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Ten Great Religions - An Essay in Comparative Theology
by James Freeman Clarke
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But we will proceed to examine some of these points a little more minutely.



Sec. 3. Christianity, as a Pleroma, compared with Brahmanism, Confucianism, and Buddhism.

Christianity and Brahmanism. The essential value of Brahmanism is its faith in spirit as distinct from matter, eternity as distinct from time, the infinite as opposed to the finite, substance as opposed to form.

The essential defect of Brahmanism is its spiritual pantheism, which denies all reality to this world, to finite souls, to time, space, matter. In its vast unities all varieties are swallowed up, all differences come to an end. It does not, therefore, explain the world, it denies it. It is incapable of morality, for morality assumes the eternal distinction between right and wrong, good and evil, and Brahmanism knows no such difference. It is incapable of true worship, since its real God is spirit in itself, abstracted from all attributes. Instead of immortality, it can only teach absorption, or the disappearance of the soul in spirit, as rain-drops disappear in the ocean.

Christianity teaches a Supreme Being who is pure spirit, "above all, through all, and in all," "from whom, and through whom, and to whom are all things," "in whom we live, and move, and have our being." It is a more spiritual religion than Brahmanism, for the latter has passed on into polytheism and idolatry, which Christianity has always escaped. Yet while teaching faith in a Supreme Being, the foundation and substance below all existence, it recognizes him as A LIVING GOD. He is not absorbed in himself, nor apart from his world, but a perpetual Providence, a personal Friend and Father. He dwells in eternity, but is manifested in time.

Christianity, therefore, meets the truth in Brahmanism by its doctrine of God as Spirit, and supplies its deficiencies by its doctrine of God as a Father.

Christianity and the system of Confucius. The good side in the teaching of Confucius is his admirable morality, his wisdom of life in its temporal limitations, his reverence for the past, his strenuous conservatism of all useful institutions, and the uninterrupted order of the social system resting on these ideas.

The evil in his teaching is the absence of the supernatural element, which deprives the morality of China of enthusiasm, its social system of vitality, its order of any progress, and its conservatism of any improvement. It is a system without hope, and so has remained frozen in an icy and stiff immobility for fifteen hundred years.

But Christianity has shown itself capable of uniting conservatism with progress, in the civilization of Christendom. It respects order, reveres the past, holds the family sacred, and yet is able also to make continual progress in science, in art, in literature, in the comfort of the whole community. It therefore accepts the good and the truth in the doctrines of Confucius, and adds to these another element of new life.

Christianity and Buddhism. The truth in Buddhism is in its doctrine of the relation of the soul to the laws of nature; its doctrine of consequences; its assurance of a strict retribution for every human action; its promise of an ultimate salvation in consequence of good works; and of a redemption from all the woes of time by obedience to the truth.

The evil in the system is that belonging to all legalism. It does not inspire faith in any living and present God, or any definite immortality. The principle, therefore, of development is wanting, and it leaves the Mongol races standing on a low plane of civilization, restraining them from evil, but not inspiring them by the sight of good.

Christianity, like Buddhism, teaches that whatever a man sows that shall he also reap; that those who by patient continuance in well-doing seek for glory, honor, and immortality shall receive eternal life; that the books shall be opened in the last day, and every man be rewarded according to his works; that he whose pound gains five pounds shall be ruler over five cities. In short, Christianity, in its Scriptures and its practical influence, has always taught salvation by works.

Yet, beside this, Christianity teaches justification by faith, as the root and fountain of all real obedience. It inspires faith in a Heavenly Father who has loved his every child from before the foundation of the world; who welcomes the sinner back when he repents and returns; whose forgiving love creates a new life in the heart. This faith evermore tends to awaken the dormant energies in the soul of man; and so, under its influence, one race after another has commenced a career of progress. Christianity, therefore, can fulfil Buddhism also.



Sec. 4. Christianity compared with the Avesta and the Eddas. The Duad in all Religions.

The essential truth in the Avesta and the Eddas is the same. They both recognize the evil in the world as real, and teach the duty of fighting against it. They avoid the pantheistic indifference of Brahmanism, and the absence of enthusiasm in the systems of Confucius and the Buddha, by the doctrine of a present conflict between the powers of good and evil, of light and of darkness. This gives dignity and moral earnestness to both systems. By fully admitting the freedom of man, they make the sense of responsibility possible, and so purify and feed morality at its roots.

The difficulty with both is, that they carry this dualistic view of nature too far, leaving it an unreconciled dualism. The supreme Monad is lost sight of in this ever-present Duad. Let us see how this view of evil, or the dual element in life, appears in other systems.

As the Monad in religion is an expression of one infinite supreme presence, pervading all nature and life, so the Duad shows the antagonism and conflict between truth and falsehood, right and wrong, good and evil, the infinite perfection and the finite imperfection. This is a conflict actually existing in the world, and one which religion must accept and account for. Brahmanism does not accept it, but ignores it. This whole conflict is Maya, a deception and illusion. Yet, in this form of illusion, it makes itself so far felt, that it must be met by sacrifices, prayers, penances, and the law of transmigration; until all the apparent antagonism shall be swallowed up in the Infinite One, the only substance in the universe.

Buddhism recognizes the conflict more fully. It frankly accepts the Duad as the true explanation of the actual universe. The ideal universe as Nirvana may be one; but of this we know nothing. The actual world is a twofold world, composed of souls and the natural laws. The battle of life is with these laws. Every soul, by learning to obey them, is able to conquer and use them, as steps in an ascent toward Nirvana.

But the belief of Zoroaster and that of Scandinavia regard the Duad as still more deeply rooted in the essence of existing things. All life is battle,—battle with moral or physical evil. Courage is therefore the chief virtue in both systems. The Devil first appears in theology in these two forms of faith. The Persian devil is Ahriman; the Scandinavian devil is Loki. Judaism, with its absolute and supreme God, could never admit such a rival to his power as the Persian Ahriman; yet as a being permitted, for wise purposes, to tempt and try men, he comes into their system as Satan. Satan, on his first appearance in the Book of Job, is one of the angels of God. He is the heavenly critic; his business is to test human virtue by trial, and see how deep it goes. His object in testing Job was to find whether he loved virtue for its rewards, or for its own sake. "Does Job serve God for naught?" According to this view, the man who is good merely for the sake of reward is not good at all.

In the Egyptian system, as in the later faith of India, the evil principle appears as a power of destruction. Siva and Typhon are the destroying agencies from whom proceed all the mischief done in the world. Nevertheless, they are gods, not devils, and have their worship and worshippers among those whose religious nature is more imbued with fear than with hope. The timid worshipped the deadly and destructive powers, and their prayers were deprecations. The bolder worshipped the good gods. Similarly, in Greece, the Chtonic deities had their shrines and worshippers, as had the powers of Blight, Famine, and Pestilence at Rome.

Yet only in the Avesta is this great principle of evil set forth in full antagonism against the powers of light and love. And probably from Persia, after the captivity, this view of Satan entered into Jewish theology. In the Old Testament, indeed, where Satan or the Devil as a proper name only occurs four times[404], in all which cases he is a subordinate angel, the true Devil does not appear. In the Apocrypha he is said (Wisdom ii. 24) to have brought death into the world. The New Testament does not teach a doctrine of Satan, or the Devil, as something new and revealed then for the first time, but assumes a general though vague belief in such a being. This belief evidently existed among the Jews when Christ came. It as evidently was not taught in the Old Testament. The inevitable inference is that it grew up in the Jewish mind from its communication with the Persian dualism.

But though the doctrine of a Devil is no essential part of Christianity[405], the reality and power of evil is fully recognized in the New Testament and in the teachings of the Church. Indeed, in the doctrine of everlasting punishment and of an eternal hell, it has been carried to a dangerous extreme. The Divine sovereignty is seriously infringed and invaded by such a view. If any outlying part of the universe continues in a state of permanent rebellion, God is not the absolute sovereign. But wickedness is rebellion. If any are to continue eternally in hell, it is because they continue in perpetual wickedness; that is, the rebellion against God will never be effectually suppressed. Only when every knee bows, and every tongue confesses that Christ is Lord to the glory of God the Father; only when truth and love have subdued all enemies by converting them into friends, is redemption complete and the universe at peace.

Now, Christianity (in spite of the illogical doctrine of everlasting punishment) has always inspired a faith in the redeeming power of love to conquer all evil. It has taught that evil can be overcome by good. It asserts truth to be more powerful than error, right than wrong. It teaches us in our daily prayer to expect that God's kingdom shall come, and his will shall be done on earth as it is in Heaven. It therefore fulfils the truth in the great dualisms of the past by its untiring hope of a full redemption from all sin and all evil.



Sec. 5. Christianity and the Religions of Egypt, Greece, and Rome.

The Religion of Egypt. This system unfolded the truth of the Divine in this world, of the sacredness of bodily organization, and the descent of Deity into the ultimate parts of his creation. Its defect was its inability to combine with this an open spiritualism. It had not the courage of its opinions, so far as they related to the divine unity, spirituality, and eternity.

Christianity also accepts the doctrine of God, present in nature, in man, in the laws of matter, in the infinite variety of things. But it adds to this the elevated spiritualism of a monotheistic religion, and so accepts the one and the all, unity and variety, substance and form, eternity and time, spirit and body, as filled with God and manifesting him.

The Religions of Greece and Rome. The beauty of nature, the charm of art, the genius of man, were idealized and deified in the Greek pantheon. The divinity of law, organizing human society according to universal rules of justice, was the truth in the Roman religion. The defect of the Greek theology was the absence of a central unity. Its polytheism carried variety to the extreme of disorder and dissipation. The centrifugal force, not being properly balanced by any centripetal power, inevitably ends in dissolution. The defect of Roman worship was, that its oppressive rules ended in killing out life. Law, in the form of a stiff external organization, produced moral death at last in Rome, as it had produced moral death in Judaea.

Now Christianity, though a monotheism, and a monotheism which has destroyed forever both polytheism and idolatry wherever it has gone, is not that of numerical unity. The God of Christianity differs in this from the God of Judaism and Mohammedanism. He is an infinite will; but he is more. Christianity cognizes God as not only above nature and the soul, but also as in nature and in the soul. Thus nature and the soul are made divine. The Christian doctrine of the Trinity expresses this enlargement of the Jewish monotheism from a numerical to a moral unity. The God of Christ is human in this respect, that he is conceived of in the image of man. Man is essentially a unit through his will, in which lies the secret of personal identity. But besides will he has intellect, by which he comes into communion with the universe; and affection, by which he comes into communion with his race. Christianity conceives of God in the same way. He is an omnipresent will as the Father, Creator, and Euler of all things. He is the Word, or manifested Truth in the Son, manifested through all nature, manifested through all human life. He is the Spirit, or inspiration of each individual soul. So he is Father, Son, and Spirit, above all, through all, and in us all. By this larger view of Deity Christianity was able to meet the wants of the Aryan races, in whom the polytheistic tendency is so strong. That tendency was satisfied by this view of God immanent in nature and immanent in human life.

Judaism and Mohammedanism, with their more concrete monotheism, have not been able to convert the Aryan races. Mohammedanism has never affected the mind of India, nor disturbed the ascendency of Brahmanism there. And though it nominally possesses Persia, yet it holds it as a subject, not as a convert. Persian Sufism is a proof of the utter discontent of the Aryan intellect with any monotheism of pure will. Sufism is the mystic form of Mohammedanism, recognizing communion with God, and not merely submission, as being the essence of true religion. During the long Mohammedan dominion in Turkey it has not penetrated the minds or won the love of the Greek races. It is evident that Christianity succeeded in converting the Greeks and Romans by means of its larger view of the Deity, of which the doctrine of the Trinity, as it stands in the creeds, is a crude illogical expression.



Sec. 6. Christianity in Relation to Judaism and Mohammedanism. The Monad in all Religions.

There are three religions which teach the pure upity of God, or true monotheism. These three Unitarian religions are Judaism, Christianity, and Mohammedanism. They also all originated in a single race, the Semitic race, that which has occupied the central region of the world, the centre of three continents. It is the race which tends to a religious unity, as that of our Aryan ancestors tended to variety.

But what is pure monotheism? It is the worship of one alone God, separated by the vast abyss of the infinite from all finite beings. It is the worship of God, not as the Supreme Being only, not as the chief among many gods, as Jupiter was the president of the dynasty on Olympus, not merely the Most High, but as the only God. It avoids the two extremes, one of making the Supreme Being head of a council or synod of deities, and the other of making him indeed infinite, but an infinite abstraction, or abyss of darkness. These are the two impure forms of monotheism. The first prevailed in Greece, Rome, Egypt, Scandinavia. In each of these religions there was a supreme being,—Zeus, Jupiter, Ammon, Odin,—but this supreme god was only primus inter pares, first among equals. The other impure form of monotheism prevailed in the East,—in Brahmanism, Buddhism, and the religion of Zoroaster. In the one Parabrahm, in the other Zerana-Akerana, in the third Nirvana itself, is the Infinite Being or substance, wholly separate from all that is finite. It is so wholly separate as to cease to be an object of adoration and obedience. Not Parabrahm, but Siva, Vischnu, and Brahma; not Zerana-Akerana, but Ormazd and the Amschaspands; not the infinite world of Nirvana, nor the mighty Adi-Buddha, but the Buddhas of Confession, the finite Sakya-Muni, are the objects of worship in these systems.

Only from the Semitic race have arisen the pure monotheistic religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Mohammedanism. Each of these proclaims one only God, and each makes this only God the object of all worship and service. Judaism says, "Hear! O Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord!" (Deut. vi. 4.) Originally among the Jews, God's name as the "Plural of Majesty" indicated a unity formed from variety; but afterward it became in the word Jahveh a unity of substance. "By my name Jehovah I was not known to them" (i.e. to the Patriarchs).[406] That name indicates absolute Being, "I am the I am."[407]

Ancient Gentile monotheism vibrated between a personal God, the object of worship, who was limited and finite, and an infinite absolute Being who was out of sight, "whose veil no one had lifted." The peculiarity of the Mosaic religion was to make God truly the one alone, and at the same time truly the object of worship.

In this respect Judaism, Christianity, and Mohammedanism agree, and in this they differ from all other religions. Individual thinkers, like Socrates, AEschylus, Cicero, have reached the same conviction; but these three are the only popular religions, in which God is at once the infinite and absolute, and the only object of worship.

Now it is a remarkable fact that these three religions, which are the only pure monotheistic religions, are at the same time the only religions which have any claim to catholicity. Buddhism, though the religion of numerous nations, seems to be the religion of only one race, namely, the Turanic race, or Mongols. The people of India who remain Buddhists, the Singalese, or inhabitants of Ceylon, belong to the aboriginal Tamul, or Mongol race. With this exception then (which is no exception, as far as we know the ethnology of Eastern Asia), the only religions which aim at Catholicism are these three, which are also the only monotheistic religions. Judaism aimed at catholicity and hoped for it. It had an instinct of universality, as appeared in its numerous attempts at making proselytes of other nations. It failed of catholicity when it refused to accept as its Christ the man who had risen above its national limitations, and who considered Roman tax-gatherers and Samaritans as already prepared to enter the kingdom of the Messiah. The Jews required all their converts to become Jews, and in doing this left the catholic ground. Christianity in the mouth of Paul, who alone fully seized the true idea of his Master, said, "Circumcision availeth nothing, nor uncircumcision, but a new creature." In other words, he declared that it was not necessary to become a Jew in order to be a Christian.

The Jewish mind, so far forth as it was monotheistic, aimed at catholicity. The unity of God carries with it, logically, the unity of man. From one God as spirit we infer one human family. So Paul taught at Athens. "God that made the world and all things therein, ... hath made of one blood all races of men to dwell on all the face of the earth."

But the Jews, though catholic as monotheists, and as worshipping a spiritual God, were limited by their ritual and their intense national bigotry. Hereditary and ancestral pride separated them, and still separate them, from the rest of mankind. "We have Abraham to our Father" is the talisman which has kept them together, but kept them from union with others.

Christianity and Mohammedanism, therefore, remain the only two really catholic religions. Each has overpassed all the boundaries of race. Christianity, beginning among the Jews, a Semitic people, passed into Europe, and has become the religion of Greeks, Romans, Kelts, Germans, and the Slavic races of Russia, and has not found it impossible to convert the Africans, the Mongols, and the American Indians. So too the Mohammedan religion, also beginning among the Semitic race, has become the nominal religion of Persia, Turkey, Northern Africa, and Central Asia. Monotheism, therefore, includes a tendency to catholicity. But Islam has everywhere made subjects rather than converts, and so has failed of entire success. It has not assimilated its conquests.

The monotheism of Christianity, as we have already seen, while accepting the absolute supremacy of the Infinite Being, so as to displace forever all secondary or subordinate gods, yet conceives of him as the present inspiration of all his children. It sees him coming down, to bless them in the sunshine and the shower, as inspiring every good thought, as a providence guiding all human lives. And by this view it fulfils both Judaism and Mohammedanism, and takes a long step beyond them both.



Sec. 7. The Fulness of Christianity is derived from the Life of Jesus.

Christianity has thus shown itself to be a universal solvent, capable of receiving into itself the existing truths of the ethnic religions, and fulfilling them with something higher. Whenever it has come in contact with natural religion, it has assimilated it and elevated it. This is one evidence that it is intended to become the universal religion of mankind.

This pleroma, or fulness, integrity, all-sidedness, or by whatever name we call it, is something deeper than thought. A system of thought might be devised large enough to include all the truths in all the religions of the world, putting each in its own place in relation to the rest. Such a system might show how they all are related to each other, and all are in harmony. But this would be a philosophy, not a religion. No such philosophy appears in the original records of Christianity. The New Testament does not present Jesus as a philosopher, nor Paul as a metaphysician. There is no systematic teaching in the Gospels, nor in the Epistles. Yet we find there, in incidental utterances, the elements of this many-sided truth, in regard to God, man, duty, and immortality. But we find it as life, not as thought. It is a fulness of life in the soul of Jesus, passing into the souls of his disciples and apostles, and from them in a continuous stream of Christian experience, down to the present time.

The word pleroma ([Greek: plaeroma]), in the New Testament, means that which fills up; fulness, fulfilling, filling full. The verb "to fulfil" ([Greek: plaerhoo]) carries the same significance. To "fulfil that which was spoken by the prophets," means to fill it full of meaning and truth. Jesus came, not to destroy the law, but to fulfil it; that is, to carry it out further. He fulfilled Moses and the prophets, not by doing exactly what they foretold, in their sense, but by doing it in a higher, deeper, and larger sense. He fulfilled their thought as the flower fulfils the bud, and as the fruit fulfils the flower. The sense of the fulness of life in Jesus and in the Gospel seems to have struck the minds of the early disciples, and powerfully impressed them. Hence the frequency with which they use this verb and noun, signifying fulness. Jesus fulfilled the law, the prophets, all righteousness, the Scriptures. He came in the fulness of time. His joy was fulfilled. Paul prays that the disciples may be filled full of joy, peace, and hope, with the fruits of righteousness, with all knowledge, with the spirit of God, and with all the fulness of God. He teaches that love fulfils the law, that the Church is the fulness of Christ, that Christ fills all things full of himself, and that in him dwells all the fulness of the godhead bodily.

One great distinction between Christianity and all other religions is in this pleroma, or fulness of life which it possesses, and which, to all appearance, came from the life of Jesus. Christianity is often said to be differenced from ethnic religions in other ways. They are natural religions: it is revealed. They are natural: it is supernatural. They are human: it is divine. But all truth is revealed truth; it all comes from God, and, therefore, so far as ethnic religions contain truth, they also are revelations. Moreover, the supernatural element is to be found in all religions; for inspiration, in some form, is universal. All great births of time are supernatural, making no part of the nexus of cause and effect. How can you explain the work of Confucius, of Zoroaster, of the Buddha, of Mohammed, out of the existing state of society, and the educational influences of their time? All such great souls are much more the makers of their age than its result; they are imponderable elements in civilization, not to be accounted for by anything outside of themselves. Nor can we urge the distinction of human and divine; for there is a divine element in all ethnic religions, and a broadly human element in Christianity. Jesus is as much the representative of human nature as he is the manifestation of God. He is the Son of man, no less than the Son of God.

One great fact which makes a broad distinction between other religions and Christianity is that they are ethnic and it is catholic. They are the religions of races and nations, limited by these lines of demarcation, by the bounds which God has beforehand appointed. Christianity is a catholic religion: it is the religion of the human race. It overflows all boundaries, recognizes no limits, belongs to man as man. And this it does, because of the fulness of its life, which it derives from its head and fountain, Jesus Christ, in whom dwells the fulness both of godhead and of manhood.

It is true that the great missionary work of Christianity has long been checked. It does not now convert whole nations. Heathenism, Mohammedanism, Judaism, Brahmanism, Buddhism, stand beside it unmoved. What is the cause of this check?

The catholicity of the Gospel was born out of its fluent and full life. It was able to convert the Greeks and Romans, and afterward Goths, Vandals, Lombards, Franks, Scandinavians, because it came to them, not as a creed, but as a life. But neither Roman Catholics nor Protestants have had these large successes since the Middle Ages. Instead of a life, Christianity became a church and a creed. When this took place, it gradually lost its grand missionary power. It no longer preached truth, but doctrine; no longer communicated life, but organized a body of proselytes into a rigid church. Party spirit took the place of the original missionary spirit. Even the majority of the German tribes was converted by Arian missionaries, and orthodoxy has not the credit of that last grand success of Christianity. The conversion of seventy millions of Chinese in our own day to the religion of the Bible was not the work of Catholic or Protestant missionaries, but of the New Testament. The Church and the creed are probably the cause of this failure. Christianity has been partially arrested in its natural development, first by the Papal Church, and secondly by the too rigid creeds of orthodoxy.

If the swarming myriads of India and Mongolia are to be converted to Christianity, it must be done by returning to the original methods. We must begin by recognizing and accepting the truth they already possess. We must be willing to learn of them, in order to teach them. Comparative Theology will become the science of missions if it help to show to Christians the truth and good in the creeds outside of Christendom. For to the Church and to its sects, quite as much as to the world, applies the saying, "He that exalteth himself shall be abased, but he that humbleth himself shall be exalted."



Sec. 8. Christianity as a Religion of Progress and of Universal Unity.

As long as a tree or an animal lives it continues to grow. An arrest of growth is the first symptom of the decline of life. Fulness of life, therefore, as the essential character of Christianity, should produce a constant development and progress; and this we find to be the case. Other religions have their rise, progress, decline, and fall, or else are arrested and become stationary. The religions of Persia, Egypt, Greece, Rome, Scandinavia, have come to an end. As ethnic religions, they shared the fortunes of the race or nation with which they were associated. The systems of Confucius, of the Buddha, of Brahmanism, of Judaea, of Mohammed, are arrested. They remain stationary. But, thus far, Christianity and Christendom advance together. Christianity has developed; out of its primitive faith, several great theologies, the mediaeval Papacy, Protestantism, and is now evidently advancing into new and larger forms of religious, moral, and social activity.

The fact of a fulness of divine and human life in Jesus took form in the doctrines of the incarnation and the Trinity. The fact of the reconciling and uniting power of this life took form in the doctrine of the atonement. Both of these doctrines are illogical and false, in their form, as church doctrines. But both of them represent most essential facts. We have seen the truths in the doctrines of incarnation and the Trinity. The truth in the atonement is, as the word itself signifies, the at-one-making power of the Gospel. The reconciliation of antagonist truths and opposing tendencies, which philosophy has always unsuccessfully endeavored to state in theory, Christianity accomplishes in practice. Christianity continually reproduces from its depths of life a practical faith in God, both as law and as love, in man, both as a free and yet as a providentially guided being. It gives us God as unity and as variety, as the substance and as the form of the world. It states the reality of evil as forcibly as any system of dualism, and yet produces a practical faith in good as being stronger than evil and sure to conquer it. In social life it reconciles the authority of human law with the freedom of individual thought and action. In the best Christian governments, we find all the order which a despotism can guarantee, with all the freedom to which a democracy can aspire. No such social organization is to be found outside of Christendom. How can this be, unless it is somehow connected with Christianity?

The civilization of Christendom consists in a practical reconciliation of antagonist tendencies. It is a "pleroma" in social life, a fulness of concord, a harmony of many parts. The harmony is indeed by no means complete, for the millennium has not arrived. As yet the striking feature of Christendom is quantity, power, variety, fulness; not as yet co-operation, harmony, peace, union. Powers are first developed, which are afterward to be harmonized. The sword is not yet beaten into a ploughshare, nor has universal peace arrived. Yet such is the inevitable tendency of things. As knowledge spreads, as wealth increases, as the moral force of the world is enlarged, law, more and more, takes the place of force. Men no longer wear swords by their sides to defend themselves from attack. If attacked, they call the policeman. Towns are no longer fortified with walls, nor are the residences of noblemen kept in a state of defence. They are all folded in the peaceful arms of national law. So far the atonement has prevailed. Only nations still continue to fight; but the time is at hand when international law, the parliament of the world, the confederation of man, shall take the place of standing armies and iron-clad navies.

So, in society, internal warfare must, sooner or later, come to an end. Pauperism and crime must be treated according to Christian methods. Criminals must be reformed, and punishment must be administered in reference to that end. Co-operation in labor and trade must take the place of competition. The principles by means of which these vast results will be brought about are already known; the remaining difficulties are in their application. Since slavery fell in the United States, one great obstacle to the progress of man is removed. The next social evils in order will be next assailed, and, one by one, will be destroyed. Christianity is becoming more and more practical, and its application to life is constantly growing more vigorous and wise.

The law of human life is, that the development of differences must precede their reconciliation. Variety must precede harmony, analysis must prepare the way for synthesis, opposition must go before union. Christianity, as a powerful stimulus applied to the human mind, first develops all the tendencies of the soul; and afterward, by its atoning influence on the heart, reconciles them. Christ is the Prince of Peace. He came to make peace between man and God, between man and man, between law and love, reason and faith, freedom and order, progress and conservatism. But he first sends the sword, afterward the olive-branch. Nevertheless, universal unity is the object and end of Christianity.



Index of the Principal Authors Consulted in the Preparation of this Work.



ACKERMANN (D. C.). Das Christliche im Plato. Hamburg. 1835. (Translated in Clark's Theological Library.) (Greece.)

AESCHYLUS, and other Greek Poets. (Greece.)

ALGER (WM. R.). A Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life. Philadelphia: Childs. 1864.

ALLEN (JOSEPH H.). Hebrew Men and Times. Boston. 1861. (Judaea.)

American Oriental Society, Journal of the. New Haven; published annually. (Oriental Religions.)

AMPERE (J. J. A.). L'Histoire Romaine. Paris. 1864. (Rome.)

——— ——— La Science en Orient.

Anthropological Society of London, Memoirs of (commenced in 1863-64).

Asiatic Journal, 1816-1843. London.

Asiatic Researches (commenced London. 1801).

BALDWIN (JOHN D.). Pre-Historic Nations. New York. 1869.

BANHERJEA (Rev. K. M.). Dialogues on Hindoo Philosophy, comprising the Nyaya, Sankhya, and Vyasa. London. 1861. (Brahmanism.)

BAUR (F. C.). Symbolik und Mythologie. Stuttgart. 1829.

BLEEK (ARTHUR HENRY). Avesta. The religious Books of the Parsees. Translated into English from Spiegel's German translation. Hertford. 1864. (Zoroaster.)

BOeEKH. Manetho und der Hundstern period. Berlin. 1840. (Egypt.)

BURNOUF (EUGENE). Commentaire sur le Yacna. Paris. 1823.

——— ——— Introduction a l'Histoire du Buddhisme Indien. Paris. 1844.

——— ——— Le Bhagavata Purana, on Histoire Poetique de Krichna. Paris. 1840.

BURNOUF (EMILE). Essai sur le Veda. 1863.

BRUGSCH. Histoire de l'Egypte. Leipzig. 1859. ———- Aus dem Orient.

BUNSEN (C. C. J.). Bibelwerk. Leipzig: Brockhaus. 1858. (Judaea.)

——— ——— Gott in der Geschichte. Leipzig. 1857.

——— ——— AEgypten's Stelle in der Weltgesehichte. Hamburg. 1845-1867. English translation, 1868.

CHABAS (F.). Les Pasteurs en Egypt. Amsterdam. 1868.

CHASTEL (ETIENNE). Histoire de la Destruction du Paganisme dans l'Empire d'Orient. Paris. 1850.

Chinese Reeorder and Missionary Journal. Foochow.

COCKER (B. F.). Christianity and Greek Philosophy. New York 1870. (Greece.)

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Index of Subjects Treated in this Work.

A.

Abraham, source of Hebrew monotheism, 403. " his inspiration, 403. " his worship of the Most High God, 404. " his native home at the source of the Tigris, 405. " his historic character and events of his life, 406. " his relation to Melchisedek, 406. " character of his faith, 408. " his monotheism imperfect, 408. Adam of Bremen, his account of Northern Christians, 394. AEschylus, big religious character, 284. Anschar, missionary to the Swedes, 393. Antoninus, M. Aurelius, his religious character, 344. Apollo Belvedere, in the Vatican, 289. Arabs, the, and Arabia, 452. " without a history till the time of Mohammed, 452. Aristotle, his view of God, 296. Artemis, or Diana as represented by the sculptors, 290. Aryana-Vaejo, a region of delight, 184. " its climate changes to cold, 185. " supposed to be in Central Asia, 186. Aryans, the, in Central Asia, 85. " consist of seven races, 86. " their name mentioned in Manu, in the Avesta, and by Herodotus, 87. " their original home, 87. " their mode of life, 88. " they arrive in India, 89. Atonement, Christian, in its early form, influenced by Egyptian thought, 255. " in its scholastic form, derived from Roman law, 352. Augurs, their duties, 337. Avesta, discovered by Duperron, 179.



B.

Baldur, his character described, 378. " death of, the story, 373. Baltic Sea, the Mediterranean of modern Europe, 359. Bona Dea, the good goddess, 330. Bragi, the Scandinavian Apollo, 380. Brahma, chief deity in the Laws of Manu, 125. " his worship has entirely disappeared, 128. Brahmanism, a difficult study, 81. " no individual founder, 81. " is a one-sided spiritualism, 83. " passes into pantheism, 84. " becomes idolatry, 85. Buddha, his early tendency to devotion, 148. " not a proper name, but an official title, 148. " his birthplace In India, 148. " his different names (note), 148. " his father, a prince of the solar race, 148. " his early tendency to devotion, 148. " he arrives at Nirvana, 149. " devotes himself to teaching, 150. " dies at the age of eighty years, 150. " period of his death, 150. Buddhism, Protestantism of the East, 139. " resemblance of its customs to those of the Romish Church, 139. " its worship of relics very ancient, 140. " its singular and beautiful architecture, 140. " its shrines for relics, 141. " its rock-cut temples and monasteries, 141. " cannot have been copied from Catholicism, 141. " its interior resemblance to Protestantism, 142. " its respect for human freedom and human rights, 143. " its belief in the capacity of the human intellect, 144. " its monastic character, 144. " its expulsion from India, 145. " the religion of the Mongol nations, 146. " its scriptures and their discovery, 147. Buddhists, their general councils, 151. " their missionaries and missionary spirit, 151. " their leading doctrines, 153. " their idea of human development and progress, 154. " their four great truths, 155. " their moral commandments, 156. " their system rational and humane, 156. " their toleration, 157. " their benevolence and hospitality, 158. " their worship and ritual, 159. " their doctrines of Karma and Nirvana, 161. " good and evil of their system, 164. " their doctrine of transmigration, 167. " how far their teaching resembles Christianity, 167. Bundehesch, opinion of Windischmann concerning it, 194. " doctrinal system of, 195. Burlingame, Anson, his mission, 70.



C.

Carthaginians, their language a form of Hebrew, 400. Catholic religious, three, 18. " " teach the unity of God, 18. " " which have failed of universality, 19. Ceres, Liber, Flora, and Pomona, rural deities, 330. Chaldees of Ur, same as modern Curds, 405. Chandragupta, contemporary of Alexander, 86. Cherubim, its derivation from the Sphinx, 252. Chinese civilization, its peculiarities, 32. " " prose of Asia, 32. " " its antiquity, 33. " " its grotesque character, 36. Chinese empire, its size, 33. " history commences, 34. " language, 34. " wall and canals, 34. " artesian wells, 34. " inoculation, bronze money, mariner's compass, gunpowder, 35. " art of printing, and libraries, 35. " people possess freedom (note), 37. " government based on education, 38. " monarchy a family, 38. " government a literary aristocracy, 38. " civil-service examinations, 39. " public boards and their duties, 42. " viceroys, or governors of provinces, 42. " agriculture carried to perfection, 43. " "Kings," or sacred books, 47. " philosophy in its later developments, 52. " doctrine of the grand extreme, 52. " doctrine of Yang and Yin, or the positive and negative essences, 52. " doctrine of holy men, 53. " people, their amiable character, 59. " " described by Lieutenant Forbes, 59. " " described by Du Halde, 60. " " described by Meadows, 60. " " treatment of woman, 61. Christian apologists, their errors, 4. " " have regarded most religions as human inventions, 4. " " have considered them as debasing superstitions, 4. Christianity adapted to the Northern races, 395. " a pleroma, or fulness of life, 492. " an inclusive system, not exclusive, 493. " summary of its relation to other religions, 494. " a religion of progress, 507. " a religion of universal unity, 508. " has the power of continued progress, 29. " in its various developments,29. " meets the positive and negative side: of Brahmanism, 24. of Buddhism, 25. of Confucius, 26. of Zoroaster, 26. of Egypt, 27. of Greece, 28. Cicero, his work "De Natura Deorum," 341. " on the speech of Caesar, 342. Circumcision, its origin and extent, 251. Cleanthes, the Stoic, his hymn, 285. Comparative Philology, its discoveries, 86. " Theology either analytical or synthetical, 2. " " its relation to Comparative Geography, 2. " " its relation to human progress, 2. " " must do justice to all religions, 3. " " is still in its infancy, 3. " " is a science, 3. " " will furnish new evidence to the truth of Christianity, 13. " " will show Christianity to be a catholic religion, adapted to all races, 15. " " will show Christianity to be all-sided, 21. " " will show Christianity capable of progress, 29. " " in its probable results, 30. Confucius, his birth and ancestors, 44, 45. " his influence, 44, 45. " events of his life, 45, 46. " edits the sacred books, or Kings, 47. " his own writings, 47. " his Table-Talk, extracts from, 48, 49. " had a large organ of veneration, 50. " had great energy and persistency, 51. " his books distributed by tract societies, 51. " one thousand six hundred and sixty temples erected to his memory, 51. " defects in his doctrine, 58. " his system compared with Christianity, 59. " good influence of his teachings, 58. Conversion of the German races to Christianity, 390. Cudworth and the Platonists have defended the Greek philosophers, 5.



D.

David, his life and epoch in human history, 422. " his great military successes, 422. " his prudence and sagacity in affairs, 423. " a man of genius, poet, musician, 425. " Book of Psalms a record of his life, 425. " his Psalms often rise to the level of Christianity, 426. Decay of the Roman religion, 339. Denmark and Norway converted to Christianity, 392. Devil, the, in Old and New Testament, 498. Divination, Cicero speaks concerning, 339-341. Doctrinal influence of the Egyptian religion on Christianity, 258. Downfall of German heathenism, 391. Druids and Scalds, 355. Duad, the, in all religions, 396. Dualism or monotheism the doctrine of the Avesta, 203. " of the Scandinavian system, 384. " in Christianity, 496. Duperron, Anquetil, his zeal for science, 178. " " discovers the Avesta in India, 179



E.

Ecclesiastes, a wonderful description of utter despair, 435. Eddas, the, chief source of our knowledge of the early Scandinavians, 363. " elder, or poetic, described, 364. " its author, Saemund, 364. " prose, by Snorro Sturteson, 369. " " its contents, 369. " " its account of creation, 370. " " its account of the gods and giants, 371. " " story of Baldur, 372. " " adventures of Thor, 374. " " consummation of all things, 375. Egyptian chronology, its uncertainty, 231. " " opinions of Egyptologists concerning, 231, 232. " " point of contact with that of the Hebrews, 233. Egyptian civilization, its extent, 209. " architecture, its characteristics, 209. " knowledge of arts, 210. " love for making records, 210. " mural paintings in tombs, 210. " sphinxes discovered by Marietta, 210. " mummies, their anatomy, 237. " religion, its influence on Judaism, 250 " " its influence on Christianity, 253. " " its triads, 254. Egyptians, ancient, their great interest in religion, 214. " their gods on the oldest monuments, 215. " lived in order to worship, 215. " number of their festivals, 216. " their priests, 217. " their doctrine of immortality, 218. " their ritual of the dead, 219. " their funeral ceremonies, 220. " their domestic and social virtues, 221. " specimen of their hymns, 222, 223. " mysterious character of their theology, 223. " sources of our knowledge concerning, 224. " modern works upon (note), 225. " their doctrine of transmigration (note), 226. " their animal worship, 227. " their tendency to nature-worship, 229. " their origin, 230-236. Epictetus, his view of religion, 343. Epicureans, believed in God, but not in religion, 297. Essential idea of Brahmanism, 21. " " of Buddhism, 21. " " of Confucius, 22. " " of Zoroaster, 22. " " of Egypt, 23. " " of Greece, 24. Ethnic religions, defined, 15. " " most religions are such, 15. " " related to ethnology, 15. " " limited to races, 17. Euripides, his tragedy anti-religious, 285.



F.

Faunus, an old Italian god, 330. Fenrir, the wolf, how he was fastened, 382. Feudal system, its essential character, 391. Flamens, priests of particular deities, 336. Fontus, god of fountains, 328. Frey, and his daughter Freyja, 379.



G.

Geiger, Swedish history quoted, 357. Genius, a Roman god, 329. German races essentially Protestant, 395. German tribes converted by Arian missionaries, 506. Gods of Egypt, the three orders of, 239. " " " names of the first order, 239. " " " character of the first order, 240. " " " significant of the divine unity, 242. " " " second order of, their human qualities, 243. " " " third order of, the Osiris group, 242. Gods of Greece before Homer, 270. " " " oldest were the Uranids, 270. " " " second race of, the Titans, 271. " " " third race of, the Olympians, 271. " " " the oldest were gods of the elements, 272. " " " worshipped by the Dorians, were Apollo and Artemis, 274. " " " local distribution of, 275. " " " first symbolical, afterward personal, 276. " " " in Hesiod and Homer, 277. " " " poetic character of, 279. " " " in Homer very human beings, 280. " " " as described by the lyric poets, 283. " " " as described by the tragedians, 284. " " " as unfolded by the artists, 286. " " " as seen in the works of Phidias, 287. " " " as described by the philosophers, 291. " " " how related to Christianity, 310. Gods of the Vedas are the evil spirits of the Avesta, 202. Greece, its physical geography, 259. " its mountains, climate, and soil, 260. " its language akin to Sanskrit, 261. " its people an Aryan race, 262. " first inhabited by the Pelasgians, 262. " afterward received the Dorians, 264. " influenced powerfully by Egypt, 265. Greek mysteries, derived from Asia and Egypt, 302. " " gods of belong to the underworld, 302. " " alien to the Greek mind, 303. " " Eleusinian, in honor of Ceres, 305. " " in honor of Bacchus, derived from India, 305. " " Orphic, and their doctrines, 306. " religion, an essentially human religion, 266. " " its gods, men and women, 267. " " has no founder or restorer or priesthood, 267. " " its gods evolved, not emanations, 268. " " its freedom and hilarity, 269. " " as viewed by Paul, 308. " " as regarded by the early Christian fathers, 312. " " and philosophy, a preparation for Christianity, 313. " worship, sacrifices, prayers, and festivals, 297. " " in early times, 298. " " had numerous festivals, 299. " " connected with augurs and oracles, 300. Gylfi, deluding of, in the Edda, 369.



H.

Haruspices, derived from Etruria, 338. Havamal, or proverbs of the Scandinavians, 366. Heathen religions must contain more truth than error, 6. " " cannot have been human inventions, 6. " " must contain some revolution from God, 8. " " how viewed by Christ and his apostles, 9. " " how treated by Paul at Athens, 10. " " how regarded by the early apologists, 12. Heimdall, warder of the gods, 380. Herder, his description of David, 425. Hesiod, his account of the three groups of gods, 270. Hindoo Epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata, 128. " " they refer to the time succeeding the Vedic age, 128. " " composed before the time of Buddhism, 129. Hindoos, antagonisms of their character, 82. " acute in speculations, but superstitious, 82. " unite luxury and asceticism, 82. " tend to idealism and religious spiritualism, 83. " their doctrine of Maya, 84. Hindoo year, calendar of, 132. " " begins in April, a sacred month, 132. Holy of Holies, in the Egyptian and Jewish temples, 252. Homer his description of the gods, 280. Horace, his view of religion, 346. Hyksos, constitute the middle monarchy, 232. " expelled from Egypt after five hundred years, 233. " Hebrews in Egypt during their ascendency, 234, 235. " or Shepherd Kings in Egypt, 213. " a Semitic people from Asia, 232. " conquered Lower Egypt B.C. 2000, 233. Hyndla, song of, extracts from, 366.



I.

Icelanders converted to Christianity, 394. Incarnation, the fundamental doctrine of Christianity, 28. India, always a land of mystery, 81. " overrun by conquerors, 81. Infinite and finite elements in Brahmanism and Christianity, 137. Injustice done to ethnic religions, 4. Inspiration, its origin in the intuitive faculty, 439. Isis and Osiris, their legend, from Plutarch, 244. " " " explanations of their myth, 246. " " " identified with the first and second order, 248.



J.

Janus, one of the oldest of Roman gods, 322. " presided over beginnings and endings, 322. " invoked before other gods, 322. " his temple open in war, closed in peace, 322. " believed by Creuzer to have an Indian origin, 323. " has his chief feast in January, 323. " a Sabine god on Mount Janiculum, 323. Jews, a Semitic race, 399. Job, its grandeur of thought and expression, 438. Jones, Sir William, his life and works, 78. " progress since his time, 80. Judaism, a preparation for Christianity, 444. " monotheistic after the captivity, 444. " influenced by Greek philosophy, 444. " its process of development, 445. " at first childlike and narrow, 446. " the seed of Christianity, 446. Juno, queen of heaven, and female Jupiter, 324. " goddess of womanhood, 324. " her chief feast the Matronalia in March, 324. " her month of June favorable for wedlock, 325. Jupiter, derived his name from the Sanskrit, 324. " had many temples in Rome, 324. " god of the weather, of storm, of lightning, 324.



K.

"Kings," Chinese, names and number, 47. " teach a personal God, 57. " republished by Confucius, 47.



L.

Language of Ancient Egypt, 236. Lao-tse, founder of Tao-ism, 50, 52. " called a dragon by Confucius, 51. " three forms of his doctrine, 54. Lares, gods of home, 328. Loki, the god of cunning, 381. Lower Egypt, gods worshipped in, 248. Lucretius, his view of religion, 343. Luna, the moon, a Sabine deity, 327. Lustrations, or great acts of atonement, 338.



M.

Magna Mater, a foreign worship at Rome, 330. Maine, his work on ancient law quoted, 351. Mann, laws of, when written, 100. " account of Creation, 101. " dignity of the Brahmans, 103. " importance of the Gayatari, 104. " account of the twice-born man, 105. " description of ascetic duties, 106. " the anchorite described, 107. " duties of the ruler described, 109. " crimes and penalties described, 110. " the law of castes described, 110. " penance and expiation described, 110. " respect for cows enjoined, 111. " transmigration and final beatitude, 112. Maritime character of the Scandinavians, 361. Mars, originally an agricultural god, 330. Materialism in Christian doctrines, derived from Egypt, 256. Mater Matuta, Latin goddess of the dawn (note), 325, 327. Melchisedek, king of justice and king of peace, 407. Minerva, her name derived from an Etruscan word, 325. goddess of mental activity, 325. one of the three deities of the capitol, 325. Missionary work of Christianity, why checked, 506. Moabite inscription in the Hebrew dialect, 400. Mohammed, recent works concerning, 448. " lives of, by Muir, Sprenger, Weil, and others, 449. " essays on his life by Babador, 450. " prophecies of, in the Old Testament, 451. " lived a private life for forty years, 454. " his early religious tendencies, 454. " his inspirations, 454. " his biography in the Koran, 455. " his mother's death, 456. " his first converts, 457. " protected by his tribe, 458. " his temporary relapse, 460. " and his followers persecuted, 461. " his first teaching a modified Judaism, 463. " his departure to Medina with his followers, 464. " change in his character after the Hegira, 465. " in his last ten years a political leader, 467. " Goethe's view of his character, 468. " his cruel treatment of the Jews, 469. " his numerous wives, 470. " his death and character, 471. Mohammedanism, its special interest, 448. " its essential doctrine the absolute unity of God, 472. " its teaching concerning the Bible and Koran, 472. " does not recognize human brotherhood, 473. " among the Turks, its character, 473. " promotes religious feeling, 474. " inspires courage and resignation, 474. " in Palestine, described by Miss Rogers, 475. " in Central Arabia, described by Mr. Palgrave, 478. " in Central Asia, described by M. Vambery, 477. " in Persia, described by Count Gobmeau, 477. " in Egypt, described by Mr. Lane, 477. " in Turkey, described by Mr. MacFarlane, 478, 484. " in Northern Africa, described by Barth and Blerzey, 477, 485. " its character given by M. Renan, 485. " its monotheism lower than that of Judaism and Christianity, 481. " does not convert the Aryan races, 500. " pure from Polytheism, 502. " has a tendency to catholicity, 503. " a relapse to a lower stand point, 483. " summary of its good and evil influence, 484. Monotheism (or Dualism), the doctrine of the Avesta, 203. Montesquieu quoted, 357. Moses, his historic character, 409. " described by Strabo (note), 410. " his natural genius and temperament, 411. " his seventy and tenderness, 412. " his sense of justice embodied in law, 412. " his object to teach the holiness of God, 413. " defects of his character, 413. " character of his monotheism, 414. " his monotheism described by Stanley (note), 414. " his anthropomorphic view of God, 415. " his acquaintance with Egyptian learning, 416. " nature of his inspiration, 417. " political freedom secured to the Jews by his law, 418. " object of his ceremonial law, 420. Mythology of Scandinavia and that of Zoroaster compared, 384.



N.

Names of our week-days Scandinavian, 358. Neptunus, origin of the name, 328. Nestorian inscription in China, 71-78. Njord, ruler of the winds, 378. Northern and Southern Europe compared, 359. Northmen in France, Spain, Italy, and Greece, 389. Number of Christians in the world, 146. " of Buddhists in the world, 146. " of Jews in the world, 146. " of Mohammedans in the world, 146. " of Brahmans, 146. Nyaya, system of philosophy, assumes three principles, 122. " system of philosophy, described by Banerjea, 123.



O.

Odin, or All-father, eldest of the AEsir, 377. " corresponds to Ormazd, 385. " his festival in the spring, 386. Opa, goddess of the harvest, 330.



P.

Pales, a rural god, 330. Palestine, or the land of the Philistines, 397. " resembles Greece and Switzerland, 397. " its mountainous character, 397. " a small country, 398. " its mountains and valleys, 399. Palgrave, note giving an extract from his book, 486. Papacy, mediaeval, good done by it, 350. " a reproduction of the Roman state religion, 350. Parsi religion, its influence on Judaism, 205. " " its influence on Christianity, 204. " " teaches a kingdom of heaven, 207. " " still continues in Persia and India, 208. Parthenon, the, temple of Minerva, described, 290. Penates, gods of home, 328. Persepolis, ruins of the palace of Xerxes at, 170. " inscriptions of Darius and Xerxes at, 170. " tombs of the kings of Persia at, 174. Pharisees, Sadducets, and Essenei, 444. Phidias, his statue of Jupiter described, 288. Philistines, probably Pelasgi from Crete, 421. Philosophy, early Greek, 291. " Greek, in Asia Minor, 291. " in Italy, 292. Phoenicians, their language a form of Hebrew, 400. Plato harmonizes realism and idealism, 293. " his philosophy completes that of Socrates, 294. " his method that of transcendentalism, 294. " his idea of God pure and high, 295. " Christian element in, 295. Pliny, the elder, his view of religion, 345. Present work, an essay, or attempt, 1. " " companson of religions its object, 1. Prophecy, a modification of inspiration, 438. Prophets of the Old Testament, men of action, 440. " politicians and constitutional lawyers, 440. " preferred the moral law to ceremonial, 441. " described by Dean Stanley, 441. " their inspiration came through a common human faculty, 442. " their predictions not always realized, 443. " their foresight of Christianity, 443. " developed Judaism to its highest point, 443. Proverbs, Book of, in the Edda, 365. Pontiffs, their authority, 336. Positivism, its law of progress examined, 489. Puranas, the, much read by the common people, 130. " devoted to the worship of Vischnu, 131. " extol the power of penances, 132. " ideas those of the epics, 132. " their philosophy that of the Sunkhya, 132.



R.

Ramses II. a powerful king B.C. 1400, 233. " supposed to be the same as Sesostris, 234. " birth of Moses during his reign, 335. Recognition of God in nature, best element of Egyptian religion, 257. Relation of the religion of the Avesta to the Vedas, 201. Results of the survey of ten religions, 489. " in regard to their resemblance and difference, 490. Resemblance of the Roman Catholic ceremonies to those of Pagan Rome, 350. Roman calendar, described, 332. Roman Catholic Church, teaches an exclusive spiritualism, 143. " " " is eminently a sacrificial system, 143. " " " its monastic system an included Protestantism, 145. Roman deities adopted from Greece, 326. " " manufactured by the pontiffs, 326. " " representing the powers of nature, 327. " " representing human relations, 328. " " presiding over rural occupations, 330. " " derived from the Etruscans, 327. " empire gave to Christianity its outward form (note), 350. " " united the several states of Europe, 350. " law, its influence on Western theology, 351. " legal notions transferred to theology, 352. " mind, wanting in spontaneity, 316. " " serious, practical, hard, 316. " religion, an established church, 317. " " regarded chiefly external conduct, 317. " " tolerant of questions of opinion, 317. " " not a mere copy from Greece, 318. " " described by Hegel, 318. " " described by Cicero, 317-319. " " described by Mommsen, 319. " " a polytheism, with monotheism behind it, 320. " " deified all events, 321. Romans, as a race, whence derived, 319. " " belong to the Aryan family, 319. " " composed of Latins, Sabines, and Etruscans, 320. " " related to the Pelasgi and Celts, 320. " their oldest deities, Latin, Sabine, and Etruscan, 320. Roman sepulchral monuments, their tone, 346. Roman thought and Roman religion opposed, 342. Roman worship, very elaborate and minute, 331. " " full of festivals, 331. " " distinguished between things sacred and profane, 331. " " a yoke on the public life of the Romans, 334. " " directed by the College of Pontiffs, 334. " " chief seat in the Via Sacra, 335. " " governed by etiquette, 335. " " originally free from idolatry, 336. " " acted like a charm, 340. Rome, ancient, its legacy to Christianity, 353. Runes, Odin's song of, in the Edda, 368.



S.

Salii, ancient priests of Mars, 336. Sankhya philosophy, 114. " founded on two principles, 120. " considered atheistic, 120. " the basis of Buddhism, 121. " a very ancient system, 122. Saturnus, Saturn, god of planting, 330. Scandinavia, consisting of what regions, 358. " surrounded by the sea, 358. " its adaptation to the Teutonic race, 359. " formerly inhabited by the Cimbri, 360. " the home of the Northmen, 361. Scandinavian religion, a system of dualism, 362. " " war its essential idea, 362. " " its virtues, truth, justice, courage, 362. Scandinavians, their early history, 355. " described by Caesar, 355. " described by Tacitus, 356. " a branch of the great German family, 357. " their language, the Norse and its derivatives, 357. " our inheritance from, 358. " their manners and institutious, 387. " their respect for women, 388. " their Scalds, or bards, 388. " their maritime expeditions, 389. Sea-Kings of Norway, their discoveries, 361. Seat of the Scandinavian race, 355. Secrecy, the evil in Egyptian religion, 257. Semitic races, their character and exploits, 399. " " great navigators and discoverers, 399. " " identity of their languages, 400. " " nations of which they consist, 399. " " their religion and gods, 401. " " their tendency to monotheism, 402. Seneca, his view of religion, 343, 344. Serapis, the same as Osiris-Apis, 257. Sibylline books, derived from Greece, 336. Siculi, supposed to be Kelte (note), 320. Silvanus, god of the woods, 330. Siva, does not appear in the Vedas, 125. " worshipped with Brahma and Vischnu at the present time, 127. " worshipped in the Puranas, 132. " girls worship him with flowers, 132. " his wife Doorga, festival of, 134. " men swing on hooks in honor of, 135. Solomon, and the relapse of Judaism, 428. " a less interesting character than David, 429. " his unscrupulous policy, 429. " the splendor and power of his reign, 430. " his alliances with Egypt, Phoenicia, and Arabia, 341. " his temple described, 432. " his Book of Proverbs and its character, 433. " account of his last days, 434. " his scepticism described in Ecclesiastes, 435. Socrates, his character and work, 293. Sol, the sun, a Sabine deity, 327. Soma plant of the Veda, the Haoma, 202. Sophocles, the most devout of the Greek tragedians, 284. Spiritualism, in Brahmanism and Christianity, 136. Stoics, as described by Zeller, 296.



T.

Tacitus, the spirit of his writings, 346. Tae-Ping (or Ti-Ping) insurrection, its origin, 62. " " its leader the heavenly prince, 62. " " essentially a religious movement, 64. " " based on the Bible, 65. Tae-Pings (or Ti-Pings), their prayers, 65. " their public religious exercises, 66. " their moral reforms, 68. " put down by British intervention, 68. " worshipped one God, and believed in Jesus, 69. Talmud, the, extracts from, 445. Tao-te-king, its doctrines described, 54. " resembles the system of Hegel, 54. " its doctrine of opposites, 55. " its resemblance to Buddhism, 55. " its tendency to magic, 56. Tellus, the earth, a Roman god, 330. Tempestates, the tempests, worshipped at Rome, 327. Terminus, an old Italian god, 330. Three classes of Roman gods, 325. Tiberinus, or father Tiber, a Roman god, 328. Things, or popular assemblies of the Scandinavians, 358. Thor, his character and prowess, 377. " his famous mallet, 378. " his journey to Jotunheim, 374. " his fight with the Midgard serpent, 376. Triad, the Hindoo, its origin, 124. " compared with other Triads, 124. Trinity, Christian, derived from Egypt, 255. Trinity the, its meaning in Christianity, 500. Truths and errors of the different systems, 21. Tyr, the Scandinavian war god, 379. " how he lost his hand, 380, 383.



U.

Ulphilas, the Arian, first Christian teacher of the Germans, 390. " his translation of the Bible into Gothic tongue, 390.



V.

Vedanta philosophy assumes a single principle, 116. " " knows no substance but God, 119. " " described by Chunder Dutt, 118. " " souls absorbed in God, 119. Vedas, the, when written, 89-99. " their chief gods, 89-99. " traces of monotheism in, 90. " some hymns given, 91, 92, 93, 95. Vedic literature, divided into four periods, 95. " " contains Chhandas, Mantras, Brahmans, Upanishads, Sutras, and Vedangas, 96. " " at first not committed to writing, 97. Venus, an early Latin or gabine goddess, 325. Vertumnus, god of gardens, 330. Vesta, goddess of the hearth, 328. Vestal Virgins, their duties, 337. Vischnu, mentioned in the Rig-Veda as Sun-God, 125. " his Avatars, 126. " one of the Triad, 126. " incarnate as Juggernaut, 133. " worshipped as Krishna, 134, 135. " worshipped in the Puranas, 132. Voeluspa, or wisdom of Vala, extracts from, 364. Vulcanus, an Italian deity, 328.



W.

Wahhabee, revival in Arabia, described by Palgrave, 478. Wedding ring, in Egypt and Christendom, 253. Welcker, his opinion of the substance of Greek religion, 286. Works on Scandinavian religion (note), 362. Worship of the Scandinavians, 385.



Z.

Zend Avesta, a collection of hymns, prayers, and thanksgivings, 187. " " extracts from the Gathas, 188. " " extract from the Khordah Avesta, 189. " " hymn to the star Tistrya, 190. " " hymn to Mithra, 190. " " a confession of sin, 191. Zoroaster, mentioned by Plato, Diodorus, and other classic writers, 175. " account of him by Herodotus, 175. " account of him by Plutarch, 176. " inquiry as to his epoch, 180. " resided in Bactria, 181. " spirit of his religion, 182. " he continually appears in the Avesta, 186. " oppressed with the sight of evil, 184.



The End.



Footnotes



[1] It is one of the sagacious remarks of Goethe, that "the eighteenth century tended to analysis, but the nineteenth will deal with synthesis."

[2] Professor Cocker's work on "Christianity and Creek Philosophy," should also be mentioned.

[3] James Foster has a sermon on "The Advantages of a Revelation," in which he declares that, at the time of Christ's coming, "just notions of God were, in general, erased from the minds of men. His worship was debased and polluted, and scarce any traces could be discerned of the genuine and immutable religion of nature."

[4] John Locke, in his "Reasonableness of Christianity," says that when Christ came "men had given themselves up into the hands of their priests, to fill their heads with false notions of the Deity, and their worship with foolish rites, as they pleased; and what dread or craft once began, devotion soon made sacred, and religion immutable." "In this state of darkness and ignorance of the true God, vice and superstition held the world." Quotations of this sort might be indefinitely multiplied. See an article by the present writer, in the "Christian Examiner," March, 1857.

[5] Mosheim's Church History, Vol. I. Chap. I.

[6] Neander, Church History, Vol. I. p. 540 (Am. ed.).

[7] Essays and Reviews, Article VI.

[8] In this respect the type has changed.

[9] The actual depth reached in the St. Louis well, before the enterprise was abandoned, was 3,8431/2 feet on August 9, 1869. This well was bored for the use of the St. Louis County Insane Asylum, at the public expense. It was commenced March 31, 1866, under the direction of Mr. Charles H. Atkeson. At the depth of 1,222 feet the water became saltish, then sulphury. The temperature of the water, at the bottom of the well, was 105 deg.F. Toward the end of the work it seemed as if the limit of the strength of wood and iron had been reached. The poles often broke at points two or three thousand feet down. "Annual Report (1870) of the Superintendent of the St. Louis County Insane Asylum."

[10] Andrew Wilson ("The Ever-Victorious Army, Blackwood, 1868") says that "the Chinese people stand unsurpassed, and probably unequalled, in regard to the possession of freedom and self-government." He denies that infanticide is common in China. "Indeed," says he, "there is nothing a Chinaman dreads so much as to die childless. Every Chinaman desires to have as large a family as possible; and the labors of female children are very profitable."

[11] Quoted by Mr. Meadows, who warrants the correctness of the account. "The Chinese and their Rebellions," p. 404.

[12] Dr. Legge thus arranges the Sacred Books of China, or the Chinese Classics:—

A. The Five King. [King means a web of cloth, or the warp which keeps the threads in their place.]

(a) Yih-King. (Changes.) (b) Shoo-King. (History.) (c) She-King. (Odes.) (d) Le-Ke-King. (Rites.) (e) Ch'un-Ts'eu. (Spring and Autumn. Annals from B.C. 721 to 480.)

B. The Four Books.

(a) Lun-Yu. (Analects, or Table-Talk of Confucius.) (b) Ta-Hio. (Great Learning. Written by Tsang-Sin, a disciple of Confucius.) (c) Chung-Yung (or Doctrine of the Mean), ascribed to Kung-Keih, the grandson of Confucius. (d) Works of Mencius.

After the death of Confucius there was a period in which the Sacred Books were much corrupted, down to the Han dynasty (B.C. 201 to A.D. 24), which collected, edited, and revised them: since which time they have been watched with the greatest care.

"The evidence is complete that the Classical Books of China have come down from at least a century before our era, substantially the same as we have them at present."—Legge, Vol. I. Chap. 1. Sec. 2.

The Four Books have been translated into French, German, and English. Dr. Marshman translated the Lun-Yu. Mr. Collie afterward published at Calcutta the Four Books. But within a few years the labors of previous sinologues have been almost superseded by Dr. Legge's splendid work, still in process of publication. We have, as yet, only the volumes containing the Four Books of Confucius and his successors, and a portion of the Kings. Dr. Legge's work is in Chinese and English, with copious notes and extracts from many Chinese commentators. In his notes, and his preliminary dissertations, he endeavors to do justice to Confucius and his doctrines. Perhaps he does not fully succeed in this, but it is evident that he respects the Chinese sage, and is never willingly unfair to him. If to the books above mentioned be added the works, of Pauthier, Stanislas Julien, Mohl, and other French sinologues, and the German works on the same subject we have a sufficient apparatus for the study of Chinese thought.

[13] "On the top of his head was a remarkable formation, in consequence of which he was named Kew."—Legge, Vol. I. Chap. VI. (note).

[14] Meadows, "The Chinese and their Rebellions," p. 332.

[15] Meadows, p. 342.

[16] "Le Tao-te-king, le livre de la voie et de la vertu, compose dans, la vie siecle avant l'ere Chretienne, par le philosophe Lao-tseu, traduit par Stanislas Julien. Paris, 1842."

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