HotFreeBooks.com
Talks on Manures
by Joseph Harris
Previous Part     1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11     Next Part
Home - Random Browse

"I think I understand," said the Deacon; "but if what you say is true, it upsets many of our old notions. We have thought it desirable to plow under manure, in order to prevent the ammonia from escaping. You claim, I believe, that there is little danger of any loss from spreading manure on the surface, and I suppose you would have us conclude that we make a mistake in plowing it under, as the soil renders it insoluble."

"It depends a good deal," said I, "on the character of the soil. A light, sandy soil will not preserve manure like a clay soil. But it is undoubtedly true that our aim in all cases should be to apply manure in such a form and to such a crop as will give us the greatest immediate benefit. Plowing under fresh manure every year for wheat is evidently not the best way to get the greatest benefit from it. But this is not the place to discuss this matter. Let us look at the result of Mr. Lawes' experiments on wheat the third year:"

Experiments at Rothamsted on the Growth of Wheat, Year After Year, on the Same Land.

Table III.—Manures and Produce; 3rd Season, 1845-6. Manures and Seed (Old Red Lammas), Sown Autumn, 1845.

Manures FM Farmyard Manure. A3W Ash from 3 loads (3,888 lbs.) Wheat-straw. LWM Liebig's Wheat-manure. PG Peruvian Guano. SPL Superphosphate of Lime. SiP Silicate of Potass.[1] P-A Pearl-ash. S-A Soda-ash. MLS Magnesian Lime-stone. B-A Bone-ash. SAc Sulphuric Acid (Sp. gr. 1-7.) MAc Muriatic Acid. SAm Sulphate of Ammonia. MAm Muriate of Ammonia. RC Rape-Cake.

-+ + Manures per Acre. P + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ l o SPL t + -+ s FM A3W LWM PG SiP P-A S-A MLS B-A SAc MAc SAm MAm RC -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ Tons. lbs. lbs lbs bs. lbs lbs lbs lbs lbs lbs lbs. lbs lbs 0 .. .. .. 336 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 224 .. .. .. .. .. 2 14 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3 Unmanured. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 4 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 224 .. 224 224 .. .. 5a{1 ..} {.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. {2 ..} Straw {.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 224[1] .. .. 5b{1 ..} Ash {.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 448 {2 ..} {.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 224[1] .. 448 6a .. .. 448 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 6b .. .. 448 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 112 112 .. 7a .. .. 448 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 448 7b .. .. 448 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 112 112 448 8a .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 224 .. .. .. .. 448 8b .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 224 .. .. 112 112 .. 9a .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 448 9b .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 224 .. 448 10a .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 224 .. .. 10b Unmanured. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 11a .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 224 224 .. .. .. 448 11b .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 224 224 .. 112 112 .. 12a .. .. .. .. .. .. 180 .. 224 224 .. .. .. 448 12b .. .. .. .. .. .. 180 .. 224 224 .. 112 112 .. 13a .. .. .. .. .. 200 .. .. 224 224 .. .. .. 448 13b .. .. .. .. .. 200 .. .. 224 224 .. 112 112 .. 14a .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 84 224 224 .. .. .. 448 14b .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 84 224 224 .. 112 112 .. 15a .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 224 .. 224 224 .. 448 15b .. .. .. .. 224 .. .. .. 224 .. 224 224 .. 448 16a .. .. .. .. .. 67 60 84 224 224 .. .. .. 448 16b .. .. .. .. .. 67 60 84 224 224 .. 224 .. 448 17a .. .. .. .. .. 67 60 84 224 224 .. 112 11 448 17b .. .. .. .. .. 67 60 84 224 224 .. 224 .. .. 18a .. .. .. .. .. 67 60 84 224 224 .. 112 11 .. 18b .. .. .. .. .. 67 60 84 224 224 .. .. .. .. 19 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 112 .. 112 112 .. 448 20 } 21 } Mixture of the residue of .. .. .. .. .. .. 22 } most of the other manures. -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+

Produce: Wt/Bu Weight per Bushel. OC Offal Corn. TC Total Corn. S&C Straw and Chaff. TP Total Produce (Corn and Straw). C Corn. TP Total Produce. OCD Offal Corn to 100 Dressed. C100 Corn to 100 Straw.

- - - Increase per Produce per Acre, etc. Acre by Manure. P - - l Dressed Corn. o - t Qty. Wt/Bu OC TC S&C TP C S&C TP OCD C100 s - - - - - - Bu. Pks. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. 28 1-3/4 62.3 134 1906 2561 4467 699 1048 1747 7.3 74.4 0 22 0-3/4 62.6 120 1509 1953 3462 302 440 742 8.1 77.3 1 27 0-3/4 63.0 113 1826 2454 4280 619 941 1560 6.6 74.4 2 17 3-3/4 63.8 64 1207 1513 2720 .. .. .. 7.4 79.7 3 25 3-3/4 63.5 130 1777 2390 4167 570 877 1447 7.8 74.3 4 19 0-1/2 63.7 87 1305 1541 2846 98 28 126 .. 84.6 1}5a 27 0 63.0 126 1827 2309 4136 620 796 1416 .. 79.1 2} 23 2-1/2 63.4 100 1598 1721 3319 391 208 599 .. 92.8 1}5b 30 0-3/4 63.3 165 2076 2901 4977 869 1388 2257 .. 71.6 2} 20 1-1/2 63.7 102 1400 1676 3076 193 163 356 7.0 83.6 6a 29 0-3/4 63.5 114 1967 2571 4538 760 1058 1818 5.3 76.5 6b 22 3-1/4 63.0 97 1534 1968 3502 327 405 732 6.8 77.9 7a 31 3 63.4 150 2163 3007 5170 956 1494 2450 7.5 72.6 7b 22 3-3/4 63.5 101 1549 1963 3512 342 450 792 7.1 78.9 8a 29 0-3/4 63.6 132 1988 2575 4563 781 1062 1843 7.2 77.2 8b 23 2-3/4 63.0 122 1614 2033 3647 407 520 927 7.9 79.4 9a 28 3-1/2 63.3 114 1942 2603 4545 735 1090 1825 7.0 74.6 9b 27 1-1/2 63.6 109 1850 2244 4094 643 731 1374 6.4 82.4 10a 17 2-1/2 63.8 92 1216 1455 2671 9 -58 -49 7.8 83.6 10b 23 1-3/4 63.3 145 1628 2133 3761 421 620 1041 9.8 76.3 11a 30 0-1/4 63.2 155 2055 2715 4770 848 1202 2050 6.1 75.7 11b 24 1-1/2 63.0 125 1661 2163 3824 454 650 1104 7.9 76.8 12a 28 2-3/4 63.4 136 1955 2554 4509 748 1041 1789 7.4 76.5 12b 24 0 63.5 136 1660 2327 3987 453 814 1267 9.1 71.3 13a 29 1-3/4 63.2 138 1998 2755 4753 791 1242 2033 7.3 72.5 13b 23 2-1/2 63.0 117 1605 2031 3636 398 518 916 7.7 79.0 14a 26 2-1/2 63.4 124 1812 2534 4356 605 1021 1626 7.4 71.5 14b 31 1-3/4 62.5 147 2112 2936 5048 905 1423 2328 7.5 71.9 15a 27 2-3/4 63.0 117 1861 2513 4374 654 1000 1654 5.9 74.0 15b 23 3 62.5 108 1592 2967 3659 385 554 939 7.0 77.0 16a 30 1 62.7 122 2019 2836 4855 812 1323 2135 6.6 71.2 16b 33 2-3/4 62.8 129 2241 3278 5519 1034 1765 2799 5.8 68.3 17a 30 2 63.0 113 2034 2784 4818 827 1271 2098 5.9 73.0 17b 31 0 62.8 103 2048 2838 4886 841 1325 2166 5.1 72.2 18a 21 1 62.0 157 1474 1893 3367 267 380 647 6.6 77.1 18b 28 3 62.0 107 1889 2425 4314 682 912 1594 5.8 77.9 19 {20 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. {21 {22 - - - - - -

[Note 1: Top-dressed in the Spring.]

This year, the seed and manures were sown in the autumn. And I want the Deacon to look at plot 0. 3 cwt. of Peruvian guano here gives an increase of 10-1/2 bushels of wheat, and 1,948 lbs. of straw per acre. This will pay well, even on the wheat alone. But in addition to this, we may expect, in our ordinary rotation of crops, a far better crop of clover where the guano was used.

In regard to some of the results this year, Messrs. Lawes and Gilbert have the following concise and interesting remarks:

"At this third experimental harvest, we have on the continuously unmanured plot, namely, No. 3, not quite 18 bushels of dressed corn, as the normal produce of the season; and by its side we have on plot 10b—comprising one-half of the plot 10 of the previous years, and so highly manured by ammoniacal salts in 1845, but now unmanured—rather more than 17-1/2 bushels. The near approach, again, to identity of result from the two unmanured plots, at once gives confidence in the accuracy of the experiments, and shows us how effectually the preceding crop had, in a practical point of view, reduced the plots, previously so differently circumstanced both as to manure and produce, to something like an uniform standard as regards their grain-producing qualities.

"Plot 2 has, as before, 14 tons of farm-yard manure, and the produce is 27-1/4 bushels, or between 9 and 10 bushels more than without manure of any kind.

"On plot 10a, which in the previous year gave by ammoniacal salts alone, a produce equal to that of the farm-yard manure, we have again a similar result: for two cwts. of sulphate of ammonia has now given 1,850 lbs. of total corn, instead of 1,826 lbs., which is the produce on plot 2. The straw of the latter, is, however, slightly heavier than that by the ammoniacal salt.

"Again, plot 5a, which was in the previous season unmanured, was now subdivided: on one-half of it (namely, 5a1) we have the ashes of wheat-straw alone, by which there is an increase of rather more than one bushel per acre of dressed corn; on the other half (or 5a2) we have, besides the straw-ashes, two cwts. of sulphate of ammonia put on as a top-dressing: two cwts. of sulphate of ammonia have, in this case, only increased the produce beyond that of 5a1 by 7-7/8 bushels of corn and 768 lbs. of straw, instead of by 9-3/4 bushels of corn and 789 lbs. of straw, which was the increase obtained by the same amount of ammoniacal salt on 10a, as compared with 10b.

"It will be observed, however, that in the former case the ammoniacal salts were top-dressed, but in the latter they were drilled at the time of sowing the seed; and it will be remembered that in 1845 the result was better as to corn on plot 9, where the salts were sown earlier, than on plot 10, where the top-dressing extended far into the spring. We have had several direct instances of this kind in our experience, and we would give it as a suggestion, in most cases applicable, that manures for wheat, and especially ammoniacal ones, should be applied before or at the time the seed is sown; for, although the apparent luxuriance of the crop is greater, and the produce of straw really heavier, by spring rather than autumn sowings of Peruvian guano and other ammoniacal manures, yet we believe that that of the corn will not be increased in an equivalent degree. Indeed, the success of the crop undoubtedly depends very materially on the progress of the underground growth during the winter months; and this again, other things being equal, upon the quantity of available nitrogenous constituents within the soil, without a liberal provision of which, the range of the fibrous feeders of the plant will not be such, as to take up the minerals which the soil is competent to supply, and in such quantity as will be required during the after progress of the plant for its healthy and favorable growth."

These remarks are very suggestive and deserve special attention.

"The next result to be noticed," continue Messrs. Lawes and Gilbert, "is that obtained on plot 6, now also divided into two equal portions designated respectively 6a and 6b. Plot No. 6 had for the crop of 1844, superphosphate of lime and the phosphate of magnesia manure, and for that of 1845, superphosphate of lime, rape-cake, and ammoniacal salts. For this, the third season, it was devoted to the trial of the wheat-manure manufactured under the sanction of Professor Liebig, and patented in this country.

"Upon plots 6a, four cwts. per acre of the patent wheat-manure were used, which gave 20-1/4 bushels, or rather more than two bushels beyond the produce of the unmanured plot; but as the manure contained, besides the minerals peculiar to it, some nitrogenous compounds, giving off a very perceptible odor of ammonia, some, at least, of the increase would be due to that substance. On plot 6b, however, the further addition of one cwt. each of sulphate and muriate of ammonia to this so-called 'Mineral Manure,' gives a produce of 29-1/4 bushels. In other words, the addition of ammoniacal salt, to Liebig's mineral manure has increased the produce by very nearly 9 bushels per acre beyond that of the mineral manure alone, whilst the increase obtained over the unmanured plot, by 14 tons of farm-yard manure, was only 9-1/4 bushels!

The following table gives the results of the experiments the fourth year, 1846-7.

Experiments at Rothamsted on the Growth of Wheat, Year After Year, on the Same Land.

Table IV.—Manures and Produce; 4th Season, 1846-7. Manures and Seed (Old Red Lammas), Sown End of October, 1846.

Manures FM Farm-yard Manure. PG Peruvian Guano. B-A Bone-ash. SAc Sulphuric Acid (Sp. gr. 1-7.) MAc Muriatic Acid. SAm Sulphate of Ammonia. MAm Muriate of Ammonia. R Rice.

-+ + Manures per Acre. P + -+ + + + + + l Superphosphate o of Lime t + + + + s FM PG B-A SAc MAc SAm MAm R -+ -+ + + + + + + + Tons. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. 0 .. 500 .. .. .. .. .. .. 1 .. .. 200 .. 200 350 50 .. 2 14 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3 Unmanured. .. .. .. .. .. .. 4 .. .. 200 .. 200 300 .. .. 5a .. .. 200 200 .. 150 150 .. 5b .. .. 200 200 .. 150 150 500 6a .. .. .. .. .. 150 150 .. 6b .. .. .. .. .. 150 150 .. 7a .. .. .. .. .. 150 150 .. 7b .. .. .. .. .. 150 150 .. 8a .. .. 200 200 .. 150 150 500 8b .. .. 200 200 .. 200 200 .. 9a{1 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2240 {2 .. .. .. .. .. 150 150 .. 9b .. .. .. .. .. 150 150 .. 10a .. .. .. .. .. 150 150 .. 10b .. .. .. .. .. 150 150 .. 11a .. .. 100 100 .. 150 150 .. 11b .. .. 100 100 .. 150 150 .. 12a .. .. 100 100 .. 150 150 .. 12b .. .. 100 100 .. 150 150 .. 13a .. .. 100 100 .. 150 150 .. 13b .. .. 100 100 .. 150 150 .. 14a .. .. 100 100 .. 150 150 .. 14b .. .. 100 100 .. 150 150 .. 15a .. .. 200 .. 200 300 .. 500 15b .. .. 200 .. 200 300 .. 500 16a .. .. 100 100 .. 150 150 .. 16b .. .. 100 100 .. 150 150 .. 17a .. .. 100 100 .. 150 150 .. 17b .. .. 100 100 .. 200 200 .. 18a .. .. 100 100 .. 150 150 .. 18b .. .. 100 100 .. 150 150 .. 19 .. .. 100 .. 100 300 .. 500 20 Unmanured. .. .. .. .. .. .. 21 } Mixture of the residue of most of the .. .. 22 } other manures. .. .. -+ -+ + + + + + + +

Produce Wt/Bu Weight per Bushel. OC Offal Corn. TC Total Corn. S&C Straw and Chaff. TP/C&S Total Produce (Corn and Straw.) C Corn. TP Total Produce. OCD Offal Corn to 100 Dressed. C100 Corn to 100 Straw.

- - - - - Increase per Produce per Acre, &c. Acre By Manure. P - - - - l Dressed Corn. o - TP t Qty. Wt/Bu OC TC S&C C&S C S&C TP OCD C100 s - - - - - - - - Bu. Pks. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. 30 2-3/4 61.1 156 2031 3277 5308 908 1375 2283 8.2 61.9 0 32 1 61.2 147 2119 3735 5854 996 1833 2829 7.2 56.7 1 29 3-3/4 62.3 117 1981 3628 5609 858 1726 2584 6.2 54.6 2 16 3-1/2 61.0 95 1123 1902 3025 .. .. .. 8.9 59.0 3 27 1-3/4 61.9 82 1780 2948 4728 657 1046 1703 4.7 60.3 4 29 0 61.8 130 1921 3412 5333 798 1510 2309 7.1 56.3 5a 32 2 61.4 136 2132 3721 5853 1009 1819 2827 6.6 57.2 5b 24 3-1/4 62.1 122 1663 2786 4449 540 884 1124 7.8 59.6 6a 24 1-3/4 61.6 127 1632 2803 4435 509 901 1410 8.2 58.2 6b 27 3-1/4 61.7 118 1834 3151 4985 711 1249 1960 6.8 58.2 7a 25 1-1/4 61.5 125 1682 2953 4635 559 1051 1610 7.9 56.9 7b 32 1-3/4 62.1 102 2115 3683 5798 992 1781 2773 5.5 57.4 8a 30 3 61.7 123 2020 3720 5740 897 1818 2715 6.5 54.3 8b 22 3 62.5 .. 1477 2506 3983 228 604 .. .. 53.9 1}9a 26 2 61.0 .. 1755 3052 4807 632 1150 .. .. 57.5 2} 26 0 61.3 123 1717 2858 4575 594 956 1550 .. 60.1 9b 25 3 61.5 118 1702 2891 4593 579 989 1568 7.3 58.8 10a 25 2-3/4 61.2 133 1705 2874 4579 582 972 1554 8.2 59.3 10b 30 3-1/2 61.6 142 2044 3517 5561 921 1615 2536 6.3 59.5 11a 29 1-3/4 61.8 123 1941 3203 5144 818 1301 2119 6.7 60.6 11b 29 2 62.0 124 1953 3452 5405 830 1550 2380 6.6 57.1 12a 27 0-1/2 61.8 121 1796 3124 4920 673 1222 1895 7.1 57.4 12b 20 2-1/2 62.5 108 1959 3306 5265 836 1404 2240 5.5 57.3 13a 27 1-1/4 62.3 96 1801 3171 4972 678 1269 1947 5.3 56.7 13b 28 0-3/4 62.8 175 1944 3362 5306 821 1460 2281 9.7 59.5 14a 26 3-3/4 62.8 166 1856 3006 4862 733 1104 1837 9.8 61.7 14b 32 3 63.0 151 2214 3876 6090 1091 1974 3065 7.2 57.1 15a 32 0 62.6 137 2140 3617 5757 1017 1715 2732 6.6 59.1 15b 29 1-1/4 62.3 132 1959 3417 5376 836 1515 2351 6.9 57.3 16a 34 2-1/4 62.6 119 2283 4012 6295 1160 2110 3270 5.2 56.9 16b 33 3 62.3 119 2222 4027 6249 1099 2125 3224 5.6 55.1 17a 35 1-1/4 62.0 117 2314 4261 6575 1191 2359 3550 6.4 54.3 17b 32 0-3/4 62.7 142 2160 3852 6012 1037 1950 2987 6.9 56.0 18a 29 1-1/2 62.9 181 2029 4164 6193 906 2262 3168 9.7 48.7 18b 32 3 62.8 140 2195 4202 6397 1072 2300 3372 6.7 52.2 19 20 0-3/4 62.5 70 1332 2074 3406 209 172 381 4.9 64.2 20 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. }21 }22 - - - - - - - -

Here again, I want the Deacon to look at plot 0, where 500 lbs. Peruvian guano, sown in October, gives an increase of nearly 14 bushels of dressed wheat and 1,375 lbs. of straw per acre. On plot 2, where 14 tons of barn-yard manure have now been applied four years in succession (56 tons in all), there is a little more straw, but not quite so much grain, as from the 500 lbs. of guano.

"But will the guano," said the Deacon, "be as lasting as the manure?"

"Not for wheat," said I. "But if you seed the wheat down with clover, as would be the case in this section, we should get considerable benefit, probably, from the guano. If wheat was sown after the wheat, the guano applied the previous season would do little good on the second crop of wheat. And yet it is a matter of fact that there would be a considerable proportion of the guano left in the soil. The wheat cannot take it up. But the clover can. And we all know that if we can grow good crops of clover, plowing it under, or feeding it out on the land, or making it into hay and saving the manure obtained from it, we shall thus be enabled to raise good crops of wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, and corn, and in this sense guano is a 'lasting' manure."

"Barnyard-manure," said the Doctor, "is altogether too 'lasting.' Here we have had 56 tons of manure on an acre of land in four years, and yet an acre dressed with 500 lbs. of guano produces just as good a crop. The manure contains far more plant-food, of all kinds, than the guano, but it is so 'lasting' that it does not do half as much good as its composition would lead us to expect. Its 'lasting' properties are a decided objection, rather than an advantage. If we could make it less lasting—in other words, if we could make it act quicker, it would produce a greater effect, and possess a greater value. In proportion to its constituents, the barn-yard manure is far cheaper than the guano, but it has a less beneficial effect, because these constituents are not more completely decomposed and rendered available."

"That," said I, "opens up a very important question. We have more real value in manure than most of us are as yet able to bring out and turn to good account. The sandy-land farmer has an advantage over the clay-land farmer in this respect. The latter has a naturally richer soil, but it costs him more to work it, and manure does not act so rapidly. The clay-land farmer should use his best endeavors to decompose his manure."

"Yes," said the Doctor, "and, like John Johnston, he will probably find it to his advantage to use it largely as a top-dressing on the surface. Exposing manure to the atmosphere, spread out on the land for several months, and harrowing it occasionally, will do much to render its constituents available. But let us return to Mr. Lawes' wonderful experiments."

"On eight plots," said I, "300 lbs. of ammonia-salts were used without any other manures, and the average yield on these eight plots was nearly 26 bushels per acre, or an average increase of 9 bushels per acre. The same amount of ammonia-salts, with the addition of superphosphate of lime, gave an increase of 13 bushels per acre. 400 lbs. ammonia salts, with superphosphate of lime, gave an increase of nearly 16 bushels per acre, or three bushels per acre more than where 14 tons of barn-yard manure had been used four years in succession.

"I hope, after this, the Deacon will forgive me for dwelling on the value of available nitrogen or ammonia as a manure for wheat."

"I see," said the Deacon, "that ground rice was used this year for manure; and in 1845, tapioca was also used as a manure. The Connecticut Tobacco growers a few years since used corn-meal for manure, and you thought it a great waste of good food."

I think so still. But we will not discuss the matter now. Mr. Lawes wanted to ascertain whether carbonaceous matter was needed by the growing wheat-plants, or whether they could get all they needed from the soil and the atmosphere. The enormous quantities of carbonaceous matter supplied by the barn-yard manure, it is quite evident, are of little value as a manure for wheat. And the rice seems to have done very little more good than we should expect from the 22 lbs. of nitrogen which it contained. The large quantity of carbonaceous matter evidently did little good. Available carbonaceous matter, such as starch, sugar, and oil, was intended as food for man and beast—not as food for wheat or tobacco.

The following table gives the results of the experiments the fifth year, 1847-8.

Experiments at Rothamsted on the Growth of Wheat, Year After Year, on the Same Land.

Table V.—Manures and Produce; 5th Season, 1847-8. Manures and Seed (Old Red Lammas), Sown Autumn, 1847.

Manures FM Farm-yard Manure. P-A Pearl-ash. S-A Soda-ash. SMg Sulphate of Magnesia. SPL Superphosphate of Lime. B-A Bone-ash. SAc Sulphuric Acid (Sp. gr. 1.7.) MAc Muriatic Acid. SAm Sulphate of Ammonia. MAm Muriate of Ammonia. RC Rape-Cake.

- - Manure per Acre, etc. P - - - - - - - -+ l Superphosphate o of Lime. t + - - - - s FM P-A S-A SMg SPL B-A SAc MAc SAm MAm RC - - - - - - - - - - - - Tons lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. 0 .. .. .. .. 2240 .. .. .. .. .. .. 1 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2 14 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3 Unmanured. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 4 .. .. .. .. .. 200 .. 200 300 .. .. 5 .. 300 200 100 .. 200 150 .. 250 250 .. 5 .. 300 200 100 .. 200 150 .. 200 200 500 6 .. .. .. .. .. 400 300 .. 200 200 .. 6 .. .. .. .. .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 7 .. .. .. .. .. 400 300 .. 150 150 500 7 .. .. .. .. .. 200 150 .. 150 150 500 8 .. 300 200 100 .. 200 150 .. .. .. .. 8 .. 300 200 100 .. 200 150 .. .. .. .. 9 .. .. .. .. .. 200 150 .. .. .. .. 9 .. .. .. .. .. 200 150 .. 150 150 .. 10 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 150 150 .. 10 .. 300 200 100 .. 200 150 .. 150 150 .. .. 11 .. .. .. .. .. 200 150 .. 150 150 500 11 .. .. .. .. .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 12 .. 300 .. .. .. 200 150 .. 150 150 500 12 .. 300 .. .. .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 13 .. 300 .. .. .. 200 150 .. 150 150 500 13 .. 300 .. .. .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 14 .. 300 .. .. .. 200 150 .. 150 150 500 14 .. 300 .. .. .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 15 .. 300 200 100 .. 200 .. 200 300 .. .. 15 .. 300 200 100 .. 200 .. 200 300 .. .. 16 .. 300 200 100 .. 200 150 .. 150 150 500 16 .. 300 200 100 .. 200 150 .. 150 150 500 17 .. 300 200 100 .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 17 .. 300 200 100 .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 18 .. 300 200 100 .. 200 150 .. 150 150 .. 18 .. 300 200 100 .. 200 150 .. 150 150 .. 19 .. .. .. .. .. 200 .. 200 300 .. 500 20 Unmanured. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 21} .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 22} - - - - - - - - - - - -

Produce Wt/Bu Weight per Bushel. OC Offal Corn. TC Total Corn. S&C Straw and Chaff. TP/C&S Total Produce (Corn and Straw.) C Corn. TP Total Produce. OCD Offal Corn to 100 Dressed. C100 Corn to 100 Straw.

- - - Increase per Produce per Acre, &c. Acre By Manure. P - - - l Dressed Corn. o - TP t Qty. Wt/Bu OC TC S&C C&S C S&C TP OCD C100 s - - - - - - Bu. Pks. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. 19 0-3/4 53.4 138 1259 2074 3333 307 362 669 13.4 60.7 0 16 0-3/4 59.6 160 1124 1735 2859 172 23 195 16.3 64.7 1 23 2-3/4 58.2 210 1705 3041 4746 753 1329 2082 13.8 56.0 2 14 3 57.3 106 952 1712 2664 .. .. .. 12.1 55.6 3 24 0-1/2 58.5 172 1583 2713 4296 631 1001 1632 12.0 58.3 4 29 3-1/2 59.2 144 1911 3266 5177 959 1554 2513 7.9 58.5 5a 39 3-1/2 59.1 107 1932 3533 5465 980 1821 2801 5.8 57.5 5b 24 3-1/4 58.8 214 1672 2878 4550 720 1166 1886 14.6 58.0 6a 26 3 56.9 216 1737 2968 4705 785 1256 2041 14.0 58.5 6b 30 3-1/4 59.4 106 1936 3088 5024 984 1376 2360 5.7 62.6 7a 29 3-1/4 59.6 187 1963 3413 5376 1011 1701 2712 10.3 57.5 7b 19 3 56.2 154 1263 2317 3580 311 605 916 13.6 54.5 8a 19 0-3/4 59.4 127 1267 2148 3415 315 436 751 11.1 58.8 8b 18 2-1/2 56.7 125 1181 1945 3126 229 233 462 11.6 60.7 9a 25 0-1/4 53.3 208 1669 2918 4587 717 1206 1923 13.9 57.1 9b 19 1 58.1 215 1334 2367 3701 382 655 1037 19.0 56.3 10a 25 0-1/4 57.8 155 1604 2926 4530 652 1214 1866 10.6 54.8 10b 29 1-1/2 59.6 233 1984 3274 5258 1032 1562 2594 13.1 60.6 11a 24 3 57.9 207 1641 2898 4539 689 1186 1875 14.1 56.4 11b 29 3 59.3 174 1938 3390 5328 986 1678 2664 9.3 57.2 12a 26 0-3/4 59.2 167 1717 2880 4597 765 1168 1933 10.7 59.6 12b 29 1-1/2 57.9 253 1955 3290 5245 1003 1578 2581 14.7 59.4 13a 25 3-1/4 58.4 224 1730 3072 4802 778 1360 2138 14.6 56.3 13b 28 0-1/4 58.8 184 1834 3257 5091 882 1545 2427 11.1 56.3 14a 25 2-1/2 58.5 227 1726 2897 4623 774 1185 1959 15.1 59.5 14b 22 3-1/2 58.1 242 1571 2937 4508 619 1225 1844 18.1 53.4 15a 24 2-3/4 56.9 202 1607 3016 4623 655 1304 1959 14.1 53.2 15b 29 3-1/4 60.0 184 1973 3115 5088 1021 1403 2424 10.2 63.3 16a 30 1-3/4 58.4 171 1948 3380 5328 996 1668 2664 9.4 57.6 16b 27 2-1/2 59.7 285 1933 3296 5229 981 1584 2565 17.0 58.6 17a 28 3-1/2 59.7 222 1946 3324 5270 994 1612 2606 12.6 58.5 17b 26 3 59.2 150 1734 2935 4669 782 1223 2005 9.2 59.0 18a 26 2-3/4 59.6 215 1804 3056 4860 852 1344 2196 13.3 58.7 18b 29 1-3/4 56.2 185 1838 3295 5133 886 1583 2469 10.4 55.7 19 16 0-1/2 58.3 111 1050 1721 2771 98 9 107 11.3 61.0 20 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. }21 }22 - - - - - -

This season was considered unfavorable for wheat. The continuously unmanured plot produced 14-3/4 bushels, and the plot receiving 14 tons of barn yard manure, 25-3/4 bushels per acre nearly.

300 lbs. of ammonia-salts alone on plot 10a, gave 19-1/4 bushels per acre, while the same quantity of ammonia, with superphosphate in addition, gave, on plot 9b, 25 bushels per acre.

The addition to the above manures of 300 lbs. of potash, 200 lbs. soda, and 100 lbs. sulphate of magnesia, on plot 10b, gave precisely the same yield per acre as the ammonia and the superphosphate alone. The potash, soda, and magnesia, therefore, did no good.

400 lbs. of ammonia-salts, with superphosphate, potash, etc., gave, on plot 17b, nearly 29 bushels per acre, or 3-1/2 bushels more than the plot which has now received 70 tons of barn-yard manure in five successive years.

"I see that, on plot 0," said the Deacon, "one ton of superphosphate was used per acre, and it gave only half a bushel per acre more than 350 lbs. on 9a."

"This proves," said I, "that an excessive dose of superphosphate will do no harm. I am not sure that 100 lbs. of a good superphosphate drilled in with the seed, would not have done as much good as a ton per acre."

"You say," remarked the Deacon, "that the season was unfavorable for wheat. And yet the no-manure plot produced nearly 15 bushels of wheat per acre."

"That is all true," said I, "and yet the season was undoubtedly an unfavorable one. This is shown not only in the less yield, but in the inferior quality of the grain. The 'dressed corn' on the no-manure plot this year only weighed 57-1/3 lbs. per bushel, while last year it weighed 61 lbs. per bushel."

"By the way," said the Doctor, "what do Messrs. Lawes and Gilbert mean by 'dressed corn'?"

"By 'corn,'" said I, "they mean wheat; and by 'dressed corn' they mean wheat that has been run through a fanning-mill until all the light and shrunken grain is blown or sieved out. In other words, 'dressed corn' is wheat carefully cleaned for market. The English farmers take more pains in cleaning their grain than we do. And this 'dressed corn' was as clean as a good fanning-mill could make it. You will observe that there was more 'offal corn' this year than last. This also indicates an unfavorable season."

"It would have been very interesting," said the Doctor, "if Messrs. Lawes and Gilbert had analyzed the wheat produced by the different manures, so that we might have known something in regard to the quality of the flour as influenced by the use of different fertilizers."

"They did that very thing," said I, "and not only that, but they made the wheat grown on different plots, into flour, and ascertained the yield of flour from a given weight of wheat, and the amount of bran, middlings, etc., etc. They obtained some very interesting and important results. I was there at the time. But this is not the place to discuss the question. I am often amused, however, at the remarks we often hear in regard to the inferior quality of our wheat as compared to what it was when the country was new. Many seem to think that 'there is something lacking in the soil'—some say potash, and some phosphates, and some this, and some that. I believe nothing of the kind. Depend upon it, the variety of the wheat and the soil and season have much more to do with the quality or strength of the flour, than the chemical composition of the manures applied to the land."

"At any rate," said the Doctor, "we may be satisfied that anything that will produce a vigorous, healthy growth of wheat is favorable to quality. We may use manures in excess, and thus produce over-luxuriance and an unhealthy growth, and have poor, shrunken grain. In this case, it is not the use, but the abuse of the manure that does the mischief. We must not manure higher than the season will bear. As yet, this question rarely troubles us. Hitherto, as a rule, our seasons are better than our farming. It may not always be so. We may find the liberal use of manure so profitable that we shall occasionally use it in excess. At present, however, the tendency is all the other way. We have more grain of inferior quality from lack of fertility than from an excess of plant-food."

"That may be true," said I, "but we have more poor, inferior wheat from lack of draining and good culture, than from lack of plant-food. Red-root, thistles, cockle, and chess, have done more to injure the reputation of 'Genesee Flour,' than any other one thing, and I should like to hear more said about thorough cultivation, and the destruction of weeds, and less about soil exhaustion."

The following table shows the results of the experiments the sixth year, 1848-9.

Experiments at Rothamsted on the Growth of Wheat, Year After Year, on the Same Land.

Table VI.—Manures and Produce; 6th Season, 1848-9. Manures and Seed (Red Cluster), Sown Autumn, 1848.

Manures FM Farm-yard Manure. P-A Pearl-ash. S-A Soda-ash. SMg Sulphate of Magnesia. B-A Bone-ash. SAc Sulphuric Acid. (Sp. gr. 1.7) MAc Muriatic Acid. SAm Sulphate of Ammonia. MAm Muriate of Ammonia. RC Rape-cake.

+ + Manures per Acre. P + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + l Superphosphate o of Lime. t + -+ -+ -+ s FM P-A S-A SMg B-A SAc MAc SAm MAm RC + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + Tons. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. 0 .. .. .. .. 600 450 .. .. .. .. 1 .. 600 400 200 .. .. .. .. .. .. 2 14 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3 Unmanured. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 4 .. .. .. .. 200 .. 200 300 .. .. 5a .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 250 250 .. 5b .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 200 200 500 6a .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 6b .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 7a .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 7b .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 8a Unmanured. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 8b .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2000 9a .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2000 9b Unmanured. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 10a .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 200 200 .. 10b .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 200 200 .. 11a .. .. .. .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 11b .. .. .. .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 12a .. 300 .. .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 12b .. 300 .. .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 13a .. 300 .. .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 13b .. 300 .. .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 14a .. 300 .. .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 14b .. 300 .. .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 15a .. 300 200 100 200 .. 200 300 .. .. 15b .. 300 200 100 200 .. 200 300 .. 500 16a .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 16b .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 17a .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 17b .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 18a .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 18b .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 19 .. .. .. .. 200 .. 200 300 .. 500 20 Unmanured. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 21 } Mixture of the residue of most of the other .. .. 22 } manures. + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ +

Produce Wt/Bu Weight per Bushel. OC Offal Corn. TC Total Corn. S&C Straw and Chaff. TP/C&S Total Produce (Corn and Straw.) C Corn. TP Total Produce. OCD Offal Corn to 100 Dressed. C100 Corn to 100 Straw.

- Increase per Produce per Acre, &c. Acre By Manure. P - - - l Dressed Corn. o - TP t Qty. Wt/Bu OC TC S&C C&S C S&C TP OCD C100 s - - - - Bu. Pks. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1 31 0 63.8 107 2068 3029 5097 839 1415 2254 4.7 68.3 2 19 1 61.4 47 1229 1614 2843 .. .. .. 3.9 76.1 3 30 0 63.0 110 2063 2645 4708 834 1031 1865 5.6 78.0 4 37 1-1/4 63.1 89 2446 3589 6035 1217 1975 3192 3.7 68.1 5a 39 3-1/2 63.4 97 2651 3824 6475 1422 2210 3632 5.0 69.3 5b 36 1-1/2 63.0 117 2410 3072 5482 1181 1458 2639 5.1 78.4 6a 37 3-3/4 63.0 94 2484 3516 6000 1255 1902 3157 3.9 70.6 6b 38 2-1/4 63.1 137 2576 3584 6160 1347 1970 3317 5.6 71.9 7a 37 3-3/4 62.9 141 2531 3396 5927 1302 1782 3084 5.9 74.5 7b 22 3 61.7 76 1481 1815 3296 252 201 453 5.3 81.6 8a 31 2-1/2 63.0 85 2080 3166 5246 851 1552 2403 4.3 65.7 8b 30 2-3/4 62.8 111 2035 2683 4718 806 1069 1875 5.8 75.8 9a 22 1-1/2 62.3 80 1475 1810 3285 246 196 432 5.7 81.5 9b 32 2-1/4 62.3 112 2141 2851 4992 912 1237 2149 5.5 75.1 10a 32 1-1/4 63.3 110 2157 2960 5117 928 1346 2274 5.3 72.9 10b 35 0-1/2 62.6 121 2317 2892 5209 1088 1278 2366 5.6 80.1 11a 32 1-1/4 63.0 112 2149 2942 5091 920 1328 2248 5.5 73.0 11b 35 3-1/4 64.3 93 2396 3371 5767 1167 1757 2924 4.1 71.1 12a 34 1-1/4 64.3 71 2277 3300 5577 1048 1687 2735 3.2 69.0 12b 34 3-3/4 64.1 101 2340 3236 5576 1111 1622 2733 4.5 72.3 13a 34 2-1/4 64.1 129 2346 3246 5592 1117 1632 2749 5.8 72.3 13b 34 1-1/2 64.3 56 2266 3211 5477 1037 1597 2634 2.5 70.6 14a 31 1-1/4 64.3 112 2123 3218 5341 894 1604 2498 5.5 66.0 14b 31 3-1/4 64.2 65 2109 3038 5147 880 1424 2304 3.2 69.4 15a 30 0-3/4 64.1 68 2005 3262 5267 776 1648 2424 3.5 61.5 15b 33 1-1/2 64.5 101 2254 3384 5638 1025 1770 2795 4.7 66.6 16a 33 3-3/4 64.6 75 2268 3559 5827 1039 1945 2984 3.4 63.7 16b 34 1 64.3 111 2316 3891 6207 1087 2277 3364 5.1 59.4 17a 33 1-1/2 64.4 112 2259 3858 6117 1030 2244 3274 5.2 58.5 17b 32 1-1/4 64.0 93 2163 3592 5755 934 1978 2912 4.5 60.2 18a 33 2-1/4 64.0 95 2243 3779 6022 1014 2165 3179 4.4 59.3 18b 29 2-1/4 63.9 102 1994 3270 5264 765 1656 2421 5.4 61.0 19 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 20 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. }21 }22 - - - -

"This was my last year at Rothamsted," said I, "and I feel a peculiar interest in looking over the results after such a lapse of time. When this crop was growing, my father, a good practical farmer, but with little faith in chemical manures, paid me a visit. We went to the experimental wheat-field. The first two plots, 0 and 1, had been dressed, the one with superphosphate, the other with potash, soda, and magnesia. My father did not seem much impressed with this kind of chemical manuring. Stepping to the next plot, where 14 tons of barn-yard manure had been used, he remarked, "this is good, what have you here?"

"Never mind," said I, "we have better crops farther on."

The next plot, No. 3, was the one continuously unmanured. "I can beat this myself," said he, and passed on to the next. "This is better," said he, "what have you here?"

"Superphosphate and sulphate of ammonia."

"Well, it is a good crop, and the straw is bright and stiff."—It turned out 30 bushels per acre, 63 lbs. to the bushel.

The next six plots had received very heavy dressings of ammonia-salts, with superphosphate, potash, soda, and magnesia. He examined them with the greatest interest. "What have you here?" he asked, while he was examining 5a, which afterwards turned out 37-1/4 bushels per acre. —"Potash, soda, epsom-salts, superphosphate, and ammonia—but it is the ammonia that does the good."

He passed to the next plot, and was very enthusiastic over it. "What have you here?" —"Rape-cake and ammonia," said I. —"It is a grand crop," said he, and after examining it with great interest, he passed to the next, 6a. —"What have you here?" —"Ammonia," said I; and at 6b he asked the same question, and I replied "ammonia." At 7a, the same question and the same answer. Standing between 7b and 8a, he was of course struck with the difference in the crop; 8a was left this year without any manure, and though it had received a liberal supply of mineral manures the year before, and minerals and ammonia-salts, and rape-cake, the year previous, it only produced this year, 3-1/2 bushels more than the plot continuously unmanured. The contrast between the wheat on this plot and the next one might well interest a practical farmer. There was over 15 bushels per acre more wheat on the one plot than on the other, and 1,581 lbs. more straw. Passing to the next plot, he exclaimed "this is better, but not so good as some that we have passed." —"It has had a heavy dressing of rape-cake," said I, "equal to about 100 lbs. of ammonia per acre, and the next plot was manured this year in the same way. The only difference being that one had superphosphate and potash, soda, and magnesia, the year before, while the other had superphosphate alone." It turned out, as you see from the table, that the potash, etc., only gave half a bushel more wheat per acre the year it was used, and this year, with 2,000 lbs. of rape-cake on each plot, there is only a bushel per acre in favor of the potash, soda, and magnesia.

The next plot, 9b, was also unmanured and was passed by my father without comment. "Ah," said he, on coming to the two next plots, 10a and 10b, "this is better, what have you here?" —"Nothing but ammonia," said I, "and I wish you would tell me which is the best of the two? Last year 10b had a heavy dressing of minerals and superphosphate with ammonia, and 10a the same quantity of ammonia alone, without superphosphate or other mineral manures. And this year both plots have had a dressing of 400 lbs. each of ammonia-salts. Now, which is the best—the plot that had superphosphate and minerals last year, or the one without?" —"Well," said he, "I can't see any difference. Both are good crops."

You will see from the table, that the plot which had the superphosphate, potash, etc., the year before, gives a peck less wheat this year than the other plot which had none. Practically, the yield is the same. There is an increase of 13 bushels of wheat per acre—and this increase is clearly due to the ammonia-salts alone.

The next plot was also a splendid crop.

"What have you here?"

"Superphosphate and ammonia."

This plot (11a), turned out 35 bushels per acre. The next plot, with phosphates and ammonia, was nearly as good. The next plot, with potash, phosphates, and ammonia, equally good, but no better than 11a. There was little or no benefit from the potash, except a little more straw. The next plot was good and I did not wait for the question, but simply said, "ammonia," and the next "ammonia," and the next "ammonia."— Standing still and looking at the wheat, my father asked, "Joe, where can I get this ammonia?" He had previously been a little skeptical as to the value of chemistry, and had not a high opinion of "book farmers," but that wheat-crop compelled him to admit "that perhaps, after all, there might be some good in it." At any rate, he wanted to know where he could get ammonia. And, now, as then, every good farmer asks the same question: "Where can I get ammonia?" Before we attempt to answer the question, let us look at the next year's experiments.—The following is the results of the experiments the seventh year, 1849-50.

Experiments at Rothamsted on the Growth of Wheat, Year After Year, on the Same Land.

Table VII.—Manures and Produce; 7th Season, 1849-50. After the Harvest of 1849 the Field Was Tile-Drained in Every Alternate Furrow, 2 to 3 Feet Deep. Manures and Seed (Red Cluster), Sown Autumn, 1849.

Manures FM Farm-yard Manure. P-A Pearl-ash. S-A Soda-ash. SMg Sulphate of Magnesia. B-A Bone-ash. SAc Sulphuric Acid. (Sp. gr. 1.7) MAc Muriatic Acid. SAm Sulphate of Ammonia. MAm Muriate of Ammonia. RC Rape-cake.

+ + Manures per Acre. P + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + l Superphosphate o of Lime. t + -+ -+ -+ s FM P-A S-A SMg B-A SAc MAc SAm MAm RC + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + Tons. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. 0 .. .. .. .. 600 450 .. .. .. .. 1 .. 600 400 200 .. .. .. .. .. .. 2 14 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3 Unmanured. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 4 .. .. .. .. 200 .. 200 300 .. .. 5a .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 250 250 .. 5b .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 250 250 .. 6a .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 6b .. *00 200 100 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 7a .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 200 200 500 7b .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 200 200 500 8a .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 200 200 .. 8b .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 200 200 .. 9a .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 200 200 .. 9b .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 200 200 .. 10a .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 200 200 .. 10b .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. .. .. .. 11a .. .. .. .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 11b .. .. .. .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 12a .. 300 .. .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 12b .. 300 .. .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 13a .. 300 .. .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 13b .. 300 .. .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 14a .. 300 .. .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 14b .. 300 .. .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 15a .. 300 200 100 200 .. 200 300 .. .. 15b .. 300 200 100 200 .. 200 300 .. 500 16a .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 16b .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 17a .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 17b .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 18a .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 18b .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 19 .. .. .. .. 200 .. 200 300 .. 500 20 Unmanured. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 21} 22} Mixture of the residue of most of the other manures. .. + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ +

Produce Wt/Bu Weight per Bushel. OC Offal Corn. TC Total Corn. S&C Straw and Chaff. TP/C&S Total Produce (Corn and Straw.) C Corn. TP Total Produce. OCD Offal Corn to 100 Dressed. C100 Corn to 100 Straw.

- Increase per Produce per Acre, &c. Acre By Manure. P - - - l Dressed Corn. o - TP t Qty. Wt/Bu OC TC S&C C&S C S&C TP OCD C100 s - - - - Bu. Pks. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. 19 1-1/2 60.8 42 1220 2037 3257 218 318 536 3.5 59.9 0 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1 28 2 61.9 98 1861 3245 5106 859 1526 2385 5.4 57.3 2 15 3-1/4 60.6 44 1002 1719 2721 .. .. .. 4.5 58.2 3 27 3 61.2 87 1785 3312 5097 783 1593 2376 5.1 53.9 4 29 3-1/2 60.4 171 1974 4504 6478 972 2785 3757 9.5 43.8 5a 30 3 60.4 160 2018 4379 6397 1016 2660 3676 8.6 46.1 5b 30 0-1/2 61.1 119 1960 3927 5887 958 2208 3166 6.3 49.9 6a 29 3-1/2 61.3 148 1980 3959 5939 978 2240 3218 8.0 50.0 6b 32 1 61.0 167 2134 4485 6619 1132 2766 3898 8.4 47.9 7a 32 0-1/4 61.2 150 2112 4280 6392 1110 2561 3671 7.6 49.4 7b 28 3 61.1 101 1856 3407 5263 854 1688 2542 5.5 54.5 8a 30 1 61.0 103 1948 3591 5539 946 1872 2818 5.6 54.2 8b 30 1-1/2 60.4 118 1951 3550 5501 949 1831 2780 6.3 55.0 9a 27 2-3/4 60.8 80 1762 3165 4927 760 1446 2206 4.7 55.7 9b 26 3-3/4 60.2 100 1721 3089 4810 719 1370 2089 6.1 55.7 10a 17 3-3/4 61.1 76 1171 1949 3120 169 230 399 6.8 60.1 10b 30 3-1/4 61.0 121 2001 3806 5807 999 2087 3086 6.4 52.6 11a 29 1-1/2 61.1 145 1940 3741 5681 938 2022 2960 8.0 51.9 11b 29 3-3/4 61.5 94 1935 3921 5856 933 2202 3135 5.1 49.4 12a 30 3-3/4 61.4 115 2013 3905 5918 1011 2186 3197 5.9 51.5 12b 31 3-3/4 60.2 105 2027 4026 6053 1025 2307 3332 5.4 50.3 13a 30 1-1/2 61.0 111 1964 4008 5972 962 2289 3251 6.0 49.0 13b 31 1-3/4 61.1 102 2023 4052 6075 1021 2333 3354 5.3 49.9 14a 31 1-1/2 61.5 65 1995 4015 6010 993 2296 3289 3.2 49.7 14b 26 0-1/4 61.5 90 1693 3321 5014 691 1602 2293 5.7 51.0 15a 30 3-1/2 61.0 59 1942 3926 5868 940 2207 3147 3.0 49.5 15b 33 2-1/2 60.3 108 2134 5103 7237 1132 3384 4516 5.3 41.8 16a 33 3 60.4 122 2159 4615 6774 1157 2896 4053 6.0 46.8 16b 31 1 61.2 73 1985 4126 6111 983 2407 3390 3.8 48.1 17a 29 2-1/2 61.5 139 1961 4034 5995 959 2315 3274 7.7 48.6 17b 29 3-1/4 61.2 110 1934 3927 5861 932 2208 3140 6.1 49.3 18a 28 2-1/2 60.9 103 1845 3844 5689 843 2125 2968 5.7 48.0 18b 29 0 60.8 88 1850 3527 5377 848 1808 2656 4.9 52.4 19 14 0 59.1 40 868 1639 2507 -134 -80 -214 4.5 53.0 20 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. }21 }22 - - - -

The summer of 1850 was unusually cool and unfavorable for wheat. It will be seen that on all the plots the yield of grain is considerably lower than last year, with a greater growth of straw.

You will notice that 10b, which last year gave, with ammonia-salts alone, 32-1/4 bushels, this year, with superphosphate, potash, soda, and sulphate of magnesia, gives less than 18 bushels, while the adjoining plot, dressed with ammonia, gives nearly 27 bushels. In other words, the ammonia alone gives 9 bushels per acre more than this large dressing of superphosphate, potash, etc.

On the three plots, 8a, 8b and 9a, a dressing of ammonia-salts alone gives in each case, a larger yield, both of grain and straw, than the 14 tons of barn-yard manure on plot 2. And recollect that this plot has now received 98 tons of manure in seven years.

"That," said the Doctor, "is certainly a very remarkable fact."

"It is so," said the Deacon.

"But what of it?" asked the Squire, "even the Professor, here, does not advise the use of ammonia-salts for wheat."

"That is so," said I, "but perhaps I am mistaken. Such facts as those just given, though I have been acquainted with them for many years, sometimes incline me to doubt the soundness of my conclusions. Still, on the whole, I think I am right."

"We all know," said the Deacon, "that you have great respect for your own opinions."

"Never mind all that," said the Doctor, "but tell us just what you think on this subject."

"In brief," said I, "my opinion is this. We need ammonia for wheat. But though ammonia-salts and nitrate of soda can often be used with decided profit, yet I feel sure that we can get ammonia or nitrogen at a less cost per lb. by buying bran, malt-roots, cotton-seed cake, and other foods, and using them for the double purpose of feeding stock and making manure."

"I admit that such is the case," said the Doctor, "but here is a plot of land that has now had 14 tons of manure every year for seven years, and yet there is a plot along side, dressed with ammonia-salts furnishing less than half the ammonia contained in the 14 tons of manure, that produces a better yield of wheat."

"That," said I, "is simply because the nitrogen in the manure is not in an available condition. And the practical question is, how to make the nitrogen in our manure more immediately available. It is one of the most important questions which agricultural science is called upon to answer. Until we get more light, I feel sure in saying that one of the best methods is, to feed our animals on richer and more easily digested food."

The following table gives the results of the eighth season of 1850-51.

Experiments at Rothamsted on the Growth of Wheat, Year After Year, on the Same Land.

Table VIII.—Manures and Produce; 8th Season, 1850-51. Manures and Seed (Red Cluster), Sown Autumn, 1850.

Manures FM Farm-yard Manure. WSC Cut Wheat-straw and Chaff. CS Common Salt. SP Sulphate of Potass. S-A Soda-ash. SMg Sulphate of Magnesia. B-A Bone-ash. SAc Sulphuric Acid. (Sp. gr. 1.7) MAc Muriatic Acid. SAm Sulphate of Ammonia. MAm Muriate of Ammonia. RC Rape-cake.

- Manures per Acre. P - - + l Superphosphate o of Lime. t + -+ s FM WSC CS SP S-A SMg B-A SAc MAc SAm MAm RC + - - Tons. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. 0 .. .. .. .. .. .. 600 450 .. .. .. .. 1 .. .. .. 600 400 200 .. .. .. .. .. .. 2 14 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3 Unmanured. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 4 .. .. .. .. .. .. 200 .. 200 400 .. .. 5a .. .. .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 300 300 .. 5b .. .. .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 300 300 .. 6a .. .. .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 6b .. .. .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 7a .. .. .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 200 200 1000 7b .. .. .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 200 200 1000 8a .. 5000 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 8b .. .. .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 100 100 .. 9a .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 200 200 .. 9b .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 200 200 .. 10a .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 200 200 .. 10b .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 200 200 .. 11a .. .. .. .. .. .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 11b .. .. .. .. .. .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 12a .. .. .. 200 100 .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 12b .. .. .. 200 100 .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 13a .. .. .. 300 .. .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 13b .. .. .. 300 .. .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 14a .. .. .. 200 .. 100 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 14b .. .. .. 200 .. 100 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 15a .. .. .. 200 100 100 200 .. 200 400 .. .. 15b .. .. .. 200 100 100 200 .. 200 400 .. 500 16a .. .. 336[1] 200 100 100 200 150 .. 300 300 .. 16b .. .. .. 200 100 100 200 150 .. 300 300 .. 17a .. .. .. 200 100 100 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 17b .. .. .. 200 100 100 200 150 .. 200 200 .. 18a .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 200 200 .. 18b .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 200 200 .. 19 .. .. .. .. .. .. 200 .. 200 300 .. 500 20} { .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 21} Unmanured{ .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 22} { .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. -

[Note 1: Top-dressed in March, 1851.]

Produce Wt/Bu Weight per Bushel. OC Offal Corn. TC Total Corn. S&C Straw and Chaff. TP/C&S Total Produce (Corn and Straw). C Corn. S&C Straw and Chaff. TP Total Produce. OCD Offal Corn to 100 Dressed. C100 Corn to 100 Straw.

- - Increase per Produce per Acre, etc. Acre By Manure P - l Dressed Corn. o - TP t Qty. Wt/Bu OC TC S&C C&S C S&C TP OCD C100 s - - - Bu. Pks. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. 18 3-1/2 61.9 125 1296 1862 3158 213 235 448 10.7 69.6 0 18 1-1/4 61.7 124 1251 1845 3096 168 218 386 11.0 67.8 1 29 2-1/2 63.6 166 2049 3094 5143 966 1467 2433 8.8 66.2 2 15 3-1/2 61.1 114 1083 1627 2710 .. .. .. 11.8 66.6 3 28 0-1/2 62.6 159 1919 2949 4868 836 1322 2158 9.0 65.1 4 36 0 63.3 194 2473 4131 6604 1390 2504 3894 8.6 59.9 5a 37 3-3/4 63.3 213 2611 4294 6905 1528 2667 4195 8.9 60.8 5b 33 1-3/4 63.3 154 2271 3624 5895 1188 1997 3185 7.2 62.6 6a 31 0-1/4 62.3 189 2119 3507 5626 1036 1880 2916 9.8 60.4 6b 36 3-1/2 63.0 201 2524 4587 7111 1441 2960 4401 8.7 55.0 7a 37 1-1/2 63.0 178 2532 4302 6834 1449 2675 4124 7.6 58.8 7b 26 0-3/4 62.8 141 1785 2769 4554 702 1142 1844 8.6 64.5 8a 27 2-1/4 62.6 137 1863 2830 4693 780 1203 1983 7.9 65.8 8b 31 1-1/2 62.4 182 2142 3252 5394 1059 1625 2684 9.3 65.9 9a 29 0-3/4 62.0 170 1970 2942 4912 887 1315 2202 9.5 67.0 9b 28 3-1/2 61.9 179 1966 3070 5036 883 1443 2326 10.0 64.0 10a 28 2-1/2 62.5 149 1937 3048 4985 854 1421 2275 8.3 63.5 10b 32 2-3/4 62.3 181 2216 3386 5602 1133 1759 2892 8.9 65.4 11a 31 2-3/4 62.5 181 2163 3302 5465 1080 1675 2755 9.1 65.5 11b 32 3 63.1 165 2234 3600 5834 1151 1973 3124 8.0 62.0 12a 32 2-1/4 62.5 166 2203 3581 5784 1120 1954 3074 8.2 61.5 12b 30 2-3/4 62.6 180 2102 3544 5646 1019 1917 2936 9.4 59.3 13a 30 3-1/4 62.3 160 2083 3440 5523 1000 1813 2813 8.3 60.5 13b 31 0-1/4 62.9 168 2120 3605 5725 1037 1978 3015 8.6 58.8 14a 31 0-1/2 62.8 165 2121 3537 5658 1038 1910 2948 8.4 59.9 14b 27 0-1/2 62.7 138 1839 3041 4880 756 1414 2170 8.1 60.5 15a 30 2-1/2 62.9 148 2077 3432 5509 994 1805 2799 7.6 60.5 15b 36 3-1/4 63.5 161 2499 4234 6733 1416 2607 4023 6.9 59.0 16a 36 2-3/4 63.4 176 2501 4332 6833 1418 2705 4123 7.6 57.7 16b 31 3-1/2 63.3 131 2149 3597 5746 1066 1970 3036 6.5 59.7 17a 30 2-1/4 63.1 152 2079 3406 5485 996 1779 2775 7.9 61.0 17b 30 3-1/4 63.0 139 2083 3390 5473 1000 1763 2763 7.2 64.1 18a 31 0-3/4 62.4 143 2090 3586 5676 1007 1959 2966 7.3 58.3 18b 30 1 62.4 144 2031 3348 5379 948 1721 2669 7.7 60.7 19 14 1 60.8 89 956 1609 2565 -127 -18 -145 10.2 59.4 20 21} 17 3-1/4 61.9 127 1232 1763 2995 149 136 285 11.5 69.9 22} - - -

The plot continuously unmanured, gives about 16 bushels of wheat per acre.

The plot with barn-yard manure, nearly 30 bushels per acre.

400 lbs. of ammonia-salts alone, on plot 9a, 31-1/4 bushels; on 9b, 29 bushels; on 10a and 10b, nearly 29 bushels each. This is remarkable uniformity.

400 lbs. ammonia-salts and a large quantity of mineral manures in addition, on twelve different plots, average not quite 32 bushels per acre.

"The superphosphate and minerals," said the Deacon, "do not seem to do much good, that is a fact."

You will notice that 336 lbs. of common salt was sown on plot 16a. It does not seem to have done the slightest good. Where the salt was used, there is 2 lbs. less grain and 98 lbs. less straw than on the adjoining plot 16b, where no salt was used, but otherwise manured alike. It would seem, however, that the quality of the grain was slightly improved by the salt. The salt was sown in March as a top-dressing.

"It would have been better," said the Deacon. "to have sown it in autumn with the other manures."

"The Deacon is right," said I, "but it so happens that the next year and the year after, the salt was applied at the same time as the other manures. It gave an increase of 94 lbs. of grain and 61 lbs. of straw in 1851, but the following year the same quantity of salt used on the same plot did more harm than good."

Before we leave the results of this year, it should be observed that on 8a, 5,000 lbs. of cut straw and chaff were used per acre. I do not recollect seeing anything in regard to it. And yet the result was very remarkable—so much so indeed, that it is a matter of regret that the experiment was not repeated.

This 5,000 lbs. of straw and chaff gave an increase of more than 10 bushels per acre over the continuously unmanured plot.

"Good," said the Deacon, "I have always told you that you under-estimated the value of straw, especially in regard to its mechanical action."

I did not reply to this remark of the good Deacon. I have never doubted the good effects of anything that lightens up a clay soil and renders it warmer and more porous. I suppose the great benefit derived from this application of straw must be attributed to its ameliorating action on the soil. The 5,000 lbs. of straw and chaff produced a crop within nearly 3 bushels per acre of the plot manured every year with 14 tons of barn-yard manure.

"I am surprised," said the Doctor, "that salt did no good. I have seen many instances in which it has had a wonderful effect on wheat."

"Yes," said I, "and our experienced friend, John Johnston, is very decidedly of the opinion that its use is highly profitable. He sows a barrel of salt per acre broadcast on the land at the time he sows his wheat, and I have myself seen it produce a decided improvement in the crop."

We have now given the results of the first eight years of the experiments. From this time forward, the same manures were used year after year on the same plot.

The results are given in the accompanying tables for the following twelve years—harvests for 1852-53-54-55-56-57-58-59-60-61-62 and 1863. Such another set of experiments are not to be found in the world, and they deserve and will receive the careful study of every intelligent American farmer.

"I am with you there," said the Deacon. "You seem to think that I do not appreciate the labors of scientific men. I do. Such experiments as these we are examining command the respect of every intelligent farmer. I may not fully understand them, but I can see clearly enough that they are of great value."

Experiments at Rothamsted on the Growth of Wheat, Year After Year, on the Same Land.

Table IX.—Manures per Acre per Annum (with the exceptions explained in the Notes on p. 203), for 12 Years in succession—namely, for the 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th, and 20th Seasons: that is, for the crops of Harvests 1852- 53- 54- 55- 56- 57- 58- 59- 60- 61- 62 and 1863.[A]

Manures FM Farm-yard Manure. CS Common Salt. SP Sulphate of Potass.[1] SS Sulphate of Soda.[1] SMg Sulphate of Magnesia.[1] B-A Bone-ash. SAc Sulphuric Acid. (Sp. gr. 1.7) MAc Muriatic Acid. SAm Sulphate of Ammonia. MAm Muriate of Ammonia. NS Nitrate of Soda. RC Rape-cake.

+ - Manures per Acre per Annum for 12 Years, 1851-2 to 1862-3 inclusive, except in the cases explained in the Notes on p. 203. P + -+ -+ + + + + -+ + + - l Superphosphate o of Lime. t + + + -+ s FM CS SP SS SMg B-A SAc MAc SAm MAm NS RC + -+ -+ + + + + + + -+ + + - Tons. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. 0 .. .. .. .. .. 600 450 .. .. .. .. .. 1 .. .. 600 400 200 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2 14 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3 Unmanured .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 4 Unmanured .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 5a .. .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. .. .. .. .. 5b .. .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. .. .. .. .. 6a .. .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 100 100 .. .. 6b .. .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 100 100 .. .. 7a .. .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 200 200 .. .. 7b .. .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 200 200 .. .. 8a .. .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 300 300 .. .. 8b .. .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 300 300 .. .. [2] 9a .. .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. .. .. 550 .. [3] 9b .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 550 .. 10a .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 200 200 .. .. 10b .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 200 200 .. .. 11a .. .. .. .. .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. .. 11b .. .. .. .. .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. .. 12a .. .. .. 550 .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. .. 12b .. .. .. 550 .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. .. 13a .. .. 300 .. .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. .. 13b .. .. 300 .. .. 200 150 .. 200 200 .. .. 14a .. .. .. .. 420 200 150 .. 200 200 .. .. 14b .. .. .. .. 420 200 150 .. 200 200 .. .. 15a .. .. 300 200 100 200 .. 200 400 .. .. .. 15b .. .. 300 200 100 200 .. 200 300 .. .. 500 16a .. 336[4] 300 200 100 200 150 .. 400 400 .. .. 16b .. .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. 400 400 .. .. [5]{17a .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 200 200 .. .. {17b .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 200 200 .. .. [5]{18a .. .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. .. .. .. .. {18b .. .. 300 200 100 200 150 .. .. .. .. .. 19 .. .. .. .. .. 200 .. 200 300 .. .. 500 20 Unmanured .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 21 .. .. 300 200 100 .. .. .. .. 100 .. .. 22 .. .. 300 200 100 .. .. .. 100 .. .. .. + -+ -+ + + + + + + -+ + + -

[A] For the particulars of the produce of each separate season, see Tables X.-XXI. inclusive.

[Note 1: For the 16th and succeeding seasons—the sulphate of potass was reduced from 600 to 400 lbs. per acre per annum on Plot 1, and from 300 to 200 lbs. on all the other Plots where it was used; the sulphate of soda from 400 to 200 lbs. on Plot 1, to 100 lbs. on all the Plots on which 200 lbs. had previously been applied, and from 550 to 336-1/2 lbs. (two-thirds the amount) on Plots 12a and 12b; and the sulphate of magnesia from 420 to 280 lbs. (two-thirds the amount) on Plots 14a and 14b.]

[Note 2: Plot 9a—the sulphates of potass, soda, and magnesia, and the superphosphate of lime, were applied in the 12th and succeeding seasons, but not in the 9th, 10th, and 11th; and the amount of nitrate of soda was for the 9th season only 475 lbs. per acre, and for the 10th and 11th seasons only 275 lbs.]

[Note 3: Plot 9b—in the 9th season only 475 lbs. of nitrate of soda were applied.]

[Note 4: Common salt—not applied after the 10th season.]

[Note 5: Plots 17a and 17b, and 18a and 18b—the manures on these plots alternate: that is, Plots 17 were manured with ammonia-salts in the 9th season; with the sulphates of potass, soda, and magnesia, and superphosphate of lime, in the 10th; ammonia-salts again in the 11th; the sulphates of potass, soda, and magnesia, and superphosphate of lime, again in the 12th, and so on. Plots 18, on the other hand, had the sulphates of potass, soda, and magnesia, and superphosphate of lime, in the 9th season; ammonia-salts in the 10th, and so on, alternately.]

[Transcriber's Note: The following group of tables, X-XXI, express fractions using the shorthand described at the beginning of the text.]

Table X.—Produce of the 9th Season, 1851-2. Seed (Red Cluster) sown November 7, 1851; Crop cut August 24, 1852.

Table XI.—Produce of the 10th Season, 1853. Seed (Red Rostock) sown March 16; Crop cut September 10, and carted September 20, 1853.

Qty. Quantity. Wt/Bu. Weight per Bushel. TC Total Corn. TP/C&S Total Produce (Corn and Straw).

- Produce per Acre, Produce per Acre, etc. (For the Manures etc. (For the Manures P see pp. 202 and 203.) P see pp. 202 and 203.) l -+ - l + - - o Dressed Corn. o Dressed Corn. t - + TP t + - TP s Qty. Wt/Bu. TC C&S s Qty. Wt/Bu. TC C&S - - - - - - - Bu. Pks. lbs. lbs. lbs. Bu. Pks. lbs. lbs. lbs. 0 15 06 55.8 919 2625 0 9 06 49.1 599 2406 1 13 1 56.9 825 2322 1 6 16 46.1 404 2036 2 27 22 58.2 1716 5173 2 19 04 51.1 1120 4492 3 13 32 56.6 860 2457 3 5 32 45.1 359 1772 4 13 12 57.3 870 2441 4 7 1 46.1 446 2116 5a 16 3 57.5 1038 2941 5a 10 0 48.9 587 2538 5b 17 02 57.3 1065 3097 5b 10 1 48.9 611 2741 6a 20 3 57.6 1288 3869 6a 16 32 51.8 978 3755 6b 20 34 57.5 1300 3904 6b 19 1 51.8 1072 3870 7a 26 24 56.0 1615 5465 7a 23 24 52.2 1369 5110 7b 26 36 55.8 1613 5415 7b 23 22 51.1 1357 5091 8a 27 34 55.9 1699 5505 8a 22 12 51.1 1346 5312 8b 27 04 55.9 1651 5423 8b 24 22 51.1 1425 5352 9a 25 2 55.6 1591 5305 9a 11 1 47.7 691 3090 9b 24 16 55.3 1509 4883 9b 10 16 46.1 649 2902 10a 21 34 55.9 1320 4107 10a 9 36 48.9 642 2691 10b 22 02 57.3 1343 4162 10b 15 2 49.8 896 3578 11a 24 06 55.6 1472 4553 11a 17 2 50.1 1015 3539 11b 22 14 55.9 1387 4299 11b 18 26 51.1 1073 3780 12a 24 16 57.4 1503 4760 12a 22 0 52.0 1283 4948 12b 24 12 57.3 1492 4721 12b 23 32 51.1 1375 5079 13a 24 0 57.5 1480 4702 13a 22 12 52.1 1341 5045 13b 23 36 57.1 1476 4765 13b 23 24 51.1 1396 5308 14a 24 16 56.9 1507 5054 14a 21 2 51.2 1322 4793 14b 25 02 56.7 1530 5137 14b 23 06 52.6 1347 5108 15a 23 12 57.4 1451 4663 15a 19 0 51.1 1143 4504 15b 25 04 56.8 1520 4941 15b 23 24 51.1 1351 5107 16a 28 34 55.0 1794 6471 16a 24 14 52.5 1496 6400 16b 28 0 54.5 1700 6316 16b 25 32 52.5 1537 6556 17a 25 2 56.5 1577 5311 17a 8 16 49.8 520 2516 17b 24 14 56.9 1520 4986 17b 8 36 48.9 539 2551 18a 13 3 57.0 869 2556 18a 17 32 52.9 1111 4496 18b 14 36 56.7 921 2685 18b 20 3 52.1 1256 5052 19 24 36 56.1 1582 4979 19 19 12 52.6 1160 4373 20 14 06 56.6 875 2452 20 5 32 47.8 425 2084 21 19 16 56.9 1177 3285 21 12 36 50.4 753 2934 22 19 22 55.9 1176 3355 22 10 1 49.4 592 2452 - - - - - - -

Table XII.—Produce of the 11th Season, 1853-4. Seed (Red Rostock) sown November 12, 1853; Crop cut August 21, and carted August 31, 1854.

Table XIII.—Produce of the 12th Season, 1854-5. Seed (Red Rostock) sown November 9, 1854; Crop cut August 26, and carted September 2, 1855.

Qty. Quantity. Wt/Bu. Weight per Bushel. TC Total Corn. TP/C&S Total Produce (Corn and Straw).

- Produce per Acre, Produce per Acre, etc. (For the Manures etc. (For the Manures P see pp. 202 and 203.) P see pp. 202 and 203.) l -+ - l + - - o Dressed Corn. o Dressed Corn. t - + TP t + - TP s Qty. Wt/Bu. TC C&S s Qty. Wt/Bu. TC C&S - - - - - - - Bu. Pks. lbs. lbs. lbs. Bu. Pks. lbs. lbs. lbs. 0 26 16 61.0 1672 3786 0 17 0 60.7 1096 2822 1 24 14 60.2 1529 4060 1 18 2 60.5 1179 3069 2 41 04 62.5 2675 7125 2 34 24 62.0 2237 6082 3 21 02 60.6 1359 3496 3 17 0 59.2 1072 2859 4 23 34 61.1 1521 3859 4 18 24 59.5 1168 3000 5a 24 14 61.0 1578 4098 5a 18 2 59.9 1157 2976 5b 24 0 61.6 1532 4035 5b 18 04 60.1 1143 2943 6a 33 26 61.8 2186 6031 6a 27 3 60.3 1753 4590 6b 34 22 61.8 2239 6294 6b 28 1 60.9 1811 4848 7a 45 22 61.9 2950 8553 7a 32 26 59.4 2084 5995 7b 45 14 61.8 2944 8440 7b 33 12 59.5 2138 6296 8a 47 16 61.4 3065 9200 8a 29 3 58.8 1909 5747 8b 49 24 61.8 3208 9325 8b 33 06 58.7 2153 6495 9a 38 3 60.7 2456 6598 9a 29 24 58.3 1932 5878 9b 38 34 60.7 2480 6723 9b 25 14 57.3 1605 4817 10a 34 14 60.5 2211 5808 10a 19 36 57.1 1285 3797 10b 39 06 61.6 2535 7003 10b 28 04 58.9 1805 5073 11a 44 2 61.1 2859 8006 11a 18 3 55.3 1210 3694 11b 43 04 61.2 2756 7776 11b 24 24 56.3 1580 4733 12a 45 32 62.2 2966 8469 12a 30 02 59.5 1940 5478 12b 45 14 62.2 2939 8412 12b 33 2 60.2 2172 6182 13a 45 04 62.2 2913 8311 13a 29 0 59.9 1924 5427 13b 43 34 62.2 2858 8403 13b 32 2 60.4 2110 5980 14a 45 12 62.2 2946 8498 14a 29 3 60.0 1954 5531 14b 44 04 62.2 2863 8281 14b 33 16 60.0 2158 5161 15a 43 12 62.1 2801 7699 15a 31 32 60.0 2030 5855 15b 43 1 62.4 2810 8083 15b 33 3 60.6 2193 6415 16a 49 22 61.7 3230 9932 16a 33 12 58.2 2100 6634 16b 50 06 61.7 3293 9928 16 32 2 58.2 2115 7106 17a 45 3 62.1 2948 8218 17a 18 36 60.8 1227 3203 17b 42 22 62.2 2732 7629 17b 17 04 60.3 1110 2914 18a 24 0 61.2 1526 3944 18a 32 36 60.9 2127 6144 18b 23 26 61.0 1511 3888 18b 33 16 60.8 2170 6385 19 41 06 61.7 2666 7343 19 30 04 58.7 1967 5818 20 22 3 60.8 1445 3662 20 17 24 61.1 1155 2986 21 32 04 61.2 2030 5470 21 24 16 60.8 1533 3952 22 31 3 61.0 1994 5334 22 24 24 60.1 1553 4010 - - - - - - -

Table XIV.—Produce of the 13th Season, 1855-6. Seed (Red Rostock) sown November 13, 1855; Crop cut August 26, and carted September 3, 1856.

Table XV.—Produce of the 14th Season, 1856-7. Seed (Red Rostock) sown November 6, 1856; Crop cut August 13, and carted August 22, 1857.

Qty. Quantity. Wt/Bu. Weight per Bushel. TC Total Corn. TP/C&S Total Produce (Corn and Straw).

- Produce per Acre, Produce per Acre, etc. (For the Manures etc. (For the Manures P see pp. 202 and 203.) P see pp. 202 and 203.) l -+ - l + - - o Dressed Corn. o Dressed Corn. t - + TP t + - TP s Qty. Wt/Bu. TC C&S s Qty. Wt/Bu. TC C&S - - - - - - - Bu. Pks. lbs. lbs. lbs. Bu. Pks. lbs. lbs. lbs. 0 18 14 56.8 1179 3148 0 18 22 59.0 1181 2726 1 17 06 56.3 1102 3035 1 17 24 59.0 1118 2650 2 36 12 58.6 2277 6594 2 41 06 60.4 2587 5910 3 14 2 54.3 892 2450 3 19 36 58.3 1236 2813 4 16 14 55.5 1026 2757 4 22 16 58.8 1386 2958 5a 18 32 56.5 1167 3179 5a 22 36 59.0 1409 3026 5b 20 12 56.2 1247 3369 5b 24 22 58.8 1512 3247 6a 27 12 58.2 1717 4767 6a 35 14 59.9 2211 4968 6b 28 04 58.5 1755 4848 6b 35 12 59.8 2193 4950 7a 37 1 58.0 2312 6872 7a 43 12 60.5 2782 6462 7b 36 22 57.6 2244 6642 7b 46 14 60.3 2902 6793 8a 40 04 56.8 2507 7689 8a 47 3 60.8 3058 7355 8b 37 36 57.1 2400 7489 8b 48 32 60.6 3129 7579 9a 32 14 57.2 2019 5894 9a 43 3 60.1 2767 6634 9b 26 0 56.3 1679 4831 9b 36 06 58.0 2220 5203 10a 24 06 55.6 1505 4323 10a 29 04 58.0 1816 4208 10b 27 26 57.2 1727 4895 10b 34 2 58.6 2185 5060 11a 31 34 57.3 2001 5518 11a 39 0 58.5 2432 5375 11b 30 24 57.5 1946 5389 11b 39 06 58.0 2397 5317 12a 33 34 58.7 2102 5949 12a 43 34 60.4 2747 6394 12b 32 34 58.8 2079 5804 12b 43 2 60.4 2729 6312 13a 32 16 58.6 2036 5779 13a 42 3 60.6 2714 6421 13b 30 32 58.9 2008 5659 13b 43 2 60.5 2739 6386 14a 35 02 58.6 2195 6397 14a 43 3 60.5 2781 6439 14b 34 06 59.0 2162 6279 14b 42 34 60.3 2699 6351 15a 30 04 59.1 1923 5444 15a 42 12 60.4 2681 6368 15b 32 0 59.4 2045 5797 15b 44 16 60.0 2765 6543 16a 38 04 58.5 2426 7955 16a 48 32 60.5 3131 7814 16b 37 3 58.7 2450 7917 16b 50 0 60.5 3194 7897 17a 31 24 59.0 1983 5541 17a 26 26 59.1 1642 3700 17b 30 14 59.1 1935 5400 17b 25 36 58.8 1583 3523 18a 17 34 57.8 1140 3152 18a 41 02 59.7 2566 6009 18b 18 0 57.7 1131 3069 18b 40 02 59.8 2519 5884 19 32 1 58.9 2059 5621 19 41 24 59.5 2600 5793 20 17 06 57.7 1075 2963 20 19 26 58.4 1213 2777 21 22 14 58.0 1398 3927 21 24 0 60.6 1538 3353 22 21 16 57.8 1351 3849 22 23 04 60.6 1491 3298 - - - - - - -

Table XVI.—Produce of the 15th Season, 1857-8. Seed (Red Rostock) sown November 3 and 11, 1857; Crop cut August 9, and carted August 20, 1858.

Table XVII.—Produce of the 16th Season, 1858-9. Seed (Red Rostock) sown November 4, 1858; Crop cut August 4, and carted August 20, 1859.

Qty. Quantity. Wt/Bu. Weight per Bushel. TC Total Corn. TP/C&S Total Produce (Corn and Straw).

- Produce per Acre, Produce per Acre, etc. (For the Manures etc. (For the Manures P see pp. 202 and 203.) P see pp. 202 and 203.) l -+ - l + - - o Dressed Corn. o Dressed Corn. t - + TP t + - TP s Qty. Wt/Bu. TC C&S s Qty. Wt/Bu. TC C&S - - - - - - - Bu. Pks. lbs. lbs. lbs. Bu. Pks. lbs. lbs. lbs. 0 20 3 61.2 1332 3234 0 21 22 54.0 1254 3564 1 16 12 60.7 1055 2685 1 19 3 55.0 1189 3489 2 38 32 62.6 2512 6349 2 36 06 56.5 2263 7073 3 18 0 60.4 1141 2811 3 18 12 52.5 1051 3226 4 19 04 61.1 1206 2879 4 19 06 55.0 1188 3418 5a 18 26 61.5 1187 2719 5a 20 22 56.0 1277 3600 5b 19 1 61.4 1227 2870 5b 20 24 56.0 1273 3666 6a 28 22 62.1 1818 4395 6a 29 24 56.5 1808 5555 6b 29 04 62.1 1850 4563 6b 30 04 56.5 1855 5708 7a 38 22 61.9 2450 6415 7a 34 26 55.9 2097 6774 7b 39 22 62.3 2530 6622 7b 34 24 55.9 2089 6892 8a 41 36 61.8 2680 7347 8a 34 32 54.0 2068 7421 8b 41 32 61.7 2675 7342 8b 34 06 53.4 2007 7604 9a 37 22 60.8 2384 6701 9a 30 0 54.5 1806 7076 9b 23 2 58.8 1470 4158 9b 24 22 50.5 1412 5002 10a 22 34 59.6 1439 3569 10a 18 36 51.5 1207 3937 10b 27 3 61.4 1775 4390 10b 25 2 52.5 1500 4920 11a 30 34 60.5 1977 4774 11a 26 34 51.4 1628 5155 11b 33 02 60.4 2099 5117 11b 27 32 51.3 1698 5275 12a 37 36 62.1 2437 6100 12a 34 24 54.5 2060 6610 12b 37 06 62.1 2387 6060 12b 34 34 54.8 2115 6858 13a 37 06 62.1 2384 6077 13a 34 06 55.0 2037 6774 13b 37 06 62.7 2397 6074 13b 34 34 55.0 2087 6894 14a 37 32 62.1 2413 6150 14a 34 16 54.5 2054 6817 14b 38 12 62.0 2436 6146 14b 34 22 54.5 2074 6774 15a 35 14 62.6 2285 5800 15a 34 06 55.0 2053 6826 15b 37 2 62.8 2436 6134 15a 35 02 55.0 2095 7088 16a 41 3 62.1 2702 7499 16a 34 36 52.6 2026 7953 16b 42 04 62.1 2717 7530 16b 34 16 52.6 2005 7798 17a 33 12 62.5 2150 5353 17a 21 12 55.0 1247 3730 17b 33 32 62.5 2181 5455 17b 19 3 54.5 1168 3541 18a 22 36 62.3 1472 3480 18a 32 32 55.5 1973 6506 18b 20 26 62.4 1338 3305 18b 32 2 56.0 1980 6630 19 33 12 62.5 2177 5362 19 30 2 55.5 1903 5926 20 17 0 60.3 1089 2819 20 17 32 52.5 1039 3256 21 24 16 61.5 1574 3947 21 26 14 54.0 1538 4723 22 22 0 61.5 1412 3592 22 24 06 55.0 1460 4440 - - - - - - -

Table XVIII.—Produce of the 17th Season, 1859-60. Seed (Red Rostock) sown November 17, 1859; Crop cut September 17 and 19, and carted October 5, 1858.

Table XIX.—Produce of the 18th Season, 1860-1. Seed (Red Rostock) sown November 5, 1860; Crop cut August 20, and carted August 27, 1861.

Qty. Quantity. Wt/Bu. Weight per Bushel. TC Total Corn. TP/C&S Total Produce (Corn and Straw).

- Produce per Acre, Produce per Acre, etc. (For the Manures etc. (For the Manures P see pp. 202 and 203.) P see pp. 202 and 203.) l -+ - l + - - o Dressed Corn. o Dressed Corn. t - + TP t + - TP s Qty. Wt/Bu. TC C&S s Qty. Wt/Bu. TC C&S - - - - - - - Bu. Pks. lbs. lbs. lbs. Bu. Pks. lbs. lbs. lbs. 0 14 12 53.5 826 2271 0 15 14 57.6 1001 2769 1 12 16 52.8 717 2097 1 12 36 57.6 828 2215 2 32 12 55.5 1864 5304 2 34 34 60.5 2202 5303 3 12 34 52.6 738 2197 3 11 12 57.4 736 1990 4 14 2 53.0 832 2352 4 11 34 58.0 863 2193 5a 15 26 54.0 903 2483 5a 15 16 59.1 1047 2540 5b 16 04 53.1 935 2595 5b 15 14 59.0 1082 2692 6a 21 04 53.7 1210 3393 6a 27 12 59.5 1755 4328 6b 22 32 54.2 1326 3719 6b 27 32 59.4 1818 4501 7a 27 34 54.3 1612 4615 7a 35 22 59.0 2263 5764 7b 27 22 54.3 1597 4734 7b 34 12 59.0 2183 5738 8a 30 3 52.8 1759 5639 8a 36 0 58.3 2290 6203 8b 31 26 52.3 1787 5600 8b 34 02 58.5 2190 5985 9a 32 24 51.5 1858 6635 9a 33 3 56.8 2162 6607 9b 19 22 48.5 1155 4285 9b 13 3 53.9 909 3079 10a 15 04 49.5 905 3118 10a 12 34 55.0 854 2784 10b 18 24 51.0 1060 3420 10b 15 36 55.5 1033 3196 11a 22 14 51.0 1270 3773 11a 23 16 55.3 1455 4032 11b 22 14 51.2 1307 4000 11b 25 06 55.8 1578 4223 12a 28 04 53.4 1648 4878 12a 32 12 58.1 2009 5201 12b 26 22 53.5 1577 4664 12b 33 16 58.7 2144 5481 13a 26 06 54.3 1575 4568 13a 33 12 59.9 2168 5486 13b 27 04 53.8 1600 4637 13b 35 0 60.0 2304 5794 14a 27 14 53.7 1583 4636 14a 33 02 59.1 2125 5502 14b 27 02 53.2 1563 4666 14b 33 36 59.3 2173 5476 15a 25 14 53.8 1510 4387 15a 34 16 60.0 2188 5506 15b 28 0 54.0 1614 4704 15b 34 3 60.2 2249 5727 16a 32 2 52.0 1856 5973 16a 36 16 58.0 2338 6761 16b 32 3 51.7 1889 6096 16b 37 2 58.6 2432 6775 17a 24 02 54.1 1409 4109 17a 19 1 59.3 1229 2982 17b 26 14 54.3 1548 4518 17b 18 06 59.1 1166 2829 18a 15 12 54.5 929 2649 18a 32 14 59.6 2650 5144 18b 16 12 54.6 963 2706 18b 33 14 59.5 2122 5446 19 24 04 53.0 1435 4178 19 32 2 58.8 2107 5345 20 12 02 51.5 722 2155 20 13 04 57.9 872 2340 21 15 2 52.5 893 2639 21 16 16 58.2 1109 2749 22 13 32 53.8 847 2414 22 19 26 58.5 1306 3263 - - - - - - -

Table XX.—Produce of the 19th Season, 1861-2. Seed (Red Rostock) sown October 25, 1861; Crop cut August 29, and carted September 12, 1862.

Table XXI.—Produce of the 20th Season, 1862-3. Seed (Red Rostock) sown November 17, 1862; Crop cut August 10, and carted August 18, 1863.

Qty. Quantity. Wt/Bu. Weight per Bushel. TC Total Corn. TP/C&S Total Produce (Corn and Straw).

- Produce per Acre, Produce per Acre, etc. (For the Manures etc. (For the Manures P see pp. 202 and 203.) P see pp. 202 and 203.) l -+ - l + - - o Dressed Corn. o Dressed Corn. t - + TP t + - TP s Qty. Wt/Bu. TC C&S s Qty. Wt/Bu. TC C&S - - - - - - - Bu. Pks. lbs. lbs. lbs. Bu. Pks. lbs. lbs. lbs. 0 19 34 58.5 1228 3258 0 22 04 62.6 1429 3254 1 16 26 58.0 1024 2772 1 20 3 62.8 1334 3079 2 38 14 61.0 2447 6642 2 44 0 63.1 2886 7165 3 16 0 57.8 996 2709 3 17 1 62.7 1127 2727 4 16 24 58.5 1049 2711 4 20 1 62.3 1303 2957 5a 17 36 59.0 1119 2959 5a 19 24 63.0 1283 2970 5b 17 24 59.0 1101 2961 5b 19 3 63.0 1296 3064 6a 27 2 59.5 1715 4554 6a 39 14 62.3 2522 6236 6b 28 32 59.8 1797 4897 6b 39 3 62.3 2534 6250 7a 35 22 59.3 2200 6106 7a 53 12 62.6 3477 9330 7b 36 06 59.5 2265 6178 7b 54 0 62.5 3507 9385 8a 39 3 59.2 2477 7200 8a 56 22 62.3 3668 10383 8b 39 04 59.0 2452 7087 8b 54 32 62.3 3559 10048 9a 43 16 59.5 2688 8738 9a 55 22 62.1 3576 9888 9b 25 34 56.3 1641 4897 9b 41 16 62.5 2723 6920 10a 23 02 56.5 1457 4050 10a 39 04 62.6 2587 6068 10b 24 32 57.5 1600 4443 10b 43 22 62.8 2858 6914 11a 26 26 58.0 1706 4548 11a 45 0 62.5 2979 7212 11b 27 02 58.0 1734 4607 11b 46 2 62.1 3060 7519 12a 34 12 58.0 2096 5745 12a 54 26 62.1 3533 8976 12b 33 06 58.0 2025 5634 12b 53 1 62.2 3454 8819 13a 31 36 58.0 1953 5542 13a 53 1 62.6 3453 9192 13b 32 26 58.0 2019 5691 13b 53 12 62.5 3439 9238 14a 30 16 58.0 1886 5283 14a 54 16 62.5 3527 8986 14b 32 02 58.1 2008 5558 14b 53 16 62.5 3450 8749 15a 30 16 58.3 1872 5268 15a 48 12 62.5 3114 8276 15b 32 26 58.3 2029 5787 15b 48 0 62.9 3127 8240 16a 36 12 58.0 2225 6752 16a 56 26 62.4 3710 10717 16b 36 04 57.5 2233 6730 16b 55 02 62.3 3607 10332 17a 27 34 58.1 1747 4827 17a 21 04 62.8 1370 3288 17b 27 22 58.1 1685 4762 17b 21 14 62.8 1389 3292 18a 18 14 58.5 1168 3161 18a 46 14 62.6 3006 7889 18b 18 26 58.5 1195 3335 18b 46 06 62.8 3009 7737 19 23 14 57.2 1479 4132 19 46 26 62.9 3054 7577 20 12 14 57.3 818 2335 20 17 26 62.5 1137 2609 21 20 14 58.1 1273 3465 21 27 24 62.5 1796 4279 22 20 02 58.0 1250 3430 22 29 3 62.4 1907 4599 - - - - - - -

The ninth season (1851-2), was unusually cold in June and wet in August. It will be seen that the wheat, both in quantity and quality, is the poorest since the commencement of the experiments. The unmanured plot gave less than 14 bushels of dressed grain per acre; the plot with barn-yard manure, less than 28 bushels, and the best yield in the whole series was not quite 29 bushels per acre, and only weighed 55 lbs. per bushel. On the same plot, the year before, with precisely the same manure, the yield was nearly 37 bushels per acre, and the weight per bushel, 63-1/2 lbs. So much for a favorable and an unfavorable season.

The tenth season (1852-3), was still more unfavorable. The autumn of 1852 was so wet that it was impossible to work the land and sow the wheat until the 16th of March 1853.

Previous Part     1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11     Next Part
Home - Random Browse