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The 1990 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency
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- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Militia

Military manpower: males 15-49, 17,073; 8,776 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 6% of GDP, or $12 million (1990 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: Sierra Leone - Geography Total area: 71,740 km2; land area: 71,620 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries: 958 km total; Guinea 652 km, Liberia 306 km

Coastline: 402 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; summer rainy season (May to December); winter dry season (December to April)

Terrain: coastal belt of mangrove swamps, wooded hill country, upland plateau, mountains in east

Natural resources: diamonds, titanium ore, bauxite, iron ore, gold, chromite

Land use: 25% arable land; 2% permanent crops; 31% meadows and pastures; 29% forest and woodland; 13% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: extensive mangrove swamps hinder access to sea; deforestation; soil degradation

- People Population: 4,165,953 (July 1990), growth rate 2.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 21 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 154 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 42 years male, 47 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Sierra Leonean(s); adjective—Sierra Leonean

Ethnic divisions: 99% native African (30% Temne, 30% Mende); 1% Creole, European, Lebanese, and Asian; 13 tribes

Religion: 30% Muslim, 30% indigenous beliefs, 10% Christian, 30% other or none

Language: English (official); regular use limited to literate minority; principal vernaculars are Mende in south and Temne in north; Krio is the language of the resettled ex-slave population of the Freetown area and is lingua franca

Literacy: 31% (1986)

Labor force: 1,369,000 (est.); 65% agriculture, 19% industry, 16% services (1981); only about 65,000 earn wages (1985); 55% of population of working age

Organized labor: 35% of wage earners

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Sierra Leone

Type: republic under presidential regime

Capital: Freetown

Administrative divisions: 4 provinces; Eastern, Northern, Southern, Western

Independence: 27 April 1961 (from UK)

Constitution: 14 June 1978

Legal system: based on English law and customary laws indigenous to local tribes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Republic Day, 27 April (1961)

Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—President Gen. Joseph Saidu MOMOH (since 28 November 1985); First Vice President Abu Bakar KAMARA (since 4 April 1987); Second Vice President Salia JUSU-SHERIFF (since 4 April 1987)

Political parties and leaders: only party—All People's Congress (APC), Gen. Joseph Saidu Momoh

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections: President—last held 1 October 1985 (next to be held October 1992); results—Gen. Joseph Saidu Momoh was elected without opposition;

House of Representatives—last held 30 May 1986 (next to be held May 1991); results—APC is the only party; seats—(127 total, 105 elected) APC 105

Communists: no party, although there are a few Communists and a slightly larger number of sympathizers

Member of: ACP, AfDB, Commonwealth, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB—Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, Mano River Union, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador George CAREW; Chancery at 1701 19th Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 939-9261; US—Ambassador Johnny YOUNG; Embassy at the corner of Walpole and Siaka Stevens Street, Freetown; telephone 26481

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of light green (top), white, and light blue

- Economy Overview: The economic and social infrastructure is not well developed. Subsistence agriculture dominates the economy, generating about one-third of GDP and employing about two-thirds of the working population. Manufacturing accounts for less than 10% of GDP, consisting mainly of the processing of raw materials and of light manufacturing for the domestic market. Diamond mining provides an important source of hard currency. The economy suffers from high unemployment, rising inflation, large trade deficits, and a growing dependency on foreign assistance.

GDP: $965 million, per capita $250; real growth rate 1.8% (FY87)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 42% (September 1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $86 million; expenditures $128 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY90 est.)

Exports: $106 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—rutile 50%, bauxite 17%, cocoa 11%, diamonds 3%, coffee 3%; partners—US, UK, Belgium, FRG, other Western Europe

Imports: $167 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities—capital goods 40%, food 32%, petroleum 12%, consumer goods 7%, light industrial goods; partners—US, EC, Japan, China, Nigeria

External debt: $805 million (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate - 19% (FY88 est.)

Electricity: 83,000 kW capacity; 180 million kWh produced, 45 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining (diamonds, bauxite, rutile), small-scale manufacturing (beverages, textiles, cigarettes, footwear), petroleum refinery

Agriculture: accounts for over 30% of GDP and two-thirds of the labor force; largely subsistence farming; cash crops—coffee, cocoa, palm kernels; harvests of food staple rice meets 80% of domestic needs; annual fish catch averages 53,000 metric tons

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $149 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $698 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $18 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $101 million

Currency: leone (plural—leones); 1 leone (Le) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: leones per US$1—87.7193 (January 1990), 58.1395 (1989), 31.2500 (1988), 30.7692 (1987), 8.3963 (1986), 4.7304 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications Railroads: 84 km 1.067-meter narrow-gauge mineral line is used on a limited basis because the mine at Marampa is closed

Highways: 7,400 km total; 1,150 km bituminous, 490 km laterite (some gravel), remainder improved earth

Inland waterways: 800 km; 600 km navigable year round

Ports: Freetown, Pepel

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 12 total, 8 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: marginal telephone and telegraph service; national microwave radio relay system unserviceable at present; 23,650 telephones; stations—1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy

Military manpower: males 15-49, 918,078; 433,350 fit for military service; no conscription

Defense expenditures: 1% of GDP (1986) —————————————————————————— Country: Singapore - Geography Total area: 632.6 km2; land area: 622.6 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 193 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: not specific;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy; no pronounced rainy or dry seasons; thunderstorms occur on 40% of all days (67% of days in April)

Terrain: lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water catchment area and nature preserve

Natural resources: fish, deepwater ports

Land use: 4% arable land; 7% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 5% forest and woodland; 84% other

Environment: mostly urban and industrialized

Note: focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes

- People Population: 2,720,915 (July 1990), growth rate 1.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 8 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 77 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Singaporean(s), adjective—Singapore

Ethnic divisions: 76.4% Chinese, 14.9% Malay, 6.4% Indian, 2.3% other

Religion: majority of Chinese are Buddhists or atheists; Malays nearly all Muslim (minorities include Christians, Hindus, Sikhs, Taoists, Confucianists)

Language: Chinese, Malay, Tamil, and English (official); Malay (national)

Literacy: 86.8% (1987)

Labor force: 1,280,000; 34.4% industry, 1.2% agriculture, 61.7% services (1988)

Organized labor: 211,200; 16.5% of labor force (1988)

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Singapore

Type: republic within Commonwealth

Capital: Singapore

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: 9 August 1965 (from Malaysia)

Constitution: 3 June 1959, amended 1965; based on preindependence State of Singapore Constitution

Legal system: based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day, 9 August (1965)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, two deputy prime ministers, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—President WEE Kim Wee (since 3 September 1985);

Head of Government—Prime Minister LEE Kuan Yew (since 5 June 1959); First Deputy Prime Minister GOH Chok Tong (since 2 January 1985); Second Deputy Prime Minister ONG Teng Cheong (since 2 January 1985)

Political parties and leaders: government—People's Action Party (PAP), Lee Kuan Yew; opposition—Workers' Party (WP), J. B. Jeyaretnam; Singapore Democratic Party (SDP), Chiam See Tong; National Solidarity Party (NSP), Soon Kia Seng; United People's Front (UPF), Harbans Singh; Barisan Sosialis (BS); Communist party illegal

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 20

Elections: President—last held 31 August 1989 (next to be held NA August 1993); results—President Wee Kim Wee was reelected by Parliament without opposition;

Parliament—last held 3 September 1988 (next to be held NA September 1993); results—PAP 61.8%, WP 18.4%, SDP 11.5%, NSP 3.7%, UPF 1.3%, others 3.3%; seats—(81 total) PAP 80, SDP 1; note—BS has 1 nonvoting seat

Communists: 200-500; Barisan Sosialis infiltrated by Communists

Member of: ADB, ANRPC, ASEAN, CCC, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth, ESCAP, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ISO, ITU, NAM, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Tommy KOH Tong Bee; Chancery at 1824 R Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 667-7555; US—Ambassador Robert D. ORR; Embassy at 30 Hill Street, Singapore 0617 (mailing address is FPO San Francisco 96699); telephone p65o 338-0251

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist side of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent (closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed stars arranged in a circle

- Economy Overview: Singapore has an open entrepreneurial economy with strong service and manufacturing sectors and excellent international trading links derived from its entrepot history. During the 1970s and early 1980s, the economy expanded rapidly, achieving an average annual growth rate of 9%. Per capita GDP is among the highest in Asia. In 1985 the economy registered its first drop in 20 years and achieved less than a 2% increase in 1986. Recovery was strong. Estimates for 1989 suggest a 9.2% growth rate based on rising demand for Singapore's products in OECD countries, a strong Japanese yen, and improved competitiveness of domestic manufactures.

GDP: $27.5 billion, per capita $10,300; real growth rate 9.2% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.5% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 2% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $6.6 billion; expenditures $5.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.2 billion (FY88)

Exports: $46 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities—includes transshipments to Malaysia—petroleum products, rubber, electronics, manufactured goods; partners—US 24%, Malaysia 14%, Japan 9%, Thailand 6%, Hong Kong 5%, Australia 3%, FRG 3%

Imports: $53 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.); commodities—includes transshipments from Malaysia—capital equipment, petroleum, chemicals, manufactured goods, foodstuffs; partners—Japan 22%, US 16%, Malaysia 15%, EC 12%, Kuwait 1%

External debt: $5.2 billion (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 9% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 4,000,000 kW capacity; 12,000 million kWh produced, 4,490 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum refining, electronics, oil drilling equipment, rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, entrepot trade, financial services, biotechnology

Agriculture: occupies a position of minor importance in the economy; self-sufficient in poultry and eggs; must import much of other food; major crops—rubber, copra, fruit, vegetables

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-83), $590 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $882 million

Currency: Singapore dollar (plural—dollars); 1 Singapore dollar (S$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Singapore dollars per US$1—1.8895 (January 1990), 1.9503 (1989), 2.0124 (1988), 2.1060 (1987), 2.1774 (1986), 2.2002 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications Railroads: 38 km of 1.000-meter gauge

Highways: 2,597 km total (1984)

Ports: Singapore

Merchant marine: 407 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,286,824 GRT/11,921,610 DWT; includes 126 cargo, 52 container, 5 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 11 refrigerated cargo, 13 vehicle carrier, 1 livestock carrier, 103 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 5 chemical tanker, 4 combination ore/oil, 1 specialized tanker, 15 liquefied gas, 68 bulk, 3 combination bulk; note—many Singapore flag ships are foreign owned

Civil air: 38 major transport aircraft (est.)

Airports: 6 total, 6 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good domestic facilities; good international service; good radio and television broadcast coverage; 1,110,000 telephones; stations—13 AM, 4 FM, 2 TV; submarine cables extend to Malaysia (Sabah and peninsular Malaysia), Indonesia, and the Philippines; satellite earth stations—1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Army Reserve

Military manpower: males 15-49, 834,720; 621,497 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 5% of GDP, or $1.4 billion (1989 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: Solomon Islands - Geography Total area: 28,450 km2; land area: 27,540 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 5,313 km

Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical monsoon; few extremes of temperature and weather

Terrain: mostly rugged mountains with some low coral atolls

Natural resources: fish, forests, gold, bauxite, phosphates

Land use: 1% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 1% meadows and pastures; 93% forest and woodland; 4% other

Environment: subject to typhoons, which are rarely destructive; geologically active region with frequent earth tremors

Note: located just east of Papua New Guinea in the South Pacific Ocean

- People Population: 335,082 (July 1990), growth rate 3.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 41 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 40 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 72 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Solomon Islander(s); adjective—Solomon Islander

Ethnic divisions: 93.0% Melanesian, 4.0% Polynesian, 1.5% Micronesian, 0.8% European, 0.3% Chinese, 0.4% other

Religion: almost all at least nominally Christian; Anglican, Seventh-Day Adventist, and Roman Catholic Churches dominant

Language: 120 indigenous languages; Melanesian pidgin in much of the country is lingua franca; English spoken by 1-2% of population

Literacy: 60%

Labor force: 23,448 economically active; 32.4% agriculture, forestry, and fishing; 25% services, 7.0% construction, manufacturing, and mining; 4.7% commerce, transport, and finance (1984)

Organized labor: NA, but most of the cash-economy workers have trade union representation

- Government Long-form name: none

Type: independent parliamentary state within Commonwealth

Capital: Honiara

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces and 1 town*; Central, Guadalcanal, Honiara*, Isabel, Makira, Malaita, Temotu, Western

Independence: 7 July 1978 (from UK; formerly British Solomon Islands)

Constitution: 7 July 1978

Legal system: common law

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 July (1978)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Parliament

Judicial branch: High Court

Leaders: Chief of State—Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General George LEPPING (since 27 June 1989, previously acted as governor general since 7 July 1988);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Solomon MAMALONI (since 28 March 1989); Deputy Prime Minister Danny PHILIP (since 31 March 1989)

Political parties and leaders: People's Alliance Party (PAP), Solomon Mamaloni; United Party (UP), Sir Peter Kenilorea; Solomon Islands Liberal Party (SILP), Bartholemew Ulufa'alu; Nationalist Front for Progress (NFP), Andrew Nori; Labor Party (LP), Joses Tuhanuku

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections: National Parliament—last held 22 February 1989 (next to be held February 1993); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(38 total) PAP 13, UP 6, NFP 4, SILP 4, LP 2, independents 9

Member of: ACP, ADB, Commonwealth, ESCAP, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, SPF, UN, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador (vacant) resides in Honiara (Solomon Islands); US—the ambassador in Papua New Guinea is accredited to the Solomon Islands; Embassy at Mud Alley, Honiara (mailing address is American Embassy, P. O. Box 561, Honiara); telephone (677) 23488

Flag: divided diagonally by a thin yellow stripe from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is blue with five white five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern; the lower triangle is green

- Economy Overview: About 90% of the population depend on subsistence agriculture, fishing, and forestry for at least part of their livelihood. Agriculture, fishing, and forestry contribute about 75% to GDP, with the fishing and forestry sectors being important export earners. The service sector contributes about 25% to GDP. Manufacturing activity is negligible. Most manufactured goods and petroleum products must be imported. The islands are rich in undeveloped mineral resources such as lead, zinc, nickel, and gold. The economy suffered from a severe cyclone in mid-1986 which caused widespread damage to the infrastructure.

GDP: $156 million, per capita $500; real growth rate 4.3% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.2% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $139.0 million; expenditures $154.4 million, including capital expenditures of $113.4 million (1987)

Exports: $80.1 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—fish 46%, timber 31%, copra 5%, palm oil 5%; partners—Japan 51%, UK 12%, Thailand 9%, Netherlands 8%, Australia 2%, US 2% (1985)

Imports: $101.7 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—plant and machinery 30%, fuel 19%, food 16%; partners—Japan 36%, US 23%, Singapore 9%, UK 9%, NZ 9%, Australia 4%, Hong Kong 4%, China 3% (1985)

External debt: $128 million (1988 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 0% (1987)

Electricity: 15,000 kW capacity; 30 million kWh produced, 90 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: copra, fish (tuna)

Agriculture: including fishing and forestry, accounts for about 75% of GDP; mostly subsistence farming; cash crops—cocoa, beans, coconuts, palm kernels, timber; other products—rice, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, cattle, pigs; not self-sufficient in food grains; 90% of the total fish catch of 44,500 metric tons was exported (1988)

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1985), $16.1 million

Currency: Solomon Islands dollar (plural—dollars); 1 Solomon Islands dollar (SI$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Solomon Islands dollars (SI$) per US$1—2.4067 (January 1990), 2.3090 (1989), 2.0825 (1988), 2.0033 (1987), 1.7415 (1986), 1.4808 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Highways: about 2,100 km total (1982); 30 km sealed, 290 km gravel, 980 km earth, 800 private logging and plantation roads of varied construction

Ports: Honiara, Ringi Cove

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 29 total, 27 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 2,439 m; 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 3,000 telephones; stations—4 AM, no FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: NA

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA —————————————————————————— Country: Somalia - Geography Total area: 637,660 km2; land area: 627,340 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: 2,340 km total; Djibouti 58 km, Ethiopia 1,600 km, Kenya 682 km

Coastline: 3,025 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 200 nm

Disputes: southern half of boundary with Ethiopia is a Provisional Administrative Line; territorial dispute with Ethiopia over the Ogaden; possible claims to Djibouti, Ethiopia, and Kenya based on unification of ethnic Somalis

Climate: desert; northeast monsoon (December to February), cooler southwest monsoon (May to October); irregular rainfall; hot, humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north

Natural resources: uranium, and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt

Land use: 2% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 46% meadows and pastures; 14% forest and woodland; 38% other; includes 3% irrigated

Environment: recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Note: strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal

- People Population: 8,424,269 (July 1990), growth rate 0.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 24 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 125 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 53 years male, 54 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Somali(s); adjective—Somali

Ethnic divisions: 85% Somali, rest mainly Bantu; 30,000 Arabs, 3,000 Europeans, 800 Asians

Religion: almost entirely Sunni Muslim

Language: Somali (official); Arabic, Italian, English

Literacy: 11.6% (government est.)

Labor force: 2,200,000; very few are skilled laborers; 70% pastoral nomad, 30% agriculture, government, trading, fishing, handicrafts, and other; 53% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: General Federation of Somali Trade Unions is controlled by the government

- Government Long-form name: Somali Democratic Republic

Type: republic

Capital: Mogadishu

Administrative divisions: 16 regions (plural—NA, singular—gobolka); Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe, Jubbada Hoose, Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe, Shabeellaha Hoose, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed

Independence: 1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland, which became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960, and Italian Somaliland, which became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 July 1960, to form the Somali Republic)

Constitution: 25 August 1979, presidential approval 23 September 1979

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 21 October (1969)

Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—President and Commander in Chief of the Army Maj. Gen. Mohamed SIAD Barre (since 21 October 1969);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Lt. Gen. Mohamed Ali SAMANTAR (since 1 February 1987)

Political parties and leaders: only party—Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party (SRSP), Maj. Gen. Mohamed Siad Barre, general secretary

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: President—last held 23 December 1986 (next to be held December 1993); results—President Siad was reelected without opposition;

People's Assembly—last held 31 December 1984 (next scheduled for December 1989 was postponed); results—SRSP is the only party; seats—(177 total, 171 elected) SRSP 171

Communists: probably some Communist sympathizers in the government hierarchy

Member of: ACP, AfDB, Arab League, EAMA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB—Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador ABDIKARIM Ali Omar; Chancery at Suite 710, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20037; telephone (202) 342-1575; there is a Somali Consulate General in New York; US—Ambassador T. Frank CRIGLER; Embassy at Corso Primo Luglio, Mogadishu (mailing address is P. O. Box 574, Mogadishu); telephone p252o (01) 20811

Flag: light blue with a large white five-pointed star in the center; design based on the flag of the UN (Italian Somaliland was a UN trust territory)

- Economy Overview: One of the world's least developed countries, Somalia has few resources. In 1988 per capita GDP was $210. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, with the livestock sector accounting for about 40% of GDP and about 65% of export earnings. Nomads and seminomads who are dependent upon livestock for their livelihoods make up about 50% of the population. Crop production generates only 10% of GDP and employs about 20% of the work force. The main export crop is bananas; sugar, sorghum, and corn are grown for the domestic market. The small industrial sector is based on the processing of agricultural products and accounts for less than 10% of GDP. At the end of 1988 serious economic problems facing the nation were the external debt of $2.8 billion and double-digit inflation.

GDP: $1.7 billion, per capita $210; real growth rate - 1.4% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 81.7% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $273 million; expenditures $405 million, including capital expenditures of $219 million (1987)

Exports: $58.0 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—livestock, hides, skins, bananas, fish; partners—US 0.5%, Saudi Arabia, Italy, FRG (1986)

Imports: $354.0 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities—textiles, petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials; partners—US 13%, Italy, FRG, Kenya, UK, Saudi Arabia (1986)

External debt: $2.8 billion (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 71,000 kW capacity; 65 million kWh produced, 8 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: a few small industries, including sugar refining, textiles, petroleum refining

Agriculture: dominant sector, led by livestock raising (cattle, sheep, goats); crops—bananas, sorghum, corn, mangoes, sugarcane; not self-sufficient in food; fishing potential largely unexploited

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $618 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $2.8 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $1.1 billion; Communist countries (1970-88), $336 million

Currency: Somali shilling (plural—shillings); 1 Somali shilling (So.Sh.) = 100 centesimi

Exchange rates: Somali shillings (So. Sh.) per US$1—643.92 (December 1989), 170.45 (1988), 105.18 (1987), 72.00 (1986), 39.49 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Highways: 15,215 km total; including 2,335 km bituminous surface, 2,880 km gravel, and 10,000 km improved earth or stabilized soil (1983)

Pipelines: 15 km crude oil

Ports: Mogadishu, Berbera, Chisimayu

Merchant marine: 3 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,563 GRT/9,512 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 60 total, 45 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 20 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: minimal telephone and telegraph service; radio relay and troposcatter system centered on Mogadishu connects a few towns; 6,000 telephones; stations—2 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station; scheduled to receive an ARABSAT station

- Defense Forces Branches: Somali National Army (including Navy, Air Force, and Air Defense Force), National Police Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,878,939; 1,052,644 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: NA —————————————————————————— Country: South Africa - Geography Total area: 1,221,040 km2; land area: 1,221,040 km2; includes Walvis Bay, Marion Island, and Prince Edward Island

Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: 4,973 km total; Botswana 1,840 km, Lesotho 909 km, Mozambique 491 km, Namibia 1,078 km, Swaziland 430 km, Zimbabwe 225 km

Coastline: 2,881 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: South Africa administered Namibia until independence was achieved on 21 March 1990; possible future claim to Walvis Bay by Namibia

Climate: mostly semiarid; subtropical along coast; sunny days, cool nights

Terrain: vast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and narrow coastal plain

Natural resources: gold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, tin, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum, copper, vanadium, salt, natural gas

Land use: 10% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 65% meadows and pastures; 3% forest and woodland; 21% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: lack of important arterial rivers or lakes requires extensive water conservation and control measures

Note: Walvis Bay is an exclave of South Africa in Namibia; completely surrounds Lesotho; almost completely surrounds Swaziland

- People Population: 39,549,941 (July 1990), growth rate 2.67%; includes the 10 so-called homelands, which are not recognized by the US

four independent homelands—Bophuthatswana 2,352,296, growth rate 2.80%; Ciskei 1,025,873, growth rate 2.93%; Transkei 4,367,648, growth rate 4.19%; Venda 665,197, growth rate 3.86%

six other homelands—Gazankulu 742,361, growth rate 3.99%; Kangwane 556,009, growth rate 3.64%; KwaNdebele 348,655, growth rate 3.35%; KwaZulu 5,349,247, growth rate 3.62%; Lebowa 2,704,641, growth rate 3.92%; Qwagwa 268,138, growth rate 3.59%

Birth rate: 35 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 52 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 61 years male, 67 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—South African(s); adjective—South African

Ethnic divisions: 73.8% black, 14.3% white, 9.1% Colored, 2.8% Indian

Religion: most whites and Coloreds and roughly 60% of blacks are Christian; roughly 60% of Indians are Hindu, 20% Muslim

Language: Afrikaans, English (official); many vernacular languages, including Zulu, Xhosa, North and South Sotho, Tswana

Literacy: almost all white population literate; government estimates 50% of blacks literate

Labor force: 11,000,000 economically active; 34% services, 30% agriculture, 29% industry and commerce, 7% mining (1985)

Organized labor: about 17% of total labor force is unionized; African unions represent 15% of black labor force

- Government Long-form name: Republic of South Africa; abbreviated RSA

Type: republic

Capital: administrative, Pretoria; legislative, Cape Town; judicial, Bloemfontein

Administrative divisions: 4 provinces; Cape, Natal, Orange Free State, Transvaal; there are 10 homelands not recognized by the US—4 independent (Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, Transkei, Venda) and 6 other (Gazankulu, Kangwane, KwaNdebele, KwaZulu, Lebowa, Qwaqwa)

Independence: 31 May 1910 (from UK)

Constitution: 3 September 1984

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Republic Day, 31 May (1910)

Executive branch: state president, cabinet, Executive Council (cabinet) Ministers' Councils (from the three houses of Parliament)

Legislative branch: tricameral Parliament consists of the House of Assembly (whites), House of Representatives (Coloreds), and House of Delegates (Indians)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—State President Frederik W. DE KLERK (since 13 September 1989)

Political parties and leaders: white political parties and leaders—National Party (NP), Frederik W. de Klerk (majority party); Conservative Party (CP), Dr. Andries P. Treurnicht (official opposition party); Herstigte National Party (HNP), Jaap Marais; Democratic Party (DP), Zach De Beer, Wynand Malan, and Denis Worrall;

Colored political parties and leaders—Labor Party (LP), Allan Hendrickse (majority party); Democratic Reform Party (DRP), Carter Ebrahim; United Democratic Party (UDP), Jac Rabie; Freedom Party;

Indian political parties and leaders—Solidarity, J. N. Reddy (majority party); National People's Party (NPP), Amichand Rajbansi; Merit People's Party

Suffrage: universal at age 18, but voting rights are racially based

Elections: House of Assembly (whites)—last held 6 September 1989 (next to be held by September 1994); results—NP 58%, CP 23%, DP 19%; seats—(178 total, 166 elected) NP 103, CP 41, DP 34;

House of Representatives (Coloreds)—last held 6 September 1989 (next to be held by September 1994); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(85 total, 80 elected) LP 69, DRP 5, UDP 3, Freedom Party 1, independents 2;

House of Delegates (Indians)—last held 6 September 1989 (next to be held by September 1994); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(45 total, 40 elected) Solidarity 16, NPP 9, Merit People's Party 3, United Party 2, Democratic Party 2, People's Party 1, National Federal Party 1, independents 6

Communists: small Communist party illegal since 1950; party in exile maintains headquarters in London, Daniel Tloome (Chairman) and Joe Slovo (General Secretary)

Other political groups: insurgent groups in exile—African National Congress (ANC), Oliver Tambo; Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC), Zephania Mothopeng;

internal antiapartheid groups—Pan-Africanist Movement (PAM), Clarence Makwetu; United Democratic Front (UDF), Albertina Sisulu and Archibald Gumede

Member of: CCC, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IHO, ILZSG, IMF, INTELSAT, ISO, ITU, IWC—International Whaling Commission, IWC—International Wheat Council, Southern African Customs Union, UN, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG (membership rights in IAEA, ICAO, ITU, WHO, WIPO, and WMO suspended or restricted)

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Piet G. J. KOORNHOF; Chancery at 3051 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 232-4400; there are South African Consulates General in Beverly Hills (California), Chicago, Houston, and New York; US—Ambassador William L. SWING; Embassy at Thibault House, 225 Pretorius Street, Pretoria; telephone p27o (12) 28-4266; there are US Consulates General in Cape Town, Durban, and Johannesburg

Flag: actually four flags in one—three miniature flags reproduced in the center of the white band of the former flag of the Netherlands which has three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and blue; the miniature flags are a vertically hanging flag of the old Orange Free State with a horizontal flag of the UK adjoining on the hoist side and a horizontal flag of the old Transvaal Republic adjoining on the other side

- Economy Overview: Many of the white one-seventh of the South African population enjoy incomes, material comforts, and health and educational standards equal to those of Western Europe. In contrast, most of the remaining population suffers from the poverty patterns of the Third World, including unemployment, lack of job skills, and barriers to movement into higher-paying fields. Inputs and outputs thus do not move smoothly into the most productive employments, and the effectiveness of the market is further lowered by international constraints on dealings with South Africa. The main strength of the economy lies in its rich mineral resources, which provide two-thirds of exports. Average growth of 2% in output in recent years falls far short of the level needed to cut into the high unemployment level.

GDP: $83.5 billion, per capita $2,380; real growth rate 3.2% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 14.67% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 22% (1988); blacks 25-30%, up to 50% in homelands (1988 est.)

Budget: revenues $24.3 billion; expenditures $27.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA billion (FY91)

Exports: $21.5 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities—gold 40%, minerals and metals 23%, food 6%, chemicals 3%; partners—FRG, Japan, UK, US, other EC, Hong Kong

Imports: $18.5 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.); commodities—machinery 27%, chemicals 11%, vehicles and aircraft 11%, textiles, scientific instruments, base metals; partners—US, FRG, Japan, UK, France, Italy, Switzerland

External debt: $21.2 billion (1988 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 5.6% (1988)

Electricity: 34,941,000 kW capacity; 158,000 million kWh produced, 4,100 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining (world's largest producer of diamonds, gold, chrome), automobile assembly, metalworking, machinery, textile, iron and steel, chemical, fertilizer, foodstuffs

Agriculture: accounts for 6% of GDP and 30% of labor force; diversified agriculture, with emphasis on livestock; products—cattle, poultry, sheep, wool, milk, beef, corn, wheat; sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; self-sufficient in food

Aid: NA

Currency: rand (plural—rand); 1 rand (R) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: rand (R) per US$1—2.5555 (January 1990), 2.6166 (1989), 2.2611 (1988), 2.0350 (1987), 2.2685 (1986), 2.1911 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications Railroads: 20,638 km route distance total; 35,079 km of 1.067-meter gauge trackage (counts double and multiple tracking as single track); 314 km of 610 mm gauge

Highways: 188,309 km total; 54,013 km paved, 134,296 km crushed stone, gravel, or improved earth

Pipelines: 931 km crude oil; 1,748 km refined products; 322 km natural gas

Ports: Durban, Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, Richard's Bay, Saldanha, Mosselbaai, Walvis Bay

Merchant marine: 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 275,684 GRT/273,973 DWT; includes 7 container, 1 vehicle carrier, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker

Civil air: 81 major transport aircraft

Airports: 931 total, 793 usable; 124 with permanent-surface runways; 4 with runways over 3,659 m; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 213 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: the system is the best developed, most modern, and has the highest capacity in Africa; it consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines, coaxial cables, radio relay links, fiber optic cable, and radiocommunication stations; key centers are Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and Pretoria; 4,500,000 telephones; stations—14 AM, 286 FM, 67 TV; 1 submarine cable; satellite earth stations—1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Medical Services

Military manpower: males 15-49, 9,544,357; 5,828,167 fit for military service; 419,815 reach military age (18) annually; obligation for service in Citizen Force or Commandos begins at 18; volunteers for service in permanent force must be 17; national service obligation is two years; figures include the so-called homelands not recognized by the US

Defense expenditures: 5% of GDP, or $4 billion (1989 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (dependent territory of the UK) - Geography Total area: 4,066 km2; land area: 4,066 km2; includes Shag and Clerke Rocks

Comparative area: slightly larger than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: undetermined

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: administered by the UK, claimed by Argentina

Climate: variable, with mostly westerly winds throughout the year, interspersed with periods of calm; nearly all precipitation falls as snow

Terrain: most of the islands, rising steeply from the sea, are rugged and mountainous; South Georgia is largely barren and has steep, glacier-covered mountains; the South Sandwich Islands are of volcanic origin with some active volcanoes

Natural resources: fish

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other; largely covered by permanent ice and snow with some sparse vegetation consisting of grass, moss, and lichen

Environment: reindeer, introduced early in this century, live on South Georgia; weather conditions generally make it difficult to approach the South Sandwich Islands; the South Sandwich Islands are subject to active volcanism

Note: the north coast of South Georgia has several large bays, which provide good anchorage

- People Population: no permanent population; there is a small military garrison on South Georgia and the British Antarctic Survey has a biological station on Bird Island; the South Sandwich islands are uninhabited

- Government Long-form name: South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (no short-form name)

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Grytviken Harbour on South Georgia is the chief town

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Constitution: 3 October 1985

Legal system: English common law

National holiday: Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)

Executive branch: British monarch, commissioner

Legislative branch: none

Judicial branch: none

Leaders: Chief of State—Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Commissioner William Hugh FULLERTON (since 1988; resident at Stanley, Falkland Islands)

- Economy Overview: Some fishing takes place in adjacent waters. There is a potential source of income from harvesting fin fish and krill. The islands receive income from postage stamps produced in the UK.

Budget: revenues $291,777; expenditures $451,011, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY88 est.)

Electricity: 900 kW capacity; 2 million kWh produced, NA kWh per capita (1989)

- Communications Highways: NA

Ports: Grytviken Harbour on South Georgia

Airports: none

Telecommunications: coastal radio station at Grytviken; no broadcast stations

- Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK —————————————————————————— Country: Soviet Union - Geography Total area: 22,402,200 km2; land area: 22,272,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of US

Land boundaries: 19,933 km total; Afghanistan 2,384 km, Czechoslovakia 98 km, China 7,520 km, Finland 1,313 km, Hungary 135 km, Iran 1,690 km, North Korea 17 km, Mongolia 3,441 km, Norway 196 km, Poland 1,215 km, Romania 1,307 km, Turkey 617 km

Coastline: 42,777 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: bilateral negotiations are under way to resolve four disputed sections of the boundary with China (Pamir, Argun, Amur, and Khabarovsk areas); US Government has not recognized the incorporation of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania into the Soviet Union; Habomai Islands, Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan islands occupied by Soviet Union since 1945, claimed by Japan; Kuril Islands administered by Soviet Union; maritime dispute with Norway over portion of Barents Sea; has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other nation; Bessarabia question with Romania; Kurdish question among Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and the USSR

Climate: mostly temperate to arctic continental; winters vary from cool along Black Sea to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from hot in southern deserts to cool along Arctic coast

Terrain: broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia, deserts in Central Asia, mountains in south

Natural resources: self-sufficient in oil, natural gas, coal, and strategic minerals (except bauxite, alumina, tantalum, tin, tungsten, fluorspar, and molybdenum), timber, gold, manganese, lead, zinc, nickel, mercury, potash, phosphates

Land use: 10% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 17% meadows and pastures; 41% forest and woodland; 32% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: despite size and diversity, small percentage of land is arable and much is too far north; some of most fertile land is water deficient or has insufficient growing season; many better climates have poor soils; hot, dry, desiccating sukhovey wind affects south; desertification; continuous permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development

Note: largest country in world, but unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of world

- People Population: 290,938,469 (July 1990), growth rate 0.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 24 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 74 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Soviet(s); adjective—Soviet

Ethnic divisions: Russian 50.78%, Ukrainian 15.45%, Uzbek 5.84%, Byelorussian 3.51%, Kazakh 2.85%, Azerbaijan 2.38%, Armenian 1.62%, Tajik 1.48%, Georgian 1.39%, Moldavian 1.17%, Lithuanian 1.07%, Turkmen 0.95%, Kirghiz 0.89%, Latvian 0.51%, Estonian 0.36%, others 9.75%

Religion: 20% Russian Orthodox; 10% Muslim; 7% Protestant, Georgian Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox, and Roman Catholic; less than 1% Jewish; 60% atheist (est.)

Language: Russian (official); more than 200 languages and dialects (at least 18 with more than 1 million speakers); 75% Slavic group, 8% other Indo-European, 12% Altaic, 3% Uralian, 2% Caucasian

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 152,300,000 civilians; 80% industry and other nonagricultural fields, 20% agriculture; shortage of skilled labor (1989)

Organized labor: 98% of workers are union members; all trade unions are organized within the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions (AUCCTU) and conduct their work under guidance of the Communist party

- Government Long-form name: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; abbreviated USSR

Type: Communist state

Capital: Moscow

Administrative divisions: 1 soviet federative socialist republic* (sovetskaya federativnaya sotsialistcheskaya respublika) and 14 soviet socialist republics (sovetskiye sotsialisticheskiye respubliki, singular—sovetskaya sotsialisticheskaya respublika); Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic, Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic, Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic, Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic, Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic*, Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic, Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic; note—the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic is often abbreviated RSFSR and Soviet Socialist Republic is often abbreviated SSR

Independence: 1721 (Russian Empire proclaimed)

Constitution: 7 October 1977

Legal system: civil law system as modified by Communist legal theory; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Great October Socialist Revolution, 7-8 November (1917)

Executive branch: president

Legislative branch: the Congress of People's Deputies is the supreme organ of USSR state power and selects the bicameral USSR Supreme Soviet (Verkhovnyy Sovyet) which consists of two coequal houses—Council of the Union (Sovet Soyuza) and Council of Nationalities (Sovet Natsionalnostey)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of the USSR

Leaders: Chief of State—President Mikhail Sergeyevich GORBACHEV (since 14 March 1990; General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party since 11 March 1985);

Head of Government—Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers Nikolay Ivanovich RYZHKOV (since 28 September 1985)

Political parties and leaders: only party—Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), President Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, general secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU; note—the CPSU is the only party, but others are forming

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: President—last held 14 March 1990 (next to be held NA 1995); results—Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev was elected by the Congress of People's Deputies;

Congress of People's Deputies—last held 12 March 1990 (next to be held NA); results—CPSU is the only party; seats—(2,250 total) CPSU 1,931, non-CPSU 319;

USSR Supreme Soviet—last held NA June 1989 (next to be held NA); results—CPSU is the only party; seats—(542 total) CPSU 475, non-CPSU 67;

Council of the Union—last held Spring 1989 (next to be held NA); results—CPSU is the only party; seats—(271 total) CPSU 239, non-CPSU 32;

Council of Nationalities—last held Spring 1989 (next to be held NA); results—CPSU is the only party; seats—(271 total) CPSU 236, non-CPSU 35

Communists: about 19 million party members

Other political or pressure groups: Komsomol, trade unions, and other organizations that facilitate Communist control; regional popular fronts, informal organizations, and nascent parties with varying attitudes toward the Communist Party establishment

Member of: CEMA, ESCAP, IAEA, IBEC, ICAC, ICAO, ICCO, ICES, ILO, ILZSG, IMO, INRO, INTERPOL, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, International Whaling Commission, IWC—International Wheat Council, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, Warsaw Pact, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador-designate Aleksandr BESSMERTNYKH; Chancery at 1125 16th Street NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202) 628-7551 or 8548; there is a Soviet Consulate General in San Francisco; US—Ambassador Jack F. MATLOCK, Jr.; Embassy at Ulitsa Chaykovskogo 19/21/23, Moscow (mailing address is APO New York 09862); telephone p7o (096) 252-24-51 through 59; there is a US Consulate General in Leningrad

Flag: red with the yellow silhouette of a crossed hammer and sickle below a yellow-edged five-pointed red star in the upper hoist-side corner

- Economy Overview: The first five years of perestroyka (economic restructuring) have undermined the institutions and processes of the Soviet command economy without replacing them with efficiently functioning markets. The initial reforms featured greater authority for enterprise managers over prices, wages, product mix, investment, sources of supply, and customers. But in the absence of effective market discipline, the result was the disappearance of low-price goods, excessive wage increases, an even larger volume of unfinished construction projects, and, in general, continued economic stagnation. The Gorbachev regime has made at least four serious errors in economic policy in these five years: the unpopular and short-lived anti-alcohol campaign; the initial cutback in imports of consumer goods; the failure to act decisively for the privatization of agriculture; and the buildup of a massive overhang of unspent rubles in the hands of households and enterprises. In October 1989, a top economic adviser, Leonid Abalkin presented an ambitious but reasonable timetable for the conversion to a partially privatized market system in the 1990s. In December 1989, however, Premier Ryzhkov's conservative approach prevailed, namely, the contention that a period of retrenchment was necessary to provide a stable financial and legislative base for launching further reforms. Accordingly, the new strategy was to put the reform process on hold in 1990-92 by recentralizing economic authority and to placate the rank-and-file through sharp increases in consumer goods output. In still another policy twist, the leadership in early 1990 was considering a marked speedup in the marketization process. Because the economy is caught in between two systems, there was in 1989 an even greater mismatch between what was produced and what would serve the best interests of enterprises and households. Meanwhile, the seething nationality problems have been dislocating regional patterns of economic specialization and pose a further major threat to growth prospects over the next few years.

GNP: $2,659.5 billion, per capita $9,211; real growth rate 1.4% (1989 est. based on Soviet statistics; cutbacks in Soviet reporting on products included in sample make the estimate subject to greater uncertainty than in earlier years)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: officially, no unemployment

Budget: revenues $622 billion; expenditures $781 billion, including capital expenditures of $119 billion (1989 est.)

Exports: $110.7 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, metals, wood, agricultural products, and a wide variety of manufactured goods (primarily capital goods and arms); partners—Eastern Europe 49%, EC 14%, Cuba 5%, US, Afghanistan (1988)

Imports: $107.3 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities—grain and other agricultural products, machinery and equipment, steel products (including large-diameter pipe), consumer manufactures; partners—Eastern Europe 54%, EC 11%, Cuba, China, US (1988)

External debt: $27.3 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 0.2% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 355,000,000 kW capacity; 1,790,000 million kWh produced, 6,150 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: diversified, highly developed capital goods and defense industries; consumer goods industries comparatively less developed

Agriculture: accounts for roughly 20% of GNP and labor force; production based on large collective and state farms; inefficiently managed; wide range of temperate crops and livestock produced; world's second-largest grain producer after the US; shortages of grain, oilseeds, and meat; world's leading producer of sawnwood and roundwood; annual fish catch among the world's largest—11.2 million metric tons (1987)

Illicit drugs: illegal producer of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for domestic consumption; government has begun eradication program to control cultivation; used as a transshipment country

Aid: donor—extended to non-Communist less developed countries (1954-88), $47.4 billion; extended to other Communist countries (1954-88), $147.6 billion

Currency: ruble (plural—rubles); 1 ruble (R) = 100 kopeks

Exchange rates: rubles (R) per US$1—0.600 (February 1990), 0.629 (1989), 0.629 (1988), 0.633 (1987), 0.704 (1986), 0.838 (1985); note—the exchange rate is administratively set and should not be used indiscriminately to convert domestic rubles to dollars; on 1 November 1989 the USSR began using a rate of 6.26 rubles to the dollar for Western tourists buying rubles and for Soviets traveling abroad, but retained the official exchange rate for most trade transactions

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 146,100 km total; 51,700 km electrified; does not include industrial lines (1987)

Highways: 1,609,900 km total; 1,196,000 km hard-surfaced (asphalt, concrete, stone block, asphalt treated, gravel, crushed stone); 413,900 km earth (1987)

Inland waterways: 122,500 km navigable, exclusive of Caspian Sea (1987)

Pipelines: 81,500 km crude oil and refined products; 195,000 km natural gas (1987)

Ports: Leningrad, Riga, Tallinn, Kaliningrad, Liepaja, Ventspils, Murmansk, Arkhangel'sk, Odessa, Novorossiysk, Il'ichevsk, Nikolayev, Sevastopol', Vladivostok, Nakhodka; inland ports are Astrakhan', Baku, Gor'kiy, Kazan', Khabarovsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kuybyshev, Moscow, Rostov, Volgograd, Kiev

Merchant marine: 1,646 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,436,063 GRT/22,732,215 DWT; includes 53 passenger, 937 cargo, 52 container, 11 barge carrier, 5 roll-on/float off cargo, 5 railcar carrier, 108 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 251 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 11 liquefied gas, 21 combination ore/oil, 4 specialized liquid carrier, 17 chemical tanker, 171 bulk; note—639 merchant ships are based in Black Sea, 383 in Baltic Sea, 408 in Soviet Far East, and 216 in Barents Sea and White Sea; the Soviet Ministry of Merchant Marine is beginning to use foreign registries for its merchant ships to increase the economic competitiveness of the fleet in the international market—the first reregistered ships have gone to the Cypriot flag

Civil air: 4,500 major transport aircraft

Airports: 6,950 total, 4,530 usable; 1,050 with permanent-surface runways; 30 with runways over 3,659 m; 490 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 660 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: extensive network of AM-FM stations broadcasting both Moscow and regional programs; main TV centers in Moscow and Leningrad plus 11 more in the Soviet republics; hundreds of TV stations; 85,000,000 TV sets; 162,000,000 radio receivers; many satellite earth stations and extensive satellite networks (including 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth stations)

- Defense Forces Branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Defense Forces, Air Forces, Strategic Rocket Forces

Military manpower: males 15-49, 69,634,893; 55,588,743 fit for military service; 2,300,127 million reach military age (18) annually (down somewhat from 2,500,000 a decade ago)

Defense expenditures: NA —————————————————————————— Country: Spain - Geography Total area: 504,750 km2; land area: 499,400 km2; includes Balaeric Islands, Canary Islands, Ceuta, Mellila, Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Oregon

Land boundaries: 1,903.2 km total; Andorra 65 km, France 623 km, Gibraltar 1.2 km, Portugal 1,214 km

Coastline: 4,964 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: Gibraltar question with UK; controls two presidios or places of sovereignty (Ceuta and Melilla) on the north coast of Morocco

Climate: temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast

Terrain: large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees in north

Natural resources: coal, lignite, iron ore, uranium, mercury, pyrites, fluorspar, gypsum, zinc, lead, tungsten, copper, kaolin, potash, hydropower

Land use: 31% arable land; 10% permanent crops; 21% meadows and pastures; 31% forest and woodland; 7% other; includes 6% irrigated

Environment: deforestation; air pollution

Note: strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

- People Population: 39,268,715 (July 1990), growth rate 0.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 11 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 82 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Spaniard(s); adjective—Spanish

Ethnic divisions: composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types

Religion: 99% Roman Catholic, 1% other sects

Language: Castilian Spanish; second languages include 17% Catalan, 7% Galician, and 2% Basque

Literacy: 97%

Labor force: 14,621,000; 53% services, 24% industry, 14% agriculture, 9% construction (1988)

Organized labor: less 10% of labor force (1988)

- Government Long-form name: Kingdom of Spain

Type: parliamentary monarchy

Capital: Madrid

Administrative divisions: 17 autonomous communities (comunidades autonomas, singular—comunidad autonoma); Andalucia, Aragon, Asturias, Canarias, Cantabria, Castilla-La Mancha, Castilla y Leon, Cataluna, Extremadura, Galicia, Islas Baleares, La Rioja, Madrid, Murcia, Navarra, Pais Vasco, Valenciana

Independence: 1492 (expulsion of the Moors and unification)

Constitution: 6 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978

Legal system: civil law system, with regional applications; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day, 12 October

Executive branch: monarch, president of the government (prime minister), deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet), Council of State

Legislative branch: bicameral The General Courts or National Assembly (Las Cortes Generales) consists of an upper house or Senate (Senado) and a lower house or Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo)

Leaders: Chief of State—King JUAN CARLOS I (since 22 November 1975);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Felipe GONZALEZ Marquez (since 2 December 1982); Deputy Prime Minister Alfonso GUERRA Gonzalez (since 2 December 1982)

Political parties and leaders: principal national parties, from right to left—Popular Party (PP), Jose Maria Aznar; Popular Democratic Party (PDP), Luis de Grandes; Social Democratic Center (CDS), Adolfo Suarez Gonzalez; Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE), Felipe Gonzalez Marquez; Spanish Communist Party (PCE), Julio Anguita; chief regional parties—Convergence and Unity (CiU), Jordi Pujol Saley, in Catalonia; Basque Nationalist Party (PNV), Xabier Arzallus; Basque Solidarity (EA), Carlos Garaicoetxea Urizza; Basque Popular Unity (HB), Jon Idigoras; Basque Left (EE), Juan Maria Bandries Molet; Andalusian Party (PA); Independent Canary Group (AIC); Aragon Regional Party (PAR); Valencian Union (UV)

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: The Courts General—last held 29 October 1989 (next to be held October 1993); results—PSOE 39.6%, PP 25.8%, CDS 9%, Communist-led coalition (IU) 9%, CiU 5%, Basque Nationalist Party 1.2%, HB 1%, Andalusian Party 1%, others 8.4%; seats—(350 total, 18 vacant pending new elections caused by voting irregularities) PSOE 176, PP 106, CiU 18, IU 17, CDS 14, PNV 5, HB 4, others 10

Communists: PCE membership declined from a possible high of 160,000 in 1977 to roughly 60,000 in 1987; the party gained almost 1 million voters and 10 deputies in the 1989 election; voters came mostly from the disgruntled socialist left; remaining strength is in labor, where it dominates the Workers Commissions trade union (one of the country's two major labor centrals), which claims a membership of about 1 million; experienced a modest recovery in 1986 national election, nearly doubling the share of the vote it received in 1982

Other political or pressure groups: on the extreme left, the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) and the First of October Antifascist Resistance Group (GRAPO) use terrorism to oppose the government; free labor unions (authorized in April 1977) include the Communist-dominated Workers Commissions (CCOO); the Socialist General Union of Workers (UGT), and the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union (USO); the Catholic Church; business and landowning interests; Opus Dei; university students

Member of: Andean Pact (observer), ASSIMER, CCC, Council of Europe, EC, ESA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IDB—Inter-American Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU, ITC, ITU, IWC—International Wheat Council, NATO, OAS (observer), OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Julian SANTAMARIA; Chancery at 2700 15th Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 265-0190 or 0191; there are Spanish Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico); US—Ambassador Joseph ZAPPALA; Embassy at Serrano 75, Madrid 6 (mailing address is APO New York 09285); telephone p34o (1) 276-3400 or 3600; there is a US Consulate General in Barcelona and a Consulate in Bilbao

Flag: three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double width), and red with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band; the coat of arms includes the royal seal framed by the Pillars of Hercules which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on either side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar

- Economy Overview: This Western capitalistic economy has done well since Spain joined the European Economic Community in 1986. With increases in real GNP of 5.5% in 1987 and about 5% in 1988 and 1989, Spain has been the fastest growing member of the EC. Increased investment—both domestic and foreign—has been the most important factor pushing the economic expansion. Inflation moderated to 4.8% in 1988, but an overheated economy caused inflation to reach an estimated 7% in 1989. Another economic problem facing Spain is an unemployment rate of 16.5%, the highest in Europe.

GNP: $398.7 billion, per capita $10,100; real growth rate 4.8% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.0% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 16.5% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $57.8 billion; expenditures $66.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $10.4 billion (1987)

Exports: $40.2 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—foodstuffs, live animals, wood, footwear, machinery, chemicals; partners—EC 66%, US 8%, other developed countries 9%

Imports: $60.4 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities—petroleum, footwear, machinery, chemicals, grain, soybeans, coffee, tobacco, iron and steel, timber, cotton, transport equipment; partners—EC 57%, US 9%, other developed countries 13%, Middle East 3%

External debt: $32.7 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.0% (1988)

Electricity: 46,589,000 kW capacity; 157,040 million kWh produced, 3,980 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools

Agriculture: accounts for 5% of GNP and 14% of labor force; major products—grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus fruit, beef, pork, poultry, dairy; largely self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 1.4 million metric tons among top 20 nations

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $1.9 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-79), $545.0 million

Currency: peseta (plural—pesetas); 1 peseta (Pta) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: pesetas (Ptas) per US$1—109.69 (January 1990), 118.38 (1989), 116.49 (1988), 123.48 (1987), 140.05 (1986), 170.04 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 15,430 km total; Spanish National Railways (RENFE) operates 12,691 km 1.668-meter gauge, 6,184 km electrified, and 2,295 km double track; FEVE (government-owned narrow-gauge railways) operates 1,821 km of predominantly 1.000-meter gauge and 441 km electrified; privately owned railways operate 918 km of predominantly 1.000-meter gauge, 512 km electrified, and 56 km double track

Highways: 150,839 km total; 82,513 km national (includes 2,433 km limited-access divided highway, 63,042 km bituminous treated, 17,038 km intermediate bituminous, concrete, or stone block) and 68,326 km provincial or local roads (bituminous treated, intermediate bituminous, or stone block)

Inland waterways: 1,045 km, but of minor economic importance

Pipelines: 265 km crude oil; 1,794 km refined products; 1,666 km natural gas

Ports: Algeciras, Alicante, Almeria, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cadiz, Cartagena, Castellon de la Plana, Ceuta, El Ferrol del Caudillo, Puerto de Gijon, Huelva, La Coruna, Las Palmas (Canary Islands), Mahon, Malaga, Melilla, Rota, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Sagunto, Tarragona, Valencia, Vigo, and 175 minor ports

Merchant marine: 324 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,492,563 GRT/6,128,190 DWT; includes 2 passenger, 9 short-sea passenger, 121 cargo, 19 refrigerated cargo, 17 container, 23 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 51 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 16 chemical tanker, 10 liquefied gas, 1 specialized tanker, 1 combination ore/oil, 49 bulk, 5 vehicle carrier

Civil air: 142 major transport aircraft

Airports: 110 total, 103 usable; 62 with permanent-surface runways; 4 with runways over 3,659 m; 20 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 29 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: generally adequate, modern facilities; 15,310,000 telephones; stations—196 AM, 404 (134 relays) FM, 143 (1,297 relays) TV; 17 coaxial submarine cables; communications satellite earth stations operating in INTELSAT (5 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean), MARISAT, and ENTELSAT systems

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 10,032,649; 8,141,384 fit for military service; 338,582 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.1% of GDP, or $8.4 billion (1989 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: Spratly Islands - Geography Total area: less than 5 km2; land area: less than 5 km2; includes 100 or so islets, coral reefs, and sea mounts scattered over the South China Sea

Comparative area: undetermined

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 926 km

Maritime claims: undetermined

Disputes: China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam claim all or part of the Spratly Islands

Climate: tropical

Terrain: flat

Natural resources: fish, guano; oil and natural gas potential

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: subject to typhoons; includes numerous small islands, atolls, shoals, and coral reefs

Note: strategically located near several primary shipping lanes in the central South China Sea; serious navigational hazard

- People Population: no permanent inhabitants; garrisons

- Government Long-form name: none

- Economy Overview: Economic activity is limited to commercial fishing and phosphate mining. Geological surveys carried out several years ago suggest that substantial reserves of oil and natural gas may lie beneath the islands; commercial exploitation has yet to be developed.

Industries: some guano mining

- Communications Airports: 3 total, 2 usable; none with runways over 2,439 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

- Defense Forces Note: approximately 50 small islands or reefs are occupied by China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam —————————————————————————— Country: Sri Lanka - Geography Total area: 65,610 km2; land area: 64,740 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 1,340 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; monsoonal; northeast monsoon (December to March); southwest monsoon (June to October)

Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plain; mountains in south-central interior

Natural resources: limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems, phosphates, clay

Land use: 16% arable land; 17% permanent crops; 7% meadows and pastures; 37% forest and woodland; 23% other; includes 8% irrigated

Environment: occasional cyclones, tornados; deforestation; soil erosion

Note: only 29 km from India across the Palk Strait; near major Indian Ocean sea lanes

- People Population: 17,196,436 (July 1990), growth rate 1.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 21 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 31 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 72 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Sri Lankan(s); adjective—Sri Lankan

Ethnic divisions: 74% Sinhalese; 18% Tamil; 7% Moor; 1% Burgher, Malay, and Veddha

Religion: 69% Buddhist, 15% Hindu, 8% Christian, 8% Muslim

Language: Sinhala (official); Sinhala and Tamil listed as national languages; Sinhala spoken by about 74% of population, Tamil spoken by about 18%; English commonly used in government and spoken by about 10% of the population

Literacy: 87%

Labor force: 6,600,000; 45.9% agriculture, 13.3% mining and manufacturing, 12.4% trade and transport, 28.4% services and other (1985 est.)

Organized labor: about 33% of labor force, over 50% of which are employed on tea, rubber, and coconut estates

- Government Long-form name: Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka

Type: republic

Capital: Colombo

Administrative divisions: 24 districts; Amparai, Anuradhapura, Badulla, Batticaloa, Colombo, Galle, Gampaha, Hambantota, Jaffna, Kalutara, Kandy, Kegalla, Kurunegala, Mannar, Matale, Matara, Moneragala, Mullativu, Nuwara Eliya, Polonnaruwa, Puttalam, Ratnapura, Trincomalee, Vavuniya; note—the administrative structure may now include 8 provinces (Central, North Central, North Eastern, North Western, Sabaragamuwa, Southern, Uva, and Western) and 25 districts (with Kilinochchi added to the existing districts)

Independence: 4 February 1948 (from UK; formerly Ceylon)

Constitution: 31 August 1978

Legal system: a highly complex mixture of English common law, Roman-Dutch, Muslim, and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence and National Day, 4 February (1948)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—President Ranasinghe PREMADASA (since 2 January 1989);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Dingiri Banda WIJETUNGE (since 6 March 1989)

Political parties and leaders: United National Party (UNP), Ranasinghe Premadasa; Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP), Sirimavo Bandaranaike; Sri Lanka Muslim Congress (SLMC), Mhm. Ashraff; All Ceylon Tamil Congress (ACTC), Kumar Ponnambalam; Mahajana Eksath Peramuna (MEP, or People's United Front), Dinesh Gundawardene; Sri Lanka Mahajana Party (SLMP, or Sri Lanka People's Party), Chandrika Baudaranaike Kumaranatunga; Lanka Sama Samaja Party (LSSP, Lanka Socialist Party/Trotskyite), Colin R. de Silva; Nava Sama Samaja Party (NSSP, or New Socialist Party), Vasudeva Nanayakkara; Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF), leader NA; Communist Party/Moscow (CP/M), K. P. Silva; Communist Party/Beijing (CP/B), N. Shanmugathasan

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: President—last held 19 December 1988 (next to be held December 1994); results—Ranasinghe Premadasa (UNP) 50%, Sirimavo Bandaranaike (SLFP) 45%, others 5%;

Parliament—last held 15 February 1989 (next to be held by February 1995); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(225 total) UNP 125, SLFP 67, others 33

Other political or pressure groups: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) and other smaller Tamil separatist groups; Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (JVP or People's Liberation Front); Buddhist clergy; Sinhalese Buddhist lay groups; labor unions

Member of: ADB, ANRPC, CCC, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, NAM, SAARC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador W. Susanta De ALWIS; Chancery at 2148 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 483-4025 through 4028; there is a Sri Lankan Consulate in New York; US—Ambassador Marion V. CREEKMORE; Embassy at 210 Galle Road, Colombo 3 (mailing address is P. O. Box 106, Colombo); telephone p94o (1) 548007

Flag: yellow with two panels; the smaller hoist-side panel has two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and orange; the other panel is a large dark red rectangle with a yellow lion holding a sword and there is a yellow bo leaf in each corner; the yellow field appears as a border that goes around the entire flag and extends between the two panels

- Economy Overview: Agriculture, forestry, and fishing dominate the economy, employing about half of the labor force and accounting for about 25% of GDP. The plantation crops of tea, rubber, and coconuts provide about 50% of export earnings and almost 20% of budgetary revenues. The economy has been plagued by high rates of unemployment since the late 1970s.

GDP: $6.1 billion, per capita $370; real growth rate 2.7% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 20% (1988 est.)

Budget: revenues $1.5 billion; expenditures $2.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $0.7 billion (1989)

Exports: $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—tea, textiles and garments, petroleum products, coconut, rubber, agricultural products, gems and jewelry, marine products; partners—US 26%, Egypt, Iraq, UK, FRG, Singapore, Japan

Imports: $2.3 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities—petroleum, machinery and equipment, textiles and textile materials, wheat, transportation equipment, electrical machinery, sugar, rice; partners—Japan, Saudi Arabia, US 5.6%, India, Singapore, FRG, UK, Iran

External debt: $5.6 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1988)

Electricity: 1,300,000 kW capacity; 4,200 million kWh produced, 250 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: processing of rubber, tea, coconuts, and other agricultural commodities; cement, petroleum refining, textiles, tobacco, clothing

Agriculture: accounts for 25% of GDP and nearly half of labor force; most important staple crop is paddy rice; other field crops—sugarcane, grains, pulses, oilseeds, roots, spices; cash crops—tea, rubber, coconuts; animal products—milk, eggs, hides, meat; not self-sufficient in rice production

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $932 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-87), $4.3 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $169 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $369 million

Currency: Sri Lankan rupee (plural—rupees); 1 Sri Lankan rupee (SLRe) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Sri Lankan rupees (SLRs) per US$1—40.000 (January 1990), 36.047 (1989), 31.807 (1988), 29.445 (1987), 28.017 (1986), 27.163 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 1,868 km total (1985); all 1.868-meter broad gauge; 102 km double track; no electrification; government owned

Highways: 66,176 km total (1985); 24,300 km paved (mostly bituminous treated), 28,916 km crushed stone or gravel, 12,960 km improved earth or unimproved earth; several thousand km of mostly unmotorable tracks

Inland waterways: 430 km; navigable by shallow-draft craft

Pipelines: crude and refined products, 62 km (1987)

Ports: Colombo, Trincomalee

Merchant marine: 40 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 258,923 GRT/334,702 DWT; includes 22 cargo, 8 refrigerated cargo, 4 container, 1 livestock carrier, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 3 bulk

Civil air: 8 major transport (including 1 leased)

Airports: 14 total, 13 usable; 12 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 7 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good international service; 109,900 telephones (1982); stations—12 AM, 5 FM, 1 TV; submarine cables extend to Indonesia, Djibouti, India; 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Air Force, Navy, Police Force, Special Police Task Force, National Auxiliary Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,568,648; 3,574,637 fit for military service; 177,610 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 5% of GDP, or $300 million (1989 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: Sudan - Geography Total area: 2,505,810 km2; land area: 2,376,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than one quarter the size of US

Land boundaries: 7,697 km total; Central African Republic 1,165 km, Chad 1,360 km, Egypt 1,273 km, Ethiopia 2,221 km, Kenya 232 km, Libya 383 km, Uganda 435 km, Zaire 628 km

Coastline: 853 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 18 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: international boundary and Administrative Boundary with Kenya; international boundary and Administrative Boundary with Egypt

Climate: tropical in south; arid desert in north; rainy season (April to October)

Terrain: generally flat, featureless plain; mountains in east and west

Natural resources: modest reserves of crude oil, iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, crude oil

Land use: 5% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 24% meadows and pastures; 20% forest and woodland; 51% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: dominated by the Nile and its tributaries; dust storms; desertification

Note: largest country in Africa

- People Population: 24,971,806 (July 1990), growth rate 2.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 44 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 14 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 107 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 51 years male, 55 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Sudanese (sing. and pl.); adjective—Sudanese

Ethnic divisions: 52% black, 39% Arab, 6% Beja, 2% foreigners, 1% other

Religion: 70% Sunni Muslim (in north), 20% indigenous beliefs, 5% Christian (mostly in south and Khartoum)

Language: Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, and Sudanic languages, English; program of Arabization in process

Literacy: 31% (1986)

Labor force: 6,500,000; 80% agriculture, 10% industry and commerce, 6% government; labor shortages for almost all categories of skilled employment (1983 est.); 52% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: trade unions suspended following 30 June 1989 coup; now in process of being legalized anew

- Government Long-form name: Republic of the Sudan

Type: military; civilian government suspended and martial law imposed after 30 June 1989 coup

Capital: Khartoum

Administrative divisions: 9 regions (aqalim, singular—iqlim); Aali an Nil, Al Awsat, Al Istiwai, Al Khartum, Ash Shamali, Ash Sharqi, Bahr al Ghazal, Darfur, Kurdufan

Independence: 1 January 1956 (from Egypt and UK; formerly Anglo-Egyptian Sudan)

Constitution: 12 April 1973, suspended following coup of 6 April 1985; interim constitution of 10 October 1985 suspended following coup of 30 June 1989

Legal system: based on English common law and Islamic law; in September 1983 then President Nimeiri declared the penal code would conform to Islamic law; some separate religious courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 January (1956)

Executive branch: executive and legislative authority vested in a 15-member Revolutionary Command Council (RCC); chairman of the RCC acts as prime minister; in July 1989 RCC appointed a predominately civilian 22-member cabinet to function as advisers

Legislative branch: none

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Special Revolutionary Courts

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—Revolutionary Command Council Chairman and Prime Minister Brig. Gen. Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 30 June 1989); Deputy Chairman of the Command Council and Deputy Prime Minister Brig. Gen. al-Zubayr Muhammad SALIH (since 9 July 1989)

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