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The 1990 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency
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Independence: 31 August 1962 (from UK)

Constitution: 31 August 1976

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 31 August (1962)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—President Noor Mohammed HASSANALI (since 18 March 1987);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Arthur Napoleon Raymond ROBINSON (since 18 December 1986)

Political parties and leaders: National Alliance for Reconstruction (NAR), A. N. R. Robinson; People's National Movement (PNM), Patrick Manning; United National Congress, Basdeo Panday; Movement for Social Transformation (MOTION), David Abdullah

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: House of Representatives—last held 15 December 1986 (next to be held by December 1991); results—NAR 66%, PNM 32%, others 2%; seats—(36 total) NAR 33, PNM 3

Communists: Communist Party of Trinidad and Tobago; Trinidad and Tobago Peace Council, James Millette

Other political pressure groups: National Joint Action Committee (NJAC), radical antigovernment black-identity organization; Trinidad and Tobago Peace Council, leftist organization affiliated with the World Peace Council; Trinidad and Tobago Chamber of Industry and Commerce; Trinidad and Tobago Labor Congress, moderate labor federation; Council of Progressive Trade Unions, radical labor federation

Member of: ACP, CARICOM, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB—Inter-American Development Bank, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ISO, ITU, IWC—International Wheat Council, NAM, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Angus Albert KHAN; Chancery at 1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202) 467-6490; Trinidad and Tobago has a Consulate General in New York; US—Ambassador Charles A. GARGANO; Embassy at 15 Queen's Park West, Port-of-Spain (mailing address is P. O. Box 752, Port-of-Spain); telephone p809o 622-6372 or 6376, 6176

Flag: red with a white-edged black diagonal band from the upper hoist side

- Economy Overview: Trinidad and Tobago's petroleum-based economy has been in decline since 1982. During the first half of the 1980s, the petroleum sector accounted for nearly 80% of export earnings, 40% of government revenues, and almost 25% of GDP. In recent years, however, the economy has suffered because of the sharp fall in the price of oil. The government, in response to the revenue loss, pursued a series of austerity measures that pushed the unemployment rate to 22% in 1988. Agriculture employs only about 11% of the labor force and produces less than 3% of GDP. Since this sector is small, it has been unable to absorb the large numbers of the unemployed. The government currently seeks to diversify its export base.

GDP: $3.75 billion, per capita $3,070; real growth rate - 2.0% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15.0% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 22% (1988)

Budget: revenues $1.4 billion; expenditures $2.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $430 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1987); commodities—includes reexports—petroleum and petroleum products 70%, fertilizer, chemicals 15%, steel products, sugar, cocoa, coffee, citrus (1987); partners—US 61%, EC 15%, CARICOM 9%, Latin America 7%, Canada 3% (1986)

Imports: $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1987); commodities—raw materials 41%, capital goods 30%, consumer goods 29% (1986); partners—US 42%, EC 21%, Japan 10%, Canada 6%, Latin America 6%, CARICOM 4% (1986)

External debt: $2.02 billion (December 1987)

Industrial production: growth rate 5.2%, excluding oil refining (1986)

Electricity: 1,176,000 kW capacity; 3,350 million kWh produced, 2,700 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, chemicals, tourism, food processing, cement, beverage, cotton textiles

Agriculture: accounts for about 3% of GDP and 4% of labor force; highly subsidized sector; major crops—cocoa and sugarcane; sugarcane acreage is being shifted into rice, citrus, coffee, vegetables; must import large share of food needs

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-85), $370 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $437 million

Currency: Trinidad and Tobago dollar (plural—dollars); 1 Trinidad and Tobago dollar (TT$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Trinidad and Tobago dollars (TT$) per US$1—4.2500 (January 1990), 4.2500 (1989), 3.8438 (1988), 3.6000 (1987), 3.6000 (1986), 2.4500 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: minimal agricultural system near San Fernando

Highways: 8,000 km total; 4,000 km paved, 1,000 km improved earth, 3,000 km unimproved earth

Pipelines: 1,032 km crude oil; 19 km refined products; 904 km natural gas

Ports: Port-of-Spain, Point Lisas, Pointe-a-Pierre

Civil air: 14 major transport aircraft

Airports: 6 total, 5 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: excellent international service via tropospheric scatter links to Barbados and Guyana; good local service; 109,000 telephones; stations—2 AM, 4 FM, 5 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force, Trinidad and Tobago Police Service

Military manpower: males 15-49, 343,292; 248,674 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 1.6% of GDP, or $59 million (1989 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: Tromelin Island (French possession) - Geography Total area: 1 km2; land area: 1 km2

Comparative area: about 1.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 3.7 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claimed by Madagascar, Mauritius, and Seychelles

Climate: tropical

Terrain: sandy

Natural resources: fish

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other—scattered bushes

Environment: wildlife sanctuary

Note: located 350 km east of Madagascar and 600 km north of Reunion in the Indian Ocean; climatologically important location for forecasting cyclones

- People Population: uninhabited

- Government Long-form name: none

Type: French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic Daniel CONSTANTIN, resident in Reunion

- Economy Overview: no economic activity

- Communications Airports: 1 with runway less than 1,220 m

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Telecommunications: important meteorological station

- Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of France —————————————————————————— Country: Tunisia - Geography Total area: 163,610 km2; land area: 155,360 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Georgia

Land boundaries: 1,424 km total; Algeria 965 km, Libya 459 km

Coastline: 1,148 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Libya

Climate: temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert in south

Terrain: mountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semiarid south merges into the Sahara

Natural resources: crude oil, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc, salt

Land use: 20% arable land; 10% permanent crops; 19% meadows and pastures; 4% forest and woodland; 47% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Note: strategic location in central Mediterranean; only 144 km from Italy across the Strait of Sicily; borders Libya on east

- People Population: 8,095,492 (July 1990), growth rate 2.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 40 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 70 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Tunisian(s); adjective—Tunisian

Ethnic divisions: 98% Arab, 1% European, less than 1% Jewish

Religion: 98% Muslim, 1% Christian, less than 1% Jewish

Language: Arabic (official); Arabic and French (commerce)

Literacy: 62% (est.)

Labor force: 2,250,000; 32% agriculture; shortage of skilled labor

Organized labor: about 360,000 members claimed, roughly 20% of labor force; General Union of Tunisian Workers (UGTT), quasi-independent of Constitutional Democratic Party

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Tunisia; note—may be changed to Tunisian Republic

Type: republic

Capital: Tunis

Administrative divisions: 23 governorates (wilayat, singular—wilayah); Al Kaf, Al Mahdiyah, Al Munastir, Al Qasrayn, Al Qayrawan, Aryanah, Bajah, Banzart, Bin Arus, Jundubah, Madanin, Nabul, Qabis, Qafsah, Qibili, Safaqis, Sidi Bu Zayd, Silyanah, Susah, Tatawin, Tawzar, Tunis, Zaghwan

Independence: 20 March 1956 (from France)

Constitution: 1 June 1959

Legal system: based on French civil law system and Islamic law; some judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court in joint session

National holiday: National Day, 20 March (1956)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation (Cour de Cassation)

Leaders: Chief of State—President Gen. Zine el Abidine BEN ALI (since 7 November 1987);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Hamed KAROUI (since 26 September 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Constitutional Democratic Rally Party (RCD), President Ben Ali (official ruling party); Movement of Democratic Socialists (MDS), Ahmed Mestiri; five other political parties are legal, including the Communist Party

Suffrage: universal at age 20

Elections: President—last held 2 April 1989 (next to be held April 1994); results—Gen. Zine el Abidine Ben Aliwas reelected without opposition;

National Assembly—last held 2 April 1989 (next to be held April 1994); results—RCD 80.7%, independents/Islamists 13.7%, MDS 3.2%, others 2.4% seats—(141 total) RCD 141

Communists: a small number of nominal Communists, mostly students

Member of: AfDB, Arab League, AIOEC, CCC, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB—Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, ITU, IWC—International Wheat Council, NAM, OAPEC, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abdelaziz HAMZAOUI; Chancery at 1515 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20005; telephone (202) 862-1850; US—Ambassador Robert H. PELLETREAU, Jr.; Embassy at 144 Avenue de la Liberte, 1002 Tunis-Belvedere; telephone p216o (1) 782-566

Flag: red with a white disk in the center bearing a red crescent nearly encircling a red five-pointed star; the crescent and star are traditional symbols of Islam

- Economy Overview: The economy depends primarily on petroleum, phosphates, and tourism for continued growth. Two successive drought-induced crop failures have strained the government's budget and increased unemployment. The current account fell from a $23 million surplus in 1988 to a $390 million deficit in 1989. Despite its foreign payments problems, Tunis appears committed to its IMF-supported structural adjustment program. Nonetheless, the government may have to slow its implementation to head off labor unrest. The increasing foreign debt—$7.6 billion at yearend 1989—is also a key problem. Tunis probably will seek debt relief in 1990.

GDP: $8.7 billion, per capita $1,105; real growth rate 3.1% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 25% (1989)

Budget: revenues $2.9 billion; expenditures $3.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $0.8 billion (1989 est.)

Exports: $3.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities—hydrocarbons, agricultural products, phosphates and chemicals; partners—EC 73%, Middle East 9%, US 1%, Turkey, USSR

Imports: $4.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities—industrial goods and equipment 57%, hydrocarbons 13%, food 12%, consumer goods; partners—EC 68%, US 7%, Canada, Japan, USSR, China, Saudi Arabia, Algeria

External debt: $7.6 billion (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.5% (1988)

Electricity: 1,493,000 kW capacity; 4,210 million kWh produced, 530 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, mining (particularly phosphate and iron ore), textiles, footwear, food, beverages

Agriculture: accounts for 16% of GDP and one-third of labor force; output subject to severe fluctuations because of frequent droughts; export crops—olives, dates, oranges, almonds; other products—grain, sugar beets, wine grapes, poultry, beef, dairy; not self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 99,200 metric tons (1986)

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $694 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $4.6 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $684 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $410 million

Currency: Tunisian dinar (plural—dinars); 1 Tunisian dinar (TD) = 1,000 millimes

Exchange rates: Tunisian dinars (TD) per US$1—0.9055 (January 1990), 0.9493 (1989), 0.8578 (1988), 0.8287 (1987), 0.7940 (1986), 0.8345 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 2,154 km total; 465 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; 1,689 km 1.000-meter gauge

Highways: 17,700 km total; 9,100 km bituminous; 8,600 km improved and unimproved earth

Pipelines: 797 km crude oil; 86 km refined products; 742 km natural gas

Ports: Bizerte, Gabes, Sfax, Sousse, Tunis, La Goulette, Zarzis

Merchant marine: 21 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 160,172 GRT/218,970 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 4 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 6 chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 5 bulk

Civil air: 13 major transport aircraft

Airports: 30 total, 28 usable; 13 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 7 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 7 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: the system is above the African average; facilities consist of open-wire lines, multiconductor cable, and radio relay; key centers are Safaqis, Susah, Bizerte, and Tunis; 233,000 telephones; stations—18 AM, 4 FM, 14 TV; 4 submarine cables; satellite earth stations—1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 ARABSAT with back-up control station; coaxial cable to Algeria; radio relay to Algeria, Libya, and Italy

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,997,197; 1,149,141 fit for military service; 88,368 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.7% of GDP, or $235 million (1989 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: Turkey - Geography Total area: 780,580 km2; land area: 770,760 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Texas

Land boundaries: 2,715 km total; Bulgaria 240 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 331 km, Syria 822 km, USSR 617 km

Coastline: 7,200 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: in Black Sea only—to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the USSR;

Territorial sea: 6 nm (12 nm in Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

Disputes: complex maritime and air (but not territorial) disputes with Greece in Aegean Sea; Cyprus question; Hatay question with Syria; ongoing dispute with downstream riparians (Syria and Iraq) over water development plans for the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; Kurdish question among Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and the USSR

Climate: temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior

Terrain: mostly mountains; narrow coastal plain; high central plateau (Anatolia)

Natural resources: antimony, coal, chromium, mercury, copper, borate, sulphur, iron ore

Land use: 30% arable land; 4% permanent crops; 12% meadows and pastures; 26% forest and woodland; 28% other; includes 3% irrigated

Environment: subject to severe earthquakes, especially along major river valleys in west; air pollution; desertification

Note: strategic location controlling the Turkish straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas; Turkey and Norway only NATO members having a land boundary with the USSR

- People Population: 56,704,327 (July 1990), growth rate 2.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 29 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 74 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 67 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Turk(s); adjective—Turkish

Ethnic divisions: 85% Turkish, 12% Kurd, 3% other

Religion: 98% Muslim (mostly Sunni), 2% other (mostly Christian and Jewish)

Language: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic

Literacy: 70%

Labor force: 18,800,000; 56% agriculture, 30% services, 14% industry; about 1,000,000 Turks work abroad (1987)

Organized labor: 10-15% of labor force

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Turkey

Type: republican parliamentary democracy

Capital: Ankara

Administrative divisions: 67 provinces (iller, singular—il); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyon, Agri, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Icel, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir, Kahraman Maras, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Siirt, Sinop, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Urfa, Usak, Van, Yozgat, Zonguldak; note—there may be four new provinces named Aksaray, Bayburt, Karaman, and Kirikkale

Independence: 29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)

Constitution: 7 November 1982

Legal system: derived from various continental legal systems; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Anniversary of the Declaration of the Republic, 29 October (1923)

Executive branch: president, Presidential Council, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Grand National Assembly (Buyuk Millet Meclisi)

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation

Leaders: Chief of State—President Turgut OZAL (since 9 November 1989);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Yildirim AKBULUT (since 9 November 1989); Deputy Prime Minister Ali BOZER (since 31 March 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Motherland Party (ANAP), Yildirim Akbulut; Social Democratic Populist Party (SHP), Erdal Inonu; Correct Way Party (CWP), Suleyman Demirel; Democratic Left Party (DLP), Bulent Ecevit; Prosperity Party (RP), Necmettin Erbakan; National Work Party (MCP), Alpaslan Turkes; Reform Democratic Party (IDP), Aykut Edibali

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections: Grand National Assembly—last held 29 November 1987 (next to be held November 1992); results—ANAP 36%, SHP 25%, CWP 19%, others 20%; seats—(450 total) ANAP 283, SHP 81, CWP 56, independents 26, vacant 4

Communists: strength and support negligible

Member of: ASSIMER, CCC, Council of Europe, EC (associate member), ECOSOC, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IDB—Islamic Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU, ITC, ITU, NATO, OECD, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Nuzhet KANDEMIR; Chancery at 1606 23rd Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 387-3200; there are Turkish Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, and New York; US—Ambassador Morton ABRAMOWITZ; Embassy at 110 Ataturk Boulevard, Ankara (mailing address is APO New York 09254—0001); telephone p90o (4) 126 54 70; there are US Consulates General in Istanbul and Izmir, and a Consulate in Adana

Flag: red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered on the hoist side

- Economy Overview: The economic reforms that Turkey launched in 1980 continue to bring an impressive stream of benefits. The economy has grown steadily since the early 1980s, with real growth in per capita GDP increasing more than 6% annually. Agriculture remains the most important economic sector, employing about 60% of the labor force, accounting for almost 20% of GDP, and contributing about 25% to exports. Impressive growth in recent years has not solved all of the economic problems facing Turkey. Inflation and interest rates remain high, and a large budget deficit will continue to provide difficulties for a country undergoing a substantial transformation from a centrally controlled to a free market economy. The government has launched a multimillion-dollar development program in the southeastern region, which includes the building of a dozen dams on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers to generate electric power and irrigate large tracts of farmland. The planned tapping of huge quantities of Euphrates water has raised serious concern in the downstream riparian nations of Syria and Iraq.

GDP: $75 billion, per capita $1,350; real growth rate 1.8% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 68.8% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 15.8% (1988)

Budget: revenues $12.1 billion; expenditures $14.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.08 billion (FY88 est.)

Exports: $11.7 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—industrial products 70%, crops and livestock products 25%; partners—FRG 18.4%, Iraq 8.5%, Italy 8.2%, US 6.5%, UK 4.9%, Iran 4.7%

Imports: $14.3 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities—crude oil, machinery, transport equipment, metals, pharmaceuticals, dyes, plastics, rubber, mineral fuels, fertilizers, chemicals; partners—FRG 14.3%, US 10.6%, Iraq 10.0%, Italy 7.0%, France 5.8%, UK 5.2%

External debt: $36.3 billion (November 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 7.4% (1988)

Electricity: 14,064,000 kW capacity; 40,000 million kWh produced, 720 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: textiles, food processing, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron minerals), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper

Agriculture: accounts for 20% of GDP and employs majority of population; products—tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulses, citrus fruit, variety of animal products; self-sufficient in food most years

Illicit drugs: one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $2.2 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $7.9 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $665 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $4.5 billion

Currency: Turkish lira (plural—liras); 1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100 kurus

Exchange rates: Turkish liras (TL) per US$1—2,314.7 (November 1989), 1,422.3 (1988), 857.2 (1987), 674.5 (1986), 522.0 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 8,401 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; 479 km electrified

Highways: 49,615 km total; 26,915 km bituminous; 16,500 km gravel or crushed stone; 4,000 km improved earth; 2,200 km unimproved earth (1985)

Inland waterways: about 1,200 km

Pipelines: 1,738 km crude oil; 2,321 km refined products; 708 km natural gas

Ports: Iskenderun, Istanbul, Mersin, Izmir

Merchant marine: 327 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,972,465 GRT/5,087,620 DWT; includes 6 short-sea passenger, 1 passenger, 1 passenger-cargo, 193 cargo, 1 container, 4 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 refrigerated cargo, 1 livestock carrier, 35 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 15 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 4 combination ore/oil, 1 specialized tanker, 55 bulk, 4 combination bulk, 1 specialized liquid cargo

Civil air: 30 major transport aircraft (1985)

Airports: 119 total, 112 usable; 69 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways over 3,659 m; 30 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 28 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair domestic and international systems; trunk radio relay network; 3,100,000 telephones; stations—15 AM; 45 (60 repeaters) FM; 61 (476 repeaters) TV; communications satellite earth stations operating in the INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean) and EUTELSAT systems; 1 submarine telephone cable

- Defense Forces Branches: Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Coast Guard

Military manpower: males 15-49, 14,413,944; 8,813,430 fit for military service; 597,547 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 3.9% of GDP, or $2.9 billion (1989 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: Turks and Caicos Islands (dependent territory of the UK) - Geography Total area: 430 km2; land area: 430 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 389 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; marine; moderated by trade winds; sunny and relatively dry

Terrain: low, flat limestone; extensive marshes and mangrove swamps

Natural resources: spiny lobster, conch

Land use: 2% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 98% other

Environment: 30 islands (eight inhabited); subject to frequent hurricanes

Note: located 190 km north of the Dominican Republic in the North Atlantic Ocean

- People Population: 9,761 (July 1990), growth rate 2.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 25 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 4 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 14 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: no noun or adjectival forms

Ethnic divisions: majority of African descent

Religion: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Baptist, Methodist, Church of God, Seventh-Day Adventist

Language: English (official)

Literacy: 99% (est.)

Labor force: NA; majority engaged in fishing and tourist industries; some subsistence agriculture

Organized labor: St. George's Industrial Trade Union

- Government Long-form name: none

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Grand Turk (Cockburn Town)

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Constitution: introduced 30 August 1976, suspended in 1986, and a Constitutional Commission is currently reviewing its contents

Legal system: based on laws of England and Wales with a small number adopted from Jamaica and The Bahamas

National holiday: Constitution Day, 30 August (1976)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor, Executive Council

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1953), represented by Governor Michael J. BRADLEY (since 1987);

Head of Government—Chief Minister Oswald O. SKIPPINGS (since 3 March 1988)

Political parties and leaders: People's Democratic Movement (PDM), Oswald Skippings; Progressive National Party (PNP), Dan Malcolm and Norman Saunders; National Democratic Alliance (NDA), Ariel Missick

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: Legislative Council—last held on 3 March 1988 (next to be held NA); results—PDM 60%, PNP 30%, others 10%; seats—(20 total, 13 elected) PDM 11, PNP 2

Communists: none

Diplomatic representation: as a dependent territory of the UK, the interests of the Turks and Caicos Islands are represented in the US by the UK; US—none

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the colonial shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the shield is yellow and contains a conch shell, lobster, and cactus

- Economy Overview: The economy is based on fishing, tourism, and offshore banking. Subsistence farming—corn and beans—exists only on the Caicos Islands, so that most foods, as well as nonfood products, must be imported.

GDP: $44.9 million, per capita $5,000; real growth rate NA% (1986)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 12% (1989)

Budget: revenues $12.4 million; expenditures $15.8 million, including capital expenditures of $2.6 million (FY87)

Exports: $2.9 million (f.o.b., FY84); commodities—lobster, dried and fresh conch, conch shells; partners—US, UK

Imports: $26.3 million (c.i.f., FY84); commodities—foodstuffs, drink, tobacco, clothing; partners—US, UK

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 9,050 kW capacity; 11 million kWh produced, 1,160 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: fishing, tourism, offshore financial services

Agriculture: subsistence farming prevails, based on corn and beans; fishing more important than farming; not self-sufficient in food

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $92.8 million

Currency: US currency is used

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Highways: 121 km, including 24 km tarmac

Ports: Grand Turk, Salt Cay, Providenciales, Cockburn Harbour

Civil air: Air Turks and Caicos (passenger service) and Turks Air Ltd. (cargo service)

Airports: 7 total, 7 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 2,439 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair cable and radio services; 1,446 telephones; stations—3 AM, no FM, several TV; 2 submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK —————————————————————————— Country: Tuvalu - Geography Total area: 26 km2; land area: 26 km2

Comparative area: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 24 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by easterly trade winds (March to November); westerly gales and heavy rain (November to March)

Terrain: very low-lying and narrow coral atolls

Natural resources: fish

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: severe tropical storms are rare

Note: located 3,000 km east of Papua New Guinea in the South Pacific Ocean

- People Population: 9,136 (July 1990), growth rate 2.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 30 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 33 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 60 years male, 63 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Tuvaluans(s); adjective—Tuvaluan

Ethnic divisions: 96% Polynesian

Religion: Christian, predominantly Protestant

Language: Tuvaluan, English

Literacy: less than 50%

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: none

- Government Long-form name: none

Type: democracy

Capital: Funafuti

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: 1 October 1978 (from UK; formerly Ellice Islands)

Constitution: 1 October 1978

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October (1978)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament

Judicial branch: High Court

Leaders: Chief of State—Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Tupua LEUPENA (since 1 March 1986);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Bikenibeu PAENIU (since 16 October 1989); Deputy Prime Minister Dr. Alesana SELUKA (since October 1989)

Political parties and leaders: none

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: Parliament—last held 28 September 1989 (next to be held by September 1993); results—percent of vote NA; seats—(12 total)

Member of: ACP, ESCAP (associate member), GATT (de facto), SPF, SPC, UPU

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador (vacant); US—none

Flag: light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the outer half of the flag represents a map of the country with nine yellow five-pointed stars symbolizing the nine islands

- Economy Overview: Tuvalu consists of a scattered group of nine coral atolls with poor-quality soil. The country has a small economy, no known mineral resources, and few exports. Subsistence farming and fishing are the primary economic activities. The islands are too small and too remote for development of a tourist industry. Government revenues largely come from the sale of stamps and coins and worker remittances. Substantial income is received annually from an international trust fund established in 1987 by Australia, New Zealand, and the UK and supported also by Japan and South Korea.

GNP: $4.6 million, per capita $530; real growth rate NA% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.9% (1984)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $2.59 million; expenditures $3.6 million, including capital expenditures of NA (1983 est.)

Exports: $1.0 million (f.o.b., 1983 est.); commodities—copra; partners—Fiji, Australia, NZ

Imports: $2.8 million (c.i.f., 1983 est.); commodities—food, animals, mineral fuels, machinery, manufactured goods; partners—Fiji, Australia, NZ

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA

Electricity: 2,600 kW capacity; 3 million kWh produced, 350 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: fishing, tourism, copra

Agriculture: coconuts, copra

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $1 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $84 million

Currency: Tuvaluan dollar and Australian dollar (plural—dollars); 1 Tuvaluan dollar ($T) or 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Tuvaluan dollars ($T) or Australian dollars ($A) per US$1—1.2784 (January 1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987), 1.4905 (1986), 1.4269 (1985)

Fiscal year: NA

- Communications Highways: 8 km gravel

Ports: Funafuti, Nukufetau

Merchant marine: 1 passenger-cargo (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,043 GRT/450 DWT

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations—1 AM, no FM, no TV; 300 radiotelephones; 4,000 radio receivers; 108 telephones

- Defense Forces Branches: NA

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA —————————————————————————— Country: Uganda - Geography Total area: 236,040 km2; land area: 199,710 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries: 2,698 km total; Kenya 933 km, Rwanda 169 km, Sudan 435 km, Tanzania 396 km, Zaire 765 km

Coastline: none—landlocked

Maritime claims: none—landlocked

Climate: tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast

Terrain: mostly plateau with rim of mountains

Natural resources: copper, cobalt, limestone, salt

Land use: 23% arable land; 9% permanent crops; 25% meadows and pastures; 30% forest and woodland; 13% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: straddles Equator; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion

Note: landlocked

- People Population: 17,960,262 (July 1990), growth rate 3.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 52 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 17 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 107 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 50 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Ugandan(s); adjective—Ugandan

Ethnic divisions: 99% African, 1% European, Asian, Arab

Religion: 33% Roman Catholic, 33% Protestant, 16% Muslim, rest indigenous beliefs

Language: English (official); Luganda and Swahili widely used; other Bantu and Nilotic languages

Literacy: 57.3%

Labor force: 4,500,000 (est.); 94% subsistence activities, 6% wage earners (est.); 50% of population of working age (1983)

Organized labor: 125,000 union members

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Uganda

Type: republic

Capital: Kampala

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces; Busoga, Central, Eastern, Karamoja, Nile, North Buganda, Northern, South Buganda, Southern, Western

Independence: 9 October 1962 (from UK)

Constitution: 8 September 1967, suspended following coup of 27 July 1985; in process of constitutional revision

Legal system: government plans to restore system based on English common law and customary law and reinstitute a normal judicial system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Independence Day, 9 October (1962)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, three deputy prime ministers, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Resistance Council

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court

Leaders: Chief of State—President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since 29 January 1986);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Samson Babi Mululu KISEKKA (since 30 January 1986); First Deputy Prime Minister Eriya KATEGAYA (since NA)

Political parties and leaders: only party—National Resistance Movement (NRM); note—the Uganda Patriotic Movement (UPM), Ugandan People's Congress (UPC), Democratic Party (DP), and Conservative Party (CP) are all proscribed from conducting public political activities

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: National Resistance Council—last held 11-28 February 1989 (next to be held after January 1995); results—NRM is the only party; seats—(278 total, 210 indirectly elected) NRM 210

Other political parties or pressure groups: Uganda People's Democratic Movement (UPDM), Uganda People's Front (UPF), Uganda Freedom Movement (UFM), Holy Spirit Movement (HSM)

Communists: possibly a few sympathizers

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB—Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Stephen Kapimpina KATENTA-APULI; 5909 16th Street NW, Washington DC 20011; telephone (202) 726-7100 through 7102; US—Ambassador John A. BURROUGHS, Jr.; Embassy at British High Commission Building, Obote Avenue, Kampala (mailing address is P. O. Box 7007, Kampala); telephone p256o (41) 259791

Flag: six equal horizonal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black, yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts a red-crested crane (the national symbol) facing the staff side

- Economy Overview: Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, and sizable mineral deposits of copper and cobalt. For most of the past 15 years the economy has been devastated by political instability, mismanagement, and civil war, keeping Uganda poor with a per capita income of about $300. (GDP remains below the levels of the early 1970s, as does industrial production.) Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing over 80% of the work force. Coffee is the major export crop and accounted for 97% of export revenues in 1988. Since 1986 the government has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing petroleum prices, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation, which was running at over 300% in 1987, and boosting production and export earnings.

GDP: $4.9 billion, per capita $300 (1988); real growth rate 6.1% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 72% (FY89)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $365 million; expenditures $545 million, including capital expenditures of $165 million (FY89 est.)

Exports: $272 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—coffee 97%, cotton, tea; partners—US 25%, UK 18%, France 11%, Spain 10%

Imports: $626 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities—petroleum products, machinery, cotton piece goods, metals, transportation equipment, food; partners—Kenya 25%, UK 14%, Italy 13%

External debt: $1.4 billion (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 25.1% (1988)

Electricity: 173,000 kW capacity; 312 million kWh produced, 18 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles, cement

Agriculture: accounts for 57% of GDP and 83% of labor force; cash crops—coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco; food crops—cassava, potatoes, corn, millet, pulses; livestock products—beef, goat meat, milk, poultry; self-sufficient in food

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-88), $123 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.0 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $60 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $140 million

Currency: Ugandan shilling (plural—shillings); 1 Ugandan shilling (USh) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Ugandan shillings (USh) per US$1—370 (December 1989), 223.09 (1989), 106.14 (1988), 42.84 (1987), 14.00 (1986), 6.72 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications Railroads: 1,300 km, 1.000-meter-gauge single track

Highways: 26,200 km total; 1,970 km paved; 5,849 km crushed stone, gravel, and laterite; remainder earth roads and tracks

Inland waterways: Lake Victoria, Lake Albert, Lake Kyoga, Lake George, Lake Edward; Victoria Nile, Albert Nile; principal inland water ports are at Jinja and Port Bell, both on Lake Victoria

Merchant marine: 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,697 GRT

Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft

Airports: 39 total, 30 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 10 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system with radio relay and radio communications stations; 61,600 telephones; stations—10 AM, no FM, 9 TV; satellite earth stations—1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT

- Defense Forces Branches: National Resistance Army (NRA)

Military manpower: males 15-49, about 3,836,921; about 2,084,813 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 1.4% of GDP (1985) —————————————————————————— Country: United Arab Emirates - Geography Total area: 83,600 km2; land area: 83,600 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries: 1,016 km total; Oman 410 km, Saudi Arabia 586 km, Qatar 20 km

Coastline: 1,448 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: defined by bilateral boundaries or equidistant line

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Disputes: boundary with Qatar is in dispute; no defined boundary with Saudi Arabia; no defined boundary with most of Oman, but Administrative Line in far north; claims three islands in the Persian Gulf occupied by Iran (Jazireh-ye Abu Musa or Abu Musa, Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg or Greater Tunb, and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek or Lesser Tunb)

Climate: desert; cooler in eastern mountains

Terrain: flat, barren coastal plain merging into rolling sand dunes of vast desert wasteland; mountains in east

Natural resources: crude oil and natural gas

Land use: NEGL% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 2% meadows and pastures; NEGL% forest and woodland; 98% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: frequent dust and sand storms; lack of natural freshwater resources being overcome by desalination plants; desertification

Note: strategic location along southern approaches to Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil

- People Population: 2,253,624 (July 1990), growth rate 6.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 31 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 3 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 33 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 24 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 73 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Emirian(s), adjective—Emirian

Ethnic divisions: 19% Emirian, 23% other Arab, 50% South Asian (fluctuating), 8% other expatriates (includes Westerners and East Asians); less than 20% of the population are UAE citizens (1982)

Religion: 96% Muslim (16% Shia); 4% Christian, Hindu, and other

Language: Arabic (official); Farsi and English widely spoken in major cities; Hindi, Urdu

Literacy: 68%

Labor force: 580,000 (1986 est.); 85% industry and commerce, 5% agriculture, 5% services, 5% government; 80% of labor force is foreign

Organized labor: trade unions are illegal

- Government Long-form name: United Arab Emirates (no short-form name); abbreviated UAE

Type: federation with specified powers delegated to the UAE central government and other powers reserved to member shaykhdoms

Capital: Abu Dhabi

Administrative divisions: 7 emirates (imarat, singular—imarah); Abu Zaby, Ajman, Al Fujayrah, Ash Shariqah, Dubayy, Ras al Khaymah, Umm al Qaywayn

Independence: 2 December 1971 (from UK; formerly Trucial States)

Constitution: 2 December 1971 (provisional)

Legal system: secular codes are being introduced by the UAE Government and in several member shaykhdoms; Islamic law remains influential

National holiday: National Day, 2 December (1971)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Supreme Council of Rulers, prime minister, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral Federal National Council

Judicial branch: Union Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—President Shaykh Zayid bin Sultan Al NUHAYYAN of Abu Dhabi (since 2 December 1971); Vice President Shaykh Rashid bin Said Al MAKTUM of Dubayy (since 2 December 1971;

Head of Government—Prime Minister Shaykh Rashid bin Said Al MAKTUM of Dubayy (Prime Minister since 30 April 1979); Deputy Prime Minister Maktum bin Rashid al MAKTUM (since 2 December 1971)

Political parties and leaders: none

Suffrage: none

Elections: none

Communists: NA

Other political or pressure groups: a few small clandestine groups are active

Member of: Arab League, CCC, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB—Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abdullah bin Zayed AL-NAHAYYAN; Chancery at Suite 740, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20037; telephone (202) 338-6500; US—Ambassador Edward S. WALKER, Jr.; Embassy at Al-Sudan Street, Abu Dhabi (mailing address is P. O. Box 4009, Abu Dhabi); telephone p971o (2) 336691; there is a US Consulate General in Dubai

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and black with a thicker vertical red band on the hoist side

- Economy Overview: The UAE has an open economy with one of the world's higher levels of income per capita. This wealth is based on oil and gas, and the fortunes of the economy fluctuate with the prices of those commodities. Since 1973, when petroleum prices shot up, the UAE has undergone a profound transformation from an impoverished region of small desert principalities to a modern state with a high standard of living. At present levels of production, crude oil reserves should last for over 100 years.

GNP: $23.3 billion, per capita $11,680; real growth rate - 2.1% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5-6% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: NEGL (1988)

Budget: revenues $3.5 billion; expenditures $4.0 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1989 est.)

Exports: $10.6 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities—crude oil 75%, natural gas, reexports, dried fish, dates; partners—US, EC, Japan

Imports: $8.5 billion (c.i.f., 1988 est.); commodities—food, consumer and capital goods; partners—EC, Japan, US

External debt: $11.0 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate - 9.3% (1986)

Electricity: 5,590,000 kW capacity; 15,000 million kWh produced, 7,090 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, fishing, petrochemicals, construction materials, some boat building, handicrafts, pearling

Agriculture: accounts for 1% of GNP and 5% of labor force; cash crop—dates; food products—vegetables, watermelons, poultry, eggs, dairy, fish; only 25% self-sufficient in food

Aid: donor—pledged $9.1 billion in bilateral aid to less developed countries (1979-89)

Currency: Emirian dirham (plural—dirhams); 1 Emirian dirham (Dh) = 100 fils

Exchange rates: Emirian dirhams (Dh) per US$1—3.6710 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Highways: 2,000 km total; 1,800 km bituminous, 200 km gravel and graded earth

Pipelines: 830 km crude oil; 870 km natural gas, including natural gas liquids

Ports: Al Fujayrah, Khawr Fakkan, Mina Jabal Ali, Mina Khalid, Mina Rashid, Mina Saqr, Mina Zayid

Merchant marine: 47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 728,332 GRT/1,181,566 DWT; includes 14 cargo, 7 container, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 20 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 4 bulk

Civil air: 8 major transport aircraft

Airports: 40 total, 34 usable; 19 with permanent-surface runways; 8 with runways over 3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: adequate system of radio relay and coaxial cable; key centers are Abu Dhabi and Dubayy; 386,600 telephones; stations—8 AM, 3 FM, 12 TV; satellite earth stations—1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 ARABSAT; submarine cables to Qatar, Bahrain, India, and Pakistan; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; radio relay to Saudi Arabia

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Central Military Command, Federal Police Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 904,690; 498,082 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: $1.59 billion (1987) —————————————————————————— Country: United Kingdom - Geography Total area: 244,820 km2; land area: 241,590 km2; includes Rockall and Shetland Islands

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundary: Ireland 360 km

Coastline: 12,429 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation or in accordance with agreed upon boundaries;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: maritime boundary with Ireland; Northern Ireland question with Ireland; Gibraltar question with Spain; Argentina claims Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas); Argentina claims South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Mauritius claims island of Diego Garcia in British Indian Ocean Territory; Hong Kong is scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region of China in 1997; Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Iceland, and Ireland (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area); territorial claim in Antarctica (British Antarctic Territory)

Climate: temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic Current; more than half of the days are overcast

Terrain: mostly rugged hills and low mountains; level to rolling plains in east and southeast

Natural resources: coal, crude oil, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica

Land use: 29% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 48% meadows and pastures; 9% forest and woodland; 14% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: pollution control measures improving air, water quality; because of heavily indented coastline, no location is more than 125 km from tidal waters

Note: lies near vital North Atlantic sea lanes; only 35 km from France

- People Population: 57,365,665 (July 1990), growth rate 0.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 79 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Briton(s), British (collective pl.); adjective—British

Ethnic divisions: 81.5% English, 9.6% Scottish, 2.4% Irish, 1.9% Welsh, 1.8% Ulster, 2.8% West Indian, Indian, Pakistani, and other

Religion: 27.0 million Anglican, 5.3 million Roman Catholic, 2.0 million Presbyterian, 760,000 Methodist, 410,000 Jewish

Language: English, Welsh (about 26% of population of Wales), Scottish form of Gaelic (about 60,000 in Scotland)

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 28,120,000; 53.3% services, 23.6% manufacturing and construction, 10.8% self-employed, 6.8% government, 1.0% agriculture (1988)

Organized labor: 37% of labor force (1987)

- Government Long-form name: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; abbreviated UK

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: London

Administrative divisions: 47 counties, 7 metropolitan counties, 26 districts, 9 regions, and 3 islands areas

England—39 counties, 7 metropolitan counties*; Avon, Bedford, Berkshire, Buckingham, Cambridge, Cheshire, Cleveland, Cornwall, Cumbria, Derby, Devon, Dorset, Durham, East Sussex, Essex, Gloucester, Greater London*, Greater Manchester*, Hampshire, Hereford and Worcester, Hertford, Humberside, Isle of Wight, Kent, Lancashire, Leicester, Lincoln, Merseyside*, Norfolk, Northampton, Northumberland, North Yorkshire, Nottingham, Oxford, Shropshire, Somerset, South Yorkshire*, Stafford, Suffolk, Surrey, Tyne and Wear*, Warwick, West Midlands*, West Sussex, West Yorkshire*, Wiltshire

Northern Ireland—26 districts; Antrim, Ards, Armagh, Ballymena, Ballymoney, Banbridge, Belfast, Carrickfergus, Castlereagh, Coleraine, Cookstown, Craigavon, Down, Dungannon, Fermanagh, Larne, Limavady, Lisburn, Londonderry, Magherafelt, Moyle, Newry and Mourne, Newtownabbey, North Down, Omagh, Strabane

Scotland—9 regions, 3 islands areas*; Borders, Central, Dumfries and Galloway, Fife, Grampian, Highland, Lothian, Orkney*, Shetland*, Strathclyde, Tayside, Western Isles*

Wales—8 counties; Clwyd, Dyfed, Gwent, Gwynedd, Mid Glamorgan, Powys, South Glamorgan, West Glamorgan

Independence: 1 January 1801, United Kingdom established

Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice

Dependent areas: Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Hong Kong (scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region of China in 1997), Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, St. Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands

Legal system: common law tradition with early Roman and modern continental influences; no judicial review of Acts of Parliament; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second Saturday in June), 10 June 1989

Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or House of Lords and a lower house or House of Commons

Judicial branch: House of Lords

Leaders: Chief of State—Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); Heir Apparent Prince CHARLES (son of the Queen, born 14 November 1948);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Margaret THATCHER (since 4 May 1979); Deputy Prime Minister Geoffrey HOWE (since 24 July 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Conservative, Margaret Thatcher; Labour, Neil Kinnock; Social Democratic, David Owen (disbanded 3 June 1990); Social and Liberal Democratic Party, Jeremy (Paddy) Ashdown; Communist, Nina Temple; Scottish National, Gordon Wilson; Plaid Cymru, Dafydd Thomas; Ulster Unionist, James Molyneaux; Democratic Unionist, Ian Paisley; Social Democratic and Labour, John Hume; Provisional Sinn Fein, Gerry Adams; Alliance/Northern Ireland

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: House of Commons—last held 11 June 1987 (next to be held by June 1992); results—Conservative 43%, Labour 32%, Social and Liberal Democratic Party 23%, others 2%; seats—(650 total) Conservative 376, Labour 228, Social and Liberal Democratic Party 18, Ulster (Official) Unionist (Northern Ireland) 9, Social Democratic Party 4, Scottish National Party 4, Plaid Cymru (Welsh Nationalist) 3, Ulster Democratic Unionist (Northern Ireland) 3, Social Democratic and Labour (Northern Ireland) 3, Ulster Popular Unionist (Northern Ireland) 1, Sinn Fein (Northern Ireland) 1

Communists: 15,961

Other political or pressure groups: Trades Union Congress, Confederation of British Industry, National Farmers' Union, Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament

Member of: ADB, CCC, Colombo Plan, Council of Europe, DAC, EC, ESCAP, ESA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IDB—Inter-American Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU, IRC, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC—International Whaling Commission, IWC—International Wheat Council, NATO, OECD, UN, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Sir Antony ACLAND; Chancery at 3100 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 462-1340; there are British Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco, and Consulates in Dallas, Miami, and Seattle; US—Ambassador Henry E. CATTO; Embassy at 24/31 Grosvenor Square, London, W.1A1AE, (mailing address is Box 40, FPO New York 09509); telephone p44o (01) 499-9000; there are US Consulates General in Belfast and Edinburgh

Flag: blue with the red cross of St. George (patron saint of England) edged in white superimposed on the diagonal red cross of St. Patrick (patron saint of Ireland) which is superimposed on the diagonal white cross of St. Andrew (patron saint of Scotland); known as the Union Flag or Union Jack; the design and colors (especially the Blue Ensign) have been the basis for a number of other flags including dependencies, Commonwealth countries, and others

- Economy Overview: The UK is one of the world's great trading powers and financial centers, and its economy ranks among the four largest in Europe. The economy is essentially capitalistic with a generous admixture of social welfare programs and government ownership. Over the last decade the Thatcher government has halted the expansion of welfare measures and has promoted extensive reprivatization of the government economic sector. Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European standards, producing about 60% of food needs with only 1% of the labor force. Industry is a mixture of public and private enterprises, employing about 24% of the work force and generating 22% of GDP. The UK is an energy-rich nation with large coal, natural gas, and oil reserves; primary energy production accounts for 12% of GDP, one of the highest shares of any industrial nation. Following the recession of 1979-81, the economy has enjoyed the longest period of continuous economic growth it has had during the last 30 years. During the period 1982-89 real GDP grew by about 25%, while the inflation rate of 14% was nearly halved. Between 1986 and 1989 unemployment fell from 11% to about 6%. As a major trading nation, the UK will continue to be greatly affected by: world boom or recession; swings in the international oil market; productivity trends in domestic industry; and the terms on which the economic integration of Europe proceeds.

GDP: $818.0 billion, per capita $14,300; real growth rate 2.3% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.8% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 6.4% (1989)

Budget: revenues $348.7 billion; expenditures $327.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $42.0 billion (FY89)

Exports: $151.0 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities—manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, chemicals, semifinished goods, transport equipment; partners—EC 50.4% (FRG 11.7%, France 10.2%, Netherlands 6.8%), US 13.0%, Communist countries 2.3%

Imports: $189.2 billion (c.i.f., 1989); commodities—manufactured goods, machinery, semifinished goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods; partners—EC 52.5% (FRG 16.6%, France 8.8%, Netherlands 7.8%), US 10.2%, Communist countries 2.1%

External debt: $15.7 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 0.9% (1989)

Electricity: 98,000,000 kW capacity; 361,990 million kWh produced, 6,350 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: machinery and transportation equipment, metals, food processing, paper and paper products, textiles, chemicals, clothing, other consumer goods, motor vehicles, aircraft, shipbuilding, petroleum, coal

Agriculture: accounts for only 1.5% of GNP and 1% of labor force; highly mechanized and efficient farms; wide variety of crops and livestock products produced; about 60% self-sufficient in food and feed needs; fish catch of 665,000 metric tons (1987)

Aid: donor—ODA and OOF commitments (1970-87), $18.9 billion

Currency: British pound or pound sterling (plural—pounds); 1 British pound (L) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: British pounds (L) per US$1—0.6055 (January 1990), 0.6099 (1989) 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817 (1986), 0.7714 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications Railroads: Great Britain—16,629 km total; British Railways (BR) operates 16,629 km 1.435-meter standard gauge (4,205 km electrified and 12,591 km double or multiple track); several additional small standard-gauge and narrow-gauge lines are privately owned and operated; Northern Ireland Railways (NIR) operates 332 km 1.600-meter gauge, 190 km double track

Highways: UK, 362,982 km total; Great Britain, 339,483 km paved (including 2,573 km limited-access divided highway); Northern Ireland, 23,499 km (22,907 paved, 592 km gravel)

Inland waterways: 2,291 total; British Waterways Board, 606 km; Port Authorities, 706 km; other, 979 km

Pipelines: 933 km crude oil, almost all insignificant; 2,993 km refined products; 12,800 km natural gas

Ports: London, Liverpool, Felixstowe, Tees and Hartlepool, Dover, Sullom Voe, Southampton

Merchant marine: 285 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,174,142GRT/9,024,090 DWT; includes 7 passenger, 22 short-sea passenger, 44 cargo, 44 container, 21 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 9 refrigerated cargo, 1 vehicle carrier, 1 railcar carrier, 78 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 5 liquefied gas, 2 combination ore/oil, 1 specialized tanker, 45 bulk, 1 combination bulk

Civil air: 618 major transport aircraft

Airports: 522 total, 379 usable; 245 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 37 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 132 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: modern, efficient domestic and international system; 30,200,000 telephones; excellent countrywide broadcast systems; stations—223 AM, 165 (396 relays) FM, 205 (3,210 relays) TV; 38 coaxial submarine cables; communication satellite earth stations operating in INTELSAT (7 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean), MARISAT, and EUTELSAT systems

- Defense Forces Branches: Royal Navy (includes Royal Marines), Army, Royal Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 14,462,993; 12,180,580 fit for military service; no conscription

Defense expenditures: 4.3% of GDP, or $35 billion (1989 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: United States - Geography Total area: 9,372,610 km2; land area: 9,166,600 km2; includes only the 50 states and District of Colombia

Comparative area: about four-tenths the size of USSR; about one-third the size of Africa; about one-half the size of South America (or slightly larger than Brazil); slightly smaller than China; about two and one-half times the size of Western Europe

Land boundaries: 12,248.1 km total; Canada 8,893 km (including 2,477 km with Alaska), Mexico 3,326 km, Cuba (US naval base at Guantanamo) 29.1 km

Coastline: 19,924 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: not specified;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: maritime boundary disputes with Canada; US Naval Base at Guantanamo is leased from Cuba and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease; Haiti claims Navassa Island; has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other nation

Climate: mostly temperate, but varies from tropical (Hawaii) to arctic (Alaska); arid to semiarid in west with occasional warm, dry chinook wind

Terrain: vast central plain, mountains in west, hills and low mountains in east; rugged mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska; rugged, volcanic topography in Hawaii

Natural resources: coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten, zinc, crude oil, natural gas, timber

Land use: 20% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 26% meadows and pastures; 29% forest and woodland; 25% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: pollution control measures improving air and water quality; acid rain; agricultural fertilizer and pesticide pollution; management of sparse natural water resources in west; desertification; tsunamis, volcanoes, and earthquake activity around Pacific Basin; continuous permafrost in northern Alaska is a major impediment to development

Note: world's fourth-largest country (after USSR, Canada, and China)

- People Population: 250,410,000 (July 1990), growth rate 0.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 80 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—American(s); adjective—American

Ethnic divisions: 85% white, 12% black, 3% other (1985)

Religion: Protestant 61% (Baptist 21%, Methodist 12%, Lutheran 8%, Presbyterian 4%, Episcopalian 3%, other Protestant 13%), Roman Catholic 25%, Jewish 2%, other 5%; none 7%

Language: predominantly English; sizable Spanish-speaking minority

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 125,557,000 (includes armed forces and unemployed); civilian labor force 123,869,000 (1989)

Organized labor: 16,960,000 members; 16.4% of labor force (1989)

- Government Long-form name: United States of America; abbreviated US or USA

Type: federal republic; strong democratic tradition

Capital: Washington, DC

Administrative divisions: 50 states and 1 district*; Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia*, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennyslvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming

Independence: 4 July 1776 (from England)

Constitution: 17 September 1787, effective 4 June 1789

Dependent areas: American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island; Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Island. Since 18 July 1947, the US has administered the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, but recently entered into a new political relationship with three of the four political units. The Northern Mariana Islands is a Commonwealth associated with the US (effective 3 November 1986). Palau concluded a Compact of Free Association with the US that was approved by the US Congress but to date the Compact process has not been completed in Palau, which continues to be administered by the US as the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. The Federated States of Micronesia signed a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 3 November 1986). The Republic of the Marshall Islands signed a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 21 October 1986).

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 July (1776)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—President George BUSH (since 20 January 1989); Vice President Dan QUAYLE (since 20 January 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Republican Party, Lee Atwater, national committee chairman and Jeanie Austin, co-chairman; Democratic Party, Ronald H. Brown, national committee chairman; several other groups or parties of minor political significance

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: President—last held 8 November 1988 (next to be held 3 November 1992); results—George Bush (Republican Party) 53.37%, Michael Dukakis (Democratic Party) 45.67%, others 0.96%;

Senate—last held 8 November 1988 (next to be held 6 November 1990); results—Democratic Party 52.1%, Republican Party 46.2%, others 1.7%; seats—(100 total) Democratic Party 55, Republican Party 45;

House of Representatives—last held 8 November 1988 (next to be held 6 November 1990); results—Democratic Party 53.2%, Republican Party 45.3%, others 1.5%; seats—(435 total) Democratic Party 259, Republican Party 174, vacant 2

Communists: Communist Party (claimed 15,000-20,000 members), Gus Hall, general secretary; Socialist Workers Party (claimed 1,800 members), Jack Barnes, national secretary

Member of: ADB, ANZUS, CCC, Colombo Plan, DAC, FAO, ESCAP, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICEM, ICES, ICO, IDA, IDB—Inter-American Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITC, ITU, IWC—International Whaling Commission, IWC—International Wheat Council, NATO, OAS, OECD, PAHO, SPC, UN, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: US Representative to the UN, Ambassador Thomas R. PICKERING; Mission at 799 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017; telephone (212) 415-4444

Flag: thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing 50 small white five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom) alternating with rows of five stars; the 50 stars represent the 50 states, the 13 stripes represent the 13 original colonies; known as Old Glory; the design and colors have been the basis for a number of other flags including Chile, Liberia, Malaysia, and Puerto Rico

- Economy Overview: The US has the most powerful and diversified economy in the world, with a per capita GNP of over $21,000, the largest among the major industrial nations. In 1989 the economy entered its eighth successive year of growth, the longest in peacetime history. The expansion has featured continued moderation in wage and consumer price increases, an unemployment rate of 5.2%, (the lowest in 10 years), and an inflation rate of 4.8%. On the negative side, the US enters the 1990s with massive budget and trade deficits, huge and rapidly rising medical costs, and inadequate investment in industrial capacity and economic infrastructure.

GNP: $5,233.3 billion, per capita $21,082; real growth rate 2.9% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.8% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 5.2% (1989)

Budget: revenues $976 billion; expenditures $1,137 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (FY89 est.)

Exports: $322.3 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—capital goods, automobiles, industrial supplies and raw materials, consumer goods, agricultural products; partners—Canada 22.9%, Japan 11.8% (1988)

Imports: $440.9 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities—crude and partly refined petroleum, machinery, automobiles, consumer goods, industrial raw materials, food and beverages; partners—Japan 19.6% , Canada 19.1% (1988)

External debt: $532 billion (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.3% (1989)

Electricity: 776,550,000 kW capacity; 2,958,300 million kWh produced, 11,920 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: leading industrial power in the world, highly diversified; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing, consumer goods, fishing, lumber, mining

Agriculture: accounts for 2% of GNP and 2.8% of labor force; favorable climate and soils support a wide variety of crops and livestock production; world's second-largest producer and number-one exporter of grain; surplus food producer; fish catch of 5.7 million metric tons (1987)

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for domestic consumption with 1987 production estimated at 3,500 metric tons or about 25% of the available marijuana; ongoing eradication program aimed at small plots and greenhouses has not reduced production

Aid: donor—commitments, including Ex-Im (FY80-88), $90.5 billion

Currency: United States dollar (plural—dollars); 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: British pounds (L) per US$—0.6055 (January 1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817 (1986), 0.7714 (1985);

Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$—1.1885 (February 1990), 1.2307 (1988), 1.3260 (1987), 1.3895 (1986);

French francs (F) per US$—5.695 (February 1990), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261 (1986), 8.9852 (1985);

Italian lire (Lit) per US$—1,244.8 (February 1990), 1,301.6 (1988), 1,296.1 (1987), 1,490.8 (1986), 1,909.4 (1985);

Japanese yen (Y) per US$—145.55 (February 1990), 128.15 (1988), 144.64 (1987), 168.52 (1986), 238.54 (1985);

FRG deutsche marks (DM) per US$—1.6775 (February 1990), 1.7562 (1988), 1.7974 (1987), 2.1715 (1986), 2.9440 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

- Communications Railroads: 270,312 km

Highways: 6,365,590 km, including 88,641 km expressways

Inland waterways: 41,009 km of navigable inland channels, exclusive of the Great Lakes (est.)

Pipelines: 275,800 km petroleum, 305,300 km natural gas (1985)

Ports: Anchorage, Baltimore, Beaumont, Boston, Charleston, Cleveland, Duluth, Freeport, Galveston, Hampton Roads, Honolulu, Houston, Jacksonville, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Milwaukee, Mobile, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, Portland (Oregon), Richmond (California), San Francisco, Savannah, Seattle, Tampa, Wilmington

Merchant marine: 373 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling NA GRT/NA DWT); includes 2 passenger-cargo, 37 cargo, 22 bulk, 165 tanker, 13 tanker tug-barge, 10 liquefied gas, 124 intermodal; in addition there are 248 government-owned vessels

Civil air: 3,297 commercial multiengine transport aircraft, including 2,989 jet, 231 turboprop, 77 piston (1985)

Airports: 15,422 in operation (1981)

Telecommunications: 182,558,000 telephones; stations—4,892 AM, 5,200 FM (including 3,915 commercial and 1,285 public broadcasting), 7,296 TV (including 796 commercial, 300 public broadcasting, and 6,200 commercial cable); 495,000,000 radio receivers (1982); 150,000,000 TV sets (1982); satellite earth stations—45 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 16 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

- Defense Forces Branches: Department of the Army, Department of the Navy (including Marine Corps), Department of the Air Force

Military manpower: 2,247,000 total; 781,000 Army; 599,000 Air Force; 793,000 Navy (includes 200,000 Marine Corps) (1988)

Defense expenditures: 5.8% of GNP, or $302.8 billion (1989) —————————————————————————— Country: Uruguay - Geography Total area: 176,220 km2; land area: 173,620 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Washington State

Land boundaries: 1,564 km total; Argentina 579 km, Brazil 985 km

Coastline: 660 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 200 nm (overflight and navigation permitted beyond 12 nm)

Disputes: short section of boundary with Argentina is in dispute; two short sections of the boundary with Brazil are in dispute (Arroyo de la Invernada area of the Rio Quarai and the islands at the confluence of the Rio Quarai and the Uruguay)

Climate: warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown

Terrain: mostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal lowland

Natural resources: soil, hydropower potential, minor minerals

Land use: 8% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 78% meadows and pastures; 4% forest and woodland; 10% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: subject to seasonally high winds, droughts, floods

- People Population: 3,036,660 (July 1990), growth rate 0.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 17 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 22 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Uruguayan(s); adjective—Uruguayan

Ethnic divisions: 88% white, 8% mestizo, 4% black

Religion: 66% Roman Catholic (less than half adult population attends church regularly), 2% Protestant, 2% Jewish, 30% nonprofessing or other

Language: Spanish

Literacy: 94%

Labor force: 1,300,000; 25% government, 19% manufacturing, 11% agriculture, 12% commerce, 12% utilities, construction, transport, and communications, 21% other services (1988 est.)

Organized labor: Interunion Workers' Assembly/National Workers' Confederation (PIT/CNT) Labor Federation

- Government Long-form name: Oriental Republic of Uruguay

Type: republic

Capital: Montevideo

Administrative divisions: 19 departments (departamentos, singular—departamento); Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia, Durazno, Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio Negro, Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San Jose, Soriano, Tacuarembo, Treinta y Tres

Independence: 25 August 1828 (from Brazil)

Constitution: 27 November 1966, effective February 1967, suspended 27 June 1973, new constitution rejected by referendum 30 November 1980

Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 August (1828)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress (Congreso) consists of an upper chamber or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camera del Diputados)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—President Luis Alberto LACALLE (since 1 March 1990); Vice President Gonzalo AGUIRRE (since 1 March 1990)

Political parties and leaders: National (Blanco) Party, Roberto Rubio; Colorado Party; Broad Front Coalition, Liber Seregni includes Communist Party led by Jaime Perez and National Liberation Movement (MLN) or Tupamaros led by Eleuterio Fernandez Huidobro; New Space Coalition consists of the Party of the Government of the People (PGP) led by Hugo Batalla, Christian Democratic Party (PDC), and Civic Union led by Humberto Ciganda

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Elections: President—last held 26 November 1989 (next to be held November 1994); results—Luis Lacalle (Blanco) 37%, Jorge Batlle (Colorado) 29%, Liber Seregni (Broad Front) 20%;

Senate—last held 26 November 1989 (next to be held November 1994); results—Blanco 40%, Colorado 30%, Broad Front 23% New Space 7%; seats—(30 total) Blanco 12, Colorado 9, Broad Front 7, New Space 2;

Chamber of Deputies—last held NA November 1989 (next to be held November 1994); results—Blanco 39%, Colorado 30%, Broad Front 22%, New Space 8%, others 1%; seats—(99 total) number of seats by party NA

Communists: 50,000

Member of: CCC, FAO, G-77, GATT, Group of Eight, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDB—Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ITU, LAIA, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Juan Podesta PINON; Chancery at 1918 F Street NW, Washington DC 20006; telephone (202) 331-1313 through 1316; there are Uruguayan Consulates General in Los Angeles, Miami, and New York, and a Consulate in New Orleans; US—Ambassador Malcolm R. WILKEY; Embassy at Lauro Muller 1776, Montevideo (mailing address is APO Miami 34035); telephone p598o (2) 40-90-51

Flag: nine equal horizontal stripes of white (top and bottom) alternating with blue; there is a white square in the upper hoist-side corner with a yellow sun bearing a human face known as the Sun of May and 16 rays alternately triangular and wavy

- Economy Overview: The economy is slowly recovering from the deep recession of 1981-84. In 1986 real GDP grew by 6.6% and in 1987 by 4.9%. The recovery was led by growth in the agriculture and fishing sectors, agriculture alone contributing 20% to GDP, employing about 11% of the labor force, and generating a large proportion of export earnings. Raising livestock, particularly cattle and sheep, is the major agricultural activity. In 1988, despite healthy exports and an improved current account, domestic growth slowed because of government concentration on the external sector, adverse weather conditions, and prolonged strikes. High inflation rates of about 80%, a large domestic debt, and frequent strikes remain major economic problems for the government.

GDP: $8.8 billion, per capita $2,950; real growth rate 1% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 80% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9.0% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $1.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $165 million (1988)

Exports: $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities—hides and leather goods 17%, beef 10%, wool 9%, fish 7%, rice 4%; partners—Brazil 17%, US 15%, FRG 10%, Argentina 10% (1987)

Imports: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities—fuels and lubricants 15%, metals, machinery, transportation equipment, industrial chemicals; partners—Brazil 24%, Argentina 14%, US 8%, FRG 8% (1987)

External debt: $6 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate - 2.9% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 1,950,000 kW capacity; 4,330 million kWh produced, 1,450 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: meat processing, wool and hides, sugar, textiles, footwear, leather apparel, tires, cement, fishing, petroleum refining, wine

Agriculture: large areas devoted to extensive livestock grazing; wheat, rice, corn, sorghum; self-sufficient in most basic foodstuffs

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $105 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $263 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $69 million

Currency: new Uruguayan peso (plural—pesos); 1 new Uruguayan peso (N$Ur) = 100 centesimos

Exchange rates: new Uruguayan pesos (N$Ur) per US$1—832.62 (January 1990), 605.62 (1989), 359.44 (1988), 226.67 (1987), 151.99 (1986), 101.43 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 3,000 km, all 1.435-meter standard gauge and government owned

Highways: 49,900 km total; 6,700 km paved, 3,000 km gravel, 40,200 km earth

Inland waterways: 1,600 km; used by coastal and shallow-draft river craft

Ports: Montevideo, Punta del Este

Merchant marine: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 65,212 GRT/116,613 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 container

Civil air: 14 major transport aircraft

Airports: 92 total, 87 usable; 16 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 17 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: most modern facilities concentrated in Montevideo; new nationwide radio relay network; 337,000 telephones; stations—99 AM, no FM, 26 TV, 9 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 711,700; 580,898 fit for military service; no conscription

Defense expenditures: 2.5% of GDP (1986) —————————————————————————— Country: Vanuatu - Geography Total area: 14,760 km2; land area: 14,760 km2; includes more than 80 islands

Comparative area: slightly larger than Connecticut

Land boundary: none

Coastline: 2,528 km

Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by southeast trade winds

Terrain: mostly mountains of volcanic origin; narrow coastal plains

Natural resources: manganese, hardwood forests, fish

Land use: 1% arable land; 5% permanent crops; 2% meadows and pastures; 1% forest and woodland; 91% other

Environment: subject to tropical cyclones or typhoons (January to April); volcanism causes minor earthquakes

Note: located 5,750 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean about three-quarters of the way between Hawaii and Australia

- People Population: 165,006 (July 1990), growth rate 3.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 36 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 72 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Vanuatuan(s); adjective—Vanuatuan

Ethnic divisions: 94% indigenous Melanesian, 4% French, remainder Vietnamese, Chinese, and various Pacific Islanders

Religion: most at least nominally Christian

Language: English and French (official); pidgin (known as Bislama or Bichelama)

Literacy: 10-20% (est.)

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: 7 registered trade unions—largest include Oil and Gas Workers' Union, Vanuatu Airline Workers' Union

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Vanuatu

Type: republic

Capital: Port-Vila

Administrative divisions: 11 island councils; Ambrym, Aoba/Maewo, Banks/Torres, Efate, Epi, Malakula, Paama, Pentecote, Santo/Malo, Shepherd, Tafea

Independence: 30 July 1980 (from France and UK; formerly New Hebrides)

Constitution: 30 July 1980

Legal system: unified system being created from former dual French and British systems

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 July (1980)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament; note—the National Council of Chiefs advises on matters of custom and land

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—President Frederick TIMAKATA (since 30 January 1989);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Father Walter Hadye LINI (since 30 July 1980); Deputy Prime Minister (vacant)

Political parties and leaders: National Party (Vanua'aku Pati), Walter Lini; Union of Moderate Parties, Maxine Carlot; Melanesian Progressive Party, Barak Sope

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: Parliament—last held 30 November 1987 (next to be held NA); byelections were held NA December 1988 to fill vacancies resulting from the expulsion of opposition members for boycotting sessions; results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(46 total) National Party 26, Union of Moderate Parties 19, independent 1

Member of: ACP, ADB, Commonwealth, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IMF, ITU, NAM, SPF, UN, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Vanuatu does not have a mission in Washington; US—the ambassador in Papua New Guinea is accredited to Vanuatu

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green (bottom) with a black isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) all separated by a black-edged yellow stripe in the shape of a horizontal Y (the two points of the Y face the hoist side and enclose the triangle); centered in the triangle is a boar's tusk encircling two crossed namele leaves, all in yellow

- Economy Overview: The economy is based primarily on subsistence farming that provides a living for about 80% of the population. Fishing and tourism are the other mainstays of the economy. Mineral deposits are negligible; the country has no known petroleum deposits. A small light-industry sector caters to the local market. Tax revenues come mainly from import duties.

GDP: $120 million, per capita $820; real growth rate 0.7% (1987 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.0% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $80.1 million; expenditures $86.6 million, including capital expenditures of $27.1 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $16 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities—copra 37%, cocoa 11%, meat 9%, fish 8%, timber 4%; partners—Netherlands 34%, France 27%, Japan 17%, Belgium 4%, New Caledonia 3%, Singapore 2% (1987)

Imports: $58 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities—machines and vehicles 25%, food and beverages 23%, basic manufactures 18%, raw materials and fuels 11%, chemicals 6%; partners—Australia 36%, Japan 13%, NZ 10%, France 8%, Fiji 5% (1987)

External debt: $57 million (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 10,000 kW capacity; 20 million kWh produced, 125 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food and fish freezing, forestry processing, meat canning

Agriculture: export crops—copra, cocoa, coffee, and fish; subsistence crops—copra, taro, yams, coconuts, fruits, and vegetables

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $541 million

Currency: vatu (plural—vatu); 1 vatu (VT) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: vatu (VT) per US$1—107.17 (January 1990), 116.04 (1989), 104.43 (1988), 109.85 (1987), 106.08 (1986), 106.03 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: none

Highways: 1,027 km total; at least 240 km sealed or all-weather roads

Ports: Port-Vila, Luganville, Palikoulo, Santu

Merchant marine: 65 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 885,668 GRT/1,473,443 DWT; includes 26 cargo, 4 refrigerated cargo, 5 container, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 vehicle carrier, 3 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 21 bulk, 1 combination bulk; note—a flag of convenience registry

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 33 total, 28 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 2,439 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations—2 AM, no FM, no TV; 3,000 telephones; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: a paramilitary force is responsible for internal and external security; no military forces

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA —————————————————————————— Country: Vatican City - Geography Total area: 0.438 km2; land area: 0.438 km2

Comparative area: about 0.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundary: 3.2 km with Italy

Coastline: none—landlocked

Maritime claims: none—landlocked

Climate: temperate; mild, rainy winters (September to mid-May) with hot, dry summers (May to September)

Terrain: low hill

Natural resources: none

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other

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