement; Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be indefinite since it is reported that the indefinite section of the Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled

Climate: tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)

Terrain: mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains

Natural resources: copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower potential

Land use: 7% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 47% meadows and pastures; 27% forest and woodland; 19% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification

Note: landlocked

- People Population: 8,112,782 (July 1990), growth rate 3.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 49 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 12 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 6 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 80 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 55 years male, 58 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Zambian(s); adjective—Zambian

Ethnic divisions: 98.7% African, 1.1% European, 0.2% other

Religion: 50-75% Christian, 1% Muslim and Hindu, remainder indigenous beliefs

Language: English (official); about 70 indigenous languages

Literacy: 75.7%

Labor force: 2,455,000; 85% agriculture; 6% mining, manufacturing, and construction; 9% transport and services

Organized labor: about 238,000 wage earners are unionized

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Zambia

Type: one-party state

Capital: Lusaka

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western

Independence: 24 October 1964 (from UK; formerly Northern Rhodesia)

Constitution: 25 August 1973

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 October (1964)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—President Dr. Kenneth David KAUNDA (since 24 October 1964);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Gen. Malimba MASHEKE (since 15 March 1989)

Political parties and leaders: only party—United National Independence Party (UNIP), Kenneth Kaunda

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: President—last held 26 October 1988 (next to be held October 1993); results—President Kenneth Kaunda was reelected without opposition;

National Assembly—last held 26 October 1988 (next to be held October 1993); results—UNIP is the only party; seats—(136 total, 125 elected) UNIP 125

Communists: no Communist party

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Paul J. F. LUSAKA; Chancery at 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 265-9717 through 9721; US—Ambassador Jeffrey DAVIDOW; Embassy at corner of Independence Avenue and United Nations Avenue, Lusaka (mailing address is P. O. Box 31617, Lusaka); telephone 2601o 214911

Flag: green with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag

- Economy Overview: Despite temporary growth in 1988, the economy has been in decline for more than a decade with falling imports and growing foreign debt. Economic difficulties stem from a sustained drop in copper production and ineffective economic policies. In 1988 real GDP stood only slightly higher than that of 10 years before, while an annual population growth of more than 3% has brought a decline in per capita GDP of 25% during the same period. A high inflation rate has also added to Zambia's economic woes in recent years.

GDP: $4.0 billion, per capita $530; real growth rate 6.7% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 55.7% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $570 million; expenditures $939 million, including capital expenditures of $36 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $1,184 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—copper, zinc, cobalt, lead, tobacco; partners—EC, Japan, South Africa, US

Imports: $687 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities—machinery, transportation equipment, foodstuffs, fuels, manufactures; partners—EC, Japan, South Africa, US

External debt: $6.9 billion (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate NA% (1986)

Electricity: 1,900,000 kW capacity; 8,245 million kWh produced, 1,050 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: copper mining and processing, transport, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, and fertilizer

Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GDP and 85% of labor force; crops—corn (food staple), sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava; cattle, goats, beef, eggs produced; marginally self-sufficient in corn

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-88), $466 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $4.2 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $60 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $533 million

Currency: Zambian kwacha (plural—kwacha); 1 Zambian kwacha (ZK) = 100 ngwee

Exchange rates: Zambian kwacha (ZK) per US$1—21.7865 (January 1990), 12.9032 (1989), 8.2237 (1988), 8.8889 (1987), 7.3046 (1986), 2.7137 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 1,266 km, all 1.067-meter gauge; 13 km double track

Highways: 36,370 km total; 6,500 km paved, 7,000 km crushed stone, gravel, or stabilized soil; 22,870 km improved and unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 2,250 km, including Zambezi and Luapula Rivers, Lake Tanganyika

Pipelines: 1,724 km crude oil

Ports: Mpulungu (lake port)

Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft

Airports: 121 total, 106 usable; 13 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: facilities are among the best in Sub-Saharan Africa; high-capacity radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; 71,700 telephones; stations—11 AM, 3 FM, 9 TV; satellite earth stations—1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Air Force, Police, Paramilitary

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,683,758; 883,283 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: NA —————————————————————————— Country: Zimbabwe - Geography Total area: 390,580 km2; land area: 386,670 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Montana

Land boundaries: 3,066 km total; Botswana 813 km, Mozambique 1,231 km, South Africa 225 km, Zambia 797 km

Coastline: none—landlocked

Maritime claims: none—landlocked

Disputes: quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and Zambia is in disagreement

Climate: tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)

Terrain: mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld); mountains in east

Natural resources: coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin

Land use: 7% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 12% meadows and pastures; 62% forest and woodland; 19% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare; deforestation; soil erosion; air and water pollution; desertification

Note: landlocked

- People Population: 10,392,161 (July 1990), growth rate 3.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 42 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 65 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 59 years male, 63 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Zimbabwean(s); adjective—Zimbabwean

Ethnic divisions: 98% African (71% Shona, 16% Ndebele, 11% other); 1% white, 1% mixed and Asian

Religion: 50% syncretic (part Christian, part indigenous beliefs), 25% Christian, 24% indigenous beliefs, a few Muslim

Language: English (official); Shona and Ndebele

Literacy: 74%

Labor force: 3,100,000; 74% agriculture, 16% transport and services, 10% mining, manufacturing, construction (1987)

Organized labor: 17% of wage and salary earners have union membership

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Zimbabwe

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Harare

Administrative divisions: 8 provinces; Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands, Victoria (commonly called Masvingo)

Independence: 18 April 1980 (from UK; formerly Southern Rhodesia)

Constitution: 21 December 1979

Legal system: mixture of Roman-Dutch and English common law

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 April (1980)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Vice President Simon Vengai MUZENDA (since 31 December 1987)

Political parties and leaders: Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF), Robert Mugabe; Zimbabwe African National Union-Sithole (ZANU-S), Ndabaningi Sithole; Zimbabwe Unity Movement (ZUM), Edgar Tekere

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: President—last held 28-30 March 1990 (next to be held March 1995); results—President Robert Mugabe 78.3%; Edgar Tekere 21.7%;

Parliament—last held 28-30 March 1990 (next to be held March 1993); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(150 total, 120 elected) ZANU 116, ZUM 2, ZANU-S 1, to be determined 1

Communists: no Communist party

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Counselor (Political Affairs), Head of Chancery, Ambassador Stanislaus Garikai CHIGWEDERE; Chancery at 2852 McGill Terrace NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-7100; US—Ambassador-designate Steven RHODES; Embassy at 172 Rhodes Avenue, Harare (mailing address is P. O. Box 3340, Harare); telephone 263o (14) 794-521

Flag: seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red, yellow, and green with a white equilateral triangle edged in black based on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird is superimposed on a red five-pointed star in the center of the triangle

- Economy Overview: Agriculture employs a majority of the labor force and supplies almost 40% of exports. The agro-based manufacturing sector produces a variety of goods and contributes about 25% to GDP. Mining accounts for only 5% of both GDP and employment, but supplies of minerals and metals account for about 40% of exports. Wide year-to-year fluctuations in agricultural production over the past six years resulted in not only an uneven growth rate, but one that did not equal the 3% annual increase in population.

GDP: $4.6 billion, per capita $470; real growth rate 5.3% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.4% (1988)

Unemployment rate: at least 20% (1988 est.)

Budget: revenues $2.4 billion; expenditures $3.0 billion, including capital expenditures of $290 million (FY90)

Exports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—agricultural 34% (tobacco 21%, other 13%), manufactures 19%, gold 11%, ferrochrome 11%, cotton 6%; partners—Europe 55% (EC 41%, Netherlands 6%, other 8%), Africa 22% (South Africa 12%, other 10%), US 6%

Imports: $1.1 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities—machinery and transportation equipment 37%, other manufactures 22%, chemicals 16%, fuels 15%; partners—EC 31%, Africa 29% (South Africa 21%, other 8%), US 8%, Japan 4%

External debt: $2.96 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.7% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 2,036,000 kW capacity; 5,460 million kWh produced, 540 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining, steel, clothing and footwear, chemicals, foodstuffs, fertilizer, beverage, transportation equipment, wood products

Agriculture: accounts for about 15% of GDP and employs over 70% of population; 40% of land area divided into 6,000 large commercial farms and 42% in communal lands; crops—corn (food staple), cotton, tobacco, wheat, coffee, sugarcane, peanuts; livestock—cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; self-sufficient in food

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY80-88), $359 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $2.0 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $36 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $134 million

Currency: Zimbabwean dollar (plural—dollars); 1 Zimbabwean dollar (Z$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Zimbabwean dollars (Z$) per US$1—2.2873 (January 1990), 2.1133 (1989), 1.8018 (1988), 1.6611 (1987), 1.6650 (1986), 1.6119 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications Railroads: 2,745 km 1.067-meter gauge; 42 km double track; 355 km electrified

Highways: 85,237 km total; 15,800 km paved, 39,090 km crushed stone, gravel, stabilized soil: 23,097 km improved earth; 7,250 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: Lake Kariba is a potential line of communication

Pipelines: 8 km, refined products

Civil air: 12 major transport aircraft

Airports: 506 total, 420 usable; 23 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 37 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: system was once one of the best in Africa, but now suffers from poor maintenance; consists of radio relay links, open-wire lines, and radio communications stations; 247,000 telephones; stations—8 AM, 18 FM, 8 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: Zimbabwe National Army, Air Force of Zimbabwe, Police Support Unit, People's Militia

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,173,448; 1,342,920 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: $446.7 million (FY89 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: Taiwan - Geography Total area: 35,980 km2; land area: 32,260 km2; includes the Pescadores, Matsu, and Quemoy

Comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 1,448 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: involved in complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam; Paracel Islands occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands) claimed by China and Taiwan

Climate: tropical; marine; rainy season during southwest monsoon (June to August); cloudiness is persistent and extensive all year

Terrain: eastern two-thirds mostly rugged mountains; flat to gently rolling plains in west

Natural resources: small deposits of coal, natural gas, limestone, marble, and asbestos

Land use: 24% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 5% meadows and pastures; 55% forest and woodland; 15% other; 14% irrigated

Environment: subject to earthquakes and typhoons

- People Population: 20,546,664 (July 1990), growth rate 1.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 16 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 17 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 77 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Chinese (sing., pl.); adjective—Chinese

Ethnic divisions: 84% Taiwanese, 14% mainland Chinese, 2% aborigine

Religion: 93% mixture of Buddhist, Confucian, and Taoist; 4.5% Christian; 2.5% other

Language: Mandarin Chinese (official); Taiwanese and Hakka dialects also used

Literacy: 94%

Labor force: 7,880,000; 41% industry and commerce, 32% services, 20% agriculture, 7% civil administration (1986)

Organized labor: 1,300,000 or about 18.4% (government controlled) (1983)

- Administration Long-form name: none

Type: one-party presidential regime; opposition political parties legalized in March, 1989

Capital: Taipei

Administrative divisions: 16 counties (hsien, singular and plural), 5 municipalities* (shih, singular and plural), 2 special municipalities** (chuan-shih, singular and plural); Chang-hua, Chia-i, Chia-i*, Chi-lung*, Hsin-chu, Hsin-chu*, Hua-lien, I-lan, Kao-hsiung, Kao-hsiung**, Miao-li, Nan-t'ou, P'eng-hu, P'ing-tung, T'ai-chung, T'ai-chung*, T'ai-nan, T'ai-nan*, T'ai-pei, T'ai-pei**, T'ai-tung, T'ao-yuan, Yun-lin; note—the Wade-Giles system is used for romanization

Constitution: 25 December 1947

Legal system: based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: National Day (Anniversary of the Revolution), 10 October (1911)

Executive branch: president, vice president, premier of the Executive Yuan, vice premier of the Executive Yuan, Executive Yuan

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Yuan

Judicial branch: Judicial Yuan

Leaders: Chief of State—President LI Teng-hui (since 13 January 1988); Vice President LI Yuan-tzu (will take office 20 May 1990);

Head of Government—Premier (President of the Executive Yuan) HAO Po-ts'un (since 2 May 1990); Vice Premier (Vice President of the Executive Yuan) SHIH Ch'i-yang (since NA July 1988)

Political parties and leaders: Kuomintang (Nationalist Party), LI Teng-hui, chairman; Democratic Socialist Party and Young China Party controlled by Kuomintang; Democratic Progressive Party (DPP); Labor Party; 27 other minor parties

Suffrage: universal at age 20

Elections: President—last held 21 March 1990 (next to be held March 1996); results—President Li Teng-hui was elected by the National Assembly;

Vice President—last held 21 March 1990 (next to be held March 1996); results—Li Yuan-tzu was elected by the National Assembly;

Legislative Yuan—last held 2 December 1989 (next to be held December 1992); results—KMT 65%, DPP 33%, independents 2%; seats—(304 total, 102 elected) KMT 78, DPP 21, independents 3

Member of: expelled from UN General Assembly and Security Council on 25 October 1971 and withdrew on same date from other charter-designated subsidiary organs; expelled from IMF/World Bank group April/May 1980; member of ADB and PECC, seeking to join GATT and/or MFA; attempting to retain membership in ICAC, ISO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IWC—International Wheat Council; suspended from IAEA in 1972, but still allows IAEA controls over extensive atomic development

Diplomatic representation: none; unofficial commercial and cultural relations with the people of the US are maintained through a private instrumentality, the Coordination Council for North American Affairs (CCNAA) with headquarters in Taipei and field offices in Washington and 10 other US cities with all addresses and telephone numbers NA; US—unofficial commercial and cultural relations with the people of Taiwan are maintained through a private institution, the American Institute in Taiwan (AIT), which has offices in Taipei at 7 Lane 134, Hsin Yi Road, Section 3 with telephone 002 886o (2) 709-2000 and in Kao-hsiung at 88 Wu Fu 3rd Road with telephone NA

Flag: red with a dark blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a white sun with 12 triangular rays

- Economy Overview: Taiwan has a dynamic capitalist economy with considerable government guidance of investment and foreign trade and partial government ownership of some large banks and industrial firms. Real growth in GNP has averaged about 9% a year during the past three decades. Export growth has been even faster and has provided the impetus for industrialization. Agriculture contributes about 6% to GNP, down from 35% in 1952. Taiwan currently ranks as number 13 among major trading countries. Traditional labor-intensive industries are steadily being replaced with more capital- and technology-intensive industries.

GNP: $121.4 billion, per capita $6,000; real growth rate 7.2% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.0% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 1.7% (1989)

Budget: revenues $25.9 billion; expenditures $33.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY89)

Exports: $66.2 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities—textiles 9.7%, electrical machinery 19.0%, general machinery and equipment 14%, telecommunications equipment 9%, basic metals and metal products 7.4%, foodstuffs 0.9%, plywood and wood products 1.3%; partners—US 36.2%, Japan 13.7%

Imports: $52.2 billion (c.i.f., 1989); commodities—machinery and equipment 15.9%, crude oil 5%, chemical and chemical products 11.1%, basic metals 7.4%, foodstuffs 2.0%; partners—Japan 31%, US 23%, Saudi Arabia 8.6%

External debt: $1.0 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.1% (1988)

Electricity: 17,000,000 kW capacity; 68,000 million kWh produced, 3,360 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: textiles, clothing, chemicals, electronics, food processing, plywood, sugar milling, cement, shipbuilding, petroleum

Agriculture: accounts for 6% of GNP and 20% of labor force (includes part-time farmers); heavily subsidized sector; major crops—rice, sugarcane, sweet potatoes, fruits, vegetables; livestock—hogs, poultry, beef, milk, cattle; not self-sufficient in wheat, soybeans, corn; fish catch expanding, 1.1 million metric tons in (1987)

Aid: US, including Ex-Im (FY46-82), $4.6 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $439 million

Currency: new Taiwan dollar (plural—dollars); 1 new Taiwan dollar (NT$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: new Taiwan dollars per US$1—26.3 (March 1990), 26.156 (December 1989), 28.589 (1988), 31.845 (1987), 37.838 (1986), 39.849 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications Railroads: about 1,075 km common carrier lines and over 3,800 km industrial lines; common carrier lines consist of the 1.067-meter gauge 708 km West Line and the 367 km East Line; a 98.25 km South Link Line connection is under construction; common carrier lines owned by the government and operated by the Railway Administration under Ministry of Communications; industrial lines owned and operated by government enterprises

Highways: 18,800 km total; 15,800 km bituminous or concrete, 2,500 km crushed stone or gravel, 500 km graded earth

Pipelines: 615 km refined products, 97 km natural gas

Ports: Kao-hsiung, Chi-lung, Hua-lien, Su-ao, T'ai-tung

Merchant marine: 218 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,061,960 GRT/7,634,074 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 61 cargo, 13 refrigerated cargo, 71 container, 14 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 3 combination ore/oil, 1 specialized tanker, 54 bulk

Airports: 38 total, 37 usable; 32 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways over 3,659 m; 16 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 8 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: best developed system in Asia outside of Japan; 6,000,000 telephones; extensive microwave transmission links on east and west coasts; stations—91 AM, 23 FM, 15 TV (13 relays); 8,000,000 radio receivers; 6,000,000 TV sets (5,300,000 color, 700,000 monochrome); satellite earth stations—1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT; submarine cable links to Japan (Okinawa), the Philippines, Guam, Singapore, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, Garrison Command

Military manpower: males 15-49, 5,809,354; 4,534,950 fit for military service; about 185,235 currently reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: 6.8% of GNP, or $8.2 billion (FY90 est.) —————————————————————————— —————————————————————————— Appendix A: The United Nations System

The UN is composed of six principal organs and numerous subordinate agencies and bodies as follows:

1) Secretariat: UNDRO United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator's Office

2) General Assembly: INSTRAW International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women UNCHS United Nations Center for Human Settlements (Habitat) UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNDP United Nations Development Program UNEP United Nations Environment Program UNFPA United Nations Population Fund UNHCR United Nations Office of High Commissioner for Refugees UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund UNIDIR United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research UNITAR United Nations Institute for Training and Research UNRISD United Nations Research Institute for Social Development UNRWA United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East UNSP United Nations Special Fund UNU United Nations University UP University for Peace WFC World Food Council WFP World Food Program

3) Security Council: UNAVEM United Nations Angola Verification Mission UNDOF United Nations Disengagement Observer Force UNFICYP United Nations Force in Cyprus UNGOMAP United Nations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan UNIFIL United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon UNIIMOG United Nations Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group UNMOGIP United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan UNTAG United Nations Transition Assistance Group UNTSO United Nations Truce Supervision Organization

4) Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC): Specialized agencies FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization IDA International Development Association IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development IFC International Finance Corporation ILO International Labor Organization IMF International Monetary Fund IMO International Maritime Organization ITU International Telecommunication Union MIGA Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization UPU Universal Postal Union WHO World Health Organization WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization WMO World Meteorological Organization Related organizations GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency Regional commissions ECA Economic Commission for Africa ECE Economic Commission for Europe ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia Functional commissions Commission on Human Rights Commission on Narcotic Drugs Commission for Social Development Commission on the Status of Women Population Commission Statistical Commission

5) Trusteeship Council

6) International Court of Justice (ICJ) —————————————————————————— Appendix B: International Organizations

ACC Arab Cooperation Council ACP African, Caribbean, and Pacific Countries (assoc. with EC) ADB Asian Development Bank AfDB African Development Bank AFESD Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development AIOEC Association of Iron Ore Exporting Countries AL Arab League or League of Arab States AMF Arab Monetary Fund AMU Arab Maghreb Union —- Andean Pact ANRPC Association of Natural Rubber Producing Countries ANZUS ANZUS Council AP Andean Pact APC African Peanut (Groundnut) Association ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASPAC Asian and Pacific Council ASSIMER International Mercury Producers Association —- Association of Tin Producing Countries

BADEA Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa BCIE Central American Bank for Economic Integration Benelux Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg Economic Union BIS Bank for International Settlements BLEU Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union BOAD West African Development Bank

C Commonwealth CACM Central American Common Market CAEU Council of Arab Economic Unity CARICOM Caribbean Community and Common Market CCC Customs Cooperation Council CDB Caribbean Development Bank CE Council of Europe CEAO West African Economic Community CEEAC Economic Community of Central African States CEMA Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (sometimes CMEA or Comecon) CENTO Central Treaty Organization CEPGL Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research CILSS Permanent Interstate Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel CIPEC Intergovernmental Council of Copper Exporting Countries CMEA see CEMA Comecon see CEMA —- Conference of East and Central African States CP Colombo Plan

DAC Development Assistance Committee (OECD)

EADB East African Development Bank EAMA African States associated with the EC EC European Communities ECA Economic Commission for Africa (UN) ECE Economic Commission for Europe (UN) ECLA Economic Commission for Latin America (UN) ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UN) ECOSOC Economic and Social Council (UN) ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States ECWA Economic Commission for Western Asia (UN) EFTA European Free Trade Association EIB European Investment Bank EMS European Monetary System Entente Council of the Entente ESA European Space Agency ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UN) ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (UN)

FAO Food and Agriculture Organization (UN) FZ Franc Zone

G-8 Group of Eight G-10 Group of Ten G-77 Group of 77 GA General Assembly (UN) GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (UN) GCC Gulf Cooperation Council

IADB Inter-American Development Bank IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency (UN) IATP International Association of Tungsten Producers IBA International Bauxite Association IBEC International Bank for Economic Cooperation IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development or World Bank (UN) ICAC International Cotton Advisory Committee ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization (UN) ICC International Chamber of Commerce ICCO International Cocoa Organization ICEM Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration ICES International Cooperation in Ocean Exploration ICFTU International Confederation of Free Trade Unions ICJ International Court of Justice (UN) ICM Intergovernmental Committee for Migration ICO International Coffee Organization ICRC International Committee of the Red Cross IDA International Development Association (IBRD affiliate, UN) IDB Inter-American Development Bank IDB Islamic Development Bank IEA International Energy Agency (associated with OECD) IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development (UN) IFC International Finance Corporation (IBRD affiliate, UN) IHO International Hydrographic Organization IIB International Investment Bank ILO International Labor Organization (UN) ILZSG International Lead and Zinc Study Group IMF International Monetary Fund (UN) IMO International Maritime Organization (UN) INMARSAT International Maritime Satellite Organization INRO International Natural Rubber Organization INTELSAT International Telecommunications Satellite Organization INTERPOL International Criminal Police Organization IOC International Olympic Committee IOOC International Olive Oil Council IPU Inter-Parliamentary Union IRC International Rice Council ISO International Sugar Organization ITC International Tin Council ITU International Telecommunication Union (UN) IWC International Whaling Commission IWC International Wheat Council LAES Latin American Economic System LAIA Latin American Integration Association —- Lake Chad Basin Commission LORCS League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies —- Mano River Commission —- Mekong Committee MIGA Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency

NAM Nonaligned Movement NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NC Nordic Council NCC Nordic Council of Ministers NEA Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD) NIB Nordic Investment Bank —- Niger River Commission —- Nordic Council

OAPEC Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries OAS Organization of American States OAU Organization of African Unity OCAM Afro-Malagasy and Mauritian Common Organization ODECA Organization of Central American States OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OECS Organization of Eastern Caribbean States OIC Organization of the Islamic Conference OMVS Organization for the Development of the Senegal River Valley OPANAL Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

PAHO Pan American Health Organization PCA Permanent Court of Arbitration

SAARC South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation SADCC Southern African Development Coordination Conference SC Security Council (UN) SELA Latin American Economic System SPC South Pacific Commission SPEC South Pacific Bureau for Economic Cooperation SPF South Pacific Forum

TC Trusteeship Council (UN) TDB Trade and Development Board (UN)

UDEAC Central African Customs and Economic Union UEAC Union of Central African States UN United Nations UNCTAD UN Conference on Trade and Development UNDP UN Development Program UNESCO UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization UNHCR UN High Commissioner for Refugees UNICEF UN Children's Fund UNIDO UN Industrial Development Organization UPEB Union of Banana Exporting Countries UPU Universal Postal Union (UN)

WCL World Confederation of Labor WEU Western European Union WFC World Food Council (UN) WFTU World Federation of Trade Unions WHO World Health Organization (UN) WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization (UN) WMO World Meteorological Organization (UN) WP Warsaw Pact WPC World Peace Council WSG International Wool Study Group WTO World Tourism Organization —————————————————————————— Appendix C: Country Membership in International Organizations

This information is currently available only as a table in the printed version of The World Factbook 1990. For the 1991 edition a new textual format will be adopted that will greatly expand the breadth and depth of coverage to include many more organizations with complete name, acronym or abbreviation, date established, aim, and list of members. —————————————————————————— Appendix D: Weights and Measures

Mathematical Notation

Mathematical Power Name 10 +18 or 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 one quintillion 10 +15 or 1,000,000,000,000,000 one quadrillion 10 +12 or 1,000,000,000,000 one trillion 10 +9 or 1,000,000,000 one billion 10 +6 or 1,000,000 one million 10 +3 or 1,000 one thousand 10 +2 or 100 one hundred 10 +1 or 10 ten 10 +0 or 1 one 10 -1 or 0.1 one tenth 10 -2 or 0.01 one hundredth 10 -3 or 0.001 one thousandth 10 -6 or 0.000 001 one millionth 10 -9 or 0.000 000 001 one billionth 10 -12 or 0.000 000 000 001 one trillionth 10 -15 or 0.000 000 000 000 001 one quadrillionth 10 -18 or 0.000 000 000 000 000 001 one quintillionth

Conversions from a multiple or submultiple to the basic units of meters, liters, or grams can be done using the table. For example, to convert from kilometers to meters, multiply by 1,000 (9.26 kilometers equals 9,260 meters) or to convert from meters to kilometers, multiply by 0.001 (9,260 meters equals 9.26 kilometers) Length, weight, Prefix Symbol capacity Area Volume ——— ——— ———— ——— ———- exa E 10 +18 10 +36 10 +54 peta P 10 +15 10 +30 10 +45 tera T 10 +12 10 +24 10 +36 giga G 10 +9 10 +18 10 +27 mega M 10 +6 10 +12 10 +18 hectokilo hk 10 +5 10 +10 10 +15 myria ma 10 +4 10 +8 10 +12 kilo k 10 +3 10 +6 10 +9 hecto h 10 +2 10 +4 10 +6 deka da 10 +1 10 +2 10 +3 basic unit - 1 meter, 1 meter2 1 meter3 1 gram, 1 liter deci d 10 -1 10 -2 10 -3 centi c 10 -2 10 -4 10 -6 milli m 10 -3 10 -6 10 -9 decimilli dm 10 -4 10 -8 10 -12 centimilli cm 10 -5 10 -10 10 -15 micro u 10 -6 10 -12 10 -18 nano n 10 -9 10 -18 10 -27 pico p 10 -12 10 -24 10 -36 femto f 10 -15 10 -30 10 -45 atto a 10 -18 10 -36 10 -54

========================================================================

EQUIVALENTS

The exponents 2 and 3 are used for square and cubic, respectively. Name Metric Equivalents ——————————————————————————————————————— acre 0.404 685 64 hectares 43,560 feet2 acre 4,046,856 4 meters2 4,840 yards2 acre 0.004 046 856 4 0.001 562 5 miles2, kilometers2 statute are 100 meters2 119.599 yards2 barrel (petroleum, US) 158.987 29 liters 42 gallons (proof spirits, US) 151.416 47 liters 40 gallons (beer, US) 117.347 77 liters 31 gallons bushel 35.239 07 liters 4 pecks cable 219.456 meters 120 fathoms chain (surveyor's) 20.116 8 meters 66 feet cord (wood) 3.624 556 meters3 128 feet3 cup 0.236 588 2 liters 8 ounces, liquid (US) degrees, celsius (water boils at 100 multiply by 1.8 and add degrees C, freezes at 32 to obtain degrees F 0 degrees C) degrees, fahrenheit subtract 32 and divide (water boils at 212 by 1.8 to obtain degrees F, freezes at degrees C 32 degrees F) dram, avoirdupois 1.771 845 2 grams 0.062 5 ounces, avoirdupois dram, troy 3.887 934 6 grams 0.125 ounces, troy dram, liquid (US) 3.696 69 milliliters 0.125 ounces, liquid fathom 1.828 8 meters 6 feet foot 30.48 centimeters 12 inches foot 0.304 8 meters 0.333 333 3 yards foot 0.000 304 8 kilometers 0.000 189 39 miles, statute foot2 929.030 4 centimeters2 144 inches2 foot 2 0.092 903 04 meters2 0.111 111 1 yards2 foot3 28.316 846 592 liters 7.480 519 gallons foot3 0.028 316 847 meters3 1,728 inches3 furlong 201.168 meters 220 yards gallon, liquid (US) 3.785 411 784 liters 4 quarts, liquid gill (US) 118.294 118 milliliters 4 ounces, liquid grain 64.798 91 milligrams 0.002 285 71 ounces, advp. gram 1,000 milligrams 0.035 273 96 ounces, advp. hand (height of horse) 10.16 centimeters 4 inches hectare 10,000 meters2 2.471 053 8 acres hundredweight, long 50.802 345 kilograms 112 pounds, avoirdupois hundredweight, short 45.359 237 kilograms 100 pounds, avoirdupois inch 2.54 centimeters 0.083 333 33 feet inch2 6.451 6 centimeters2 0.006 944 44 feet2 inch3 16.387 064 centimeters3 0.000 578 7 feet3 inch3 16.387 064 milliliters 0.029 761 6 pints, dry inch3 16.387 064 milliliters 0.034 632 0 pints, liquid kilogram 0.001 tons, metric 2.204 623 pounds, avoirdupois kilometer 1,000 meters 0.621 371 19 miles, statute kilometer2 100 hectares 247.105 38 acres kilometer2 1,000,000 meters2 0.386 102 16 miles2, statute knot (1 nautical mi/hr) 1.852 kilometers/hour 1.151 statute miles/hour league, nautical 5.559 552 kilometers 3 miles, nautical league, statute 4.828.032 kilometers 3 miles, statute link (surveyor's) 20.116 8 centimeters 7.92 inches liter 0.001 meters3 61.023 74 inches3 liter 0.1 dekaliter 0.908 083 quarts, dry liter 1,000 milliliters 1.056 688 quarts, liquid meter 100 centimeters 1.093 613 yards meter2 10,000 centimeters2 1.195 990 yards2 meter3 1,000 liters 1.307 951 yards3 micron 0.000 001 meter 0.000 039 4 inches mil 0.025 4 millimeters 0.001 inch mile, nautical 1.852 kilometers 1.150 779 4 miles, statute mile2, nautical 3.429 904 kilometers2 1.325 miles2, statute mile, statute 1.609 344 kilometers 5,280 feet or 8 furlongs mile2, statute 258.998 811 hectares 640 acres or 1 section mile2, statute 2.589 988 11 kilometers2 0.755 miles2, nautical minim (US) 0.061 611 52 milliliters 0.002 083 33 ounces, liquid ounce, avoirdupois 28.349 523 125 grams 437.5 grains ounce, liquid (US) 29.573 53 milliliters 0.062 5 pints, liquid ounce, troy 31.103 476 8 grams 480 grains pace 76.2 centimeters 30 inches peck 8.809 767 5 liters 8 quarts, dry pennyweight 1.555 173 84 grams 24 grains pint, dry (US) 0.550 610 47 liters 0.5 quarts, dry pint, liquid (US) 0.473 176 473 liters 0.5 quarts, liquid point (typographical) 0.351 459 8 millimeters 0.013 837 inches pound, avoirdupois 453.592 37 grams 16 ounces, avourdupois pound, troy 373.241 721 6 grams 12 ounces, troy quart, dry (US) 1.101 221 liters 2 pints, dry quart, liquid (US) 0.946 352 946 liters 2 pints, liquid quintal 100 kilograms 220.462 26 pounds, avdp. rod 5.029 2 meters 5.5 yards scruple 1.295 978 2 grams 20 grains section (US) 2.589 988 1 kilometers2 1 mile2, statute or 640 acres span 22.86 centimeters 9 inches stere 1 meter3 1.307 95 yards3 tablespoon 14.786 76 milliliters 3 teaspoons teaspoon 4.928 922 milliliters 0.333 333 tablespoons ton, long or deadweight 1,016.046 909 kilograms 2,240 pounds, avoirdupois ton, metric 1,000 kilograms 2,204.623 pounds, avoirdupois ton, register 2.831 684 7 meters3 100 feet3 ton, short 907.184 74 kilograms 2,000 pounds, avoirdupois township (US) 93.239 572 kilometers2 36 miles2, statute yard 0.914 4 meters 3 feet yard2 0.836 127 36 meters2 9 feet2 yard3 0.764 554 86 meters3 27 feet3 yard3 764.554 857 984 liters 201.974 gallons —————————————————————————— Appendix E: Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names

This list indicates where various names including all United States Foreign Service Posts, alternate names, former names, and political or geographical portions of larger entities can be found in The WORLD FACTBOOK are not necessarily those approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Alternate names are included in parentheses, additional information is included in brackets.

Name Entry in the WORLD FACTBOOK ——————————————— ———————————————————- Abidjan (US Embassy) Ivory Coast Abu Dhabi (US Embassy) United Arab Emirates Acapulco (US Consular Agency) Mexico Accra (US Embassy) Ghana Adana (US Consulate) Turkey Addis Ababa (US Embassy) Ethiopia Adelaide (US Consular Agency) Australia Adelie Land (Terre Adelie) Antarctica (claimed by France) Aden (US post not maintained, Yemen, People's Democratic Republic of representation by British Embassy) Aden, Gulf of Indian Ocean Admiralty Islands Papua New Guinea Adriatic Sea Atlantic Ocean Aegean Islands Greece Aegean Sea Atlantic Ocean Afars and Issas, French Djibouti Territory of the (F.T.A.I.) Agalega Islands Mauritius Aland Islands Finland Alaska United States Alaska, Gulf of Pacific Ocean Aldabra Islands Seychelles Alderney Guernsey Aleutian Islands United States Alexander Island Antarctica Alexandria (US Consulate General) Egypt Algiers (US Embassy) Algeria Alhucemas, Penon de Spain Alphonse Island Seychelles Amami Strait Pacific Ocean Amindivi Islands India Amirante Isles Seychelles Amman (US Embassy) Jordan Amsterdam (US Consulate General) Netherlands Amsterdam Island French Southern and Antarctic Lands (Ile Amsterdam) Amundsen Sea Pacific Ocean Amur China; Soviet Union Andaman Islands India Andaman Sea Indian Ocean Anegada Passage Atlantic Ocean Anglo-Egyptian Sudan Sudan Anjouan Comoros Ankara (US Embassy) Turkey Annobon Equatorial Guinea Antananarivo (US Embassy) Madagascar Antipodes Islands New Zealand Antwerp (US Consulate General) Belgium Aozou Strip (claimed by Libya) Chad Aqaba, Gulf of Indian Ocean Arabian Sea Indian Ocean Arafura Sea Pacific Ocean Argun China; Soviet Union Ascension Island St. Helena Assumption Island Seychelles Asuncion (US Embassy) Paraguay Asuncion Island Northern Mariana Islands Atacama Chile Athens (US Embassy) Greece Attu United States Auckland (US Consulate General) New Zealand Auckland Islands New Zealand Australes Iles (Iles Tubuai) French Polynesia Axel Heiberg Island Canada Azores Portugal Azov, Sea of Atlantic Ocean

Bab el Mandeb Indian Ocean Babuyan Channel Pacific Ocean Babuyan Islands Philippines Baffin Bay Arctic Ocean Baffin Island Canada Baghdad (US Embassy) Iraq Balabac Strait Pacific Ocean Balearic Islands Spain Balearic Sea (Iberian Sea) Atlantic Ocean Bali (US Consular Agency) Indonesia Bali Sea Indian Ocean Balintang Channel Pacific Ocean Balintang Islands Philippines Balleny Islands Antarctica Baltic Sea Atlantic Ocean Baluchistan Afghanistan; Iran; Pakistan Bamako (US Embassy) Mali Banaba (Ocean Island) Kiribati Bandar Seri Begawan (US Embassy) Brunei Banda Sea Pacific Ocean Bangkok (US Embassy) Thailand Bangui (US Embassy) Central African Republic Banjul (US Embassy) Gambia, The Banks Island Canada Banks Islands (Iles Banks) Vanuatu Barcelona (US Consulate General) Spain Barents Sea Arctic Ocean Barranquilla (US Consulate) Colombia Bashi Channel Pacific Ocean Basilan Strait Pacific Ocean Bass Strait Indian Ocean Batan Islands Philippines Bavaria (Bayern) Germany, Federal Republic of Beagle Channel Atlantic Ocean Bear Island (Bjornoya) Svalbard Beaufort Sea Arctic Ocean Bechuanaland Botswana Beijing (US Embassy) China Beirut (US Embassy) Lebanon Belem (US Consular Agency) Brazil Belep Islands (Iles Belep) New Caledonia Belfast (US Consulate General) United Kingdom Belgian Congo Zaire Belgrade (US Embassy) Yugoslavia Belize City (US Embassy) Belize Belle Isle, Strait of Atlantic Ocean Bellinghausen Sea Pacific Ocean Belmopan Belize Bengal, Bay of Indian Ocean Bering Sea Pacific Ocean Bering Strait Pacific Ocean Berkner Island Antarctica Berlin, East (US Embassy) German Democratic Republic Berlin, West (US Mission) Germany, Federal Republic of Bern (US Embassy) Switzerland Bessarabia Romania; Soviet Union Bijagos, Arquipelago dos Guinea-Bissau Bikini Atoll Marshall Islands Bilbao (US Consulate) Spain Bioko Equatorial Guinea Biscay, Bay of Atlantic Ocean Bishop Rock United Kingdom Bismarck Archipelago Papua New Guinea Bismarck Sea Pacific Ocean Bissau (US Embassy) Guinea-Bissau Bjornoya (Bear Island) Svalbard Black Rock Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Black Sea Atlantic Ocean Boa Vista Cape Verde Bogota (US Embassy) Colombia Bombay (US Consulate General) India Bonaire Netherlands Antilles Bonifacio, Strait of Atlantic Ocean Bonin Islands Japan Bonn (US Embassy) Federal Republic of Germany Bophuthatswana South Africa Bora-Bora French Polynesia Bordeaux (US Consulate General) France Borneo Brunei; Indonesia; Malaysia Bornholm Denmark Bosporus Atlantic Ocean Bothnia, Gulf of Atlantic Ocean Bougainville Island Papua New Guinea Bougainville Strait Pacific Ocean Bounty Islands New Zealand Brasilia (US Embassy) Brazil Brazzaville (US Embassy) Congo Bridgetown (US Embassy) Barbados Brisbane (US Consulate) Australia British East Africa Kenya British Guiana Guyana British Honduras Belize British Solomon Islands Solomon Islands British Somaliland Somalia Brussels (US Embassy, US Mission Belgium to European Communities, US Mission to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization or USNATO) Bucharest (US Embassy) Romania Budapest (US Embassy) Hungary Buenos Aires (US Embassy) Argentina Bujumbura (US Embassy) Burundi

Cabinda Angola Cabot Strait Atlantic Ocean Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Islands Cairo (US Embassy) Egypt Calcutta (US Consulate General) India Calgary (US Consulate General) Canada California, Gulf of Pacific Ocean Campbell Island New Zealand Canal Zone Panama Canary Islands Spain Canberra (US Embassy) Australia Cancun (US Consular Agency) Mexico Canton (Guangzhou) China Canton Island Kiribati Cape Town (US Consulate General) South Africa Caracas (US Embassy) Venezuela Cargados Carajos Shoals Mauritius Caroline Islands Micronesia, Federated States of; Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the Caribbean Sea Atlantic Ocean Carpentaria, Gulf of Pacific Ocean Casablanca (US Consulate General) Morocco Cato Island Australia Cebu (US Consulate) Philippines Celebes Indonesia Celebes Sea Pacific Ocean Celtic Sea Atlantic Ocean Central African Empire Central African Republic Ceuta Spain Ceylon Sri Lanka Chafarinas, Islas Spain Chagos Archipelago (Oil Islands) British Indian Ocean Territory Channel Islands Guernsey; Jersey Chatham Islands New Zealand Cheju-do Korea, South Cheju Strait Pacific Ocean Chengdu (US Consulate General) China Chesterfield Islands New Caledonia (Iles Chesterfield) Chiang Mai (US Consulate General) Thailand Chihli, Gulf of (Bo Hai) Pacific Ocean China, People's Republic of China China, Republic of Taiwan Choiseul Solomon Islands Christchurch (US Consular Agency) New Zealand Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) Australia Christmas Island (Pacific Ocean) Kiribati (Kiritimati) Chukchi Sea Arctic Ocean Ciskei South Africa Ciudad Juarez (US Consulate Mexico General) Cochabamba (US Consular Agency) Bolivia Coco, Isla del Costa Rica Cocos Islands Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombo (US Embassy) Sri Lanka Colon (US Consular Agency) Panama Colon, Archipielago de Ecuador (Galapagos Islands) Commander Islands Soviet Union (Komandorskiye Ostrova) Conakry (US Embassy) Guinea Congo (Brazzaville) Congo Congo (Kinshasa) Zaire Congo (Leopoldville) Zaire Con Son Islands Vietnam Cook Strait Pacific Ocean Copenhagen (US Embassy) Denmark Coral Sea Pacific Ocean Corn Islands (Islas del Maiz) Nicaragua Corsica France Cosmoledo Group Seychelles Cote d'Ivoire Ivory Coast Cotonou (US Embassy) Benin Crete Greece Crooked Island Passage Atlantic Ocean Crozet Islands (Iles Crozet) French Southern and Antarctic Lands Curacao (US Consulate General) Netherlands Antilles Cusco (US Consular Agency) Peru

Dahomey Benin Daito Islands Japan Dakar (US Embassy) Senegal Daman (Damao) India Damascus (US Embassy) Syria Danger Atoll Cook Islands Danish Straits Atlantic Ocean Danzig (Gdansk) Poland Dao Bach Long Vi Vietnam Dardanelles Atlantic Ocean Dar es Salaam (US Embassy) Tanzania Davis Strait Atlantic Ocean Deception Island Antarctica Denmark Strait Atlantic Ocean D'Entrecasteaux Islands Papua New Guinea Devon Island Canada Dhahran (US Consulate General) Saudi Arabia Dhaka (US Embassy) Bangladesh Diego Garcia British Indian Ocean Territory Diego Ramirez Chile Diomede Islands Soviet Union (Big Diomede); United States (Little Diomede) Diu India Djibouti (US Embassy) Djibouti Dodecanese Greece Doha (US Embassy) Qatar Douala (US Consulate General) Cameroon Dover, Strait of Atlantic Ocean Drake Passage Atlantic Ocean Dubai (US Consulate General) United Arab Emirates Dublin (US Embassy) Ireland Durango (US Consular Agency) Mexico Durban (US Consulate General) South Africa Dusseldorf (US Consulate General) Federal Republic of Germany Dutch East Indies Indonesia Dutch Guiana Suriname

East China Sea Pacific Ocean Easter Island (Isla de Pascua) Chile Eastern Channel (East Korea Pacific Ocean Strait or Tsushima Strait) East Germany German Democratic Republic East Korea Strait (Eastern Pacific Ocean Channel or Tsushima Strait) East Pakistan Bangladesh East Siberian Sea Arctic Ocean East Timor (Portuguese Timor) Indonesia Edinburgh (US Consulate General) United Kingdom Elba Italy Ellef Ringnes Island Canada Ellesmere Island Canada Ellice Islands Tuvalu Elobey, Islas de Equatorial Guinea Enderbury Island Kiribati Enewetak Atoll (Eniwetok Atoll) Marshall Islands England United Kingdom English Channel Atlantic Ocean Eniwetok Atoll Marshall Islands Epirus, Northern Albania; Greece Eritrea Ethiopia Essequibo (claimed by Venezuela) Guyana Estonia Soviet Union (de facto) Etorofu Soviet Union (de facto)

Farquhar Group Seychelles Fernando de Noronha Brazil Fernando Po (Bioko) Equatorial Guinea Finland, Gulf of Atlantic Ocean Florence (US Consulate General) Italy Florida, Straits of Atlantic Ocean Formosa Taiwan Formosa Strait (Taiwan Strait) Pacific Ocean Fort-de-France Martinique (US Consulate General) Frankfurt am Main Federal Republic of Germany (US Consulate General) Franz Josef Land Soviet Union Freetown (US Embassy) Sierra Leone French Cameroon Cameroon French Indochina Cambodia; Laos; Vietnam French Guinea Guinea French Sudan Mali French Territory of the Afars Djibouti and Issas (F.T.A.I.) French Togo Togo Friendly Islands Tonga Fukuoka (US Consulate) Japan Funchal (US Consular Agency) Portugal Fundy, Bay of Atlantic Ocean Futuna Islands (Hoorn Islands) Wallis and Futuna

Gaborone (US Embassy) Botswana Galapagos Islands (Archipielago Ecuador de Colon) Galleons Passage Atlantic Ocean Gambier Islands (Iles Gambier) French Polynesia Gaspar Strait Indian Ocean Geneva (Branch Office of the US Switzerland Embassy, US Mission to European Office of the UN and Other International Organizations) Genoa (US Consulate General) Italy George Town (US Consular Agency) Cayman Islands Georgetown (US Embassy) Guyana Gibraltar, Strait of Atlantic Ocean Gilbert Islands Kiribati Goa India Gold Coast Ghana Golan Heights Syria Good Hope, Cape of South Africa Goteborg (US Consulate General) Sweden Gotland Sweden Gough Island St. Helena Grand Banks Atlantic Ocean Grand Cayman Cayman Islands Grand Turk (US Consular Agency) Turks and Caicos Islands Great Australian Bight Indian Ocean Great Belt (Store Baelt) Atlantic Ocean Great Britain United Kingdom Great Channel Indian Ocean Greater Sunda Islands Brunei; Indonesia; Malaysia Green Islands Papua New Guinea Greenland Sea Arctic Ocean Grenadines, Northern St. Vincent and the Grenadines Grenadines, Southern Grenada Guadalajara Mexico (US Consulate General) Guadalcanal Solomon Islands Guadalupe, Isla de Mexico Guangzhou (US Consulate General) China Guantanamo (US Naval Base) Cuba Guatemala (US Embassy) Guatemala Gubal, Strait of Indian Ocean Guinea, Gulf of Atlantic Ocean Guayaquil (US Consulate General) Ecuador

Ha'apai Group Tonga Habomai Islands Soviet Union (de facto) Hague,The (US Embassy) Netherlands Haifa (US Consular Agency) Israel Hainan Dao China Halifax (US Consulate General) Canada Halmahera Indonesia Hamburg (US Consulate General) Federal Republic of Germany Hamilton (US Consulate General) Bermuda Hanoi Vietnam Harare (US Embassy) Zimbabwe Hatay Turkey Havana (US post not maintained, Cuba representation by US Interests Section or USINT of the Swiss Embassy) Hawaii United States Heard Island Heard Island and McDonald Islands Helsinki (US Embassy) Finland Hermosillo (US Consulate) Mexico Hispaniola Dominican Republic; Haiti Hokkaido Japan Holy See, The Vatican City Hong Kong (US Consulate General) Hong Kong Honiara (US Consulate) Solomon Islands Honshu Japan Hormuz, Strait of Indian Ocean Horn, Cape (Cabo de Hornos) Chile Horne, Iles de Wallis and Futuna Horn of Africa Ethiopia; Somalia Hudson Bay Arctic Ocean Hudson Strait Arctic Ocean

Inaccessible Island St. Helena Indochina Cambodia; Laos; Vietnam Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongol) China Ionian Islands Greece Ionian Sea Atlantic Ocean Irian Jaya Indonesia Irish Sea Atlantic Ocean Islamabad (US Embassy) Pakistan Islas Malvinas Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Istanbul (US Consulate General) Turkey Italian Somaliland Somalia Iwo Jima Japan Izmir (US Consulate General) Turkey

Jakarta (US Embassy) Indonesia Japan, Sea of Pacific Ocean Java Indonesia Java Sea Indian Ocean Jeddah (US Consulate General) Saudi Arabia Jerusalem (US Consulate General) Israel; West Bank Johannesburg South Africa (US Consulate General) Juan de Fuca, Strait of Pacific Ocean Juan Fernandez, Isla de Chile Juventud, Isla de la Cuba (Isle of Youth)

Kabul (US Embassy now closed) Afghanistan Kaduna (US Consulate General) Nigeria Kalimantan Indonesia Kamchatka Peninsula Soviet Union (Poluostrov Kamchatka) Kampala (US Embassy) Uganda Kampuchea Cambodia Karachi (US Consulate General) Pakistan Kara Sea Arctic Ocean Karimata Strait Indian Ocean Kathmandu (US Embassy) Nepal Kattegat Atlantic Ocean Kauai Channel Pacific Ocean Keeling Islands Cocos (Keeling) Islands Kerguelen, Iles French Southern and Antarctic Lands Kermadec Islands New Zealand Khabarovsk Soviet Union Khartoum (US Embassy) Sudan Khmer Republic Cambodia Kiel Canal (Nord-Ostsee Kanal) Atlantic Ocean Khuriya Muriya Islands Oman (Kuria Muria Islands) Khyber Pass Pakistan Kigali (US Embassy) Rwanda Kingston (US Embassy) Jamaica Kinshasa (US Embassy) Zaire Kiritimati (Christmas Island) Kiribati Kithira Strait Atlantic Ocean Kodiak Island United States Kola Peninsula Soviet Union (Kol'skiy Poluostrov) Kolonia (US Special Office) Micronesia, Federated States of Korea Bay Pacific Ocean Korea, Democratic People's Korea, North Republic of Korea, Republic of Korea, South Korea Strait Pacific Ocean Koror (US Special Office) Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of Kosovo Yugoslavia Kowloon Hong Kong Krakow (US Consulate) Poland Kuala Lumpur (US Embassy) Malaysia Kunashiri (Kunashir) Soviet Union (de facto) Kuril Islands Soviet Union (de facto) Kuwait (US Embassy) Kuwait Kwajalein Atoll Marshall Islands Kyushu Japan

Labrador Canada Laccadive Islands India Laccadive Sea Indian Ocean La Coruna (US Consular Agency) Spain Lagos (US Embassy) Nigeria Lahore (US Consulate General) Pakistan Lakshadweep India La Paz (US Embassy) Bolivia La Perouse Strait Pacific Ocean Laptev Sea Arctic Ocean Las Palmas (US Consular Agency) Spain Latvia Soviet Union (de facto) Lau Group Fiji Leningrad (US Consulate General) Soviet Union Lesser Sunda Islands Indonesia Leyte Philippines Liancourt Rocks (claimed by Japan)Korea, South Libreville (US Embassy) Gabon Ligurian Sea Atlantic Ocean Lilongwe (US Embassy) Malawi Lima (US Embassy) Peru Lincoln Sea Arctic Ocean Line Islands Kiribati; Palmyra Atoll Lisbon (US Embassy) Portugal Lithuania Soviet Union (de facto) Lombok Strait Indian Ocean Lome (US Embassy) Togo London (US Embassy) United Kingdom Lord Howe Island Australia Louisiade Archipelago Papua New Guinea Loyalty Islands New Caledonia (Iles Loyaute) Lubumbashi (US Consulate General) Zaire Lusaka (US Embassy) Zambia Luxembourg (US Embassy) Luxembourg Luzon Philippines Luzon Strait Pacific Ocean Lyon (US Consulate General) France

Macao Macau Macedonia Bulgaria; Greece; Yugoslavia Macquarie Island Australia Madeira Islands Portugal Madras (US Consulate General) India Madrid (US Embassy) Spain Magellan, Strait of Atlantic Ocean Mahe Island Seychelles Maiz, Islas del (Corn Islands) Nicaragua Majorca (Mallorca) Spain Majuro (US Special Office) Marshall Islands Makassar Strait Pacific Ocean Malabo (US Embassy) Equatorial Guinea Malacca, Strait of Indian Ocean Malaga (US Consular Agency) Spain Malagasy Republic Madagascar Male (US post not maintained, Maldives representation from Colombo, Sri Lanka) Mallorca (Majorca) Spain Malpelo, Isla de Colombia Malta Channel Atlantic Ocean Malvinas, Islas Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Managua (US Embassy) Nicaragua Manama (US Embassy) Bahrain Manaus (US Consular Agency) Brazil Manchukuo China Manchuria China Manila (US Embassy) Philippines Manipa Strait Pacific Ocean Mannar, Gulf of Indian Ocean Manua Islands American Samoa Maputo (US Embassy) Mozambique Maracaibo (US Consulate) Venezuela Marcus Island (Minami-tori-shima) Japan Mariana Islands Guam; Northern Mariana Islands Marion Island South Africa Marmara, Sea of Atlantic Ocean Marquesas Islands French Polynesia (Iles Marquises) Marseille (US Consulate General) France Martin Vaz, Ilhas Brazil Mas a Tierra Chile (Robinson Crusoe Island) Mascarene Islands Mauritius; Reunion Maseru (US Embassy) Lesotho Matamoros (US Consulate) Mexico Mazatlan (US Consulate) Mexico Mbabane (US Embassy) Swaziland McDonald Islands Heard Island and McDonald Islands Medan (US Consulate) Indonesia Mediterranean Sea Atlantic Ocean Melbourne (US Consulate General) Australia Melilla Spain Merida (US Consulate) Mexico Messina, Strait of Atlantic Ocean Mexico (US Embassy) Mexico Mexico, Gulf of Atlantic Ocean Milan (US Consulate General) Italy Minami-tori-shima Japan Mindanao Philippines Mindoro Strait Pacific Ocean Minicoy Island India Mogadishu (US Embassy) Somalia Mombasa (US Consulate) Kenya Mona Passage Atlantic Ocean Monrovia (US Embassy) Liberia Montego Bay (US Consular Agency) Jamaica Monterrey (US Consulate General) Mexico Montevideo (US Embassy) Uruguay Montreal (US Consulate General, Canada US Mission to the International Civil Aviation Organization or ICAO) Moravian Gate Czechoslovakia Moroni (US Embassy) Comoros Mortlock Islands Micronesia, Federated States of Moscow (US Embassy) Soviet Union Mozambique Channel Indian Ocean Mulege (US Consular Agency) Mexico Munich (US Consulate General) Federal Republic of Germany Musandam Peninsula Oman; United Arab Emirates Muscat (US Embassy) Oman Muscat and Oman Oman Myanma, Myanmar Burma

Naha (US Consulate General) Japan Nairobi (US Embassy) Kenya Nampo-shoto Japan Naples (US Consulate General) Italy Nassau (US Embassy) Bahamas, The Natuna Besar Islands Indonesia N'Djamena (US Embassy) Chad Netherlands East Indies Indonesia Netherlands Guiana Suriname Nevis St. Kitts and Nevis New Delhi (US Embassy) India Newfoundland Canada New Guinea Indonesia; Papua New Guinea New Hebrides Vanuatu New Siberian Islands Soviet Union New Territories Hong Kong New York, New York (US Mission United States to the United Nations or USUN) Niamey (US Embassy) Niger Nice (US Consular Agency) France Nicobar Islands India Nicosia (US Embassy) Cyprus Nightingale Island St. Helena North Atlantic Ocean Atlantic Ocean North Channel Atlantic Ocean Northeast Providence Channel Atlantic Ocean Northern Epirus Albania; Greece Northern Grenadines St. Vincent and the Grenadines Northern Ireland United Kingdom Northern Rhodesia Zambia North Island New Zealand North Korea Korea, North North Pacific Ocean Pacific Ocean North Sea Atlantic Ocean North Vietnam Vietnam Northwest Passages Arctic Ocean North Yemen Yemen Arab Republic Norwegian Sea Atlantic Ocean Nouakchott (US Embassy) Mauritania Novaya Zemlya Soviet Union Nuevo Laredo (US Consulate) Mexico Nyasaland Malawi

Oahu United States Oaxaca (US Consular Agency) Mexico Ocean Island (Banaba) Kiribati Ocean Island (Kure Island) United States Ogaden Ethiopia; Somalia Oil Islands (Chagos Archipelago) British Indian Ocean Territory Okhotsk, Sea of Pacific Ocean Okinawa Japan Oman, Gulf of Indian Ocean Ombai Strait Pacific Ocean Oporto (US Consulate) Portugal Oran (US Consulate) Algeria oCresund (The Sound) Atlantic Ocean Orkney Islands United Kingdom Osaka-Kobe (US Consulate General) Japan Oslo (US Embassy) Norway Otranto, Strait of Atlantic Ocean Ottawa (US Embassy) Canada Ouagadougou (US Embassy) Burkina Outer Mongolia Mongolia

Pagan Northern Mariana Islands Palau Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the Palawan Philippines Palermo (US Consulate General) Italy Palk Strait Indian Ocean Palma de Mallorca Spain (US Consular Agency) Pamirs China; Soviet Union Panama (US Embassy) Panama Panama Canal Panama Panama, Gulf of Pacific Ocean Paramaribo (US Embassy) Suriname Parece Vela Japan Paris (US Embassy, US Mission to France the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development or OECD, US Observer Mission at the UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization or UNESCO) Pascua, Isla de (Easter Island) Chile Pashtunistan Afghanistan; Pakistan Peking (Beijing) China Pemba Island Tanzania Pentland Firth Atlantic Ocean Perim Yemen, People's Democratic Republic of Perouse Strait, La Pacific Ocean Persian Gulf Indian Ocean Perth (US Consulate) Australia Pescadores Taiwan Peshawar (US Consulate) Pakistan Peter I Island Antarctica Philip Island Norfolk Island Philippine Sea Pacific Ocean Phoenix Islands Kiribati Pines, Isle of Cuba (Isla de la Juventud) Piura (US Consular Agency) Peru Pleasant Island Nauru Ponape (Pohnpei) Micronesia Ponta Delgada (US Consulate) Portugal Port-au-Prince (US Embassy) Haiti Port Louis (US Embassy) Mauritius Port Moresby (US Embassy) Papua New Guinea Porto Alegre (US Consulate) Brazil Port-of-Spain (US Embassy) Trinidad and Tobago Port Said (US Consular Agency) Egypt Portuguese Guinea Guinea-Bissau Portuguese Timor (East Timor) Indonesia Poznan (US Consulate) Poland Prague (US Embassy) Czechoslovakia Praia (US Embassy) Cape Verde Pretoria (US Embassy) South Africa Pribilof Islands United States Prince Edward Island Canada Prince Edward Islands South Africa Prince Patrick Island Canada Principe Sao Tome and Principe Puerto Plata (US Consular Agency) Dominican Republic Puerto Vallarta Mexico (US Consular Agency) Pusan (US Consulate) South Korea P'yongyang Korea, North

Quebec (US Consulate General) Canada Queen Charlotte Islands Canada Queen Elizabeth Islands Canada Queen Maud Land Antarctica (claimed by Norway) Quito (US Embassy) Ecuador

Rabat (US Embassy) Morocco Ralik Chain Marshall Islands Rangoon (US Embassy) Burma Ratak Chain Marshall Islands Recife (US Consulate) Brazil Redonda Antigua and Barbuda Red Sea Indian Ocean Revillagigedo Island United States Revillagigedo Islands Mexico Reykjavik (US Embassy) Iceland Rhodes Greece Rhodesia Zimbabwe Rhodesia, Northern Zambia Rhodesia, Southern Zimbabwe Rio de Janeiro Brazil (US Consulate General) Rio de Oro Western Sahara Rio Muni Equatorial Guinea Riyadh (US Embassy) Saudi Arabia Robinson Crusoe Island Chile (Mas a Tierra) Rocas, Atol das Brazil Rockall (disputed) United Kingdom Rodrigues Mauritius Rome (US Embassy, US Mission to Italy the UN Agencies for Food and Agriculture or FODAG) Roncador Cay Colombia Roosevelt Island Antarctica Ross Dependency Antarctica (claimed by New Zealand) Ross Island Antarctica Ross Sea Antarctica Rota Northern Mariana Islands Rotuma Fiji Ryukyu Islands Japan

Saba Netherlands Antilles Sabah Malaysia Sable Island Canada Sahel Burkina; Cape Verde; Chad; The Gambia; Guinea-Bissau; Mali; Mauritania; Niger; Senegal Saigon (Ho Chi Minh City) Vietnam St. Brandon Mauritius St. Christopher and Nevis St. Kitts and Nevis St. George's (US Embassy) Grenada St. George's Channel Atlantic Ocean St. John's (US Embassy) Antigua and Barbuda St. Lawrence, Gulf of Atlantic Ocean St. Lawrence Island United States St. Lawrence Seaway Atlantic Ocean St. Martin Guadeloupe St. Martin (Sint Maarten) Netherlands Antilles St. Paul Island Canada St. Paul Island United States St. Paul Island (Ile Saint-Paul) French Southern and Antarctic Lands St. Peter and St. Paul Rocks Brazil (Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo) St. Vincent Passage Atlantic Ocean Saipan Northern Mariana Islands Sakhalin Island (Ostrov Sakhalin) Soviet Union Sala y Gomez, Isla Chile Salisbury (Harare) Zimbabwe Salvador de Bahia Brazil (US Consular Agency) Salzburg (US Consulate General) Austria Sanaa (US Embassy) Yemen Arab Republic San Ambrosio Chile San Andres y Providencia, Colombia Archipielago San Bernardino Strait Pacific Ocean San Felix, Isla Chile San Jose (US Embassy) Costa Rica San Luis Potosi Mexico (US Consular Agency) San Miguel Allende Mexico (US Consular Agency) San Salvador (US Embassy) El Salvador Santa Cruz (US Consular Agency) Bolivia Santa Cruz Islands Solomon Islands Santiago (US Embassy) Chile Santo Domingo (US Embassy) Dominican Republic Sao Luis (US Consular Agency) Brazil Sao Paulo (US Consulate General) Brazil Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo, Brazil Penedos de Sapporo (US Consulate General) Japan Sapudi Strait Indian Ocean Sarawak Malaysia Sardinia Italy Sargasso Sea Atlantic Ocean Sark Guernsey Scotia Sea Atlantic Ocean Scotland United Kingdom Scott Island Antarctica Senyavin Islands Micronesia, Federated States of Seoul (US Embassy) Korea, South Serrana Bank Colombia Serranilla Bank Colombia Severnaya Zemlya (Northland) Soviet Union Seville (US Consular Agency) Spain Shag Island Heard Island and McDonald Islands Shag Rocks Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Shanghai (US Consulate General) China Shenyang (US Consulate General) China Shetland Islands United Kingdom Shikoku Japan Shikotan (Shikotan-to) Japan Siam Thailand Sibutu Passage Pacific Ocean Sicily Italy Sicily, Strait of Atlantic Ocean Sikkim India Sinai Egypt Singapore (US Embassy) Singapore Singapore Strait Pacific Ocean Sinkiang (Xinjiang) China Sint Eustatius Netherlands Antilles Sint Maarten (St. Martin) Netherlands Antilles Skagerrak Atlantic Ocean Slovakia Czechoslovakia Society Islands French Polynesia (Iles de la Societe) Socotra Yemen, People's Democratic Republic of Sofia (US Embassy) Bulgaria Solomon Islands, northern Papua New Guinea Solomon Islands, southern Solomon Islands Soloman Sea Pacific Ocean Songkhla (US Consulate) Thailand Sound, The (Oresund) Atlantic Ocean South Atlantic Ocean Atlantic Ocean South China Sea Pacific Ocean Southern Grenadines Grenada Southern Rhodesia Zimbabwe South Georgia South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Island New Zealand South Korea Korea, South South Orkney Islands Antarctica South Pacific Ocean Pacific Ocean South Sandwich Islands South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Shetland Islands Antarctica South Tyrol Italy South Vietnam Vietnam South-West Africa Namibia South Yemen Yemen, People's Democratic Republic of Spanish Guinea Equatorial Guinea Spanish Sahara Western Sahara Spitsbergen Svalbard Stockholm (US Embassy) Sweden Strasbourg (US Consulate General) France Stuttgart (US Consulate General) Federal Republic of Germany Suez, Gulf of Indian Ocean Sulu Archipelago Philippines Sulu Sea Pacific Ocean Sumatra Indonesia Sumba Indonesia Sunda Islands (Soenda Isles) Indonesia; Malaysia Sunda Strait Indian Ocean Surabaya (US Consulate) Indonesia Surigao Strait Pacific Ocean Surinam Suriname Suva (US Embassy) Fiji Swains Island American Samoa Swan Islands Honduras Sydney (US Consulate General) Australia

Tahiti French Polynesia Taipei Taiwan Taiwan Strait Pacific Ocean Tampico (US Consular Agency) Mexico Tanganyika Tanzania Tangier (US Consulate General) Morocco Tarawa Kiribati Tartar Strait Pacific Ocean Tasmania Australia Tasman Sea Pacific Ocean Taymyr Peninsula Soviet Union (Poluostrov Taymyra) Tegucigalpa (US Embassy) Honduras Tehran (US post not maintained, Iran representation by Swiss Embassy) Tel Aviv (US Embassy) Israel Terre Adelie (Adelie Land) Antarctica (claimed by France) Thailand, Gulf of Pacific Ocean Thessaloniki Greece (US Consulate General) Thurston Island Antarctica Tibet (Xizang) China Tierra del Fuego Argentina; Chile Tijuana (US Consulate General) Mexico Timor Indonesia Timor Sea Indian Ocean Tinian Northern Mariana Islands Tiran, Strait of Indian Ocean Tobago Trinidad and Tobago Tokyo (US Embassy) Japan Tonkin, Gulf of Pacific Ocean Toronto (US Consulate General) Canada Torres Strait Pacific Ocean Trans-Jordan Jordan Transkei South Africa Transylvania Romania Trieste (US Consular Agency) Italy Trindade, Ilha de Brazil Tripoli (US post not maintained, Libya representation by Belgian Embassy) Tristan da Cunha Group St. Helena Trobriand Islands Papua New Guinea Trucial States United Arab Emirates Truk Islands Micronesia Tsugaru Strait Pacific Ocean Tuamotu Islands (Iles Tuamotu) French Polynesia Tubuai Islands (Iles Tubuai) French Polynesia Tunis (US Embassy) Tunisia Turin (US Consulate) Italy Turkish Straits Atlantic Ocean Turks Island Passage Atlantic Ocean Tyrol, South Italy Tyrrhenian Sea Atlantic Ocean

Udorn (US Consulate) Thailand Ulaanbaatar Mongolia Ullung-do Korea, South Unimak Pass (strait) Pacific Ocean United Arab Republic Egypt; Syria Upper Volta Burkina

Vaduz (US post not maintained, Liechtenstein representation from Zurich, Switzerland) Vakhan Corridor Afghanistan (Wakhan) Valencia (US Consular Agency) Spain Valletta (US Embassy) Malta Vancouver (US Consulate General) Canada Vancouver Island Canada Van Diemen Strait Pacific Ocean Vatican City (US Embassy) Vatican City Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Spain Venda South Africa Veracruz (US Consular Agency) Mexico Verde Island Passage Pacific Ocean Victoria (US Embassy) Seychelles Vienna (US Embassy, US Mission Austria to International Organizations in Vienna or UNVIE) Vientiane (US Embassy) Laos Volcano Islands Japan Vostok Island Kiribati Vrangelya, Ostrov Soviet Union (Wrangel Island)

Wakhan Corridor Afghanistan (now Vakhan Corridor) Wales United Kingdom Walvis Bay South Africa Warsaw (US Embassy) Poland Washington, DC (The Permanent United States Mission of the USA to the Organization of American States or OAS) Weddell Sea Atlantic Ocean Wellington (US Embassy) New Zealand Western Channel Pacific Ocean (West Korea Strait) West Germany Germany, Federal Republic of West Korea Strait Pacific Ocean (Western Channel) West Pakistan Pakistan Wetar Strait Pacific Ocean White Sea Arctic Ocean Windhoek Namibia Windward Passage Atlantic Ocean Winnipeg (US Consular Agency) Canada Wrangel Island (Ostrov Vrangelya) Soviet Union

Yaounde (US Embassy) Cameroon Yap Islands Micronesia Yellow Sea Pacific Ocean Yemen (Aden) Yemen, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, North Yemen Arab Republic Yemen (Sanaa) Yemen Arab Republic Yemen, South Yemen, People's Democratic Republic of Youth, Isle of Cuba (Isla de la Juventud) Yucatan Channel Atlantic Ocean

Zagreb (US Consulate General) Yugoslavia Zanzibar Tanzania Zurich (US Consulate General) Switzerland ——————————————————————————

THE END

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