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The 1990 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency
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Ethnic divisions: 59% Malay and other indigenous, 32% Chinese, 9% Indian

Religion: Peninsular Malaysia—Malays nearly all Muslim, Chinese predominantly Buddhists, Indians predominantly Hindu; Sabah—38% Muslim, 17% Christian, 45% other; Sarawak—35% tribal religion, 24% Buddhist and Confucianist, 20% Muslim, 16% Christian, 5% other

Language: Peninsular Malaysia—Malay (official); English, Chinese dialects, Tamil; Sabah—English, Malay, numerous tribal dialects, Mandarin and Hakka dialects predominate among Chinese; Sarawak—English, Malay, Mandarin, numerous tribal languages

Literacy: 65.0% overall, age 20 and up; Peninsular Malaysia—80%; Sabah—60%; Sarawak—60%

Labor force: 6,800,000; 30.8% agriculture, 17% manufacturing, 13.6% government, 5.8% construction, 4.3% finance, 3.4% business services, transport and communications, 0.6% mining, 24.5% other (1989 est.)

Organized labor: 660,000, 10% of total labor force (1988)

- Government Long-form name: none

Type: Federation of Malaysia formed 9 July 1963; constitutional monarchy nominally headed by the paramount ruler (king) and a bicameral Parliament composed of a 58-member Senate and a 177-member House of Representatives; Peninsular Malaysian states—hereditary rulers in all but Penang and Melaka, where governors are appointed by Malaysian Government; powers of state governments are limited by federal Constitution; Sabah—self-governing state, holds 20 seats in House of Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and other powers delegated to federal government; Sarawak—self-governing state within Malaysia, holds 24 seats in House of Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and other powers delegated to federal government

Capital: Kuala Lumpur

Administrative divisions: 13 states (negeri-negeri, singular—negeri) and 2 federal territories* (wilayah-wilayah persekutuan, singular—wilayah persekutuan); Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Labuan*, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Terengganu, Wilayah Persekutuan*

Independence: 31 August 1957 (from UK)

Constitution: 31 August 1957, amended 16 September 1963 when Federation of Malaya became Federation of Malaysia

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court at request of supreme head of the federation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day, 31 August (1957)

Executive branch: paramount ruler, deputy paramount ruler, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlimen) consists of an upper house or Senate (Dewan Negara) and a lower house or House of Representatives (Dewan Rakyat)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—Paramount Ruler AZLAN Muhibbuddin Shah ibni Sultan Yusof Izzudin (since 26 April 1989); Deputy Paramount Ruler JA'AFAR ibni Abdul Rahman (since 26 April 1989);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Dr. MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (since 16 July 1981); Deputy Prime Minister Abdul GHAFAR Baba (since 7 May 1986)

Political parties and leaders: Peninsular Malaysia—National Front, a confederation of 14 political parties dominated by United Malays National Organization Baru (UMNO Baru), Mahathir bin Mohamad; Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA), Ling Liong Sik; Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia, Datuk Lim Keng Yaik; Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC), Datuk Samy Vellu;

Sabah—Berjaya Party, Datuk Haji Mohamed Noor Mansoor; Bersatu Sabah (PBS), Joseph Pairin Kitingan; United Sabah National Organizaton (USNO), Tun Datuk Mustapha;

Sarawak—coalition Sarawak National Front composed of the Party Pesaka Bumiputra Bersatu (PBB), Datuk Patinggi Tan Sri Haji Abdul Taib Mahmud; Sarawak United People's Party (SUPP), Datuk Amar Stephen Yong Kuat Tze; Sarawak National Party (SNAP), Datuk James Wong; Parti Bansa Dayak Sarawak (PBDS), Datuk Leo Moggie; major opposition parties are Democratic Action Party (DAP), Lim Kit Siang and Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS), Fadzil Noor

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections: House of Representatives—last held 2-3 August 1986 (next to be held by August 1991); results—National Front 57.4%, DAP 20.8%, PAS 15.6%, independents 3.3%, others 2.9%; note—within the National Front, UMNO got 35% and MCA 14% of the vote; seats—(177 total) National Front 148, DAP 24, PAS 1, independents 4; note—within the National Front, UMNO got 83 seats and MCA 17 seats

Communists: Peninsular Malaysia—about 1,000 armed insurgents on Thailand side of international boundary and about 200 full time inside Malaysia surrendered on 2 December 1989; only about 100 Communist insurgents remain in North Kalimantan and Sabah

Member of: ADB, ANRPC, ASEAN, Association of Tin Producing Countries, CCC, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB—Islamic Development Bank, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITC, ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Albert S. TALALLA; Chancery at 2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 328-2700; there are Malaysian Consulates General in Los Angeles and New York; US—Ambassador Paul M. CLEVELAND; Embassy at 376 Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala Lumpur (mailing address is P. O. Box No. 10035, 50700 Kuala Lumpur); telephone p6o (03) 248-9011

Flag: fourteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating with white (bottom); there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow fourteen-pointed star; the crescent and the star are traditional symbols of Islam; the design was based on the flag of the US

- Economy Overview: In 1988-89 booming exports helped Malaysia continue to recover from the severe 1985-86 recession. Real output grew by 8.7% in 1988 and about 7.7% in 1989, helped by vigorous growth in manufacturing output and further increases in foreign direct investment, particularly from Japanese and Taiwanese firms facing higher costs at home. Malaysia has become the world's third-largest producer of semiconductor devices (after the US and Japan) and the world's largest exporter of semiconductor devices. Inflation remained low as unemployment stood at about 8% of the labor force and as the government followed prudent fiscal/monetary policies. The country is not self-sufficient in food, and a majority of the rural population subsists at the poverty level. Malaysia's high export dependence (merchandise exports are 63% of GDP) leaves it vulnerable to a recession in the OECD countries or a fall in world commodity prices.

GDP: $37.9 billion, per capita $2,270; real growth rate 7.7% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.6% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 7.9% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $8.8 billion; expenditures $11.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.5 billion (1989 est.)

Exports: $24 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities—natural rubber, palm oil, tin, timber, petroleum, electronics, light manufactures; partners—Singapore, Japan, USSR, EC, Australia, US

Imports: $20 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities—food, crude oil, consumer goods, intermediate goods, capital equipment, chemicals; partners—Japan, Singapore, FRG, UK, Thailand, China, Australia, US

External debt: $16.3 billion (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 13.6% (1988)

Electricity: 5,600,000 kW capacity; 16,500 million kWh produced, 990 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: Peninsular Malaysia—rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, light manufacturing industry, electronics, tin mining and smelting, logging and processing timber; Sabah—logging, petroleum production; Sarawak—agriculture processing, petroleum production and refining, logging

Agriculture: Peninsular Malaysia—natural rubber, palm oil, rice; Sabah—mainly subsistence; main crops—rubber, timber, coconut, rice; Sarawak—main crops—rubber, timber, pepper; there is a deficit of rice in all areas; fish catch of 608,000 metric tons in 1987

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-84), $170 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $3.8 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $42 million

Currency: ringgit (plural—ringgits); 1 ringgit (M$) = 100 sen

Exchange rates: ringgits (M$) per US$1—2.7038 (January 1990), 2.7087 (1989), 2.6188 (1988), 2.5196 (1987), 2.5814 (1986), 2.4830 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: Peninsular Malaysia—1,665 km 1.04-meter gauge; 13 km double track, government owned; Sabah—136 km 1.000-meter gauge

Highways: Peninsular Malaysia—23,600 km (19,352 km hard surfaced, mostly bituminous-surface treatment, and 4,248 km unpaved); Sabah—3,782 km; Sarawak—1,644 km

Inland waterways: Peninsular Malaysia—3,209 km; Sabah—1,569 km; Sarawak—2,518 km

Ports: Tanjong, Kidurong, Kota Kinabalu, Kuching, Pasir Gudang, Penang, Port Kelang, Sandakan, Tawau

Merchant marine: 159 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,525,635 GRT/2,216,215 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 71 cargo, 21 container, 2 vehicle carrier, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 livestock carrier, 28 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 6 liquefied gas, 1 specialized tanker, 1 passenger-cargo, 22 bulk, 1 passenger

Civil air: 53 major transport aircraft

Pipelines: crude oil, 1,307 km; natural gas, 379 km

Airports: 126 total, 121 usable; 32 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 8 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 19 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good intercity service provided to peninsular Malaysia mainly by microwave relay, adequate intercity radio relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; international service good; good coverage by radio and television broadcasts; 994,860 telephones (1984); stations—28 AM, 3 FM, 33 TV; submarine cables extend to India and Sarawak; SEACOM submarine cable links to Hong Kong and Singapore; satellite earth stations—1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT, and 2 domestic

- Defense Forces Branches: Royal Malaysian Army, Royal Malaysian Navy, Royal Malaysian Air Force, Royal Malaysian Police Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,499,495; 2,744,743 fit for military service; 178,923 reach military age (21) annually

Defense expenditures: 3.8% of GDP, or $1.4 billion (1990 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: Maldives - Geography Total area: 300 km2; land area: 300 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 644 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: about 100 nm (defined by geographic coordinates);

Extended economic zone: 37-310 nm (segment of zone coincides with maritime boundary with India);

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to March); rainy, southwest monsoon (June to August)

Terrain: flat with elevations only as high as 2.5 meters

Natural resources: fish

Land use: 10% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 3% meadows and pastures; 3% forest and woodland; 84% other

Environment: 1,200 coral islands grouped into 19 atolls

Note: archipelago of strategic location astride and along major sea lanes in Indian Ocean

- People Population: 217,945 (July 1990), growth rate 3.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 76 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 60 years male, 65 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Maldivian(s); adjective—Maldivian

Ethnic divisions: admixtures of Sinhalese, Dravidian, Arab, and black

Religion: Sunni Muslim

Language: Divehi (dialect of Sinhala; script derived from Arabic); English spoken by most government officials

Literacy: 36%

Labor force: 66,000 (est.); 80% engaged in fishing industry

Organized labor: none

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Maldives

Type: republic

Capital: Male

Administrative divisions: 19 district (atolls); Aliff, Baa, Daalu, Faafu, Gaafu Aliff, Gaafu Daalu, Haa Aliff, Haa Daalu, Kaafu, Laamu, Laviyani, Meemu, Naviyani, Noonu, Raa, Seenu, Shaviyani, Thaa, Waavu

Independence: 26 July 1965 (from UK)

Constitution: 4 June 1964

Legal system: based on Islamic law with admixtures of English common law primarily in commercial matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 July (1965)

Executive branch: president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Citizens' Council (Majlis)

Judicial branch: High Court

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM (since since 11 November 1978)

Political parties and leaders: no organized political parties; country governed by the Didi clan for the past eight centuries

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections: President—last held 23 September 1988 (next to be held September 1994); results—President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom reelected;

Citizens' Council—last held on 7 December 1984 (next to be held 7 December 1989); results—percent of vote NA; seats—(48 total, 40 elected)

Communists: negligible

Member of: ADB, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth (special member), ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB—Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IMO, ITU, NAM, OIC, SAARC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Maldives does not maintain an embassy in the US, but does have a UN mission in New York; US—the US Ambassador to Sri Lanka is accredited to Maldives and makes periodic visits there; US Consular Agency, Mahduedurage, Violet Magu, Henveru, Male; telephone 2581

Flag: red with a large green rectangle in the center bearing a vertical white crescent; the closed side of the crescent is on the hoist side of the flag

- Economy Overview: The economy is based on fishing, tourism, and shipping. Agriculture is limited to the production of a few subsistence crops that provide only 10% of food requirements. Fishing is the largest industry, employing 80% of the work force and accounting for over 60% of exports; it is also an important source of government revenue. During the 1980s tourism has become one of the most important and highest growth sectors of the economy. In 1988 industry accounted for about 14% of GDP. Real GDP is officially estimated to have increased by about 10% annually during the period 1974-86, and GDP estimates for 1988 show a further growth of 9% on the strength of a record fish catch and an improved tourist season.

GDP: $136 million, per capita $670; real growth rate 9.2% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 14% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $51 million; expenditures $50 million, including capital expenditures of $25 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $47.0 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities—fish 57%, clothing 39%; partners—Thailand, Western Europe, Sri Lanka

Imports: $90.0 million (c.i.f., 1988 est.); commodities— intermediate and capital goods 47%, consumer goods 42%, petroleum products 11%; partners—Japan, Western Europe, Thailand

External debt: $70 million (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.9% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 5,000 kW capacity; 10 million kWh produced, 50 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: fishing and fish processing, tourism, shipping, boat building, some coconut processing, garments, woven mats, coir (rope), handicrafts

Agriculture: accounts for almost 30% of GDP (including fishing); fishing more important than farming; limited production of coconuts, corn, sweet potatoes; most staple foods must be imported

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $28 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $84 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $14 million

Currency: rufiyaa (plural—rufiyaa); 1 rufiyaa (Rf) = 100 laaris

Exchange rates: rufiyaa (Rf) per US$1—9.3043 (January 1990), 9.0408 (1989), 8.7846 (1988), 9.2230 (1987), 7.1507 (1986), 7.0981 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Highways: Male has 9.6 km of coral highways within the city

Ports: Male, Gan

Merchant marine: 16 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 70,066 GRT/112,480 DWT; includes 12 cargo, 1 container, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 bulk

Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft

Airports: 2 with permanent-surface runways 2,440-3,659 m

Telecommunications: minimal domestic and international facilities; 2,325 telephones; stations—2 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: no military force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 49,261; 27,519 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: $1.8 million (1984 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: Mali - Geography Total area: 1,240,000 km2; land area: 1,220,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: 7,243 km total; Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Ivory Coast 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km

Coastline: none—landlocked

Maritime claims: none—landlocked

Disputes: the disputed international boundary between Burkina and Mali was submitted to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in October 1983 and the ICJ issued its final ruling in December 1986, which both sides agreed to accept; Burkina and Mali are proceeding with boundary demarcation, including the tripoint with Niger

Climate: subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy, humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast

Natural resources: gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium; bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited

Land use: 2% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 25% meadows and pastures; 7% forest and woodland; 66% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; desertification

Note: landlocked

- People Population: 8,142,373 (July 1990), growth rate 2.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 51 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 21 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 7 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 116 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 45 years male, 47 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Malian(s); adjective—Malian

Ethnic divisions: 50% Mande (Bambara, Malinke, Sarakole), 17% Peul, 12% Voltaic, 6% Songhai, 5% Tuareg and Moor, 10% other

Religion: 90% Muslim, 9% indigenous beliefs, 1% Christian

Language: French (official); Bambara spoken by about 80% of the population; numerous African languages

Literacy: 18%

Labor force: 2,666,000 (1986 est.); 80% agriculture, 19% services, 1% industry and commerce (1981); 50% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: National Union of Malian Workers (UNTM) is umbrella organization for over 13 national unions

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Mali

Type: republic; single-party constitutional government

Capital: Bamako

Administrative divisions: 7 regions (regions, singular—region); Gao, Kayes, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou; note—there may be a new capital district of Bamako

Independence: 22 September 1960 (from France; formerly French Sudan)

Constitution: 2 June 1974, effective 19 June 1979; amended September 1981 and March 1985

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Section of Court of State; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 22 September (1960)

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemble Nationale)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—President Gen. Moussa TRAORE (since 6 December 1968)

Political parties and leaders: only party—Democratic Union of Malian People (UDPM)

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections: President—last held on 9 June 1985 (next to be held June 1991); results—General Moussa Traore was reelected without opposition;

National Assembly—last held on 26 June 1988 (next to be held June 1991); results—UDPM is the only party; seats—(82 total) UDPM 82

Communists: a few Communists and some sympathizers (no legal Communist party)

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB—Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, NAM, Niger River Commission, OAU, OIC, OMVS (Organization for the Development of the Senegal River Valley), UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO,

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Alhousseyni TOURE; Chancery at 2130 R Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-2249 or 939-8950; US—Ambassador Robert M. PRINGLE; Embassy at Rue Testard and Rue Mohamed V., Bamako (mailing address is B. P. 34, Bamako); telephone 225834

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

- Economy Overview: Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with about 80% of its land area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the population lives as nomads and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in agriculture and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities.

GDP: $1.94 billion, per capita $220; real growth rate - 0.9% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA% (1987)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $338 million; expenditures $559 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1987)

Exports: $260 million (f.o.b., 1987); commodities—livestock, peanuts, dried fish, cotton, skins; partners—mostly franc zone and Western Europe

Imports: $493 million (f.o.b., 1987); commodities—textiles, vehicles, petroleum products, machinery, sugar, cereals; partners—mostly franc zone and Western Europe

External debt: $2.1 billion (December 1988 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 92,000 kW capacity; 165 million kWh produced, 20 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: small local consumer goods and processing, construction, phosphate, gold, fishing

Agriculture: accounts for 50% of GDP; most production based on small subsistence farms; cotton and livestock products account for over 70% of exports; other crops—millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; livestock—cattle, sheep, and goats

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $313 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $2.4 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $92 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $190 million

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural—francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1—287.99 (January 1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 642 km 1.000-meter gauge; linked to Senegal's rail system through Kayes

Highways: about 15,700 km total; 1,670 km bituminous, 3,670 km gravel and improved earth, 10,360 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 1,815 km navigable

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 37 total, 29 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 7 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 9 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: domestic system poor but improving; provides only minimal service with radio relay, wire, and radio communications stations; expansion of radio relay in progress; 11,000 telephones; stations—2 AM, 2 FM, 2 TV; satellite earth stations—1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Air Force; paramilitary, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Guard

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,585,878; 913,000 fit for military service; no conscription

Defense expenditures: 2.5% of GDP (1987) —————————————————————————— Country: Malta - Geography Total area: 320 km2; land area: 320 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 140 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 25 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly low, rocky, flat to dissected plains; many coastal cliffs

Natural resources: limestone, salt

Land use: 38% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 59% other; includes 3% irrigated

Environment: numerous bays provide good harbors; fresh water very scarce—increasing reliance on desalination

Note: strategic location in central Mediterranean, 93 km south of Sicily, 290 km north of Libya

- People Population: 353,465 (July 1990), growth rate 0.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 8 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 78 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Maltese (sing. and pl.); adjective—Maltese

Ethnic divisions: mixture of Arab, Sicilian, Norman, Spanish, Italian, English

Religion: 98% Roman Catholic

Language: Maltese and English (official)

Literacy: 83%

Labor force: 125,674; 30% services, 24% manufacturing, 21% government (except job corps), 8% construction, 5% utilities and drydocks, 4% agriculture (1987)

Organized labor: about 40% of labor force

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Malta

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Valletta

Administrative divisions: none (administration directly from Valletta)

Independence: 21 September 1964 (from UK)

Constitution: 26 April 1974, effective 2 June 1974

Legal system: based on English common law and Roman civil law; has accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Freedom Day, 31 March

Executive branch: president, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court and Court of Appeal

Leaders: Chief of State—President Vincent (Censu) TABONE (since 4 April 1989);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Dr. Edward (Eddie) FENECH ADAMI (since 12 May 1987); Deputy Prime Minister Dr. Guido DE MARCO (since 14 May 1987)

Political parties and leaders: Nationalist Party, Edward Fenech Adami; Malta Labor Party, Karmenu Mifsud Bonnici

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: House of Representatives—last held on 9 May 1987 (next to be held by May 1992); results—NP 51.1%, MLP 48.9%; seats—(usually 65 total, but additional seats are given to the party with the largest popular vote to ensure a legislative majority; current total 69) MLP 34, NP 31 before popular vote adjustment; MLP 34, NP 35 after adjustment

Communists: fewer than 100 (est.)

Member of: CCC, Commonwealth, Council of Europe, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, ITU, IWC—International Wheat Council, NAM,UN, UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Salvatore J. STELLINI; Chancery at 2017 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 462-3611 or 3612; there is a Maltese Consulate General in New York; US—Ambassador Sally J. NOVETZKE; Embassy at 2nd Floor, Development House, St. Anne Street, Floriana, Valletta (mailing address is P. O. Box 535, Valletta); telephone p356o 623653 or 620424, 623216

Flag: two equal vertical bands of white (hoist side) and red; in the upper hoist-side corner is a representation of the George Cross, edged in red

- Economy Overview: Significant resources are limestone, a favorable geographic location, and a productive labor force. Malta produces only about 20% of its food needs, has limited freshwater supplies, and has no domestic energy sources. Consequently, the economy is highly dependent on foreign trade and services. Manufacturing and tourism are the largest contributors to the economy. Manufacturing accounts for about 30% of GDP, with the textile and clothing industry a major contributor. In 1988 inflation was held to a low 0.9%. Per capita GDP at $5,100 places Malta in the middle-income range of the world's nations.

GDP: $1.9 billion, per capita $5,100; real growth rate 7.1% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.9% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 4.4% (1987)

Budget: revenues $844 million; expenditures $938 million, including capital expenditures of $226 million (1989 est.)

Exports: $710 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—clothing, textiles, footwear, ships; partners—FRG 31%, UK 14%, Italy 14%

Imports: $1,360 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities—food, petroleum, nonfood raw materials; partners—FRG 19%, UK 17%, Italy 17%, US 11%

External debt: $90 million, medium and long-term (December 1987)

Industrial production: growth rate 6.2% (1987)

Electricity: 328,000 kW capacity; 1,110 million kWh produced, 2,990 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, ship repair yard, clothing, construction, food manufacturing, textiles, footwear, clothing, beverages, tobacco

Agriculture: overall, 20% self-sufficient; main products—potatoes, cauliflower, grapes, wheat, barley, tomatoes, citrus, cut flowers, green peppers, hogs, poultry, eggs; generally adequate supplies of vegetables, poultry, milk, pork products; seasonal or periodic shortages in grain, animal fodder, fruits, other basic foodstuffs

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $172 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $332 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $76 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $48 million

Currency: Maltese lira (plural—liri); 1 Maltese lira (LM) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Maltese liri (LM) per US$1—0.3332 (January 1990), 0.3483 (1989), 0.3306 (1988), 0.3451 (1987), 0.3924 (1986), 0.4676 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications Highways: 1,291 km total; 1,179 km paved (asphalt), 77 km crushed stone or gravel, 35 km improved and unimproved earth

Ports: Valletta, Marsaxlokk

Merchant marine: 314 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,677,797 GRT/6,357,733 DWT; includes 3 passenger, 4 short-sea passenger, 127 cargo, 2 container, 1 passenger-cargo, 13 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 vehicle carrier, 6 refrigerated cargo, 7 chemical tanker, 4 combination ore/oil, 1 specialized tanker, 61 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 72 bulk, 11 combination bulk; note—a flag of convenience registry; China owns 1 ship, Cuba owns 8, and Vietnam owns 1

Civil air: 8 major transport aircraft

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runways 2,440-3,659 m

Telecommunications: modern automatic system centered in Valletta; 153,000 telephones; stations—9 AM, 3 FM, 2 TV; 1 submarine cable; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: Armed Forces, Police, Paramilitary Dejima Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 92,610; 74,256 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 1.3% of GDP, or $25 million (1989 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: Man, Isle of (British crown dependency) - Geography Total area: 588 km2; land area: 588 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 113 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: cool summers and mild winters; humid; overcast about half the time

Terrain: hills in north and south bisected by central valley

Natural resources: lead, iron ore

Land use: NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and pastures; NA% forest and woodland; NA% other; extensive arable land and forests

Environment: strong westerly winds prevail

Note: located in Irish Sea equidistant from England, Scotland, and Ireland

- People Population: 64,859 (July 1990), growth rate 0.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 11 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 5 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Manxman, Manxwoman, adjective—Manx

Ethnic divisions: native Manx of Norse-Celtic descent; British

Religion: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, Society of Friends

Language: English, Manx Gaelic

Literacy: NA%, but compulsory education between ages of 5 and 15

Labor force: 25,864 (1981)

Organized labor: 22 labor unions patterned along British lines

- Government Long-form name: none

Type: British crown dependency

Capital: Douglas

Administrative divisions: none (British crown dependency)

Independence: none (British crown dependency)

Constitution: 1961, Isle of Man Constitution Act

Legal system: English law and local statute

National holiday: Tynwald Day, 5 July

Executive branch: British monarch, lieutenant governor, prime minister, Executive Council (cabinet)

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Tynwald) consists of an upper house or Legislative Council and a lower house or House of Keys

Judicial branch: High Court of Justice

Leaders: Chief of State—Lord of Mann Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Lieutenant Governor Maj. Gen. Laurence NEW (since 1985);

Head of Government—President of the Legislative Council J. C. NIVISON (since 1985)

Political parties and leaders: there is no party system and members sit as independents

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections: House of Keys—last held in 1986 (next to be held 1991); results—percent of vote NA; seats—(24 total) independents 24

Communists: probably none

Diplomatic representation: none (British crown dependency)

Flag: red with the Three Legs of Man emblem (Trinacria), in the center; the three legs are joined at the thigh and bent at the knee; in order to have the toes pointing clockwise on both sides of the flag, a two-sided emblem is used

- Economy Overview: Offshore banking, manufacturing, and tourism are key sectors of the economy. The government's policy of offering incentives to high-technology companies and financial institutions to locate on the island has paid off in expanding employment opportunities in high-income industries. As a result, agriculture and fishing, once the mainstays of the economy, have declined in their shares of GNP. Banking now contributes over 20% to GNP and manufacturing about 15%. Trade is mostly with the UK.

GNP: $490 million, per capita $7,573; real growth rate NA% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 1.5% (1988)

Budget: revenues $130.4 million; expenditures $114.4 million, including capital expenditures of $18.1 million (FY85 est.)

Exports: $NA; commodities—tweeds, herring, processed shellfish meat; partners—UK

Imports: $NA; commodities—timber, fertilizers, fish; partners—UK

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 61,000 kW capacity; 190 million kWh produced, 2,930 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: an important offshore financial center; financial services, light manufacturing, tourism

Agriculture: cereals and vegetables; cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry

Aid: NA

Currency: Manx pound (plural—pounds); 1 Manx pound (LM) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Manx pounds (LM) per US$1—0.6055 (January 1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817 (1986), 0.7714 (1985); the Manx pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications Railroads: 36 km electric track, 24 km steam track

Highways: 640 km motorable roads

Ports: Douglas, Ramsey, Peel

Merchant marine: 77 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,656,216 GRT/2,984,047 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 8 cargo, 5 container, 6 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 32 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 5 chemical tanker, 2 combination ore/oil, 6 liquefied gas, 12 bulk; note—a captive register of the United Kingdom, although not all ships on the register are British-owned

Airports: 2 total; 1 usable with permanent-surface runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 24,435 telephones; stations—1 AM, 4 FM, 4 TV

- Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK —————————————————————————— Country: Marshall Islands - Geography Total area: 181.3 km2; land area: 181.3 km2; includes the atolls of Bikini, Eniwetak, and Kwajalein

Comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 370.4 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claims US-administered Wake Island

Climate: wet season May to November; hot and humid; islands border typhoon belt

Terrain: low coral limestone and sand islands

Natural resources: phosphate deposits, marine products, deep seabed minerals

Land use: 0% arable land; 60% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 40% other

Environment: occasionally subject to typhoons; two archipelagic island chains of 30 atolls and 1,152 islands

Note: located 3,825 km southwest of Honolulu in the North Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way between Hawaii and Papua New Guinea; Bikini and Eniwetak are former US nuclear test sites; Kwajalein, the famous World War II battleground, is now used as a US missile test range

- People Population: 43,417 (July 1990), growth rate 3.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 39 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 43 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 75 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Marshallese; adjective—Marshallese

Ethnic divisions: almost entirely Micronesian

Religion: predominantly Christian, mostly Protestant

Language: English universally spoken and is the official language; two major Marshallese dialects from Malayo-Polynesian family; Japanese

Literacy: 90%

Labor force: 4,800 (1986)

Organized labor: none

- Government Long-form name: Republic of the Marshall Islands

Type: constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 21 October 1986

Capital: Majuro

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: 21 October 1986 (from the US-administered UN trusteeship; formerly the Marshall Islands District of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)

Constitution: 1 May 1979

Legal system: based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws

National holiday: Proclamation of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1 May (1979)

Executive branch: president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Nitijela)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—President Amata KABUA (since 1979)

Political parties and leaders: no formal parties; President Kabua is chief political (and traditional) leader

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: President—last held NA November 1987 (next to be held November 1991); results—President Amata Kabua was reelected;

Parliament—last held NA November 1987 (next to be held November 1991); results—percent of vote NA; seats—(33 total)

Communists: none

Member of: SPF, ESCAP (associate)

Diplomatic representation: Representative Wilfred I. KENDALL; Representative Office at Suite 1004, 1901 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington DC 20006; telephone (202) 223-4952; US—Representative Samuel B. THOMSEN; US Office at NA address (mailing address is P. O. Box 680, Majuro, Republic of the Marshall Islands 96960); telephone 692-9-3348

Flag: blue with two stripes radiating from the lower hoist-side corner—orange (top) and white; there is a white star with four large rays and 20 small rays on the hoist side above the two stripes

- Economy Overview: Agriculture and tourism are the mainstays of the economy. Agricultural production is concentrated on small farms, and the most important commercial crops are coconuts, tomatoes, melons, and breadfruit. A few cattle ranches supply the domestic meat market. Small-scale industry is limited to handicrafts, fish processing, and copra. The tourist industry is the primary source of foreign exchange and employs about 10% of the labor force. The islands have few natural resources, and imports far exceed exports. In 1987 the US Government provided grants of $40 million out of the Marshallese budget of $55 million.

GDP: $63 million, per capita $1,500; real growth rate NA% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.6% (1981)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $55 million; expenditures NA, including capital expenditures of NA (1987 est.)

Exports: $2.5 million (f.o.b., 1985); commodities—copra, copra oil, agricultural products, handicrafts; partners—NA

Imports: $29.2 million (c.i.f., 1985); commodities—foodstuffs, beverages, building materials; partners—NA

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 12,000 kW capacity; 10 million kWh produced, 240 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: copra, fish, tourism; craft items from shell, wood, and pearl; offshore banking (embryonic)

Agriculture: coconuts, cacao, taro, breadfruit, fruits, copra; pigs, chickens

Aid: under the terms of the Compact of Free Association, the US is to provide approximately $40 million in aid annually

Currency: US currency is used

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

- Communications Highways: macadam and concrete roads on major islands (Majuro, Kwajalein), otherwise stone-, coral-, or laterite-surfaced roads and tracks

Ports: Majuro

Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 475,968 GRT/949,888 DWT; includes 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 bulk carrier; note—a flag of convenience registry

Airports: 5 total, 5 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: telephone network—570 lines (Majuro) and 186 (Ebeye); telex services; islands interconnected by shortwave radio (used mostly for government purposes); stations—1 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV, 1 shortwave; 2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; US Government satellite communications system on Kwajalein

- Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of the US —————————————————————————— Country: Martinique (overseas department of France) - Geography Total area: 1,100 km2; land area: 1,060 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than six times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 290 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; rainy season (June to October)

Terrain: mountainous with indented coastline; dormant volcano

Natural resources: coastal scenery and beaches, cultivable land

Land use: 10% arable land; 8% permanent crops; 30% meadows and pastures; 26% forest and woodland; 26% other; includes 5% irrigated

Environment: subject to hurricanes, flooding, and volcanic activity that result in an average of one major natural disaster every five years

Note: located 625 km southeast of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean Sea

- People Population: 340,381 (July 1990), growth rate 0.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 19 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 3 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 11 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 77 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Martiniquais (sing. and pl.); adjective—Martiniquais

Ethnic divisions: 90% African and African-Caucasian-Indian mixture, 5% Caucasian, less than 5% East Indian, Lebanese, Chinese

Religion: 95% Roman Catholic, 5% Hindu and pagan African

Language: French, Creole patois

Literacy: over 70%

Labor force: 100,000; 31.7% service industry, 29.4% construction and public works, 13.1% agriculture, 7.3% industry, 2.2% fisheries, 16.3% other

Organized labor: 11% of labor force

- Government Long-form name: Department of Martinique

Type: overseas department of France

Capital: Fort-de-France

Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

Independence: none (overseas department of France)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French legal system

National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Executive branch: government commissioner

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council and unicameral Regional Council

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981);

Head of Government—Government Commissioner Jean Claude ROURE (since 5 May 1989); President of the General Council Emile MAURICE (since NA 1988)

Political parties: Rally for the Republic (RPR), Stephen Bago; Union of the Left composed of the Progressive Party of Martinique (PPM), Aime Cesaire; Socialist Federation of Martinique, Michael Yoyo; and the Communist Party of Martinique (PCM), Armand Nicolas; Union for French Democracy (UDF), Jean Maran

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: General Council—last held on NA October 1988 (next to be held by March 1991); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(44 total) number of seats by party NA;

Regional Assembly—last held on 16 March 1986 (next to be held by March 1992); results—UDF/RPR coalition 49.8%, PPM/FSM/PCM coalition 41.3%, others 8.9%; seats—(41 total) PPM/FSM/PCM coalition 21, UDF/RPR coalition 20;

French Senate—last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September 1992); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(2 total) UDF 1, PPM 1;

French National Assembly—last held on 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be held June 1993); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(4 total) PPM 1, FSM 1, RPR 1, UDF 1

Communists: 1,000 (est.)

Other political or pressure groups: Proletarian Action Group (GAP); Alhed Marie-Jeanne Socialist Revolution Group (GRS), Martinique Independence Movement (MIM), Caribbean Revolutionary Alliance (ARC), Central Union for Martinique Workers (CSTM), Marc Pulvar; Frantz Fanon Circle; League of Workers and Peasants

Member of: WFTU

Diplomatic representation: as an overseas department of France, Martiniquais interests are represented in the US by France; US—Consul General Ray ROBINSON; Consulate General at 14 Rue Blenac, Fort-de-France (mailing address is B. P. 561, Fort-de-France); telephone p596o 63-13-03

Flag: the flag of France is used

- Economy Overview: The economy is based on sugarcane, bananas, tourism, and light industry. Agriculture accounts for about 7% of GDP and the small industrial sector for 10%. Sugar production has declined, with most of the sugarcane now used for the production of rum. Banana exports are increasing, however, going mostly to France. The bulk of meat, vegetable, and grain requirements must be imported, contributing to a chronic trade deficit that requires large annual transfers of aid from France. Tourism has become more important than agricultural exports as a source of foreign exchange. The majority of the work force is employed in the service sector and in administration. In 1984 the annual per capita income was relatively high at $3,650. During 1985 the unemployment rate was between 25% and 30% and was particularly severe among younger workers.

GDP: $1.3 billion, per capita $3,650; real growth rate NA% (1984)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.4% (1986)

Unemployment rate: 25-30% (1985)

Budget: revenues $223 million; expenditures $223 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1987 est.)

Exports: $209 million (f.o.b., 1986); commodities—refined petroleum products, bananas, rum, pineapples; partners—France 65%, Guadeloupe 26% (1986)

Imports: $879 million (c.i.f., 1986); commodities—petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials, vehicles, clothing and other consumer goods; partners—France 64% (1986)

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 108,000 kW capacity; 330 million kWh produced, 990 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: construction, rum, cement, oil refining, sugar, tourism

Agriculture: accounts for about 7% of GDP; principal crops—pineapples, avocados, bananas, flowers, vegetables, and sugarcane for rum; dependent on imported food, particularly meat and vegetables

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $9.8 billion

Currency: French franc (plural—francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1—5.7598 (January 1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261 (1986), 8.9852 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Highways: 1,680 km total; 1,300 km paved, 380 km gravel and earth

Ports: Fort-de-France

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 2 total; 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with runways less than 2,439 m

Telecommunications: domestic facilities are adequate; 68,900 telephones; interisland radio relay links to Guadeloupe, Dominica, and St. Lucia; stations—1 AM, 6 FM, 10 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

- Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of France —————————————————————————— Country: Mauritania - Geography Total area: 1,030,700 km2; land area: 1,030,400 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than three times the size of New Mexico

Land boundaries: 5,074 km total; Algeria 463 km, Mali 2,237 km, Senegal 813 km, Western Sahara 1,561 km

Coastline: 754 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: armed conflict in Western Sahara; boundary with Senegal

Climate: desert; constantly hot, dry, dusty

Terrain: mostly barren, flat plains of the Sahara; some central hills

Natural resources: iron ore, gypsum, fish, copper, phosphate

Land use: 1% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 38% meadows and pastures; 5% forest and woodland; 56% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind blows primarily in March and April; desertification; only perennial river is the Senegal

- People Population: 1,934,549 (July 1990), growth rate 3.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 49 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 18 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 96 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 44 years male, 49 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Mauritanian(s); adjective—Mauritanian

Ethnic divisions: 40% mixed Maur/black, 30% Maur, 30% black

Religion: nearly 100% Muslim

Language: Hasaniya Arabic (national); French (official); Toucouleur, Fula, Sarakole, Wolof

Literacy: 17%

Labor force: 465,000 (1981 est.); 45,000 wage earners (1980); 47% agriculture, 29% services, 14% industry and commerce, 10% government; 53% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: 30,000 members claimed by single union, Mauritanian Workers' Union

- Government Long-form name: Islamic Republic of Mauritania

Type: republic; military first seized power in bloodless coup 10 July 1978; a palace coup that took place on 24 December 1984 brought President Taya to power

Capital: Nouakchott

Administrative divisions: 12 regions (regions, singular—region); Adrar, Brakna, Dakhlet Nouadhibou, El Acaba, Gorgol, Guidimaka, Hodh Ech Chargui, Hodh El Gharbi, Inchiri, Tagant, Tiris Zemmour, Trarza; note—there may be a new capital district of Nouakchott

Independence: 28 November 1960 (from France)

Constitution: 20 May 1961, abrogated after coup of 10 July 1978; provisional constitution published 17 December 1980 but abandoned in 1981; new constitutional charter published 27 February 1985

Legal system: based on Islamic law

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1960)

Executive branch: president, Military Committee for National Salvation (CMSN), Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale), dissolved after 10 July 1978 coup; legislative power resides with the CMSN

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—President Col. Maaouiya Ould SidAhmed TAYA (since 12 December 1984)

Political parties and leaders: suspended

Suffrage: none

Elections: none; last presidential election August 1976; National Assembly dissolved 10 July 1978; no national elections are scheduled

Communists: no Communist party, but there is a scattering of Maoist sympathizers

Member of: ACP, AfDB, AIOEC, Arab League, CCC, CEAO, CIPEC (associate), EAMA, EIB (associate), FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB—Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OMVS (Organization for the Development of the Senegal River Valley), UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abdellah OULD DADDAH; Chancery at 2129 Leroy Place NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 232-5700; US—Ambassador William H. TWADDELL; Embassy at address NA, Nouakchott (mailing address is B. P. 222, Nouakchott); telephone p2222o 52660 or 52663

Flag: green with a yellow five-pointed star above a yellow, horizontal crescent; the closed side of the crescent is down; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam

- Economy Overview: A majority of the population still depends on agriculture and livestock for a livelihood, even though most of the nomads and many subsistence farmers were forced into the cities by recurrent drought in 1983. Mauritania has extensive deposits of iron ore that account for almost 50% of total exports. The decline in world demand for this ore, however, has led to cutbacks in production in recent years. The nation's coastal waters are among the richest fishing areas in the world, but overexploitation by foreigners threatens this key source of revenue. The country's first deepwater port opened near Nouakchott in 1986.

GDP: $1.0 billion, per capita $520; real growth rate 3.6% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.4% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: 50% (1988 est.)

Budget: revenues $358 million; expenditures $334 million, including capital expenditures of $79 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $424 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—iron ore, processed fish, small amounts of gum arabic and gypsum, unrecorded but numerically significant cattle exports to Senegal; partners—EC 57%, Japan 39%, Ivory Coast 2%

Imports: $365 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities—foodstuffs, consumer goods, petroleum products, capital goods; partners—EC 79%, Africa 5%, US 4%, Japan 2%

External debt: $2.3 billion (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.4% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 189,000 kW capacity; 136 million kWh produced, 70 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: fishing, fish processing, mining of iron ore and gypsum

Agriculture: accounts for 29% of GDP (including fishing); largely subsistence farming and nomadic cattle and sheep herding except in Senegal river valley; crops—dates, millet, sorghum, root crops; fish products number-one export; large food deficit in years of drought

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $160 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.1 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $490 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $277 million

Currency: ouguiya (plural—ouguiya); 1 ouguiya (UM) = 5 khoums

Exchange rates: ouguiya (UM) per US$1—83.838 (January 1990), 83.051 (1989), 75.261 (1988), 73.878 (1987), 74.375 (1986), 77.085 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 670 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, single track, owned and operated by government mining company

Highways: 7,525 km total; 1,685 km paved; 1,040 km gravel, crushed stone, or otherwise improved; 4,800 km unimproved roads, trails, tracks

Inland waterways: mostly ferry traffic on the Senegal River

Ports: Nouadhibou, Nouakchott

Merchant marine: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,272 GRT/ 1,840 DWT

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 30 total, 29 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 17 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: poor system of cable and open-wire lines, minor radio relay links, and radio communications stations; 5,200 telephones; stations—2 AM, no FM, 1 TV; satellite earth stations—1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 2 ARABSAT, with a third planned

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie, paramilitary National Guard, paramilitary National Police, paramilitary Presidential Guard, paramilitary Nomad Security Guards

Military manpower: males 15-49, 410,153; 200,212 fit for military service; conscription law not implemented

Defense expenditures: 4.2% of GDP (1987) —————————————————————————— Country: Mauritius - Geography Total area: 1,860 km2; land area: 1,850 km2; includes Agalega Islands, Cargados Carajos Shoals (St. Brandon) and Rodrigues

Comparative area: slightly less than 10.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 177 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claims Chagos Archipelago, which includes the island of Diego Garcia in UK-administered British Indian Ocean Territory; claims French-administered Tromelin Island

Climate: tropical modified by southeast trade winds; warm, dry winter (May to November); hot, wet, humid summer (November to May)

Terrain: small coastal plain rising to discontinuous mountains encircling central plateau

Natural resources: arable land, fish

Land use: 54% arable land; 4% permanent crops; 4% meadows and pastures; 31% forest and woodland; 7% other; includes 9% irrigated

Environment: subject to cyclones (November to April); almost completely surrounded by reefs

Note: located 900 km east of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean

- People Population: 1,070,005 (July 1990), growth rate 1.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 21 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 4 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 20 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 73 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Mauritian(s); adjective—Mauritian

Ethnic divisions: 68% Indo-Mauritian, 27% Creole, 3% Sino-Mauritian, 2% Franco-Mauritian

Religion: 51% Hindu, 30% Christian (mostly Roman Catholic with a few Anglicans), 17% Muslim, 2% other

Language: English (official), Creole, French, Hindi, Urdu, Hakka, Bojpoori

Literacy: 82.8%

Labor force: 335,000; 29% government services, 27% agriculture and fishing, 22% manufacturing, 22% other; 43% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: 35% of labor force in more than 270 unions

- Government Long-form name: none

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Port Louis

Administrative divisions: 5 urban councils and 3 district councils*; Beau Bassin-Rose Hill, Curepipe, Moka-Flacq*, North*, Port Louis, Quatre Bornes, South*, Vacoas-Phoenix; note—there may now be 4 urban councils and 9 district councils* named Beau Bassin-Rose Hill, Black River*, Curepipe, Flacq*, Grand Port*, Moka*, Pamplemousses*, Plaine Wilhems*, Port Louis*, Quartre Bornes, Riviere du Rempart*, Savanne*, and Vacoas-Phoenix

Independence: 12 March 1968 (from UK)

Constitution: 12 March 1968

Legal system: based on French civil law system with elements of English common law in certain areas

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 March (1968)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Veerasamy RINGADOO (since 17 January 1986);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Anerood JUGNAUTH (since 12 June 1982); Deputy Prime Minister Sir Satcam BOOLELL (since 15 August 1988)

Political parties and leaders: the government is currently controlled by a coalition composed of the Militant Socialist Movement (MSM), A. Jugnauth, and the Mauritian Labor Party (MLP), S. Boolell; the main opposition union consists of the Mauritian Militant Movement (MMM), Prem Nababsing; Socialist Workers Front, Sylvio Michel; Democratic Labor Movement, Anil Baichoo; Mauritian Social Democratic Party (PMSD), G. Duval

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: Legislative Assembly—last held on 30 August 1987 (next to be held 30 August 1992); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(70 total, 62 elected) MSM 24, MMM 21, MLP 10, PMSD 5, others 10

Communists: may be 2,000 sympathizers; several Communist organizations; Mauritius Lenin Youth Organization, Mauritius Women's Committee, Mauritius Communist Party, Mauritius People's Progressive Party, Mauritius Young Communist League, Mauritius Liberation Front, Chinese Middle School Friendly Association, Mauritius/USSR Friendship Society

Other political or pressure groups: various labor unions

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ISO, ITU, IWC—International Wheat Council, NAM, OAU, OCAM, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Chitmansing JESSERAMSING; Chancery at Suite 134, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 244-1491 or 1492; US—Ambassador Penne KORTH; Embassy at 4th Floor, Rogers Building, John Kennedy Street, Port Louis; telephone 082347

Flag: four equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, yellow, and green

- Economy Overview: The economy is based on sugar, manufacturing (mainly textiles), and tourism. Despite significant expansion in other sectors over the past decade, sugarcane remains dominant and is grown on about 90% of the cultivated land area, accounting for 40% of export earnings. The government's development strategy is centered on industrialization (with a view to exports), agricultural diversification, and tourism. Economic performance in 1988 was impressive, with 6.3% real growth rate and low unemployment.

GDP: $1.9 billion, per capita $1,910; real growth rate 6.3% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.2% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 3.6% (1988)

Budget: revenues $351 million; expenditures $414 million, including capital expenditures of $76 million (FY87 est.)

Exports: $1.0 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—textiles 44%, sugar 40%, light manufactures 10%; partners—EC and US have preferential treatment, EC 77%, US 15%

Imports: $1.3 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities—manufactured goods 50%, capital equipment 17%, foodstuffs 13%, petroleum products 8%, chemicals 7%; partners—EC, US, South Africa, Japan

External debt: $670 million (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 12.9% (FY87)

Electricity: 233,000 kW capacity; 420 million kWh produced, 375 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food processing (largely sugar milling), textiles, wearing apparel, chemical and chemical products, metal products, transport equipment, nonelectrical machinery, tourism

Agriculture: accounts for 14% of GDP; about 90% of cultivated land in sugarcane; other products—tea, corn, potatoes, bananas, pulses, cattle, goats, fish; net food importer, especially rice and fish

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $72 million; Western (non-US) countries (1970-87), $538 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $54 million

Currency: Mauritian rupee (plural—rupees); 1 Mauritian rupee (MauR) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Mauritian rupees (MauRs) per US$1—15.033 (January 1990), 15.250 (1989), 13.438 (1988), 12.878 (1987), 13.466 (1986), 15.442 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications Highways: 1,800 km total; 1,640 km paved, 160 km earth

Ports: Port Louis

Merchant marine: 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 143,029 GRT/ 248,754 DWT; includes 1 passenger-cargo, 3 cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 3 bulk

Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft

Airports: 5 total, 4 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m

Telecommunications: small system with good service; new microwave link to Reunion; high-frequency radio links to several countries; 48,000 telephones; stations—2 AM, no FM, 4 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: paramilitary Special Mobile Force, Special Support Units, regular Police Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 297,975; 153,130 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: NA —————————————————————————— Country: Mayotte (territorial collectivity of France) - Geography Total area: 375 km2; land area: 375 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 185.2 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claimed by Comoros

Climate: tropical; marine; hot, humid, rainy season during northeastern monsoon (November to May); dry season is cooler (May to November)

Terrain: generally undulating with ancient volcanic peaks, deep ravines

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and pastures; NA% forest and woodland; NA% other

Environment: subject to cyclones during rainy season

Note: part of Comoro Archipelago; located in the Mozambique Channel about halfway between Africa and Madagascar

- People Population: 72,186 (July 1990), growth rate 3.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 51 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 12 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 89 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 54 years male, 58 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Mahorais (sing., pl.); adjective—Mahoran

Religion: 99% Muslim; remainder Christian, mostly Roman Catholic

Language: Mahorian (a Swahili dialect), French

Literacy: NA%, but probably high

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: NA

- Government Long-form name: Territorial Collectivity of Mayotte

Type: territorial collectivity of France

Capital: Dzaoudzi

Administrative divisions: none (territorial collectivity of France)

Independence: none (territorial collectivity of France)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French law

National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Executive branch: government commissioner

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council (Conseil General)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Tribunal Superieur d'Appel)

Leaders: Chief of State President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981);

Head of Government Government Commissioner Akli KHIDER (since 1983); President of the General Council Youssouf BAMANA (since 1976)

Political parties and leaders: Mahoran Popular Movement (MPM), Zna M'Oere; Party for the Mahoran Democratic Rally (PRDM), Daroueche Maoulida; Mahoran Rally for the Republic (RMPR), Abdoul Anizizi; Union of the Center (UDC)

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: General Council—last held NA June 1988 (next to be held June 1993); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(17 total) MPM 9, RPR 6, others 2;

French Senate—last held on 24 September 1989 (next to be held September 1992); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(1 total) MPM 1;

French National Assembly—last held 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be held June 1993); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(1 total) UDC 1

Communists: probably none

Diplomatic representation: as a territorial collectivity of France, Mahoran interests are represented in the US by France

Flag: the flag of France is used

- Economy Overview: Economic activity is based primarily on the agricultural sector, including fishing and livestock raising. Mayotte is not self-sufficient and must import a large portion of its food requirements, mainly from France. The economy and future development of the island is heavily dependent on French financial assistance.

GDP: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues NA; expenditures $37.3 million, including capital expenditures of NA (1985)

Exports: $4.0 million (f.o.b., 1984); commodities—ylang-ylang, vanilla; partners—France 79%, Comoros 10%, Reunion 9%

Imports: $21.8 million (f.o.b., 1984); commodities—building materials, transportation equipment, rice, clothing, flour; partners—France 57%, Kenya 16%, South Africa 11%, Pakistan 8%

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: NA kW capacity; NA million kWh produced, NA kWh per capita

Industries: newly created lobster and shrimp industry

Agriculture: most important sector; provides all export earnings; crops—vanilla, ylang-ylang, coffee, copra; imports major share of food needs

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $287.8 million

Currency: French franc (plural—francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1—5.7598 (January 1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261 (1986), 8.9852 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Highways: 42 km total; 18 km bituminous

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m

Ports: Dzaoudzi

Telecommunications: small system administered by French Department of Posts and Telecommunications; includes radio relay and high-frequency radio communications for links with Comoros and international communications; 450 telephones; stations—1 AM, no FM, no TV

- Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of France —————————————————————————— Country: Mexico - Geography Total area: 1,972,550 km2; land area: 1,923,040 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: 4,538 km total; Belize 250 km, Guatemala 962 km, US 3,326 km

Coastline: 9,330 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: natural prolongation of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: varies from tropical to desert

Terrain: high, rugged mountains, low coastal plains, high plateaus, and desert

Natural resources: crude oil, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber

Land use: 12% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 39% meadows and pastures; 24% forest and woodland; 24% other; includes 3% irrigated

Environment: subject to tsunamis along the Pacific coast and destructive earthquakes in the center and south; natural water resources scarce and polluted in north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast; deforestation; erosion widespread; desertification; serious air pollution in Mexico City and urban centers along US-Mexico border

Note: strategic location on southern border of US

- People Population: 87,870,154 (July 1990), growth rate 2.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 29 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 33 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Mexican(s); adjective—Mexican

Ethnic divisions: 60% mestizo (Indian-Spanish), 30% Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian, 9% white or predominantly white, 1% other

Religion: 97% nominally Roman Catholic, 3% Protestant

Language: Spanish

Literacy: 88%

Labor force: 26,100,000 (1988); 31.4% services; 26% agriculture, forestry, hunting, and fishing, 13.9% commerce, 12.8% manufacturing, 9.5% construction, 4.8% transportation, 1.3% mining and quarrying, 0.3% electricity, (1986)

Organized labor: 35% of labor force

- Government Long-form name: United Mexican States

Type: federal republic operating under a centralized government

Capital: Mexico

Administrative divisions: 31 states (estados, singular—estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Aguascalientes, Baja California Norte, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Distrito Federal*, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas

Independence: 16 September 1810 (from Spain)

Constitution: 5 February 1917

Legal system: mixture of US constitutional theory and civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 September (1810)

Executive branch: president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso de la Union) consists of an upper chamber or Senate (Camara de Senadores) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Suprema Corte de Justicia)

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—President Carlos SALINAS de Gortari (since 1 December 1988)

Political parties and leaders: (recognized parties) Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), Luis Donaldo Colosio Murrieta; National Action Party (PAN), Luis Alvarez; Popular Socialist Party (PPS), Indalecio Sayago Herrera; Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD), Cuauhtemoc Cardenas; Cardenist Front for the National Reconstruction Party (PFCRN), Rafael Aguilar Talamantes; Authentic Party of the Mexican Revolution (PARM), Carlos Enrique Cantu Rosas

Suffrage: universal and compulsory (but not enforced) at age 18

Elections: President—last held on 6 July 1988 (next to be held September 1994); results—Carlos Salinas de Gortari (PRI) 50.74%, Cuauhtemoc Cardemas Solorzano (FDN) 31.06%, Manuel Clouthier (PAN) 16.81%; others 1.39%; note—several of the smaller parties ran a common candidate under a coalition called the National Democratic Front (FDN)

Senate—last held on 6 July 1988 (next to be held September 1991); results—PRI 94%, FDN (now PRD) 6%; seats—(64 total) number of seats by party NA;

Chamber of Deputies—last held on 6 July 1988 (next to be held September 1991); results—PRI 53%, PAN 20%, PFCRN 10%, PPS 6%, PARM 7%, PMS (now part of PRD) 4%; seats—(500 total) number of seats by party NA

Other political or pressure groups: Roman Catholic Church, Confederation of Mexican Workers (CTM), Confederation of Industrial Chambers (CONCAMIN), Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce (CONCANACO), National Peasant Confederation (CNC), National Confederation of Popular Organizations (CNOP), Revolutionary Workers Party (PRT), Mexican Democratic Party (PDM), Revolutionary Confederation of Workers and Peasants (CROC), Regional Confederation of Mexican Workers (CROM), Confederation of Employers of the Mexican Republic (COPARMEX), National Chamber of Transformation Industries (CANACINTRA), Business Coordination Council (CCE)

Member of: FAO, G-77, GATT, Group of Eight, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB—Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ISO, ITU, IWC—International Whaling Commission, LAIA, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Gustavo PETRICIOLI Iturbide; Chancery at 1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington DC 20006; telephone (202) 728-1600; there are Mexican Consulates General in Chicago, Dallas, Denver, El Paso, Houston, Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Antonio, San Diego, and Consulates in Albuquerque, Atlanta, Austin, Boston, Brownsville (Texas), Calexico (California), Corpus Christi, Del Rio (Texas), Detroit, Douglas (Arizona), Eagle Pass (Texas), Fresno (California), Kansas City (Missouri), Laredo, McAllen (Texas), Miami, Nogales (Arizona), Oxnard (California), Philadelphia, Phoenix, Presidio (Texas), Sacramento, St. Louis, St. Paul (Minneapolis), Salt Lake City, San Bernardino, San Jose, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and Seattle; US—Ambassador John D. NEGROPONTE, Jr.; Embassy at Paseo de la Reforma 305, Mexico 5, D.F. (mailing address is P. O. Box 3087, Laredo, TX 78044); telephone p52o (5) 211-0042; there are US Consulates General in Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Monterrey, and Tijuana, and Consulates in Hermosillo, Matamoros, Mazatlan, Merida, and Nuevo Laredo

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; the coat of arms (an eagle perched on a cactus with a snake is its beak) is centered in the white band

- Economy Overview: Mexico's economy is a mixture of state-owned industrial plants (notably oil), private manufacturing and services, and both large-scale and traditional agriculture. In the 1980s Mexico experienced severe economic difficulties: the nation accumulated large external debts as world petroleum prices fell; rapid population growth outstripped the domestic food supply; and inflation, unemployment, and pressures to emigrate became more acute. Growth in national output dropped from 8% in 1980 to 1.1% in 1988 and 2.5% in 1989. The US is Mexico's major trading partner, accounting for two-thirds of its exports and imports. After petroleum, border assembly plants and tourism are the largest earners of foreign exchange. The government, in consultation with international economic agencies, is implementing programs to stabilize the economy and foster growth.

GDP: $187.0 billion, per capita $2,165; real growth rate 2.5% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 20% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $36.1 billion; expenditures $56.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $7.7 biilion (1988)

Exports: $23.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities—crude oil, oil products, coffee, shrimp, engines, cotton; partners—US 66%, EC 16%, Japan 11%

Imports: $23.3 billion (c.i.f., 1989); commodities—grain, metal manufactures, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment; partners—US 62%, EC 18%, Japan 10%

External debt: $95.1 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 1.3% (1988)

Electricity: 26,900,000 kW capacity; 103,670 million kWh produced, 1,200 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, transportation equipment, tourism

Agriculture: accounts for 9% of GDP and over 25% of work force; large number of small farms at subsistence level; major food crops—corn, wheat, rice, beans; cash crops—cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; fish catch of 1.4 million metric tons among top 20 nations (1987)

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis continues in spite of government eradication efforts; major link in chain of countries used to smuggle cocaine from South American dealers to US markets

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $3.0 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $6.8 billion; Communist countries (1970-88), $110 million

Currency: Mexican peso (plural—pesos); 1 Mexican peso (Mex$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: market rate of Mexican pesos (Mex$) per US$1—2,660.3 (January 1990), 2,461.3 (1989), 2,273.1 (1988), 1,378.2 (1987), 611.8 (1986), 256.9 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 20,680 km total; 19,950 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; 730 km 0.914-meter narrow gauge

Highways: 210,000 km total; 65,000 km paved, 30,000 km semipaved or cobblestone, 60,000 km rural roads (improved earth) or roads under construction, 55,000 km unimproved earth roads

Inland waterways: 2,900 km navigable rivers and coastal canals

Pipelines: crude oil, 4,381 km; refined products, 8,345 km; natural gas, 13,254 km

Ports: Acapulco, Coatzacoalcos, Ensenada, Guaymas, Manzanillo, Mazatlan, Progreso, Puerto Vallarta, Salina Cruz, Tampico, Veracruz

Merchant marine: 68 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,041,229 GRT/1,552,478 DWT; includes 5 short-sea passenger, 10 cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 31 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 3 chemical tanker, 7 liquefied gas, 4 bulk, 4 combination bulk

Civil air: 174 major transport aircraft

Airports: 1,785 total, 1,484 usable; 190 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 31 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 259 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: highly developed system with extensive radio relay links; connection into Central American Microwave System; 6.41 million telephones; stations—679 AM, no FM, 238 TV, 22 shortwave; 120 domestic satellite terminals; satellite earth stations—4 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps

Military manpower: males 15-49, 21,575,525; 15,803,322 fit for military service; 1,118,046 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 0.5% of GDP (1987) —————————————————————————— Country: Micronesia, Federated States of - Geography Total area: 702 km2; land area: 702 km2; includes Pohnpei, Truk, Yap, and Kosrae

Comparative area: slightly less than four times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 6,112 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; heavy year-round rainfall, especially in the eastern islands; located on southern edge of the typhoon belt with occasional severe damage

Terrain: islands vary geologically from high mountainous islands to low, coral atolls; volcanic outcroppings on Pohnpei, Kosrae, and Truk

Natural resources: forests, marine products, deep-seabed minerals

Land use: NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and pastures; NA% forest and woodland; NA% other

Environment: subject to typhoons from June to December; four major island groups totaling 607 islands

Note: located 5,150 km west-southwest of Honolulu in the North Pacific Ocean, about three-quarters of the way between Hawaii and Indonesia

- People Population: 104,937 (July 1990), growth rate 2.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 34 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 26 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 73 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Micronesian(s); adjective—Micronesian; Kosrae(s), Pohnpeian(s), Trukese, Yapese

Ethnic divisions: nine ethnic Micronesian and Polynesian groups

Religion: predominantly Christian, divided between Roman Catholic and Protestant; other churches include Assembly of God, Jehovah's Witnesses, Seventh-Day Adventist, Latter Day Saints, and the Baha'i Faith

Language: English is the official and common language; most indigenous languages fall within the Austronesian language family, the exceptions are the Polynesian languages; major indigenous languages are Trukese, Pohnpeian, Yapese, and Kosrean

Literacy: NA%, but education compulsory through eight grades

Labor force: NA; two-thirds are government employees; 45,000 people are between the ages of 15 and 65

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