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The 1990 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency
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Elections: National Assembly—dissolved 3 July 1986 and no elections are planned

Communists: insignificant

Other political or pressure groups: large (350,000) Palestinian community; several small, clandestine leftist and Shia fundamentalist groups are active

Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, GATT, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB—Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Shaikh Saud Nasir AL-SABAH; Chancery at 2940 Tilden Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 966-0702; US—Ambassador W. Nathaniel HOWELL; Embassy at Bneid al-Gar (opposite the Hilton Hotel), Kuwait City (mailing address is P. O. Box 77 Safat, 13001 Safat, Kuwait City); telephone p965o 242-4151 through 4159

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red with a black trapezoid based on the hoist side

- Economy Overview: The oil sector dominates the economy. Of the countries in the Middle East, Kuwait has oil reserves second only to those of Saudi Arabia. Earnings from hydrocarbons generate over 90% of both export and government revenues and contribute about 40% to GDP. Most of the nonoil sector is dependent upon oil-derived government revenues to provide infrastructure development and to promote limited industrial diversification. The economy is heavily dependent upon foreign labor—Kuwaitis account for less than 20% of the labor force. The early years of the Iran-Iraq war pushed Kuwait's GDP well below its 1980 peak; however, during the period 1986-88, GDP increased each year, rising to 5% in 1988.

GDP: $20.5 billion, per capita $10,500; real growth rate 5.0% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 0%

Budget: revenues $7.1 billion; expenditures $10.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.1 billion (FY88)

Exports: $7.1 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—oil 90%; partners—Japan, Italy, FRG, US

Imports: $5.2 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—food, construction material, vehicles and parts, clothing; partners—Japan, US, FRG, UK

External debt: $7.2 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 3% (1988)

Electricity: 8,287,000 kW capacity; 21,500 million kWh produced, 10,710 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, desalination, food processing, salt, construction

Agriculture: virtually none; dependent on imports for food; about 75% of potable water must be distilled or imported

Aid: donor—pledged $18.3 billion in bilateral aid to less developed countries (1979-89)

Currency: Kuwaiti dinar (plural—dinars); 1 Kuwaiti dinar (KD) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Kuwaiti dinars (KD) per US$1—0.2915 (January 1990), 0.2937 (1989), 0.2790 (1988), 0.2786 (1987), 0.2919 (1986), 0.3007 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications Highways: 3,000 km total; 2,500 km bituminous; 500 km earth, sand, light gravel

Pipelines: crude oil, 877 km; refined products, 40 km; natural gas, 165 km

Ports: Ash Shuwaykh, Ash Shuaybah, Mina al Ahmadi

Merchant marine: 51 ships (1,000 GRT or over), totaling 1,862,010 GRT/2,935,007 DWT; includes 18 cargo, 5 container, 5 livestock carrier, 18 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 5 liquefied gas

Civil air: 19 major transport aircraft

Airports: 8 total, 4 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: excellent international, adequate domestic facilities; 258,000 telephones; stations—3 AM, 2 FM, 3 TV; satellite earth stations—1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, and 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT; 1 INMARSAT, 1 ARABSAT; coaxial cable and radio relay to Iraq and Saudi Arabia

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police Force, National Guard

Military manpower: males 15-49, about 688,516; about 411,742 fit for military service; 18,836 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 5.8% of GDP, or $1.2 billion (FY89) —————————————————————————— Country: Laos - Geography Total area: 236,800 km2; land area: 230,800 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Utah

Land boundaries: 5,083 km total; Burma 235 km, Cambodia 541 km, China 423 km, Thailand 1,754 km, Vietnam 2,130 km

Coastline: none—landlocked

Maritime claims: none—landlocked

Disputes: boundary dispute with Thailand

Climate: tropical monsoon; rainy season (May to November); dry season (December to April)

Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; some plains and plateaus

Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, tin, gold, gemstones

Land use: 4% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 3% meadows and pastures; 58% forest and woodland; 35% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: deforestation; soil erosion; subject to floods

Note: landlocked

- People Population: 4,023,726 (July 1990), growth rate 2.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 126 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 51 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Lao (sing., Lao or Laotian); adjective—Lao or Laotian

Ethnic divisions: 50% Lao, 15% Phoutheung (Kha), 20% tribal Thai, 15% Meo, Hmong, Yao, and other

Religion: 85% Buddhist, 15% animist and other

Language: Lao (official), French, and English

Literacy: 85%

Labor force: 1-1.5 million; 85-90% in agriculture (est.)

Organized labor: Lao Federation of Trade Unions is subordinate to the Communist party

- Government Long-form name: Lao People's Democratic Republic

Type: Communist state

Capital: Vientiane

Administrative divisions: 16 provinces (khoueng, singular and plural) and 1 municipality* (kampheng nakhon, singular and plural); Attapu, Bokeo, Bolikhamsai, Champasak, Houaphan, Khammouan, Louang Namtha, Louangphrabang, Oudomxai, Phongsali, Saravan, Savannakhet, Sekong, Vientiane, Vientiane*, Xaignabouri, Xiangkhoang

Independence: 19 July 1949 (from France)

Constitution: draft constitution under discussion since 1976

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day (proclamation of the Lao People's Democratic Republic), 2 December (1975)

Executive branch: president, chairman and five vice chairmen of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: Supreme People's Assembly

Judicial branch: Central Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—Acting President PHOUMI VONGVICHIT (since 29 October 1986);

Head of Government—Chairman of the Council of Ministers General KAYSONE PHOMVIHAN (since 2 December 1975)

Political parties and leaders: Lao People's Revolutionary Party (LPRP), Kaysone Phomvihan, party chairman; includes Lao Patriotic Front and Alliance Committee of Patriotic Neutralist Forces; other parties moribund

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: Supreme People's Assembly—last held on 26 March 1989 (next to be held NA); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(79 total) number of seats by party NA

Other political or pressure groups: non-Communist political groups moribund; most leaders have fled the country

Member of: ADB, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, Mekong Committee, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: First Secretary, Charge d'Affaires ad interim DONE SOMVORACHIT; Chancery at 2222 S Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-6416 or 6417; US—Charge d'Affaires Charles B. SALMON; Embassy at Rue Bartholonie, Vientiane (mailing address is B. P. 114, Vientiane, or Box V, APO San Francisco 96346); telephone 2220, 2357, 2384

Flag: three horizontal bands of red (top), blue (double width), and red with a large white disk centered in the blue band

- Economy Overview: One of the world's poorest nations, Laos has had a Communist centrally planned economy with government ownership and control of productive enterprises of any size. Recently, however, the government has been decentralizing control and encouraging private enterprise. Laos is a landlocked country with a primitive infrastructure, that is, it has no railroads, a rudimentary road system, limited external and internal telecommunications, and electricity available in only a limited area. Subsistence agriculture is the main occupation, accounting for over 60% of GDP and providing about 85-90% of total employment. The predominant crop is rice. For the foreseeable future the economy will continue to depend for its survival on foreign aid—from CEMA, IMF, and other international sources.

GDP: $585 million, per capita $150; real growth rate 3% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 35% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $71 million; expenditures $198 million, including capital expenditures of $132 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $57.5 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities— electricity, wood products, coffee, tin; partners—Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, USSR, US

Imports: $219 million (c.i.f., 1989 est.); commodities—food, fuel oil, consumer goods, manufactures; partners—Thailand, USSR, Japan, France, Vietnam

External debt: $964 million (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 8% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 176,000 kW capacity; 900 million kWh produced, 225 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tin mining, timber, electric power, agricultural processing

Agriculture: accounts for 60% of GDP and employs most of the work force; subsistence farming predominates; normally self-sufficient; principal crops—rice (80% of cultivated land), potatoes, vegetables, coffee, sugarcane, cotton

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis and opium poppy for the international drug trade; production of cannabis increased in 1989; marijuana and heroin are shipped to Western countries, including the US

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-79), $276 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $468 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $895 million

Currency: new kip (plural—kips); 1 new kip (NK) = 100 at

Exchange rates: new kips (NK) per US$1—700 (December 1989), 725 (1989), 350 (1988), 200 (1987), 108 (1986), 95 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications Highways: about 27,527 km total; 1,856 km bituminous or bituminous treated; 7,451 km gravel, crushed stone, or improved earth; 18,220 km unimproved earth and often impassable during rainy season mid-May to mid-September

Inland waterways: about 4,587 km, primarily Mekong and tributaries; 2,897 additional kilometers are sectionally navigable by craft drawing less than 0.5 m

Pipelines: 136 km, refined products

Ports: none

Airports: 64 total, 50 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: service to general public considered poor; radio network provides generally erratic service to government users; 7,390 telephones (1986); stations—10 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 satellite earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: Lao People's Army (LPA, which consists of an army with naval, aviation, and militia elements), Air Force, National Police Department

Military manpower: males 15-49, 967,047; 517,666 fit for military service; 44,176 reach military age (18) annually; conscription age NA

Defense expenditures: 3.8% of GDP (1987) —————————————————————————— Country: Lebanon - Geography Total area: 10,400 km2; land area: 10,230 km2

Comparative area: about 0.8 times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: 454 km total; Israel 79 km, Syria 375 km

Coastline: 225 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: separated from Israel by the 1949 Armistice Line; Israeli troops in southern Lebanon since June 1982; Syrian troops in northern Lebanon since October 1976

Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers

Terrain: narrow coastal plain; Al Biqa (Bekaa Valley) separates Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains

Natural resources: limestone, iron ore, salt; water-surplus state in a water-deficit region

Land use: 21% arable land; 9% permanent crops; 1% meadows and pastures; 8% forest and woodland; 61% other; includes 7% irrigated

Environment: rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect, and develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, ethnicity; deforestation; soil erosion; air and water pollution; desertification

Note: Nahr al Litani only major river in Near East not crossing an international boundary

- People Population: 3,339,331 (July 1990), growth rate 1.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 8 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 49 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 70 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Lebanese (sing., pl.); adjective—Lebanese

Ethnic divisions: 93% Arab, 6% Armenian, 1% other

Religion: 75% Islam, 25% Christian, NEGL% Judaism; 17 legally recognized sects—4 Orthodox Christian (Armenian Orthodox, Greek Orthodox, Nestorean, Syriac Orthodox), 7 Uniate Christian (Armenian Catholic, Caldean, Greek Catholic, Maronite, Protestant, Roman Catholic, Syrian Catholic), 5 Islam (Alawite or Nusayri, Druze, Ismailite, Shia, Sunni), and 1 Jewish

Language: Arabic and French (both official); Armenian, English

Literacy: 75%

Labor force: 650,000; 79% industry, commerce, and services, 11% agriculture, 10% goverment (1985)

Organized labor: 250,000 members (est.)

- Government Note: Between early 1975 and late 1976 Lebanon was torn by civil war between its Christians—then aided by Syrian troops—and its Muslims and their Palestinian allies. The cease-fire established in October 1976 between the domestic political groups generally held for about six years, despite occasional fighting. Syrian troops constituted as the Arab Deterrent Force by the Arab League have remained in Lebanon. Syria's move toward supporting the Lebanese Muslims and the Palestinians and Israel's growing support for Lebanese Christians brought the two sides into rough equilibrium, but no progress was made toward national reconciliation or political reforms—the original cause of the war.

Continuing Israeli concern about the Palestinian presence in Lebanon led to the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in June 1982. Israeli forces occupied all of the southern portion of the country and mounted a summer-long siege of Beirut, which resulted in the evacuation of the PLO from Beirut in September under the supervision of a multinational force (MNF) made up of US, French, and Italian troops.

Within days of the departure of the MNF, Lebanon's newly elected president, Bashir Gemayel, was assassinated. In the wake of his death, Christian militiamen massacred hundreds of Palestinian refugees in two Beirut camps. This prompted the return of the MNF to ease the security burden on Lebanon's weak Army and security forces. In late March 1984 the last MNF units withdrew.

Lebanese Parliamentarians met in Taif, Saudi Arabia in late 1989 and concluded a national reconciliation pact that codified a new power-sharing formula, specifiying a Christian president but giving Muslims more authority. Rene Muawad was subsequently elected president on 4 November 1989, ending a 13-month period during which Lebanon had no president and rival Muslim and Christian governments. Muawad was assassinated 17 days later, on 22 November; on 24 November Elias Harawi was elected to succeed Muawad.

Progress toward lasting political compromise in Lebanon has been stalled by opposition from Christian strongman Gen. Michel Awn. Awn—appointed acting Prime Minister by outgoing president Amin Gemayel in September 1988—called the national reconciliation accord illegitimate and has refused to recognize the new Lebanese Government.

Lebanon continues to be partially occupied by Syrian troops. Syria augmented its troop presence during the weeks following Muawad's assassination. Troops are deployed in West Beirut and its southern suburbs, in Al Biqa, and in northern Lebanon. Iran also maintains a small contingent of revolutionary guards in Al Biqa, from which it supports Lebanese Islamic fundamentalist groups.

Israel withdrew the bulk of its forces from the south in 1985, although it still retains troops in a 10-km-deep security zone north of its border with Lebanon. Israel arms and trains the Army of South Lebanon (ASL), which also occupies the security zone and is Israel's first line of defense against attacks on its northern border.

The following description is based on the present constitutional and customary practices of the Lebanese system.

Long-form name: Republic of Lebanon; note—may be changed to Lebanese Republic

Type: republic

Capital: Beirut

Administrative divisions: 5 governorates (muhafazat, singular—muhafazah); Al Biqa, Al Janub, Ash Shamal, Bayrut, Jabal Lubnan

Independence: 22 November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)

Constitution: 26 May 1926 (amended)

Legal system: mixture of Ottoman law, canon law, Napoleonic code, and civil law; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 22 November (1943)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet; note—by custom, the president is a Maronite Christian, the prime minister is a Sunni Muslim, and the president of the legislature is a Shia Muslim

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Arabic—Majlis Alnuwab, French—Assemblee Nationale)

Judicial branch: four Courts of Cassation (three courts for civil and commercial cases and one court for criminal cases)

Leaders: Chief of State—Elias HARAWI (since 24 November 1989);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Salim AL-HUSS (since 24 November 1989)

Political parties and leaders: political party activity is organized along largely sectarian lines; numerous political groupings exist, consisting of individual political figures and followers motivated by religious, clan, and economic considerations; most parties have well-armed militias, which are still involved in occasional clashes

Suffrage: compulsory for all males at age 21; authorized for women at age 21 with elementary education

Elections: National Assembly—elections should be held every four years but security conditions have prevented elections since May 1972

Communists: the Lebanese Communist Party was legalized in 1970; members and sympathizers estimated at 2,000-3,000

Member of: Arab League, CCC, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB—Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, IWC—International Wheat Council, NAM, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Suleiman RASSI; note—the former Lebanese Ambassador, Dr. Abdallah Bouhabib, is loyal to Gen. Awn and has refused to abandon his residence or relinquish his post; Chancery at 2560 28th Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 939-6300; there are Lebanese Consulates General in Detroit, New York, and Los Angeles; US—Ambassador John T. MCCARTHY; Embassy at Avenue de Paris, Beirut (mailing address is P. O. Box 70-840, Beirut); telephone p961o 417774 or 415802, 415803, 402200, 403300

Flag: three horizontal bands of red (top), white (double width), and red with a green and brown cedar tree centered in the white band

- Economy Overview: Severe factional infighting in 1989 has been destroying physical property, interrupting the established pattern of economic affairs, and practically ending chances of restoring Lebanon's position as a Middle Eastern entrepot and banking hub. The ordinary Lebanese citizen struggles to keep afloat in an environment of physical danger, high unemployment, and growing shortages. The central government's ability to collect taxes has suffered greatly from militia control and taxation of local areas. As the civil strife persists, the US dollar has become more and more the medium of exchange. Transportation, communications, and other parts of the infrastructure continue to deteriorate. Family remittances, foreign political money going to the factions, international emergency aid, and a small volume of manufactured exports help prop up the battered economy. Prospects for 1990 are grim, with expected further declines in economic activity and living standards.

GDP: $2.3 billion, per capita $700; real growth rate NA% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 60% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 33% (1987 est.)

Budget: revenues $50 million; expenditures $650 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1988 est.)

Exports: $1.0 billion (f.o.b., 1987); commodities—agricultural products, chemicals, textiles, precious and semiprecious metals and jewelry, metals and metal products; partners—Saudi Arabia 16%, Switzerland 8%, Jordan 6%, Kuwait 6%, US 5%

Imports: $1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1987); commodities—NA; partners—Italy 14%, France 12%, US 6%, Turkey 5%, Saudi Arabia 3%

External debt: $935 million (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 1,381,000 kW capacity; 3,870 million kWh produced, 1,170 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: banking, food processing, textiles, cement, oil refining, chemicals, jewelry, some metal fabricating

Agriculture: accounts for about one-third of GDP; principal products—citrus fruits, vegetables, potatoes, olives, tobacco, hemp (hashish), sheep, and goats; not self-sufficient in grain

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium poppy and cannabis for the international drug trade; opium poppy production in Al Biqa is increasing; most hashish production is shipped to Western Europe

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $356 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $509 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $962 million; Communist countries (1970-86), $9 million

Currency: Lebanese pound (plural—pounds); 1 Lebanese pound (LL) = 100 piasters

Exchange rates: Lebanese pounds (LL) per US$1—474.21 (December 1989), 496.69 (1989), 409.23 (1988), 224.60 (1987), 38.37 (1986), 16.42 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 378 km total; 296 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 82 km 1.050-meter gauge; all single track; system almost entirely inoperable

Highways: 7,370 km total; 6,270 km paved, 450 km gravel and crushed stone, 650 km improved earth

Pipelines: crude oil, 72 km (none in operation)

Ports: Beirut, Tripoli, Ras Silata, Juniyah, Sidon, Az Zahrani, Tyre, Shikka (none are under the direct control of the Lebanese Government); northern ports are occupied by Syrian forces and southern ports are occupied or partially quarantined by Israeli forces; illegal ports scattered along the central coast are owned and operated by various Christian, Druze, and Shia militias

Merchant marine: 67 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 325,361 GRT/494,319 DWT; includes 43 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 2 vehicle carrier, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 container, 7 livestock carrier, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 1 specialized tanker, 6 bulk, 1 combination bulk

Civil air: 15 major transport aircraft

Airports: 9 total, 8 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m; none under the direct control of the Lebanese Government

Telecommunications: rebuilding program disrupted; had fair system of radio relay, cable; 325,000 telephones; stations—5 AM, 3 FM, 15 TV; 1 inactive Indian Ocean INTELSAT satellite earth station; 3 submarine coaxial cables; radio relay to Jordan and Syria, inoperable

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 702,961; 434,591 fit for military service; about 44,625 reach military age (18) yearly

Defense expenditures: NA —————————————————————————— Country: Lesotho - Geography Total area: 30,350 km2; land area: 30,350 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundary: 909 km with South Africa

Coastline: none—landlocked

Maritime claims: none—landlocked

Climate: temperate; cool to cold, dry winters; hot, wet summers

Terrain: mostly highland with some plateaus, hills, and mountains

Natural resources: some diamonds and other minerals, water, agricultural and grazing land

Land use: 10% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 66% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 24% other

Environment: population pressure forcing settlement in marginal areas results in overgrazing, severe soil erosion, soil exhaustion; desertification

Note: surrounded by South Africa; Highlands Water Project will control, store, and redirect water to South Africa

- People Population: 1,754,664 (July 1990), growth rate 2.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 80 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 59 years male, 62 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Mosotho (sing.), Basotho (pl.); adjective—Basotho

Ethnic divisions: 99.7% Sotho; 1,600 Europeans, 800 Asians

Religion: 80% Christian, rest indigenous beliefs

Language: Sesotho (southern Sotho) and English (official); also Zulu and Xhosa

Literacy: 59% (1989)

Labor force: 689,000 economically active; 86.2% of resident population engaged in subsistence agriculture; roughly 60% of active male labor force works in South Africa

Organized labor: there are two trade union federations; the government favors formation of a single, umbrella trade union confederation

- Government Long-form name: Kingdom of Lesotho

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Maseru

Administrative divisions: 10 districts; Berea, Butha-Buthe, Leribe, Mafeteng, Maseru, Mohales Hoek, Mokhotlong, Qachas Nek, Quthing, Thaba-Tseka

Independence: 4 October 1966 (from UK; formerly Basutoland)

Constitution: 4 October 1966, suspended January 1970

Legal system: based on English common law and Roman-Dutch law; judicial review of legislative acts in High Court and Court of Appeal; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 October (1966)

Executive branch: monarch, chairman of the Military Council, Military Council, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: a bicameral Parliament consisting of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or National Assembly was dissolved in January 1970; following the military coup of 20 January 1986, legislative powers were vested in the monarch

Judicial branch: High Court, Court of Appeal

Leaders: Chief of State—King MOSHOESHOE II (Paramount Chief from 1960 until independence on 4 October 1966, when he became King); Heir Apparent Letsie David SEEISO (son of the King);

Head of Government—Chairman of the Military Council Maj. Gen. Justin Metsing LEKHANYA (since 24 January 1986)

Political parties and leaders: Basotho National Party (BNP), position vacant; Basutoland Congress Party (BCP), Ntsu Mokhehle; Basotho Democratic Alliance (BDA), A. S. Nqojane; National Independent Party (NIP), A. C. Manyeli; Marematlou Freedom Party (MFP), S. H. Mapheleba; United Democratic Party, C. D. Mofeli

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections: National Assembly —dissolved following the military coup in January 1986; no date set for national elections

Communists: small Lesotho Communist Party

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAU, Southern African Customs Union, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador W. T. VAN TONDER; Chancery at 2511 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 797-5 534; US—Ambassador (vacant): Deputy Chief of Mission Howard F. JETER; Embassy at address NA, Maseru (mailing address is P. O. Box 333, Maseru 100); telephone p266o 312666

Flag: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper half is white bearing the brown silhouette of a large shield with crossed spear and club; the lower half is a diagonal blue band with a green triangle in the corner

- Economy Overview: Small, landlocked, and mountainous, Lesotho has no important natural resources other than water. Its economy is based on agriculture, light manufacturing, and remittances from laborers employed in South Africa. Subsistence farming is the principal occupation for about 86% of the domestic labor force and accounts for about 20% of GDP. Manufacturing depends largely on farm products to support the milling, canning, leather, and jute industries; other industries include textile, clothing, and light engineering. Industry's share of total GDP rose from 6% in 1982 to 10.5% in 1987. During the period 1985-87 real GDP growth averaged 2.9% per year, only slightly above the population growth rate. In FY89 per capita GDP was only $245 and nearly 25% of the labor force was unemployed.

GDP: $412 million, per capita $245; real growth rate 8.2% (FY89 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15.0% (FY89 est.)

Unemployment rate: 23% (1988)

Budget: revenues $159 million; expenditures $224 million, including capital expenditures of $68 million (FY89 est.)

Exports: $55 million (f.o.b., FY89 est.); commodities—wool, mohair, wheat, cattle, peas, beans, corn, hides, skins, baskets; partners—South Africa 87%, EC 10%, (1985)

Imports: $526 million (f.o.b., FY89 est.); commodities—mainly corn, building materials, clothing, vehicles, machinery, medicines, petroleum, oil, and lubricants; partners—South Africa 95%, EC 2% (1985)

External debt: $235 million (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 10.3% (1988 est.)

Electricity: power supplied by South Africa

Industries: tourism

Agriculture: exceedingly primitive, mostly subsistence farming and livestock; principal crops are corn, wheat, pulses, sorghum, barley

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $252 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $714 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $4 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $14 million

Currency: loti (plural—maloti); 1 loti (L) = 100 lisente

Exchange rates: maloti (M) per US$1—2.5555 (January 1990), 2.6166 (1989), 2.2611 (1988), 2.0350 (1987), 2.2685 (1986), 2.1911 (1985); note—the Basotho loti is at par with the South African rand

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications Railroads: 1.6 km; owned, operated, and included in the statistics of South Africa

Highways: 5,167 km total; 508 km paved; 1,585 km crushed stone, gravel, or stabilized soil; 946 km improved earth, 2,128 km unimproved earth

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 28 total, 28 usable; 2 with permanent surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: modest system consisting of a few land lines, a small radio relay system, and minor radiocommunication stations; 5,920 telephones; stations—2 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Air Wing, Police Department

Military manpower: males 15-49, 381,015; 205,499 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 8.6% of GDP, or $35 million (1989 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: Liberia - Geography Total area: 111,370 km2; land area: 96,320 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries: 1,585 km total; Guinea 563 km, Ivory Coast 716 km, Sierra Leone 306 km

Coastline: 579 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; dry winters with hot days and cool to cold nights; wet, cloudy summers with frequent heavy showers

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling coastal plains rising to rolling plateau and low mountains in northeast

Natural resources: iron ore, timber, diamonds, gold

Land use: 1% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 2% meadows and pastures; 39% forest and woodland; 55% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: West Africa's largest tropical rain forest, subject to deforestation

- People Population: 2,639,809 (July 1990), growth rate 3.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 45 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 14 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 126 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 54 years male, 58 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Liberian(s); adjective—Liberian

Ethnic divisions: 95% indigenous African tribes, including Kpelle, Bassa, Gio, Kru, Grebo, Mano, Krahn, Gola, Gbandi, Loma, Kissi, Vai, and Bella; 5% descendants of repatriated slaves known as Americo-Liberians

Religion: 70% traditional, 20% Muslim, 10% Christian

Language: English (official); more than 20 local languages of the Niger-Congo language group; English used by about 20%

Literacy: 35%

Labor force: 510,000, including 220,000 in the monetary economy; 70.5% agriculture, 10.8% services, 4.5% industry and commerce, 14.2% other; non-African foreigners hold about 95% of the top-level management and engineering jobs; 52% of population of working age

Organized labor: 2% of labor force

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Liberia

Type: republic

Capital: Monrovia

Administrative divisions: 13 counties; Bomi, Bong, Grand Bassa, Grand Cape Mount, Grand Jide, Grand Kru, Lofa, Margibi, Maryland, Montserrado, Nimba, Rivercess, Sino

Independence: 26 July 1847

Constitution: 6 January 1986

Legal system: dual system of statutory law based on Anglo-American common law for the modern sector and customary law based on unwritten tribal practices for indigenous sector

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 July (1847)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—President Gen. Dr. Samuel Kanyon DOE (since 12 April 1980); Vice President Harry F. MONIBA (since 6 January 1986)

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Party of Liberia (NDPL), Augustus Caine, chairman; Liberian Action Party (LAP), Emmanuel Koromah, chairman; Unity Party (UP), Carlos Smith, chairman; United People's Party (UPP), Gabriel Baccus Matthews, chairman

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: President—last held on 15 October 1985 (next to be held October 1991); results—Samuel Kanyon Doe (NDPL) 50.9%, Jackson Doe (LAP) 26.4%, others 22.7%;

Senate—last held on 15 October 1985 (next to be held 15 October 1991); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(26 total) NDPL 21, LAP 3, UP 1, LUP 1;

House of Representatives—last held on 15 October 1985 (next to be held October 1991); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(64 total) NDPL 51, LAP 8, UP 3, LUP 2

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, Mano River Union, NAM, OAU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Eugenia A. WORDSWORTH-STEVENSON; Chancery at 5201 16th Street NW, Washington DC 20011; telephone (202) 723-0437 through 0440; there is a Liberian Consulate General in New York; US—Ambassador James K. BISHOP; Embassy at 111 United Nations Drive, Monrovia (mailing address is P. O. Box 98, Monrovia, or APO New York 09155); telephone p231o 222991 through 222994

Flag: 11 equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a white five-pointed star on a blue square in the upper hoist-side corner; the design was based on the US flag

- Economy Overview: In 1988 and 1989 the Liberian economy posted its best two years in a decade, thanks to a resurgence of the rubber industry and rapid growth in exports of forest products. Richly endowed with water, mineral resources, forests, and a climate favorable to agriculture, Liberia is a producer and exporter of basic products. Local manufacturing, mainly foreign owned, is small in scope. Liberia imports primarily machinery and parts, transportation equipment, petroleum products, and foodstuffs. Persistent budget deficits, the flight of capital, and deterioration of transport and other infrastructure continue to hold back economic progress.

GDP: $988 million, per capita $395; real growth rate 1.5% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 43% urban (1988)

Budget: revenues $242.1 million; expenditures $435.4 million, including capital expenditures of $29.5 million (1989)

Exports: $550 million (f.o.b., 1989); commodities—iron ore 61%, rubber 20%, timber 11%, coffee; partners—US, EC, Netherlands

Imports: $335 million (c.i.f., 1989); commodities—rice, mineral fuels, chemicals, machinery, transportation equipment, other foodstuffs; partners—US, EC, Japan, China, Netherlands, ECOWAS

External debt: $1.7 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 1.5% in manufacturing (1987)

Electricity: 400,000 kW capacity; 730 million kWh produced, 290 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: rubber processing, food processing, construction materials, furniture, palm oil processing, mining (iron ore, diamonds)

Agriculture: accounts for about 40% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); principal products—rubber, timber, coffee, cocoa, rice, cassava, palm oil, sugarcane, bananas, sheep, and goats; not self-sufficient in food, imports 25% of rice consumption

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $634 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $793 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $25 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $77 million

Currency: Liberian dollar (plural—dollars); 1 Liberian dollar (L$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Liberian dollars (L$) per US$1—1.00 (fixed rate since 1940); unofficial parallel exchange rate of L$2.5 = US$1, January 1989

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 480 km total; 328 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 152 km 1.067-meter narrow gauge; all lines single track; rail systems owned and operated by foreign steel and financial interests in conjunction with Liberian Government

Highways: 10,087 km total; 603 km bituminous treated, 2,848 km all weather, 4,313 km dry weather; there are also 2,323 km of private, laterite-surfaced roads open to public use, owned by rubber and timber companies

Ports: Monrovia, Buchanan, Greenville, Harper (or Cape Palmas)

Merchant marine: 1,379 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 48,655,666 DWT/ 90,005,898 DWT; includes 11 passenger, 148 cargo, 26 refrigerated cargo, 18 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 42 vehicle carrier, 42 container, 4 barge carrier, 436 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 100 chemical, 63 combination ore/oil, 41 liquefied gas, 6 specialized tanker, 413 bulk, 2 multifunction large-load carrier, 26 combination bulk; note—a flag of convenience registry; all ships are foreign owned; the top four owning flags are US 17%, Hong Kong 13%, Japan 10%, and Greece 10%; China owns at least 20 ships and Vietnam owns 1

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

Airports: 76 total, 60 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: telephone and telegraph service via radio relay network; main center is Monrovia; 8,500 telephones; stations—3 AM, 4 FM, 5 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

- Defense Forces Branches: Armed Forces of Liberia, Liberia National Coast Guard

Military manpower: males 15-49, 627,519; 335,063 fit for military service; no conscription

Defense expenditures: 2.4% of GDP (1987) —————————————————————————— Country: Libya - Geography Total area: 1,759,540 km2; land area: 1,759,540 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries: 4,383 km total; Algeria 982 km, Chad 1,055 km, Egypt 1,150 km, Niger 354 km, Sudan 383 km, Tunisia 459 km

Coastline: 1,770 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm;

Gulf of Sidra closing line: 32o 30' N

Disputes: claims and occupies a small portion of the Aozou Strip in northern Chad; maritime boundary dispute with Tunisia; Libya claims about 19,400 km2 in northern Niger; Libya claims about 19,400 km2 in southeastern Algeria

Climate: Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior

Terrain: mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, gypsum

Land use: 1% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 8% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 91% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in spring and fall; desertification; sparse natural surface-water resources

Note: the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme in the world, is being built to bring water from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities

- People Population: 4,221,141 (July 1990), growth rate 3.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 64 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 70 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Libyan(s); adjective—Libyan

Ethnic divisions: 97% Berber and Arab; some Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians

Religion: 97% Sunni Muslim

Language: Arabic; Italian and English widely understood in major cities

Literacy: 50-60%

Labor force: 1,000,000, includes about 280,000 resident foreigners; 31% industry, 27% services, 24% government, 18% agriculture

Organized labor: National Trade Unions' Federation, 275,000 members; General Union for Oil and Petrochemicals; Pan-Africa Federation of Petroleum Energy and Allied Workers

- Government Long-form name: Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

Type: Jamahiriya (a state of the masses); in theory, governed by the populace through local councils; in fact, a military dictatorship

Capital: Tripoli

Administrative divisions: 46 municipalities (baladiyat, singular—baladiyah); Ajdabiya, Al Abyar, Al Aziziyah, Al Bayda, Al Jufrah, Al Jumayl, Al Khums, Al Kufrah, Al Marj, Al Qarabulli, Al Qubbah, Al Ujaylat, Ash Shati, Awbari, Az Zahra, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Bani Walid, Bin Jawwad, Darnah, Ghadamis, Gharyan, Ghat, Jadu, Jalu, Janzur, Masallatah, Misratah, Mizdah, Murzuq, Nalut, Qaminis, Qasr Bin Ghashir, Sabha, Sabratah, Shahhat, Surman, Surt, Tajura, Tarabulus, Tarhunah, Tubruq, Tukrah, Yafran, Zlitan, Zuwarah; note—the number of municipalities may have been reduced to 13 named Al Jabal al-Akhdar, Al Jabal al-Gharbi, Al Jabal al-Khums, Al Batnam, Al Kufrah, Al Marqab, Al Marzuq, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Khalij Surt, Sabha, Tripoli, Wadi al-Hayat

Independence: 24 December 1951 (from Italy)

Constitution: 11 December 1969, amended 2 March 1977

Legal system: based on Italian civil law system and Islamic law; separate religious courts; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Revolution Day, 1 September (1969)

Executive branch: revolutionary leader, chairman of the General People's Committee, General People's Committee (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral General People's Congress

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—Revolutionary Leader Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI (since 1 September 1969);

Head of Government—Chairman of the General People's Committee (Premier) Umar Mustafa al-MUNTASIR (since 1 March 1987)

Political parties and leaders: none

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Elections: national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of revolutionary committees

Flag: plain green; green is the traditional color of Islam (the state religion)

- Economy Overview: The socialist-oriented economy depends primarily upon revenues from the oil sector, which contributes virtually all export earnings and over 50% to GNP. Since 1980, however, the sharp drop in oil prices and resulting decline in export revenues has adversely affected economic development. In 1986 per capita GNP was the highest in Africa at $5,410, but it had been $2,000 higher in 1982. Severe cutbacks in imports over the past five years have led to shortages of basic goods and foodstuffs, although the reopening of the Libyan-Tunisian border in April 1988 and the Libyan-Egyptian border in December 1989 have somewhat eased shortages. Austerity budgets and a lack of trained technicians have undermined the government's ability to implement a number of planned infrastructure development projects. The nonoil industrial and construction sectors, which account for about 15% of GNP, have expanded from processing mostly agricultural products to include petrochemicals, iron, steel, and aluminum. Although agriculture accounts for less than 5% of GNP, it employs 20% of the labor force. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit farm output, requiring Libya to import about 75% of its food requirements.

GNP: $20 billion, per capita $5,410; real growth rate 0% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: 2% (1988 est.)

Budget: revenues $6.4 billion; expenditures $11.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.6 billion (1986 est.)

Exports: $6.1 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities—petroleum, peanuts, hides; partners—Italy, USSR, FRG, Spain, France, Belgium/Luxembourg, Turkey

Imports: $5.0 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities—machinery, transport equipment, food, manufactured goods; partners—Italy, USSR, FRG, UK, Japan

External debt: $2.1 billion, excluding military debt (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 4,580,000 kW capacity; 13,360 million kWh produced, 3,270 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement

Agriculture: 5% of GNP; cash crops—wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus fruits, peanuts; 75% of food is imported

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $242 million

Currency: Libyan dinar (plural—dinars); 1 Libyan dinar (LD) = 1,000 dirhams

Exchange rates: Libyan dinars (LD) per US$1—0.2896 (January 1990), 0.2922 (1989), 0.2853 (1988), 0.2706 (1987), 0.3139 (1986), 0.2961 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Highways: 32,500 km total; 24,000 km bituminous and bituminous treated, 8,500 km gravel, crushed stone and earth

Pipelines: crude oil 4,383 km; natural gas 1,947 km; refined products 443 km (includes 256 km liquid petroleum gas)

Ports: Tobruk, Tripoli, Banghazi, Misratah, Marsa el Brega

Merchant marine: 30 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 816,546 GRT/1,454,874 DWT; includes 3 short-sea passenger, 11 cargo, 4 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 11 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker

Civil air: 59 major transport aircraft

Airports: 130 total, 122 usable; 53 with permanent-surface runways; 7 with runways over 3,659 m; 30 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 44 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: modern telecommunications system using radio relay, coaxial cable, tropospheric scatter, and domestic satellite stations; 370,000 telephones; stations—18 AM, 3 FM, 13 TV; satellite earth stations— 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, and 14 domestic; submarine cables to France and Italy; radio relay to Tunisia; tropospheric scatter to Greece; planned ARABSAT and Intersputnik satellite stations

- Defense Forces Branches: Armed Forces of the Libyan Arab Jamahariya includes People's Defense (Army), Arab Air Force and Air Defense Command, Arab Navy

Military manpower: males 15-49, 991,368; 584,512 fit for military service; 50,379 reach military age (17) annually; conscription now being implemented

Defense expenditures: 11.1% of GNP (1987) —————————————————————————— Country: Liechtenstein - Geography Total area: 160 km2; land area: 160 km2

Comparative area: about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 78 km total; Austria 37 km, Switzerland 41 km

Coastline: none—landlocked

Maritime claims: none—landlocked

Climate: continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers

Terrain: mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third

Natural resources: hydroelectric potential

Land use: 25% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 38% meadows and pastures; 19% forest and woodland; 18% other

Environment: variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation

Note: landlocked

- People Population: 28,292 (July 1990), growth rate 0.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 5 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 81 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Liechtensteiner(s); adjective—Liechtenstein

Ethnic divisions: 95% Alemannic, 5% Italian and other

Religion: 82.7% Roman Catholic, 7.1% Protestant, 10.2% other

Language: German (official), Alemannic dialect

Literacy: 100%

Labor force: 12,258; 5,078 foreign workers (mostly from Switzerland and Austria); 54.4% industry, trade, and building; 41.6% services; 4.0% agriculture, fishing, forestry, and horticulture

Organized labor: NA

- Government Long-form name: Principality of Liechtenstein

Type: hereditary constitutional monarchy

Capital: Vaduz

Administrative divisions: 11 communes (gemeinden, singular—gemeinde); Balzers, Eschen, Gamprin, Mauren, Planken, Ruggell, Schaan, Schellenberg, Triesen, Triesenberg, Vaduz

Independence: 23 January 1719, Imperial Principality of Liechtenstein established

Constitution: 5 October 1921

Legal system: local civil and penal codes; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: St. Joseph's Day, 19 March

Executive branch: reigning prince, hereditary prince, prime minister, deputy prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral Diet (Landtag)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) for criminal cases and Superior Court (Obergericht) for civil cases

Leaders: Chief of State—Prince HANS ADAM von und zu Liechtenstein (since 13 November 1989; assumed executive powers 26 August 1984);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Hans BRUNHART (since 26 April 1978); Deputy Prime Minister Dr. Herbert WILLE (since 2 February 1986)

Political parties and leaders: Fatherland Union (VU), Dr. Otto Hasler; Progressive Citizens' Party (FBP), Dr. Herbert Batliner; Christian Social Party, Fritz Kaiser

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: Diet—last held on 5 March 1989 (next to be held by March 1993); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(25 total) VU 13, FBP 12

Communists: none

Member of: Council of Europe, EFTA, IAEA, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, UNCTAD, UNIDO, UNICEF, UPU, WIPO; considering UN membership; has consultative status in the EC

Diplomatic representation: in routine diplomatic matters, Liechtenstein is represented in the US by the Swiss Embassy; US—the US has no diplomatic or consular mission in Liechtenstein, but the US Consul General at Zurich (Switzerland) has consular accreditation at Vaduz

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a gold crown on the hoist side of the blue band

- Economy Overview: The prosperous economy is based primarily on small-scale light industry and some farming. Industry accounts for 54% of total employment, the service sector 42% (mostly based on tourism), and agriculture and forestry 4%. The sale of postage stamps to collectors is estimated at $10 million annually and accounts for 10% of revenues. Low business taxes (the maximum tax rate is 20%) and easy incorporation rules have induced about 25,000 holding or so-called letter box companies to establish nominal offices in Liechtenstein. Such companies, incorporated solely for tax purposes, provide an additional 30% of state revenues. The economy is tied closely to that of Switzerland in a customs union, and incomes and living standards parallel those of the more prosperous Swiss groups.

GNP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1987 est.)

Unemployment rate: 0.1% (December 1986)

Budget: revenues $171 million; expenditures $189 million, including capital expenditures of NA (1986)

Exports: $807 million; commodities—small specialty machinery, dental products, stamps, hardware, pottery; partners—EC 40%, EFTA 26% (Switzerland 19%) (1986)

Imports: $NA; commodities—machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs, motor vehicles; partners—NA

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 23,000 kW capacity; 150 million kWh produced, 5,340 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: electronics, metal manufacturing, textiles, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism

Agriculture: livestock, vegetables, corn, wheat, potatoes, grapes

Aid: none

Currency: Swiss franc, franken, or franco (plural—francs, franken, or franchi); 1 Swiss franc, franken, or franco (SwF) = 100 centimes, rappen, or centesimi

Exchange rates: Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SwF) per US$1—1.5150 (January 1990), 1.6359 (1989), 1.4633 (1988), 1.4912 (1987), 1.7989 (1986), 2.4571 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 18.5 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, electrified; owned, operated, and included in statistics of Austrian Federal Railways

Highways: 130.66 km main roads, 192.27 km byroads

Civil air: no transport aircraft

Airports: none

Telecommunications: automatic telephone system; 25,400 telephones; stations—no AM, no FM, no TV

- Defense Forces Note: defense is responsibility of Switzerland —————————————————————————— Country: Luxembourg - Geography Total area: 2,586 km2; land area: 2,586 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 359 km total; Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, FRG 138 km

Coastline: none—landlocked

Maritime claims: none—landlocked

Climate: modified continental with mild winters, cool summers

Terrain: mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle floodplain in the southeast

Natural resources: iron ore (no longer exploited)

Land use: 24% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 20% meadows and pastures; 21% forest and woodland; 34% other

Environment: deforestation

Note: landlocked

- People Population: 383,813 (July 1990), growth rate 1.1% (1989)

Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 9 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 80 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Luxembourger(s); adjective—Luxembourg

Ethnic divisions: Celtic base, with French and German blend; also guest and worker residents from Portugal, Italy, and European countries

Religion: 97% Roman Catholic, 3% Protestant and Jewish

Language: Luxembourgish, German, French; many also speak English

Literacy: 100%

Labor force: 161,000; one-third of labor force is foreign workers, mostly from Portugal, Italy, France, Belgium, and FRG; 48.9% services, 24.7% industry, 13.2% government, 8.8% construction, 4.4% agriculture (1984)

Organized labor: 100,000 (est.) members of four confederated trade unions

- Government Long-form name: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Luxembourg

Administrative divisions: 3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg

Independence: 1839

Constitution: 17 October 1868, occasional revisions

Legal system: based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day (public celebration of the Grand Duke's birthday), 23 June (1921)

Executive branch: grand duke, prime minister, vice prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Deputies (Chambre des Deputes); note—the Council of State (Conseil d'Etat) is an advisory body whose views are considered by the Chamber of Deputies

Judicial branch: Superior Court of Justice (Cour Superieure de de Justice)

Leaders: Chief of State—Grand Duke JEAN (since 12 November 1964); Heir Apparent Prince HENRI (son of Grand Duke Jean, born 16 April 1955);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Jacques SANTER (since 21 July 1984); Deputy Prime Minister Jacques F. POOS (since 21 July 1984)

Political parties and leaders: Christian Social Party (CSV), Jacques Santer; Socialist Workers Party (LSAP), Jacques Poos; Liberal (DP), Colette Flesch; Communist (KPL), Rene Urbany; Green Alternative (GAP), Jean Huss

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Elections: Chamber of Deputies—last held on 18 June 1989 (next to be held by June 1994); results—CSV 31.7%, LSAP 27.2%, DP 16.2%, Greens 8.4%, PAC 7.3%, KPL 5.1%, others 4%; seats—(60 total) CSV 22, LSAP 18, DP 11, Greens 4, PAC 4, KPL 1, others 4

Communists: 500 party members (1982)

Other political or pressure groups: group of steel industries representing iron and steel industry, Centrale Paysanne representing agricultural producers; Christian and Socialist labor unions; Federation of Industrialists; Artisans and Shopkeepers Federation

Member of: Benelux, BLEU, CCC, Council of Europe, EC, EIB, EMS, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU, ITU, NATO, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Andre PHILIPPE; Chancery at 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 265-4171; there are Luxembourg Consulates General in New York and San Francisco; US—Ambassador Jean B. S. GERARD; Embassy at 22 Boulevard Emmanuel-Servais, 2535 Luxembourg City (mailing address is APO New York 09132); telephone p352o 460123

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands which uses a darker blue and is shorter; design was based on the flag of France

- Economy Overview: The stable economy features moderate growth, low inflation, and negligible unemployment. Agriculture is based on small but highly productive family-owned farms. The industrial sector, until recently dominated by steel, has become increasingly more diversified, particularly toward high-technology firms. During the past decade growth in the financial sector has more than compensated for the decline in steel. Services, especially banking, account for a growing proportion of the economy. Luxembourg participates in an economic union with Belgium on trade and most financial matters and is also closely connected economically with the Netherlands.

GDP: $6.3 billion, per capita $17,200; real growth rate 4% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.0% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 1.6% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $2.5 billion; expenditures $2.3 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (1988)

Exports: $4.7 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—finished steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass, aluminum, other industrial products; partners—EC 75%, US 6%

Imports: $5.9 billion (c.i.f., 1988 est.); commodities—minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods; partners—FRG 40%, Belgium 35%, France 15%, US 3%

External debt: $131.6 million (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 1,500,000 kW capacity; 1,163 million kWh produced, 3,170 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: banking, iron and steel, food processing, chemicals, metal products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum

Agriculture: accounts for less than 3% of GDP (including forestry); principal products—barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits, wine grapes; cattle raising widespread

Aid: none

Currency: Luxembourg franc (plural—francs); 1 Luxembourg franc (LuxF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Luxembourg francs (LuxF) per US$1—35.468 (January 1990), 39.404 (1989), 36.768 (1988), 37.334 (1987), 44.672 (1986), 59.378 (1985); note—the Luxembourg franc is at par with the Belgian franc, which circulates freely in Luxembourg

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: Luxembourg National Railways (CFL) operates 270 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; 162 km double track; 162 km electrified

Highways: 5,108 km total; 4,995 km paved, 57 km gravel, 56 km earth; about 80 km limited access divided highway

Inland waterways: 37 km; Moselle River

Pipelines: refined products, 48 km

Ports: Mertert (river port)

Merchant marine: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,138 GRT/9,373 DWT; includes 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 chemical tanker

Civil air: 13 major transport aircraft

Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways less than 1,220 m; 1 with runways over 3,659 m

Telecommunications: adequate and efficient system, mainly buried cables; 230,000 telephones; stations—2 AM, 4 FM, 6 TV; 2 communication satellite earth stations operating in EUTELSAT and domestic systems

- Defense Forces Branches: Army

Military manpower: males 15-49, 99,734; 83,237 fit for military service; 2,368 reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: 1.2% of GDP, or $76 million (1989 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: Macau (overseas territory of Portugal) - Geography Total area: 16 km2; land area: 16 km2

Comparative area: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundary: 0.34 km with China

Coastline: 40 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm;

Territorial sea: 6 nm

Disputes: scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region of China in 1999

Climate: subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers

Terrain: generally flat

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: essentially urban; one causeway and one bridge connect the two islands to the peninsula on mainland

Note: 27 km west southwest of Hong Kong on the southeast coast of China

- People Population: 441,691 (July 1990), growth rate 1.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 16 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 79 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Macanese (sing. and pl.); adjective—Macau

Ethnic divisions: 95% Chinese, 3% Portuguese, 2% other

Religion: mainly Buddhist; 17,000 Roman Catholics, of whom about half are Chinese

Language: Portuguese (official); Cantonese is the language of commerce

Literacy: almost 100% among Portuguese and Macanese; no data on Chinese population

Labor force: 180,000 (1986)

Organized labor: none

- Government Long-form name: none

Type: overseas territory of Portugal; scheduled to revert to China in 1999

Capital: Macau

Administrative divisions: 2 districts (concelhos, singular—concelho); Ilhas, Macau

Independence: none (territory of Portugal); Portugal signed an agreement with China on 13 April 1987 to return Macau to China on 20 December 1999; in the joint declaration, China promises to respect Macau's existing social and economic systems and lifestyle for 50 years after transition

Constitution: 17 February 1976, Organic Law of Macau

Legal system: Portuguese civil law system

National holiday: Day of Portugal, 10 June

Executive branch: president of Portugal, governor, Consultative Council, (cabinet)

Legislative branch: Legislative Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—President (of Portugal) Mario Alberto SOARES (since 9 March 1986);

Head of Government—Governor Carlos MELANCIA (since 3 July 1987)

Political parties and leaders: Association to Defend the Interests of Macau; Macau Democratic Center; Group to Study the Development of Macau; Macau Independent Group

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: Legislative Assembly—last held on 9 November 1988 (next to be held November 1991); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(17 total; 6 elected by universal suffrage, 6 by indirect suffrage) number of seats by party NA

Other political or pressure groups: wealthy Macanese and Chinese representing local interests, wealthy pro-Communist merchants representing China's interests; in January 1967 the Macau Government acceded to Chinese demands that gave China veto power over administration

Member of: Multifiber Agreement

Diplomatic representation: as Chinese territory under Portuguese administration, Macanese interests in the US are represented by Portugal; US—the US has no offices in Macau and US interests are monitored by the US Consulate General in Hong Kong

Flag: the flag of Portugal is used

- Economy Overview: The economy is based largely on tourism (including gambling), and textile and fireworks manufacturing. Efforts to diversify have spawned other small industries—toys, artificial flowers, and electronics. The tourist sector has accounted for roughly 25% of GDP, and the clothing industry has provided about two-thirds of export earnings. Macau depends on China for most of its food, fresh water, and energy imports. Japan and Hong Kong are the main suppliers of raw materials and capital goods.

GDP: $2.7 billion, per capita $6,300; real growth rate 5% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.5% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 2% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $305 million; expenditures $298 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1989)

Exports: $1.7 billion (1989 est.); commodities—textiles, clothing, toys; partners—US 33%, Hong Kong 15%, FRG 12%, France 10% (1987)

Imports: $1.6 billion (1989 est.); commodities—raw materials, foodstuffs, capital goods; partners—Hong Kong 39%, China 21%, Japan 10% (1987)

External debt: $91 million (1985)

Industrial production: NA

Electricity: 179,000 kW capacity; 485 million kWh produced, 1,110 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: clothing, textiles, toys, plastic products, furniture, tourism

Agriculture: rice, vegetables; food shortages—rice, vegetables, meat; depends mostly on imports for food requirements

Aid: none

Currency: pataca (plural—patacas); 1 pataca (P) = 100 avos

Exchange rates: patacas (P) per US$1—8.03 (1989), 8.044 (1988), 7.993 (1987), 8.029 (1986), 8.045 (1985); note—linked to the Hong Kong dollar at the rate of 1.03 patacas per Hong Kong dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Highways: 42 km paved

Ports: Macau

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: none; 1 seaplane station

Telecommunications: fairly modern communication facilities maintained for domestic and international services; 52,000 telephones; stations—4 AM, 3 FM, no TV; 75,000 radio receivers (est.); international high-frequency radio communication facility; access to international communications carriers provided via Hong Kong and China; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Military manpower: males 15-49, 166,956; 93,221 fit for military service

Note: defense is responsibility of Portugal —————————————————————————— Country: Madagascar - Geography Total area: 587,040 km2; land area: 581,540 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Arizona

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 4,828 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 150 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island (all administered by France)

Climate: tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south

Terrain: narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center

Natural resources: graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish

Land use: 4% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 58% meadows and pastures; 26% forest and woodland; 11% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: subject to periodic cyclones; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Note: world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel

- People Population: 11,800,524 (July 1990), growth rate 3.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 97 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 50 years male, 54 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Malagasy (sing. and pl.); adjective—Malagasy

Ethnic divisions: basic split between highlanders of predominantly Malayo-Indonesian origin (Merina 1,643,000 and related Betsileo 760,000) on the one hand and coastal tribes, collectively termed the Cotiers, with mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry (Betsimisaraka 941,000, Tsimihety 442,000, Antaisaka 415,000, Sakalava 375,000), on the other; there are also 11,000 European French, 5,000 Indians of French nationality, and 5,000 Creoles

Religion: 52% indigenous beliefs; about 41% Christian, 7% Muslim

Language: French and Malagasy (official)

Literacy: 67.5%

Labor force: 4,900,000; 90% nonsalaried family workers engaged in subsistence agriculture; 175,000 wage earners—26% agriculture, 17% domestic service, 15% industry, 14% commerce, 11% construction, 9% services, 6% transportation, 2% other; 51% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: 4% of labor force

- Government Long-form name: Democratic Republic of Madagascar

Type: republic

Capital: Antananarivo

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (plural—NA, singular—faritanin); Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara

Independence: 26 June 1960 (from France; formerly Malagasy Republic)

Constitution: 21 December 1975

Legal system: based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 June (1960)

Executive branch: president, Supreme Council of the Revolution, prime minister, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral Popular National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale Populaire)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme), High Constitutional Court (Haute Cour Constitutionnelle)

Leaders: Chief of State—President Adm. Didier RATSIRAKA (since 15 June 1975);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Lt. Col. Victor RAMAHATRA (since 12 February 1988)

Political parties and leaders: seven parties are now allowed limited political activity under the national front and are represented on the Supreme Revolutionary Council: Advance Guard of the Malagasy Revolution (AREMA), Didier Ratsiraka; Congress Party for Malagasy Independence (AKFM); Congress Party for Malagasy Independence-Revival (AKFM-R), Pastor Richard Andriamanjato; Movement for National Unity (VONJY), Dr. Marojama Razanabahiny; Malagasy Christian Democratic Union (UDECMA), Norbert Andriamorasata; Militants for the Establishment of a Proletarian Regime (MFM), Manandafy Rakotonirina; National Movement for the Independence of Madagascar (MONIMA), Monja Jaona; Socialist Organization Monima (VSM, an offshoot of MONIMA), Tsihozony Maharanga

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: President—last held on 12 March 1989 (next to be held March 1996); results—Didier Ratsiraka (AREMA) 62%, Manandafy Rakotonirina (MFM/MFT) 20%, Dr. Jerome Marojama Razanabahiny (VONJY) 15%, Monja Jaona (MONIMA) 3%;

People's National Assembly—last held on 28 May 1989 (next to be held May 1994); results—AREMA 88.2%, MFM 5.1%, AKFM 3.7%, VONJY 2.2%, others 0.8%; seats—(137 total) AREMA 120, MFM 7, AKFM 5, VONJY 4, MONIMA 1, independent 1

Communists: Communist party of virtually no importance; small and vocal group of Communists has gained strong position in leadership of AKFM, the rank and file of which is non-Communist

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, EAMA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, OCAM, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Pierrot Jocelyn RAJAONARIVELO; Chancery at 2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 265-5525 or 5526; there is a Malagasy Consulate General in New York; US—Ambassador Howard K. WALKER; Embassy at 14 and 16 Rue Rainitovo, Antsahavola, Antananarivo (mailing address is B. P. 620, Antananarivo); telephone 212-57, 209-56, 200-89, 207-18

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side

- Economy Overview: Madagascar is one of the poorest countries in the world. During the period 1980-85 it had a population growth of 3% a year and a - 0.4% GDP growth rate. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is the mainstay of the economy, accounting for over 40% of GDP, employing about 85% of the labor force, and contributing more than 70% to export earnings. Industry is confined to the processing of agricultural products and textile manufacturing; in 1988 it contributed only 16% to GDP and employed 3% of the labor force. Industrial development has been hampered by government policies that have restricted imports of equipment and spare parts and put strict controls on foreign-owned enterprises. In 1986 the government introduced a five-year development plan that stresses self-sufficiency in food (mainly rice) by 1990, increased production for exports, and reduced energy imports.

GDP: $1.7 billion, per capita $155; real growth rate 2.2% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 17.0% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $337 million; expenditures $245 million, including capital expenditures of $163 million (1988)

Exports: $284 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—coffee 45%, vanilla 15%, cloves 11%, sugar, petroleum products; partners—France, Japan, Italy, FRG, US

Imports: $319 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—intermediate manufactures 30%, capital goods 28%, petroleum 15%, consumer goods 14%, food 13%; partners—France, FRG, UK, other EC, US

External debt: $3.6 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate - 3.9 % (1988)

Electricity: 119,000 kW capacity; 430 million kWh produced, 40 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: agricultural processing (meat canneries, soap factories, brewery, tanneries, sugar refining), light consumer goods industries (textiles, glassware), cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum

Agriculture: accounts for 40% of GDP; cash crops—coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa; food crops—rice, cassava, beans, bananas, peanuts; cattle raising widespread; not self-sufficient in rice and wheat flour

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $118 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $2.6 billion; Communist countries (1970-88), $491 million

Currency: Malagasy franc (plural—francs); 1 Malagasy franc (FMG) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Malagasy francs (FMG) per US$1—1,531.0 (January 1990), 1603.4 (1989), 1,407.1 (1988), 1,069.2 (1987), 676.3 (1986), 662.5 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 1,020 km 1.000-meter gauge

Highways: 40,000 km total; 4,694 km paved, 811 km crushed stone, gravel, or stabilized soil, 34,495 km improved and unimproved earth (est.)

Inland waterways: of local importance only; isolated streams and small portions of Canal des Pangalanes

Ports: Toamasina, Antsiranana, Mahajanga, Toliara

Merchant marine: 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 58,126 GRT/79,420 DWT; includes 8 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas

Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft

Airports: 147 total, 115 usable; 30 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 43 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: above average system includes open-wire lines, coaxial cables, radio relay, and troposcatter links; submarine cable to Bahrain; satellite earth stations—1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT; over 38,200 telephones; stations—14 AM, 1 FM, 7 (30 repeaters) TV

- Defense Forces Branches: Popular Army, Aeronaval Forces (includes Navy and Air Force), paramilitary Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,550,775; 1,519,084 fit for military service; 116,438 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.2% of GDP, or $37 million (1989 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: Malawi - Geography Total area: 118,480 km2; land area: 94,080 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries: 2,881 km total; Mozambique 1,569 km, Tanzania 475 km, Zambia 837 km

Coastline: none—landlocked

Maritime claims: none—landlocked

Disputes: dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi)

Climate: tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to November)

Terrain: narrow elongated plateau with rolling plains, rounded hills, some mountains

Natural resources: limestone; unexploited deposits of uranium, coal, and bauxite

Land use: 25% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 20% meadows and pastures; 50% forest and woodland; 5% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: deforestation

Note: landlocked

- People Population: 9,157,528 (July 1990), growth rate 1.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 52 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 18 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 16 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 130 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 50 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Malawian(s); adjective—Malawian

Ethnic divisions: Chewa, Nyanja, Tumbuko, Yao, Lomwe, Sena, Tonga, Ngoni, Ngonde, Asian, European

Religion: 55% Protestant, 20% Roman Catholic, 20% Muslim; traditional indigenous beliefs are also practiced

Language: English and Chichewa (official); other languages important regionally

Literacy: 41.2%

Labor force: 428,000 wage earners; 43% agriculture, 16% manufacturing, 15% personal services, 9% commerce, 7% construction, 4% miscellaneous services, 6% other permanently employed (1986)

Organized labor: small minority of wage earners are unionized

Note: there are 800,000 Mozambican refugees in Malawi (1989 est.)

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Malawi

Type: one-party state

Capital: Lilongwe

Administrative divisions: 24 districts; Blantyre, Chikwawa, Chiradzulu, Chitipa, Dedza, Dowa, Karonga, Kasungu, Kasupe, Lilongwe, Mangochi, Mchinji, Mulanje, Mwanza, Mzimba, Ncheu, Nkhata Bay, Nkhota Kota, Nsanje, Ntchisi, Rumphi, Salima, Thyolo, Zomba

Independence: 6 July 1964 (from UK; formerly Nyasaland)

Constitution: 6 July 1964; republished as amended January 1974

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 July (1964)

Executive branch: president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly

Judicial branch: High Court, Supreme Court of Appeal

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—President Dr. Hastings Kamuzu BANDA (since 6 July 1966; sworn in as President for Life 6 July 1971)

Political parties and leaders: only party—Malawi Congress Party (MCP), Maxwell Pashane, administrative secretary; John Tembo, treasurer general; top party position of secretary general vacant since 1983

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections: President—President Banda sworn in as President for Life on 6 July 1971;

National Assembly—last held 27-28 May 1987 (next to be held by May 1992); results—MCP is the only party; seats—(133 total, 112 elected) MCP 133

Communists: no Communist party

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, EC (associated member), FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Robert B. MBAYA; Chancery at 2408 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 797-1007; US—Ambassador George A. TRAIL, III; Embassy in new capital city development area, address NA (mailing address is P. O. Box 30016, Lilongwe); telephone 730-166

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green with a radiant, rising, red sun centered in the black band; similar to the flag of Afghanistan which is longer and has the national coat of arms superimposed on the hoist side of the black and red bands

- Economy Overview: A landlocked country, Malawi ranks among the world's least developed with a per capita GDP of $180. The economy is predominately agricultural and operates under a relatively free enterprise environment, with about 90% of the population living in rural areas. Agriculture accounts for 40% of GDP and 90% of export revenues. After two years of weak performance, economic growth improved significantly in 1988 as a result of good weather and a broadly based economic adjustment effort by the government. The closure of traditional trade routes through Mozambique continues to be a constraint on the economy.

GDP: $1.4 billion, per capita $180; growth rate 3.6% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 31.5% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $246 million; expenditures $390 million, including capital expenditures of $97 million (FY88 est.)

Exports: $292 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—tobacco, tea, sugar, coffee, peanuts; partners—US, UK, Zambia, South Africa, FRG

Imports: $402 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities—food, petroleum, semimanufactures, consumer goods, transportation equipment; partners—South Africa, Japan, US, UK, Zimbabwe

External debt: $1.4 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 6.4% (1988)

Electricity: 181,000 kW capacity; 535 million kWh produced, 60 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: agricultural processing (tea, tobacco, sugar), sawmilling, cement, consumer goods

Agriculture: accounts for 40% of GDP; cash crops—tobacco, sugarcane, cotton, tea, and corn; subsistence crops—potatoes, cassava, sorghum, pulses; livestock—cattle and goats

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $182 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.8 billion

Currency: Malawian kwacha (plural—kwacha); 1 Malawian kwacha (MK) = 100 tambala

Exchange rates: Malawian kwacha (MK) per US$1—2.6793 (January 1990), 2.7595 (1989), 2.5613 (1988), 2.2087 (1987), 1.8611 (1986), 1.7191 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications Railroads: 789 km 1.067-meter gauge

Highways: 13,135 km total; 2,364 km paved; 251 km crushed stone, gravel, or stabilized soil; 10,520 km earth and improved earth

Inland waterways: Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi); Shire River, 144 km

Ports: Chipoka, Monkey Bay, Nkhata Bay, and Nkotakota—all on Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi)

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

Airports: 48 total, 47 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 9 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system of open-wire lines, radio relay links, and radio communication stations; 36,800 telephones; stations—8 AM, 4 FM, no TV; satellite earth stations—1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

Note: a majority of exports would normally go through Mozambique on the Beira or Nacala railroads, but now most go through South Africa because of insurgent activity and damage to rail lines

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Army Air Wing, Army Naval Detachment, paramilitary Police Mobile Force Unit, paramilitary Young Pioneers

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,904,445; 967,032 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 1.6% of GDP, or $22 million (1989 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: Malaysia - Geography Total area: 329,750 km2; land area: 328,550 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries: 2,669 km total; Brunei 381 km, Indonesia 1,782, Thailand 506 km

Coastline: 4,675 km total (2,068 km Peninsular Malaysia, 2,607 km East Malaysia)

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation, specified boundary in the South China Sea;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam; state of Sabah claimed by the Philippines; Brunei may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient that divides Brunei into two parts

Climate: tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons

Terrain: coastal plains rising to hills and mountains

Natural resources: tin, crude oil, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas, bauxite

Land use: 3% arable land; 10% permanent crops; NEGL% meadows and pastures; 63% forest and woodland; 24% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: subject to flooding; air and water pollution

Note: strategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern South China Sea

- People Population: 17,510,546 (July 1990), growth rate 2.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 29 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 30 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 71 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Malaysian(s); adjective—Malaysian

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