The sleeves should be made at the same time and before the cuffs, then the cuffs, puffs, or whatever special trimming is to be applied to them should be put on both sleeves at the same time. If the second sleeve is not made or trimmed until after the first is finished, it will be much more difficult to secure exactly the same effect. If it is impossible to complete both sleeves at one time, make the sleeves one day and the cuffs or trimming the next day.
In making the coat sleeves the general methods are the same, but each season brings out new styles which the maker will have to understand before proper making and finishing can be acquired. Always master the simple and standard patterns and the minor changes dictated by fashion—new fancies and effects—will not be difficult to acquire after a little experience has been gained.
The lining for both sleeves should be fitted and the outside cut by them.
[Sidenote: Joining the Parts]
After economical cutting, trace the seams carefully, and baste the outside to the lining, basting both uppers before the under sections. Join the under and upper parts by pinning and basting, the outside seam first, beginning in the middle of the sleeve and working toward each end. The outside seams should be begun at the notch at the elbow, working toward each end. Where the sleeve calls for gathering the fullness should be distributed between the notches and the two portions of the sleeve should be secured at this point, before or after basting the upper or lower portions of each sleeve.
Stitch the seams just outside the basting, then remove the line of basting along the seam and press. Trim off all rough edges. The inside seam is opened and notched at the bend of the elbow and an inch or two above and below and bound with silk binding ribbon or evenly overcast with twist or mercerized cotton.
[Sidenote: Adding Cuffs]
If an elaborate cuff or trimming is to be added to the sleeve, whether full or plain, it should be made separately and blind stitched to the faced sleeve. In case the sleeve is gathered the fullness can be put into a narrow band, the exact size of the cuff, the cuff then sewed on the band.
[Sidenote: Putting in Sleeves]
In putting the sleeve in the armhole, be sure that both seams are at the same point, that both have the same amount of fullness at the top, and that the plaits or gathers are equally distributed from front to back. The sleeve should be held next to the worker and should lie easy from seam to seam at the under arm. Baste with close, even stitches or back stitch with coarse cotton or twist the same color as the waist. Stitch in the sleeves on this line of basting, keeping the armholes curved while the stitching is being done. Trim off edges and finish with binding or close overcasting. The most careful binding is clumsy compared to the overcast finish. Turn the seam toward the shoulder and hem to the lining over the shoulders. This will do away with the stand-up look that sleeves sometimes have.
[Sidenote: Finish at Wrist]
For the sleeve finished plainly around the wrist, a piece of bias crinoline should be fitted at the hand. To do this, turn the sleeve right side out and slip the crinoline in the sleeve over the left hand and adjust by moving the fingers until the crinoline shapes itself to the sleeve perfectly, then pin and baste at the top and bottom. In this way the crinoline will be neither too short nor too loose and all wrinkling will be prevented. Turn the sleeve inside out and cut off the crinoline one-fourth of an inch from the edge, keeping a perfectly true edge, turn the sleeve over the crinoline, baste the outside part of the sleeve and cat-stitch to the crinoline, then cat-stitch the crinoline to the lining. Remove the lower basting and press. A bias strip of silk sufficiently wide to cover the crinoline is hemmed at the lower edge and to the sleeve lining just above the interlining. Whenever it is possible to do so use the cat-stitch. It is a neat finish, easily and quickly done, takes less time than hemming, besides being less bulky.
If the bottom of a coat sleeve is to be left open at the back or slashed, an interfacing of light weight canvas will be necessary. Turn the outside portion of the sleeve over the canvas, care being taken to turn all corners at the slash, and curves, press and stitch, face after the stitching is done. It may be stitched better if the back seam is left open.
[Sidenote: Pressing Sleeves]
In the coat sleeve both seams are curved and should be pressed on a curved board. A rocking chair inverted, with the rocker covered with soft cloth, makes a good board on which to press the curved seams of a sleeve.
The shaped, standing collar is worn with waists of all kinds and is always a popular neck finish. In a close-fitting collar made of heavy material an interlining of canvas or crinoline is necessary. The interlining should be cut one-fourth of an inch smaller all around if the collar is to be blind stitched to the waist. If it is to be sewed to the neck, in a seam, the lining should be the same size as the collar at the neck. Baste this interlining to the collar material, cut out the corners of the material, and hem the extended portion to the interlining. The interlining should always be cut bias, whether the outside is bias or straight. Hem the collar lining to the collar.
[Sidenote: Putting on Collars]
To sew the collar to the neck of the garment, first pin, beginning at the back seam and baste towards the end. The lining may be left free at the lower edge and felled over the neck edge after the collar has been stitched to the garment, or the lining may be stitched in the seam, the seam pressed open and a bias facing of silk or light weight material hemmed on over the seam.
The beauty of collars and cuffs depends largely upon the exact turning of corners and finish of ends. These should never be left bulky or clumsy. If preferred, the lining and outside of collar may be seamed and turned. Place the right sides of outside and lining together, the interlining next to the lining, stitch around both ends and top of collar, then turn and press. These rules may be followed in making sailor or any lined collars. Collars made of all over embroidery should be faced with tape on the wrong side before the trimming is applied to cover the edge of ruffle or lace.
The plain or shirt waist pattern will do duty for many garments—corset cover, night dress, dressing jacket, etc. The upper part of the waist will answer for yoke pattern of different shapes.
[Sidenote: Pattern for Yoke]
To make a pattern for a seamless yoke baste together the shoulder seams of the fitted waist pattern, place the upper part of the pattern on cambric or stiff paper, with the front of waist on straight edge or fold of paper, trace the shape of the neck yoke any desired depth below the neck line. The lower edge can be cut in any shape, the neck either high or low, round or square. This perfectly fitted yoke pattern can be used for a foundation for lace, velvet, ribbon, net, or any thin material. The circular yoke made of lace and ribbon or bias strips can be made to open in front or back. The strips of inserting and ribbon should be basted on the paper pattern and joined by fancy stitches or over sewed. The parts next the neck will need to be held fuller than the outside curve of the inserting.
All yokes to be worn under the gown should be made on a well-fitted lining. Never trust to pinning, basting, or hooking the yoke to the waist.
The finish of collar, cuffs, girdle and placket are hallmarks of good dressmaking. Well finished ends and corners, the careful adjustment of fastenings, shields carefully fitted to the arm's eye and caught smoothly to the lining—all these are little things that count for more than money spent in expensive ornament.
[Sidenote: Pressing Board]
The success of the finish of every garment depends upon the pressing, whether the material be heavy or light, cotton or wool. Garments are always pressed on the wrong side, when being made. The iron used should neither be too hot nor too heavy and the work should be done on a perfectly smooth, well-covered board. For pressing black or dark cloth, the cover of the board should be dark and free from lint, while a perfectly clean light cover should be substituted when white or light goods are to be pressed.
[Sidenote: Placing the Iron]
The whole face of an iron should never be put down on a seam or any part of a waist, but the side or point should be used, care being taken not to stretch a curved seam. A small rolling pin, a broom stick, a chair rocker, or any rounded stick well covered can be used for pressing curved seams or sleeves. This lessens the danger of marking the seams on the right side. These are only makeshifts; a regular half round sleeve bound should be obtained if much work is to be done.
In pressing, the iron should never be shoved or pushed, as in ironing. Only heavy materials require great strength. It is possible to press too much as well as too little. Whatever the material, pressing is work that requires to be done carefully and slowly. Allow the iron to touch only the center of the seam, the edges of the seam will not then be outlined upon the goods. Piled goods require infinite care. Uncut velvet, crape, etc., should never be pressed with the iron flat on the seam. The seam should be opened carefully and over the rounded surface of the board, covered with very soft cotton flannel into which the pile can sink without being flattened. Run the iron with the pile, or the iron may be placed on the side or flat end and the seams drawn slowly along the edge of the iron the same way the pile runs—only the edge of the iron touching the edge of the seam. Corded seams should be pressed in the same way to avoid flattening the cord.
[Sidenote: Wet Pressing]
Very heavy cloths and chinchilla should have a small stream of water carried along the seam, followed by the iron; or the seam may be dampened by a soft cloth—very wet. This is the "wet pressing" used by tailors, which is adapted to the requirements of materials used by them, such as serge, tweeds, etc. Pressing on the right side under a damp cloth is apt to give marks if the cloth gets too dry or if the iron is too hot, but is necessary on finished wool garments.
Silk scorches easily and should be pressed very carefully with a cool iron, light in weight.
Some light colors fade or change in pressing. Try a piece of the goods before pressing the garment. If the color does not come back when cold or when exposed to the light, do not use a hot iron on the garment.
CONSTRUCTION AND ORNAMENT FOR DRESS
[Sidenote: Principles of Ornament]
Many of the principles governing architecture and art apply equally as well to art in dress. Both in architecture and dress, construction should be decorated—decoration should never be purposely constructed. It is by the ornament of a building that one can judge more truly of the creative power which the artist has brought to bear upon his work. The general proportion may be good, the mouldings accurate, but the instant ornament is attempted, the architect or the dressmaker reveals how much of an artist he is. To put ornament in the right place—where it serves a purpose—is indeed difficult; to render that ornament at the same time an added beauty and an expression of the desired unity is far more difficult.
[Sidenote: Purpose of Ornament]
All decoration should be planned to enrich—not to assert. All jewelry or ornament should form a note in the general harmony of color—a decorative touch to add beauty and to be subordinated to the object decorated. It should serve the purpose of seeming to strengthen the whole or to protect the parts receiving most wear. Ornament is everywhere attempted. We see ornament at every turn—good and bad alike—in our homes, on clothes, linen, and kitchen utensils. Carlyle tells us that "The first want of barbarous man is decoration." We have no record of when this need was felt first. Primitive man after supplying his actual needs, seemed to develop a longing for the beautiful, so he ornamented his own body, scratched rude patterns on his tools and weapons and gradually developed the artistic sense. This love of ornament dates back to the beginnings of the human race and there are no records of a race or a period devoid of it.
[Sidenote: Errors in Ornamentation]
We see gowns totally lacking in good results because too much has been attempted. The wearer has not considered the effect as a whole, but has gratified her liking for a multiplicity of ornaments and color which, perhaps would be good in themselves, if applied separately, but which becomes an incongruous mixture when brought together on one garment.
Garments which seem to have required great effort in the making and which appear complex in construction should be avoided, for the effect is not pleasing. The gown should set off the wearer, not the wearer the gown.
To avoid committing errors against good taste it is essential first to consider the use of any garment and see if it answers the purpose for which it was designed. If any part appears meaningless, this is a sure indication that it is wanting in grace and beauty. The ornament should harmonize with the materials, use, and construction of the object to which it is applied. The color must be massed with effect and detailed with care.
There can be no ornamentation equal to that which is worked into the material, such as embroidery. The design should be appropriate in form and color and always conventional. Flowers are used most frequently for embroidery and passementerie and the simple, single flowers are the most effective, such as the daisy, the wild rose, and the flowers of the lily family. These simple flowers are the best because they radiate from a central point, have strong forms and decided proportions, can be most fully expressed in a few stitches requiring the fewest shades of color, and are admirably adapted for amateur workers.
[Sidenote: Flowers as Ornament]
Old Indian stuffs, jewelry, and enamels are rich in suggestions of conventionalized flowers. The simple, single flowers are repeated constantly, the daisy appearing to be the favorite in these beautiful ornaments. The most beautiful of all conventional flower work, jewel studded, is found in samples of work of the fifteenth century. They simply suggest the forms of nature. The repetition of the same flower in all its aspects is more pleasing and less tiresome to the eye than a variety of flowers or figures.
[Sidenote: Geometrical Designs]
We find upon analysis that the simple forms are the basis of all decorative art work. Geometrical designs and arabesques are the most difficult, requiring the most exacting and careful work. Narrow bands, braided, outlined, or chain-stitched in simple designs are effective, easily done, and wear well. Braids and any of these stitches may be combined, making durable and effective trimming for sleeves and neck. These simple designs are also appropriate for children's frocks. The French knots are ornamental and durable. All embroidery and passementerie should be rich, close, and continuous. It should not be cut up into pieces and sewed on where it does not serve, or appear to serve, a purpose.
There is very little passementerie that is at all suitable for forming edges, as it is not sufficiently substantial, but when it can be found firm and of the right shade it is one of the most beautiful ornaments to edge neck and sleeves. It may be allowed to extend beyond the dress material, so that the flesh tints may show through the design, thus gradually softening the outline. Often a narrow passementerie can be found with one strong edge and a good border can be made by joining the two. This cannot be done where the pattern is united by a band running through the center of the ornament.
A band of velvet or cloth embroidered in outline stitch and French knots of same shade as the garment is a satisfactory edge. Except for yokes, the knots should always be held together with the outline edge.
The rich silk braids and passementeries are made of silk wound or woven over cotton and should be used only on dresses which are not intended for hard wear. Such trimmings are, of course, inappropriate on serges and homespuns and soon become shabby if given much rough service.
[Sidenote: Use of Laces]
Laces, like all trimmings, have defined limits within which they should be used, though they are often worn indiscriminately. Machine made laces, often good in make and design, are now very common, but the best machine-made laces are not cheap in price.
[Sidenote: Design of Lace]
Handsome lace should be applied rather plainly, as the pattern is often lost in the gathers. Fine laces are out of harmony with heavy or coarse materials. When lace is desired for flounces that with running patterns which neither advance nor retreat, except in the folds which may be made, will be found most pleasing. Distinct objects, such as baskets, crowns, vases, etc., which suggest weight, are unsuitable patterns for so light a fabric as lace.
[Sidenote: Placing of Decorations]
Attention to details is essential in the placing of these decorations, as in the selection or making of them. The worker should take into consideration the shape and size of the bands or pieces of trimming and should note carefully the chief characteristics of the design and above all the junction of leaves, flowers, arabesques, especially in the finishing of the corners of collars and cuffs.
[Sidenote: Simplicity and Harmony]
Those at all skillful with the use of the needle can attain the most beautiful and artistic results if right laws in color and design are adhered to, even by the use of the simplest stitches, for the beauty of dress lies not so much in the richness and variety of material used as upon simplicity and harmony—a fact too often disregarded.
[Sidenote: The Bow]
Perhaps no ornament is more abused than the bow. In order not to appear intrusive, ribbons require the most delicate handling. The only excuse for a ribbon as an ornament is when it makes a pretense of tying. When used as a sash where folds or gathers are confined, the tone of the ribbon should, in general, vary scarcely from that of the dress.
[Sidenote: Fitness of Place]
Whatever the ornament used, whether embroidered band, a ribbon, a cord that laces, a diamond pin, or a jeweled buckle, though it may possess great intrinsic value and beauty, it cannot be considered of real worth as an ornament unless it fulfills the most important condition—fitness of place.
Although the art of dress admits of innumerable variations, like all other arts it is subject to the three rules of beauty—order, proportion and harmony.
Ornaments are appropriate on the hems or edges of garments where it serves the purpose of strengthening and protecting the parts most worn, and not simply where fancy or fashion dictates.
[Sidenote: Natural Centers]
The natural fastenings and fold centers should be along the axis or center of the body. Any jewelry, buckle, brooch, or ornament used to fasten, secure, or strengthen these centers or to hold bands of embroidery, collar, or folds together should be sufficiently strong to serve the purpose. There must be a reason for position and the purpose of its use must be apparent to satisfy the eye. The eye is unconsciously and irresistibly drawn to these natural centers and demands some object there on which to rest—some substance from which the fold emanate—some reason for their detention. If this ornament at the throat or waist fastening collar or holding folds by a girdle or clasp is omitted, the eye is disappointed. This does not mean that the ornament, jewel, passementerie, or embroidery should always be placed in the axis or central line of the figure—this may be carried too far. Slight irregularities often give an effect to hat or gown that is charming.
Remember that trimming is not intended to cover up, but to beautify and strengthen. When, for economy's sake, it is used to cover worn places or other defects, it must be selected and applied with great care or it will loudly proclaim its mission.
[Sidenote: Unity in Dress]
Trimming should mean something—whether jewelry or passementerie. Bands that bind nothing, straps, bows, buckles, or pins that confine nothing offend the taste. A girdle should seem, even if it does not, to belt in fullness; it has no use on a close-fitting, plain waist. No draperies should be invisibly held; supply some apparent means of confining the gathers. To preserve the lines of the figure there should be unity in the dress. A tight-fitting skirt below a gathered waist or a full, gathered skirt below a plain waist gives the appearance of two portions of the body instead of the oneness desired.
The figure should never be cut across, either above or below the waist-line with contrasting colors, different shades of the same color, or bands of different texture. Below the waist-line the figure should suggest the elements of strength and these horizontal bands cut the lines of the figure at an angle of opposition, destroying the rhythm and grace of the lines.
Much experience is required in placing horizontal lines of ornament on a skirt effectively. In general, rows of tucks or ornament should diminish in width from the bottom towards the top. The plain spaces should be greater than those ornamented. When ornament gives absolute evenness of space division in skirt or waist the effect is apt to be monotonous and unsatisfactory.
The natural places of support for garments are the neck, shoulders and waist. Ornamentation which emanates from these centers or when used for borders, if appropriate in design, is usually successful.
ORNAMENT OF TEXTILES
In addition to ornament added to garment, the ornament in the textile itself must be considered.
[Sidenote: Appropriate Designs]
Textiles may be beautiful in weave, but spoiled by the design. Quite as important as intrinsic beauty is appropriateness of pattern. How often do we see woven on our curtains, carpets, and garment materials fans, bunches of roses tied with ribbons—bows with long, fluttering ends—landscapes, snow scenes, etc. Nothing is beautiful out of its place. A fan suggests coolness and grace of motion, but woven in our textiles it gives the same impression as a butterfly mounted on a pin—something perverted, imprisoned, or robbed of its natural use. Nothing is or ever can be beautiful without use—without harmony. Decorations on textiles are not to tell stories. There is a difference between landscape painting and using landscapes as a motive for decorating textiles or pottery. In one case the aim is to annihilate surface by producing the impression of distance; in the other, the object is to glorify the surface only.
[Sidenote: Advantage of Plain Material]
For the woman of limited income it is wiser to select plain material of good texture and weave. Such material is never conspicuous, can be made over, and is always restful and may be interesting. Any good textile must impress itself upon the mind by its suggestiveness and beauty of color. There is a difference between what may be called artistic and decorative embellishment of textiles. Each has its place in the world of beauty, but one is the poetry, the other the prose of the art.
There is a dignity and restfulness in plain material which is never obtained by varied patterns. When a stripe is used to vary the material, the style of the textile is changed, elongated if the stripe is vertical, and widening if it is horizontal. If the main stripe is cut at right angles with a second stripe, the textile appears more complicated and repose is lost. The same is true of checks, but no pattern is more distracting than large plaids, especially when used for waists, because the regularity of the design renders very conspicuous any inequalities in the shoulders or bust, and the great variety of colors detracts from the dignity of the dress. With small checks and narrow, self-colored stripes the effect is different, causing the texture to appear only shaded and not destroying the unity.
[Sidenote: Conventionalized Designs]
On garment fabrics the ornamentation should be flat, without shadow or relief. The pattern must enhance and not mar the figure. If flowers, foliage, or other natural objects are used for the designs, they should be conventionalized—not direct copies of nature. A figured textile requires more careful planning than plain material. It may be beautiful when used properly, but it will appear hideous if distorted in the making. A conventional fleur-de-lis pattern, or a long dash which appears and disappears when used in long, graceful folds, adds to the apparent height. These same figures wrongly used spread out awkwardly or become distorted.
[Sidenote: Size of Design]
The size of the design should be regulated by the material—small patterns being used for close, thick fabrics and larger designs, with more delicate colors, for thin material of open texture. Thick, heavy fabrics require rich, warm colors and the pattern likewise should be rich and decorative. Velvets, velveteens, and heavy cloths for dresses are beautiful in themselves and should not be marred by patterns or trimmings.
Spirals or curved lines running crosswise on textiles distort the natural curves of the figure by making seeming undulations where none should be and accentuating the prominence of hips and bust. Such patterns should not be used in folds.
[Sidenote: Texture and Color]
Much is to be considered in choosing colors and it is folly to suggest a particular shade for a person without taking into account texture of the textile. Though the color may be good, the weave may destroy what might otherwise have been a success.
Not only must color in itself be studied, but quality of color in textiles as well. A shade of red, for example, in dull silk or lusterless material may be most unbecoming for a woman of a certain type, while it may be worn successfully if made in rich velvet or glossy silk.
Some women maintain that they cannot wear green, but nearly all can dress becomingly in this color if the shade and texture is selected carefully. The same may be said of other colors for the many variations should be taken into consideration.
The average woman in selecting materials for gowns or house furnishings is apt to be influenced too much by details, as she would judge the merits of a fine piece of needlework, hence the value of good, broad color schemes fails to appeal to her. The chenille curtain, perhaps, suits her because it is full of complex decoration.
[Sidenote: Harmony Not Contrast]
After having determined the prevailing color of a costume, the details should be in harmony, rather than in contrast with it. Different tones of one color are more satisfactory than striking contrasts, and even strong patches of light and shade of the same color should be avoided, as well as patches of crude and vivid color. The pleasing contrasts found in nature cease to be happy when attempted in textiles.
Use few colors, avoid bright shades except in small quantities. All bright colors should be placed near the face, rather than on or near the bottom of skirts or the edge of sleeves. Avoid strong contrasts; the brighter the color and the greater the contrast with other colors, the louder and cruder will be the effect. "No color harmony is of a high order unless it involve indescribable tints."
[Sidenote: Infants' Clothing]
Plainness, purity, softness of texture rather than elaborate ornament should be the main consideration for infants' clothes. The finest and softest of French and Scotch flannels, French linen, dimity, nainsook, and India silk are always dainty and they should be made up very simply with little trimming, but that of the finest.
Hems and seams should be small and neatly done with, perhaps, the daintiest beading inset by hand and feather stitched. Hemstitching is always beautiful, but makes a weak spot which is apt to give out in the constant laundering necessary for children's clothes.
The skirt and shirt made in one piece, with sleeves to slip into the little outside garment, both to open down the back so that all may be slipped on at the same time without worry to either nurse or baby, will be found a great convenience.
[Sidenote: Stockinet Undergarments]
Stockinet or webbing, all wool, partly wool, or all cotton, is preferred by many to the plain cloth. The cotton is non-shrinkable, easily made, and finished. This garment fabric has reached such a high degree of perfection that for infants and children of larger growth nothing better can be desired for shirts, skirts, drawers, and tights. It may be had in either light or heavy weight, is easily laundered and elastic, having all the qualities desired in undergarments. Garments made of this material in the manner described give perfect freedom for all organs, besides evenness of covering for the body and lightness of weight—all important considerations in infants' and children's clothing.
There should be the same simplicity in construction and material in the garments of children of larger growth. The design should be smaller, more realistic and the color brighter than for grown people.
[Sidenote: Children's Dresses]
For children's dresses, the pretty ginghams in small checks, chambray, dimity, serge, flannels, cashmere are appropriate and serviceable.
In making up these simple materials nothing better can be suggested than the plain, straight waist, fitting easily, to which a full skirt is fastened. The sleeves may be of any fashion to add variety. Such a frock is simple and dignified and has a certain archaic beauty and quaintness that the huge, ugly collars and like ornament can never give.
With the plain body the grace of the childish form is not lost. The body may be short or long, with the trimming at the bottom or edge of the skirt. The gathers fall in long lines or folds, no element of opposition destroying the rhythm and grace of the figure contour, when the trimming is placed at the bottom of the frock instead of several bands dividing the skirt.
The waist should always be wider in front than in the back. The discomfort and injury caused by ill fitting garments, graded according to age instead of according to size, thus restricting the expansion of the chest and the play of the lungs, cannot be estimated.
With the proper kind of frock a child can indulge in any game without becoming in the least disordered. Dresses for little girls may have drawers made of the same material, thus permitting them the same freedom as the boys. The life of the child is play. Unfortunate is the child whose clothing is too good to play in. Of course there should be frocks for gala occasions. Children are sensitive to color and receive much innocent enjoyment from being prettily dressed. A child may be made unhappy and timid by ugly clothes, but plainness need not mean ugliness. There are many artistic and simple patterns now being put on the market and many of the ready-made frocks found in the best shops are satisfactory.
CARE OF CLOTHING
Ruskin says, "Clothes carefully cared for and rightly worn, show a balance of mind and self respect."
[Sidenote: Little Attentions]
The freshness of gown or wrap may be preserved by the little attentions bestowed upon it each time it is worn, which take but a few minutes and mean so much in all departments of dress. By carefully brushing and shaking into folds, removing all spots, hanging right side out, picking and pulling straight flowers, bows, and ribbons as soon as removed, adding buttons and taking up dropped stitches when needed,—all these little attentions if given promptly will keep a wardrobe fresh and in good order. New braid on the bottom of skirts, sponging and pressing, little alterations and addition of new trimming to collar and cuffs, will help to preserve the original freshness of the gown and cause the wearer to appear well dressed.
Waists should be turned wrong side out when removed and allowed to air near a window. Shields should be cleansed with alcohol and water. Ribbons should be rolled up immediately when taken off and if treated in this way will last much longer and look much daintier.
Clothing if moist and dusty and tossed into a dark corner of a closet or trunk can never appear fresh again, and will betray the character of the wearer. It is not the wearing of clothes which tells so sadly upon them, but the manner in which they are cared for. A few garments nicely made, well fitted and properly cared for are far preferable to twice the number of inferior quality and make.
[Sidenote: Ruffled Skirts]
Skirts of thin material having ruffles around the bottom should be hung upside down by loops sewed under the ruffles at the seams. By hanging in the opposite direction from which they fall when worn, ruffles regain their freshness.
[Sidenote: Packing Away Clothing]
All clothing for the season should be put away in perfect order to be ready for any sudden emergency which may arise. No clothing of any kind should be stored for the season without thorough cleaning and repairing where necessary. Garments that are outgrown should be disposed of, instead of packing them away. Wool garments should be carefully brushed and hung in the sun to remove and destroy any eggs of moths which may be present. They may be hung in tight cotton bags or packed in tight boxes with all openings posted over as a protection against moths. Tailors' boxes which come flat are not expensive and are useful for this. They should be plainly labeled with their contents.
[Sidenote: Folding Garments]
To fold, lay all articles on the bed or table and fold on the seams if possible. Particular attention should be given to sleeves and collars. Coat lapels should be turned to lie flat, collars turned up, and the coat folded directly through the center seam.
Skirts and coats with bias seams are not improved by hanging as the bias parts are apt to stretch out of shape.
[Sidenote: Remove Pins]
No clothing should be put away for the night, even, without first removing all steel pins, as the least dampness may cause rust spots.
Clothes forms and hangers are so inexpensive that every gown and coat should have its own. Skirts should be hung exactly on the form and no part of the band should be allowed to sag.
If fancy waists are put in drawers or boxes, they should have the sleeves filled with tissue paper and the collars and bows should be pulled straight.
Large garments require the greatest care in handling and in order to be done successfully, they should be sent to the professional cleaner.
[Sidenote: Fruit and Wine Stains]
All stains and spots should be removed as soon as possible. Fruit and wine stains may be removed by stretching the fabric over a vessel and pouring boiling water through the cloth from a height of a foot or two. The water must be boiling.
[Sidenote: Ink Stains]
Ink stains can be taken out of clothing by dipping the cloth in milk, squeezing the blackened milk into one dish and dipping immediately into clear milk until the stain has disappeared. Then finish by washing the cloth in warm water and in soapy water to remove the fat in the milk.
[Sidenote: Iron Rust]
Iron rust may be removed from linen and cotton by using lemon juice and salt. Wet the spot with the juice of a lemon, cover with salt and lay in the sun, repeating the operation until the stain is removed, then rinse out the lemon and salt thoroughly. This of course cannot be used on colored fabrics, as it fades the color.
[Sidenote: Grease Spots]
Grease is one of the worst foes to garments and the greatest care is needed to remove such spots from delicate fabrics. If not done at once, the dust and grease together often prove ruinous. When the color and fabric will not be injured by it, warm water and soap is the best agent, otherwise absorbents may be used. French chalk or magnesia powdered, placed upon the spot, and allowed to remain for a time will often absorb the grease effectually. If the first application is not effective, brush off, and apply again until the spot disappears. Where water can be used without injuring the cloth, the chalk or magnesia can be made into a paste and spread over the spot. When dry, brush off with a soft brush.
In removing fresh grease spots, blotting paper with a warm iron may often be used effectively. If the heat changes the color of the cloth, the iron should be held above the goods.
[Sidenote: Blood Stains]
Blood stains may be removed by making a paste of starch and applying it to the spot. Several applications may be necessary.
[Sidenote: Cleaning Garments]
[Sidenote: Soap and Ammonia with Gasoline]
Only the best and purest benzine, naphtha, gasoline, and turpentine should be used for cleaning garments. For removing paints from coarse cloth, pure turpentine is useful, while for silks, velvets and woolens, benzine, naphtha and gasoline are to be preferred. The secret of success in the use of any of these cleansing agents lies in immersing the garments in large quantities of the liquid. Not less than a gallon should be used for a waist and two gallons will do the work far more satisfactorily. An effort should be made to remove all the worst spots before immersing the whole garment. Those which have not disappeared should then be marked with white thread, colored thread may leave a mark. It is a good plan to enclose the spot with a line of basting. Soak the garment for some time in the liquid, then soap all spots thoroughly and rub gently between the hands until they disappear. Finally wash and rinse the garment in clear liquid and hang in the open air until all odor has passed away. Soap may be used freely with gasoline with good effect. Some professional cleaners use a little of the strongest ammonia in their gasoline tanks. The goods should be shaken well and all folds pulled out straight with the threads of the goods. Velveteen, corduroy, and like piled fabrics can be cleaned successfully if not too much worn, but no amount of cleaning will restore the pile that is worn off.
If allowed to stand until the impurities have settled and the clear liquid poured into clean bottles, it may be used for a number of times. This should always be done in the open air.
Chloroform may be used for cleaning the most delicate silks, though this is rather expensive.
[Sidenote: Absorbing Pad]
Whenever any of these liquids are used to remove spots alone, the spots should be placed upon a soft pad of several thicknesses of old cloth or blotting paper to absorb the surplus liquid and the spot should be rubbed from the outside towards the center. A hole may be cut in very soft cloth or blotting paper and placed around the spot to absorb the solvent around the stain and prevent the dark ring being formed. The cloth should be rubbed lightly and briskly until it is dry. If the fabric is light colored, a sponge or a soft piece of light cloth should be used, while for dark fabrics, the cloth used for rubbing the spot should also be dark and free from lint. The rubbing should be done lightly so as not to wear or injure the texture of the fabric. The blotting paper or cloth underneath should be changed frequently until the spot has entirely disappeared.
[Sidenote: Cleaning Velvet]
Velvet hats and bonnets, after all trimming is removed, may be cleaned by repeated dippings in benzine or gasoline. The vessel used should be large enough to hold a sufficient quantity of the liquid to completely cover the hat. Of course all dust should be carefully brushed off and all folds ripped and loosened before putting the hat into the liquid. The secret of success lies in having the article entirely free from dust and using a large quantity of the benzine or gasoline.
[Sidenote: Before Sending to Cleaners]
Before sending out garments to be dyed or cleaned, be sure that they are in good condition. All worn places should be mended carefully and all buttons should be removed. Garments that are ripped should have all cut threads pulled out and be free from dust. Dust silk fabrics with a piece of clean flannel and woolen material with a brush or broom.
[Sidenote: Economical Mending]
Fabrics are so much cheaper and so much easier to obtain that patching has almost become one of the lost arts. The twentieth century woman feels that her time is too valuable to be spent in mending the old clothes and that she can better afford to buy new. However that may be, no one disputes the utility of mending. Like so many other duties, mending is half done when well begun. A well made garment of good material should not be discarded when slightly worn, for a patch well put in or a neat piece of darning detracts in no way from the value of a garment and may even be a work of art. The children's clothes particularly should be kept in good order, for they are made uncomfortable by wearing garments that are out of repair, to say nothing of the demoralizing effect upon their characters.
[Sidenote: Laundering and Repairs]
Laundering is the great ally to tears and not only doubles the size of the hole, but pulls the threads apart so that it is impossible to make the mended place neat and smooth, therefore all clothing should be mended before washing. Stockings and woven underwear are much worn by the rubbing on the washboard and thin places going into the washing frequently come out as holes, so that it is true economy of effort and time to "run" or darn the thin places before they are worn through. It requires much less time and the garments last longer.
It is a good plan, especially in knees of stockings and knitted underwear, to baste a piece of fine net over a worn or broken place and darn over it. (See Darning.) Thread used for darning should be as near as possible the size of the threads in the garment. Darning cotton, linen, wool, and silk of all shades can be bought, so that the problem of matching is no longer a difficult one.
[Sidenote: Boys' Trowsers]
In mending the knees of boys' trousers a round patch should never be used. The seams should be ripped and the piece set in then, if the seams are pressed well, the patch will scarcely be noticeable.
When bodices are worn under the arm, rip the seams and set in a new "under arm" piece. A good plan for one whose dresses are apt to wear through quickly is to have the under arm pieces and the adjacent parts of the front made of two thicknesses of the goods; then, as the outside wears through, the edges can be hemmed down or taken into the seam.
[Sidenote: Table Cloths]
When table cloths begin to wear in the middle fold or along the edge of the table, a few inches cut off one end and one side of the cloth will change the fold and the place where it falls over the table and give it a new lease of life. If the hem is turned down once and cat stitched, it will resemble the selvage more than a twice turned hem.
[Sidenote: Lengthening Garments]
In repairing or lengthening garments that have become too short, much can be done by adding to the bottom of the skirt and sleeves material of different texture. A cloth or serge skirt may be lengthened by facing with velvet of the same shade, covering the line of sewing with cord, braid, or passementerie of the same shade or black. There should be an underfacing of light-weight crinoline to make the bottom of the skirt firm and to give strength. The same facing and passementerie may be used at neck and sleeves.
[Sidenote: Extension Hem and Tucks]
Thin gowns of lawn, dimity, etc., can be lengthened with a faced or extension hem, the line of sewing to be covered with feather stitch or any of the fancy stitches of white or colored thread. If the lawn or dimity has a colored figure, the embroidery silk or cotton may match this. Under skirts and drawers may be lengthened in the same way or rows of tucks may be added.
[Sidenote: Waist Repairing]
In waist repairing, the sewing silk should match the material. Set the patch into the seams when possible and trust to careful pressing. If the material begins to wear near the end of the bones, cut off the bones an inch and take in the dart or seam. If the silk wears off around the hooks and eyes, move them along ever so little. Make a virtue of worn out seams by taking them in and covering them with fancy stitching. If the garment is lined, the outside should be carefully basted to the lining before stitching to take in the seam. It has been said that silk waists are serviceable as long as the upper parts of the sleeves remain good.
If garments have not been well cared for from the first and beyond a certain point, "making over" is poor economy. Never attempt cleaning and making over old clothes unless the material is good enough to make it worth while to do the work well.
[Sidenote: Mending Baskets]
The mending basket is an important adjunct of mending and should be well supplied with darning cotton of all colors and sizes, good English tape, black and white, of different widths, linen tape, bias tape, different kinds and sizes of needles,—sewing, darning, shoe, carpet, and tape needles.
[Sidenote: Use of Tape]
For repairing bands and facings, where buttons have been torn off by wringer or iron, and for strengthening weak places, tape is invaluable. It saves the time required to turn in the edges of the cloth and is less clumsy and bungling.
[Sidenote: Use of Judgment in Mending]
The mender should use good judgment as to the amount of work to be applied to each garment. She should substitute the machine needle whenever possible and not put tiny stitches by hand into half worn garments or in unseen places. Ripped tucks and bands can be sewed in a few minutes on the machine. Serviceable darning can be done on the machine.
Before putting away freshly laundered clothes it is a good plan to take out the clothes already in the drawers and lay the ones washed last on the bottom, thus all garments will wear alike, each article in its regular turn.
Home and School Sewing, Frances Patton, ($.60, postage 6c).
School Needlework, Olive C. Hapgood, ($.75, postage 6c).
Sewing Course for Schools, Mary Schenck Woolman, ($3.50, postage 20c).
Progressive Lessons in Needlework, Catherine F. Johnson, ($.90, postage 8c).
Sewing and Garment Drafting, Margaret L. Blair, ($1.25, postage 10c).
Manual of Exercises in Hand Sewing, Margaret L. Blair, ($1.25, postage 10c).
Dressmaking Up to Date, Butterick Pub. Co., ($.25, postage 8c).
Note: The above books may be borrowed, one at a time, by members of the School. Send the postage given with request. They may be purchased if desired.
The following questions constitute the "written recitation" which the regular members of the A. S. H. E. answer in writing and send in for the correction and comment of the instructor. They are intended to emphasize and fix in the memory the most important points in the lesson.
TEXTILES AND CLOTHING
READ CAREFULLY. To make this test of greatest value to you, write fully from your personal standpoint and experience. Try as many methods given in the text as your time will allow so that you may ask for explanation if the descriptions are not clear to you. Methods are many; if you do not agree with these given, suggest better ones.
1. (a) What are the requisites for good dressmaking? (b) How does dressmaking differ from white sewing in make, finish, and ornamentation?
2. From your point of view what do you consider a successful garment?
3. Give methods of altering patterns.
4. Give briefly the cutting and making of a wool garment from patterns: (a) waist, (b) sleeve, (c) skirt, (d) collar, including methods of stitching, pressing and finish, stating how patterns should be placed on lining and outside materials.
5. How may pressing be done to give the best results? What garments require little or no pressing, and why?
6. (a) State some of the principles and purposes of ornament. (b) What is your idea of ornament applied to garments? (c) Give some errors in ornamentation not named in text.
7. Cut from magazines illustrations showing your idea of good and faulty ornamentation in dress. Give reason for your opinion.
8. Illustrate in some way, either by picture, drawing, embroidery, braid, or stitching, some design appropriate for ornament work on neck or sleeve.
9. Where should ornament be placed, and why?
10. (a) Give your idea of appropriate design on textiles. (b) The advantage and disadvantage of plain materials.
11. Make a color card of silk, wool, paper or raffia showing colors that contrast. (b) Colors that harmonize.
12. What colors do you find satisfactory for your own wear, and why?
13. What materials are best suited for infants' garments? (b) What can you say in regard to children's clothing?
14. What is your opinion of the care of clothing? (b) What experience have you had in cleaning (a) cotton, (b) wool, (c) linen, (d) silk, (e) velvet?
15. Do you consider it economy to repair garments? Can you suggest better methods than those given in the text?
16. If possible make some garment, shirt waist, skirt, or simple dress while studying this lesson and describe in detail how you went about it, the result, time taken, total cost. Tell why you selected the design, the color, the material.
17. Have you found the ready made garments satisfactory in underwear and dresses?
18. Tell of some of your failures in dressmaking and give the reasons for your lack of success.
19. What methods, new to you, have you tried in connection with this lesson? What questions have you to ask?
20. Can you add any suggestions that would be helpful to others in this work?
21. Wherein have the lessons been of practical value to you?
22. For Teachers. Draw up an outline for a course in sewing to combine two considerations: (a) adaptability to the child's interests and capacities, (b) orderly sequence in the technical part.
Note: After completing the answers, sign your full name.
REFERENCES: ORNAMENT AND DESIGN
Bachelder—Principles of Design in America. ($3.00.)
Brown—History of Decorative Art. ($1.25.)
Carter, Mrs. H. J.—Historic Ornament in Color. (15c. a sheet). Prang.
Clifford—Period Decoration. ($3.00.)
Crane—Claims of Decorative Art. (Out of print.)
Crane—Line and Form. ($2.25.)
Daniels—Teaching of Ornament. ($1.50.)
Day—Application of Ornament. ($1.25.)
Day—Nature in Ornament. ($4.00.)
Day—Ornamental Design. (Out of print.)
Day—Planning of Ornament. (Out of print.)
Day—Decorative Design of all Ages. ($0.40.)
Day—Ornament and Its Application. ($3.25.)
Day—Ornamental Design, Anatomy of Pattern, Planning of Ornament. ($3.00.)
Day—Some Principles of Everyday Art. (Out of print.)
Glazier—Manual of Historic Ornament. (New edition in press.)
Hulme—Birth and Development of Ornament. (Out of print.)
Jones—Grammar of Ornament. ($18.00.)
Prang—Art and Ornament in Egypt. ($1.50.)
Note—The books out of print may be found in some public libraries.
REFERENCES: HISTORY OF COSTUME
Earle—Costume of Colonial Times. ($1.25.)
Earle—Two Centuries of Costume in America, 2 vols. ($2.50 each.)
Evans—Chapters on Greek Dress. (Out of print.)
Fairholt—Costume of England, 2 vols. ($1.50 each.)
Hill—History of English Dress. (Out of print.)
McClellan—Historic Dress in America. ($10.00.)
Planchet—History in British Costume. ($1.50.)
Quegly—What Dress Makes of Us. ($1.25.)
Rhead—Chats on Costume. ($1.50.)
Schild—Old English Peasant Costume from Boadicea to Queen Victoria. (Out of print.)
SUPPLEMENTARY PROGRAM ARRANGED FOR CLASS STUDY ON TEXTILES AND CLOTHING
(Study pages 1-59)
Endeavor to obtain a Colonial spinning-wheel in working order, and get some one to operate it.
If possible, obtain samples of weaving done on a hand loom.
Examine a hand-loom if possible. They may be seen at the manufacturers of rag and remade carpets.
Woman's Share in Primitive Culture, Mason, Chapter III, The Weaver. ($1.75, postage 16c.)
Colonial Days in Old New England, by Earle. ($1.25, postage 12c.)
Collect an exhibit of raw fibres and fibres in process of manufacture. Send to the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Department of Botany, Washington, D. C., for small samples; to manufacturers of thread; to friends in manufacturing towns.
Test the various fibres by burning. Examine under a microscope with a small hand-glass, if greater power cannot be obtained. Try warm acid—sulphuric, hydrochloric, or oxalic—on the fibres; let the fibres dry. Also try a solution of caustic soda on the fibres.
The Textile Fibres, by Matthews. ($3.50, postage 16c.)
Textile Fibres and Cotton Fibre, pamphlets of the American School of Correspondence. (50c. each, postage 4c. each.)
Send for all the Government Bulletins mentioned in the Bibliography, page 104. Note that the free bulletins are obtained simply by addressing the Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., but the sale bulletins only by sending coin or money order to the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C.
(Study pages 59-102)
Visit a textile mill if possible, after studying the text.
Practice home dyeing. Read carefully the directions given by the manufacturers of the dyes. See the booklet "Diamond Dyes," to be obtained at many drug stores, or send for it to Wells Richardson, Burlington, Vermont.
Text-books of the American School of Correspondence—especially Textile Chemistry and Dyeing. (Parts I, II, III, and IV, postage 4c. each.)
The Dyeing of Textile Fabrics, by Hummell. ($1.75, postage 12c.)
Bleaching and Calico Printing (containing samples), by Duerr. ($4.00, postage 14c.)
WEAVES AND FABRICS
Show as many different kinds of weaves as possible. Separate the threads and examine under a hand microscope.
Get the local dry-goods or department store to co-operate with you in getting up an exhibit of samples of standard goods—cotton, woolen, worsted, linen, and silk. Label each sample with the width and price.
Test some of the samples of wash goods for fastness to washing and light, by washing in warm water and soap (or boiling in the soap and water) and expose to sunlight all day for three or four days. Keep a part of each sample for comparison.
(Select a composite set of answers to the Test Questions on Part I and send to the School, with report on the supplemental work done and Meetings I and II.)
(Study pages 107-123)
SEWING: PLAIN STITCHES
Send to manufacturers for samples showing the process of manufacture of pins, needles, etc.
Demonstrate different ways of making the same stitches; discuss best methods.
Show how all the embroidery stitches are made.
Get up an exhibit of all kinds of embroidery, including Oriental, Japanese, old samplers, etc.
Have members make Model I, First Series.
Home and School Sewing, by Patton. ($0.60, postage 6c.)
School Needlework, by Hapgood. ($0.75, postage 6c.)
Manual of Exercise in Hand Sewing, by Blair. ($1.25, postage 10c.)
Educational Value of Sewing in the Public Schools.
Methods. See "A Sewing Course," by Mary S. Woolman, Introduction ($3.50, postage 20c.), and "The Teaching of Domestic Science in the United States of America," by Alice Ravenhill, pages 9-10, 43-46. ($0.75, postage 12c.)
(Study pages 123-165)
HEMS, SEAMS, FASTENINGS, DARNING, PATCHING
Have all members make models II, III, IV, and V.
Previously assign members to furnish models or examples of all other hems, seams, fastenings, patches, darns, etc., illustrated or described in the text, and as many more as possible.
Get the local sewing machine agent to give a demonstration of the workings of the attachments of the machine.
(Select models and answers to Test Questions on Part II and send them to the School, with a report of Meetings III and IV.)
(Study pages 167-200)
Get the local dry-goods or department store to lend different kinds of dress forms.
Show how patterns are altered to suit the figure. (See text and "Dressmaking Up to Date.")
As many as possible cut out and begin making a simple shirt-waist or skirt. Show finished garment at next meeting, giving accurate account of cost and time spent.
Dressmaking Up to Date, The Butterick Co. ($0.25, postage 8c.)
Sewing and Garment Drafting, by Margaret L. Blair. ($1.25, postage 12c.)
(Study pages 205-228)
CONSTRUCTION AND ORNAMENT IN DRESS; COLOR
Collect illustrations showing good and faulty ornamentation.
Procure samples of fabrics showing good and faulty ornamentation.
Make a color card showing contrast and harmony of color. (See Question 11.)
References: See list on pages 234 and 235.
Get up an exhibit of simple and satisfactory clothing for children, including color, material, style and make.
Discuss children's clothes in reference to laundering.
CARE AND REPAIR OF CLOTHES
Show examples of successful repairing.
Try some of the methods of cleaning. (See, also Chemistry of the Household pages 73-84.)
(Select answers to Test Questions on Part III and send them to the School, with report on Meetings V and VI.)
Adulteration of linen, 87
Altering sleeve patterns, 194
Angora wool, 39
Aniline dyes, 79
Arrow heads, 123
Back stitch, 112
Bibliography, 103, 229
Boning waist, 192
Bow, the, 208
Bust form, 168
Button holes, 141 large, 145 making, 144
Buttons, sewing on, 145
Care of clothing, 219
Cassimere twills, 73, 75
Cat stitch, 116
Catch stitch, 116
Chain stitch, 116
Children's clothes, 216, 217
Cleaning, 59, 221
Collars, 198 putting on, 199
Color in dress, 214
Colors, mordant, 79
Conventional designs, 213
Costumes, references, 234
Cotton, 29 boles, 32 fibers, 34
Cotton goods, 85 home of, 30 Nankin, 34 sea island, 30 upland, 30
Cross stitch, 120
Cutting table, 168
Darning, 155 on machine, 158 over net, 157
Decorations, placing, 208
Double cloth, 77
Draped waist, 192
Drawing tapes, 140
Dyeing, 78 home, 80
Dyes, aniline, 79
Dyestuffs, natural, 80
Embroidery, 204 as ornament, 204 eyelet, 122 shadow, 123 stitches, 114
Extension hem, 227
Eyelet embroidery, 122
Fabrics, 85 list of, 96-102 names of, 94 primitive, 27 width of, 93
Facing, bias, 141 skirt, 179
Fastening the thread, 109
Feather stitch, 118
Fibers, 29 cotton, 29 flax, 43 silk, 53 wool, 37
Finishing skirt, 179 seams, 196 waist, 192
Finishing, woolens, 83
Fitting, 173, 193 sleeves, 190 waists, 190
Flax, 43 fibers, 47 hackling, 44, 47
Folding garments, 220
French hem, 127 knots, 119 seam, 131
Gathering, 111, 138
Gathers, whipped, 127
Grease spots, 122
Hand sewing, 107
Harmony in dress, 215
Harness, the, 70
Hem stitch, 118
Hems, 123 bias, 124 faced, 124 flannel, 127 French, 127 folding, 123
Hems, rolled, 126
Herringbone stitch, 116
Home dyeing, 80
Hook and eyes, 147
Hydroscopic moisture, 42
Jacquard loom, 70
Joining lace, 160
Knit goods, 72
Lace, design of, 208
Laces, use of, 207
Lengthening garments, 226
Linen, 86 adulteration of, 87 characteristics of, 47
Lining, cutting, 188
Loading silk, 56
Looms, 17 Colonial, 19, 21, 22 development of, 19 diagram of, 23 fly shuttle, 26 four harness, hand, 21 Jacquard, 70 Japanese, 20 modern, 25, 69 Navajo, 18 Swedish hand, 24
Loop stitch, 116
Madder bleach, 78
Machine darning, 158 sewing, 162
Mending, 83, 225
Mitering embroidery, 158
Modern methods, 59
Mordant colors, 79
Nankin cotton, 34
Natural dyestuffs, 80
Ornament, 203 embroidery as, 204 fitness of, 209 flowers as, 205 of textiles, 212
Ornamental stitches, 108, 114
Ornamentation, errors in, 204
Outline stitch, 114
Overcasting, 114, 142
Packing clothing, 220
Patterns, 171 altering, 173 cloth, 174 lengthening, 173 pinning, 176 placing, 176 selection of, 171 testing, 174 use of, 172
Piled fabrics, 91
Plackets, 135 faced, 137
Plain material, 212
Pressing, 201 board, 168, 201 wet, 202
Primitive methods, 3
Printing, 81 block, 81 machine, 81 warps, 82
Raw silk, 56
Reeling silk, 54
Retting flax, 45
Running stitch, 110
Sateen weave, 79
Satin, 91 stitch, 121
Scouring agents, 41
Sea island cotton, 30
Seams, 128 beaded, 131 felled, 128 flannel, 135 French, 131 lapped, 133 slot, 131
Seven-gored skirt, 172
Sewing, hand, 107 machine, 162
Sewing machines, 162 care of, 162 types of, 162 use of, 164
Shadow embroidery, 123
Shirt waists, cutting, 182 plan for making, 183
Silk, 53 artificial, 58 boiling off, 56 fiber, 53 loading, 56, 90 production, 53 raw, 56 twilled, 91
Silk, wash, 91
Silk worm, 54
Skirt, 172 band, 179
Skirt binding, 180 braid, 180 making, 177 placket, 178 plan of making, 173 stiffening, 178
Sleeve making, 183 patterns, 194
Sleeves, cutting, 194, 195 finish of, 197 pressing, 198 putting in, 197
Slot seams, 131
Speck dye, 83
Spindle, 6 whorl, 6
Spinning, 3, 59 primitive, 3 wheel, 12 with spindle, 6
Stitches, 107 ornamental, 108, 114 plain, 107
Stockinet undergarments, 216
Stroking gathers, 111
Table linen, 87
Textile arts, origin of, 3
Textiles, 85, 212 design of, 212 list of, 96, 102 ornament of, 212 weaves, 72
Tweeds, 88 Harris, 89
Twills, 74 Cassimere, 73, 75 uneven, 75
Tucked waist, 185
Unity in dress, 211
Upland cotton, 30
Velvet, 92 weave of, 77
Waists, 185 lined, 186 plan for making, 187 repairing, 227 tucked, 185
Wash silk, 91
Weave, 72 diagrams, 73 plain, 73 basket, 76 double cloth, 77 rib, 76 sateen, 76 twill, 74 velvet, 77
Weaving, 14, 69
Wet Pressing, 202
Wheel spinning, 12
Whipping stitch, 113
Whorl, spindle, 6
Widths of fabrics, 93
Wool, 37 characteristics of, 37 fiber, 36 quality of, 38 scouring, 40 sorting, 40 value for clothing, 37