HotFreeBooks.com
Talks on Manures
by Joseph Harris
Previous Part     1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11
Home - Random Browse

The greatest difficulty that we have to encounter in the management of manure grows out of our dry summers. During our summer months, unless sufficient moisture is obtained, the manure dries out rapidly, becomes fire-fanged and practically worthless. My practice upon the College farm has been to give the bottom of the barn-yard a "dishing" form, so that it holds all the water that falls upon it. The manure I keep as flat as possible, taking pains to place it where the animals will keep it trod down solid. I have adopted this plan after having tried composting and piling the manure in the yards, and am satisfied that it is the only practical way to manage manures in this climate.

There is no particular crop to which manure is generally applied in this State, unless, perhaps, wheat. The practice of applying manure as a top-dressing to winter-wheat, is rapidly gaining ground here. It is found that the manure thus applied, acting as a mulch, mitigates the effects of drouth, besides improving the quality of the grain.

Very Respectfully Yours,

E. M. SHELTON.

Letter from Prof. W. H. Brewer, Professor of Agriculture in Sheffield Scientific School of Yale College.

SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL OF YALE COLLEGE,

NEW HAVEN, Conn., April 14th, 1876.

Joseph Harris, Esq., Rochester, N.Y.:

MY DEAR SIR.—I have made inquiries relating to "the price of stable-manure in New Haven, and how far the farmers and gardeners haul it, etc." I have not been to the horse-car stables, but I have to several livery stables, and they are all essentially the same.

They say that but little is sold by the cord or ton, or by any weight or measure. It is sold either "in the lump," "by the month," "by the year," or "per horse." Some sell it at a given sum per month for all their horses, on a general estimate of their horses—thus, one man says, "I get, this year, $25 per month for all my manure, he to remove it as fast as it accumulates; say one, two, or three times per week. He hauls it about five miles and composts it all before using."

Another says, he sells per horse. "I get, this year, $13 per horse, they to haul it." The price per horse ranges from $10 to $15 per year, the latter sum being high.

From the small or private stables, the manure is generally "lumped" by private contract, and is largely used about the city. It is hauled sometimes as much as 10 miles, but usually much less.

But the larger stables often sell per shipment—it is sent by cars up the Connecticut Valley to Westfield, etc., where it is often hauled several miles from the railroad or river.

Much manure is sent by boat from New York to the Connecticut Valley tobacco lands. Boats ("barges") are even loaded in Albany, go down the Hudson, up the Sound to Connecticut, to various places near Hartford, I am told. Two or three years ago, a man came here and exhibited to us pressed masses of manure—a patent had been taken out for pressing it, to send by R.R. (stable manure). I never heard anything more about it—and he was confident and enthusiastic about it.

Yours truly,

WM. H. BREWER.

FOOD, INCREASE, MANURE, ETC., OF FATTENING ANIMALS.

The following table is given by Mr. J. B. Lawes, of Rothamsted, England, showing the relation of the increase, manure, and loss by respiration, to the food consumed by different animals:

[Transcriber's Note:

The table headers as printed are difficult to interpret. I have given my best guess about what the author intended.]

250/600/3500 (Oxen): 250 lbs. Oil-cake } 600 lbs. Clover-chaff } 3500 lbs. Swede turnips } Produce 100 lbs. Increase and supply: 250/300/4000 (Sheep) 250 lbs. Oil-cake } 300 lbs. Clover-chaff } 4000 lbs. Swede turnips } Produce 100 lbs. Increase and supply: 500 lbs. Barley meal (Pigs) produce 100 lbs. increase and supply:

(In) Food. 100 I: In 100 lbs. Increase. (In) Man(ure). (In) Resp(iration, etc). 100 Total Dry (Substance of Food supply.) (In) Inc(rease). Amount (of each constituent) stored (up for 100 of it consumed).

OXEN. -+ -+ + - 250/600/3500 100 Total Dry A S + + -+ -+ + -+ + -+ m t Food 100 I Man. Resp. Inc. Man. Resp. t d. -+ + -+ -+ + -+ + -+ - lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. Nitrogenous substance 218 9.0} { 0.8} { 4.1 Non-Nitrogenous } 323.0 636{ } 29.1 57.3{ substance 808 58.0} { 5.2} { 7.2 Mineral Matter 83 1.6 81.4 .. 0.2 7.4 .. 1.9 Total dry substance 1109 68.6 404.4 636 6.2 36.5 57.3 .. -+ + -+ -+ + -+ + -+ - SHEEP. -+ -+ + - 250/300/4000 100 Total Dry A S + + -+ -+ + -+ + -+ m t Food 100 I Man. Resp. Inc. Man. Resp. t d. -+ + -+ -+ + -+ + -+ - lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. Nitrogenous substance 177 7.5} { { 0.8} { 4.2 Non-Nitrogenous } 229{ 548.5{ } 25.1 60.1{ substance 671 63.0} { { 7.0} { 9.4 Mineral Matter 64 2.0 62 .. 0.2 6.8 .. 3.1 Total dry substance 912 72.5 291 548.5 8.0 31.9 60.1 .. -+ + -+ -+ + -+ + -+ - PIGS. -+ -+ + - 500 lbs. Barley meal 100 Total Dry A S + + -+ -+ + -+ + -+ m t Food 100 I Man. Resp. Inc. Man. Resp. t d. -+ + -+ -+ + -+ + -+ - lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. Nitrogenous substance 52 7.0} { { 1.7} { 13.5 Non-Nitrogenous } 59.8{ 276.2{ } 14.3 65.7{ substance 357 66.0} { { 15.7} { 18.5 Mineral Matter 11 0.8 10.2 .. 0.2 2.4 .. 7.3 Total dry substance 420 73.8 70.0 276.2 17.6 16.7 65.7 .. -+ + -+ -+ + -+ + -+ -

In the last edition of his book on Manure, "Praktische Duengerlehre," Dr. Emil Wolff, gives the following tables:

Of 100 lbs. of dry substance in the food, there is found in the excrements:

+ -+ -+ -+ -+ - Dry Substance. Cow Ox Sheep Horse Mean + -+ -+ -+ -+ - In the Dung 38.0 lbs. 45.6 lbs. 46.9 lbs. 42.0 lbs. 43.1 lbs. In the Urine 9.1 " 5.8 " 6.6 " 3.6 " 6.3 " Total dry substance in the Manure 47.1 " 51.4 " 53.5 " 45.6 " 49.4 " + -+ -+ -+ -+ -

Of 100 lbs. of organic substance in the food, there is found in the excrements:

+ -+ -+ -+ -+ - Organic Cow Ox Sheep Horse Mean Substance. + -+ -+ -+ -+ - In the Dung 36.5 lbs. 43.9 lbs. 45.6 lbs. 38.2 lbs. 41.0 lbs. In the Urine 6.0 " 3.2 " 3.9 " 2.5 " 3.9 " Total organic substance in Manure 42.5 " 47.1 " 49.5 " 40.7 " 44.9 " + -+ -+ -+ -+ -

Of 100 lbs. of nitrogen in the food, there is found in the excrements:

+ -+ -+ -+ -+ - Nitrogen. Cow Ox Sheep Horse Mean + -+ -+ -+ -+ - In the Dung 45.5 lbs. 51.0 lbs. 43.7 lbs. 56.1 lbs. 49.1 lbs. In the Urine 18.3 " 38.6 " 51.8 " 27.3 " 34.0 " Total Nitrogen in Manure 63.8 " 89.6 " 95.5 " 83.4 " 83.1 " + -+ -+ -+ -+ -

Of 100 lbs. mineral matter in the food, there is found in the excrements:

+ -+ -+ -+ -+ - Mineral Matter. Cow Ox Sheep Horse Mean + -+ -+ -+ -+ - In the Dung 53.9 lbs. 70.8 lbs. 63.2 lbs. 85.6 lbs. 68.4 lbs. In the Urine 43.1 " 46.7 " 40.3 " 16.3 " 35.1 " Total mineral matter in Manure 97.0 " 117.5 " 103.5 " 101.9 " 103. 5 " + -+ -+ -+ -+ -

The excess of mineral matter is due to the mineral matter in the water drank by the animals.

The following tables of analyses are copied in full from the last edition (1875), of Dr. Emil Wolff's Praktische Duengerlehre.

The figures differ materially in many cases from those previously published. They represent the average results of numerous reliable analyses, and are sufficiently accurate for all practical purposes connected with the subject of manures. In special cases, it will be well to consult actual analyses of the articles to be used.

I.—TABLES FOR CALCULATING THE EXHAUSTION AND ENRICHING OF SOILS.

A.—HARVEST PRODUCTS AND VARIOUS MANUFACTURED ARTICLES. Average quantity of water, nitrogen, and total ash, and the different ingredients of the ash in 1000 lbs. of fresh or air-dried substance.

W Water. N Nitrogen. A Ash. P Potash. S Soda. L Lime. M Magnesia. PhA Phosphoric Acid. SA Sulphuric Acid. S&S Silica and Sand.

- - Substance. W N A P S L M PhA SA S&S - - I. HAY. Meadow Hay 143 15.5 51.5 13.2 2.3 8.6 3.3 4.1 2.4 13.9 Rye Grass 143 16.3 58.2 20.2 2.0 4.3 1.3 6.2 2.3 18.5 Timothy 143 15.5 62.1 20.4 1.5 4.5 1.9 7.2 1.8 22.1 Moharhay 134 17.3 58.4 21.2 1.2 6.1 5.4 3.4 2.1 16.3 Red Clover 160 19.7 56.9 18.3 1.2 20.0 6.1 5.6 1.7 1.4 Red Clover, ripe 150 12.5 44.0 9.8 1.4 15.6 6.8 4.3 1.3 3.0 White Clover 165 23.2 59.8 10.1 4.5 19.3 6.0 8.4 4.9 2.5 Alsike Clover 160 24.0 39.7 11.0 1.2 13.5 5.0 4.0 1.6 1.6 Crimson Clover 167 19.5 50.7 11.7 4.3 16.0 3.1 3.6 1.3 8.2 Lucern 160 23.0 62.1 15.3 1.3 26.2 3.3 5.5 3.7 3.8 Esparsette 167 21.3 45.8 13.0 1.5 16.8 3.0 4.6 1.4 3.7 Yellow Clover 167 22.1 55.7 11.9 1.3 32.6 2.1 4.3 1.0 1.5 Green Vetch Hay 167 22.7 83.7 28.3 5.6 22.8 5.4 10.7 2.8 4.9 Green Pea Hay 167 22.9 62.4 23.2 2.3 15.6 6.3 6.8 5.1 0.9 Spurry 167 19.2 56.8 19.9 4.6 10.9 6.9 8.4 2.0 0.8

II. GREEN FODDER. Meadow Grass 700 5.4 18.1 4.6 0.8 3.0 1.1 1.5 0.8 4.9 in bloom Young Grass 800 5.6 20.7 11.6 0.4 2.2 0.6 2.2 0.8 2.1 Rye Grass 734 5.7 20.4 7.2 0.7 1.5 0.4 2.2 0.8 6.5 Timothy Grass 700 5.4 21.6 7.4 0.5 1.6 0.7 2.5 0.6 7.7 Rye-Fodder 760 5.3 16.3 6.3 0.1 1.2 0.5 2.4 0.2 5.2 Green Oats 810 3.7 18.8 7.5 0.6 1.2 0.6 1.7 0.6 5.7 Green Corn-Fodder 822 1.9 12.0 4.3 0.5 1.6 1.4 1.3 0.4 1.7 Sorghum 773 4.0 13.0 3.6 1.8 1.2 0.5 0.8 0.4 3.7 Moharhay 700 5.9 13.9 5.0 0.3 1.4 1.3 0.8 0.5 3.9 Red Clover 780 5.1 13.7 4.4 0.3 4.8 1.5 1.4 0.4 0.3 in blossom " " before " 830 5.3 14.5 5.3 0.3 4.2 1.5 1.7 0.3 0.4 White Clover 805 5.6 13.6 2.3 1.0 4.4 1.4 1.9 1.1 0.6 Alsike Clover 820 5.3 8.8 2.4 0.3 3.0 1.1 0.9 0.4 0.4 Crimson Clover 815 4.3 12.2 2.8 1.0 3.8 0.7 0.9 0.3 2.0 Lucern 740 7.2 18.7 4.6 0.4 7.9 1.0 1.6 1.1 1.1 Esparsette 800 5.1 12.1 3.4 0.4 4.4 0.8 1.2 0.4 1.0 Yellow Clover 830 4.5 14.7 3.2 0.3 8.6 0.6 1.1 0.3 0.4 Green Vetch 820 5.6 18.1 6.1 1.2 4.9 1.2 2.3 0.6 1.1 Green Peas 815 5.1 13.9 5.1 0.5 3.5 1.4 1.5 1.1 0.2 Green Rape 870 4.6 12.2 4.0 0.4 2.7 0.5 1.4 1.7 0.6 Spurry 800 3.7 12.2 4.3 1.0 2.3 1.5 1.8 0.4 0.2

III. ROOT CROPS. Potatoes 750 3.4 9.4 5.7 0.2 0.2 0.4 1.6 0.6 0.2 Jerusalem 800 3.2 9.8 4.7 1.0 0.3 0.3 1.4 0.5 1.0 Artichoke Mangel-wurzel 880 1.8 7.5 4.1 1.2 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.2 0.2 Sugar Beets 815 1.6 7.1 3.9 0.7 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.3 0.1 Turnips 920 1.8 7.3 3.3 0.7 0.8 0.3 0.9 0.8 0.1 Carrots 850 2.2 7.8 2.8 1.7 0.9 0.4 1.0 0.5 0.2 Russia Turnips 870 2.1 11.6 4.7 1.2 1.3 0.3 1.7 1.5 0.1 Succory 800 2.5 6.7 2.6 1.1 0.5 0.3 0.8 0.5 0.3 Sugar Beet, upper part of root 840 2.0 9.6 2.8 2.3 0.9 1.1 1.2 0.7 0.2

IV. LEAVES & STEMS OF ROOT CROPS. Potato Vines, 770 4.9 19.7 4.3 0.4 6.4 3.3 1.6 1.3 0.9 nearly ripe Potato Vines, unripe 825 6.3 16.5 4.4 0.3 5.1 2.4 1.2 0.8 1.2 Jerusalem Artichoke 800 5.3 14.5 3.1 0.2 5.0 1.3 0.7 0.2 3.6 Mangel-wurzel 905 3.0 14.1 4.1 2.9 1.6 1.3 0.8 0.8 0.5 Sugar Beets 897 3.0 8.1 6.5 2.7 2.7 2.7 1.3 0.9 0.7 Turnips 898 3.0 11.9 2.8 1.1 3.9 0.5 0.9 1.1 0.5 Carrots 822 5.1 26.0 2.9 5.2 8.5 0.9 1.2 2.0 2.9 Succory 850 3.5 16.5 4.3 2.9 3.2 0.4 1.0 1.4 0.6 Russia Turnips 850 4.6 25.3 3.7 1.0 8.4 1.0 2.6 3.0 2.6 Cabbage, white 890 2.4 16.0 6.3 0.9 3.1 0.6 1.4 2.4 0.2 Cabbage Stems 820 1.8 11.6 5.1 0.6 1.3 0.5 2.4 0.9 0.2

V. MANUFACTURED PRODUCTS & REFUSE. Wheat Bran 131 22.4 53.5 14.3 0.2 1.7 8.8 27.3 0.1 0.5 Rye Bran 125 23.2 71.4 19.3 1.0 2.5 11.3 34.3 .. 1.4 Barley Bran 120 23.7 48.4 8.1 0.7 1.8 3.0 8.9 0.9 23.6 Oat Hulls 140 .. 34.7 4.9 0.3 1.4 1.0 1.6 1.3 23.3 Pea Bran 140 .. 22.7 10.3 0.2 4.1 2.2 3.1 0.9 0.9 Buckwheat Bran 140 27.2 34.6 11.2 0.7 3.4 4.6 12.5 1.0 0.7 Wheat Flour 136 18.9 7.2 2.6 0.1 0.2 0.4 3.7 .. .. Rye Flour 142 16.8 16.9 6.5 0.3 0.2 1.4 8.5 .. .. Barley Meal 140 16.0 20.0 5.8 0.5 0.6 2.7 9.5 0.6 .. Corn Meal 140 16.0 5.9 1.7 0.2 0.4 0.9 2.6 .. .. Green Malt 475 10.4 14.6 2.5 .. 9.5 1.2 5.3 .. 4.8 Dry Malt 75 16.0 26.6 4.6 .. 1.0 2.2 9.7 .. 8.8 Brewer's Grains 766 7.8 11.7 0.5 0.1 1.3 1.0 4.1 .. 4.6 Beer 900 .. 6.2 2.1 0.6 0.2 0.4 2.0 0.2 0.6 Malt-sprouts 80 36.8 66.7 20.6 1.2 1.9 1.8 18.0 2.9 14.7 Potato Fibre 850 1.3 1.8 0.3 .. 0.9 0.1 0.4 .. 0.1 Potato Slump 948 1.6 5.0 2.2 0.4 0.3 0.4 1.0 0.4 0.2 Sugar-beet Pomace 700 2.9 11.4 3.9 0.9 2.6 0.7 1.1 0.4 0.9 Clarifying Refuse 948 0.8 3.3 0.3 0.1 1.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.7 Sugar-beet Molasses 172 12.8 82.3 57.5 10.0 4.7 0.3 0.5 1.7 0.3 Molasses Slump 920 3.2 14.0 11.0 1.5 0.2 .. 0.1 0.2 .. Rape-cake 150 48.5 54.6 12.4 1.8 6.8 7.0 19.2 3.2 2.8 Linseed Oil-cake 115 45.3 50.8 12.4 0.7 4.3 8.1 16.1 1.6 6.4 Poppy-cake 100 52.0 76.9 2.3 2.3 27.0 6.2 31.2 1.9 4.5 Beech-nut-cake 100 38.1 43.3 6.5 4.6 13.2 3.6 9.7 0.6 0.8 Walnut-cake 137 55.3 46.2 14.3 .. 3.1 5.6 20.2 0.6 0.7 Cotton-seed-cake 115 39.0 58.4 14.6 .. 2.7 8.9 28.1 0.7 2.3 Cocoanut-cake 127 37.4 55.1 22.4 1.3 2.6 1.6 14.9 2.1 1.9 Palm-oil-cake 100 25.9 26.1 5.0 0.2 3.1 4.5 11.0 0.5 0.8

VI. STRAW. Winter Wheat 143 4.8 46.1 6.3 0.6 2.7 1.1 2.2 1.1 31.2 Winter Spelt 143 4.0 50.1 5.2 0.3 2.9 1.2 2.6 1.2 36.0 Winter Rye 143 4.0 40.5 7.8 0.9 3.5 1.1 2.1 1.1 22.9 Spring Wheat 143 5.6 38.1 11.0 1.0 2.6 0.9 2.0 1.2 18.2 Spring Rye 143 5.6 46.6 11.2 .. 4.2 1.8 3.0 1.2 26.1 Barley 143 6.4 41.3 9.4 1.7 3.2 1.1 1.9 1.5 21.5 Oats 143 5.6 40.4 8.9 1.2 3.6 1.6 1.9 1.3 19.6 Indian Corn-stalks 150 4.8 41.9 9.6 6.1 4.0 2.6 5.3 1.2 11.7 Buckwheat Straw 160 13.0 51.7 24.2 1.1 9.5 1.9 6.1 2.7 2.9 Pea Straw 160 10.4 44.0 10.1 1.8 16.2 3.5 3.5 2.7 3.0 Field Bean 160 16.3 43.9 18.5 1.1 9.8 3.3 3.2 1.6 3.2 Garden Bean 160 .. 40.0 12.8 3.2 11.1 2.5 3.9 1.7 1.9 Common Vetch 160 12.0 44.1 6.3 6.9 15.6 3.7 2.7 3.3 3.6 Lupine 160 9.4 41.4 8.0 2.6 14.8 3.6 3.7 3.0 2.1 Rape 160 5.6 40.8 11.1 3.8 11.6 2.5 2.4 3.1 2.6 Poppy 160 .. 48.7 18.4 0.6 14.7 3.1 1.6 2.5 5.5

VII. CHAFF. Winter Wheat 143 7.2 92.5 8.5 1.7 1.8 1.2 4.0 .. 75.1 Spring Wheat 143 7.5 121.4 4.8 1.0 4.0 1.5 3.1 0.7 105.3 Winter Spelt 143 5.6 82.7 7.9 0.2 2.0 2.1 6.1 1.9 61.3 Winter Rye 143 5.8 84.0 5.3 0.3 3.5 1.2 5.6 0.1 69.2 Barley Awns 143 4.8 120.0 9.4 1.2 12.7 1.6 2.4 3.7 86.6 Oats 143 6.4 71.2 4.6 2.9 4.0 1.5 1.3 3.5 50.4 Indian Corn-cobs 140 2.3 4.6 2.4 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 1.3 Field Beans 150 16.8 54.5 35.3 1.3 6.8 5.9 2.7 1.2 0.3 Lupine 143 7.2 18.1 8.7 0.7 3.6 1.5 1.1 0.5 0.9 Rape 140 6.4 73.2 11.8 4.4 36.3 4.2 3.4 7.3 1.0 Flax-seed hulls 120 .. 54.7 15.4 3.0 15.4 3.3 4.5 3.4 5.0

VIII. COMMERCIAL PLANTS, ETC. Flax Stems 140 .. 30.4 9.4 2.5 6.8 2.0 4.0 2.0 1.7 Rotted Flax Stems 100 .. 7.0 0.3 0.2 3.6 0.2 0.8 0.2 1.3 Flax Fibre 100 .. 6.8 0.3 0.3 3.6 0.3 0.7 0.3 0.8 Hemp Stems 150 .. 33.2 4.6 0.7 20.3 2.4 2.3 0.7 3.5 Hops, entire plant 140 .. 81.4 20.1 2.8 18.1 6.4 7.5 3.7 16.4 Hops 120 .. 66.8 23.0 1.4 11.1 3.7 11.2 2.4 11.1 Hop Stems 160 .. 40.7 11.4 1.7 12.6 2.7 4.4 1.3 3.4 Tobacco Leaves 180 .. 151.0 30.3 5.1 62.8 17.7 4.8 5.8 13.5 Wine and Must 866 .. 2.1 1.3 .. 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.1 .. Wine-grounds 650 .. 13.9 6.1 0.2 2.9 0.7 2.5 0.6 0.2 Grape Stems, etc. 550 .. 13.0 4.0 1.4 4.5 0.7 1.6 0.3 0.2 Mulberry Leaves 850 .. 16.3 3.9 0.2 5.4 1.0 1.3 0.3 4.1

IX. MATERIALS FOR BEDDING. Reed 180 .. 36.7 6.8 0.2 3.3 1.1 2.3 0.6 20.0 Sedge Grass 140 .. 61.2 17.7 4.9 4.2 2.9 4.6 2.3 20.3 Rush 140 .. 48.1 19.0 3.1 3.6 3.1 4.3 1.3 6.8 Beech Leaves, August 560 .. 19.0 3.7 0.4 6.4 1.4 1.8 0.4 3.8 " " Autumn 150 8.0 58.5 2.3 0.4 26.4 3.5 2.4 2.1 19.7 Oak Leaves, August 550 .. 15.8 5.4 .. 4.1 2.1 1.9 0.4 0.7 " " Autumn 150 8.0 41.7 1.4 0.3 20.3 1.7 3.5 1.8 12.9 Fir Needles 475 5.0 18.4 1.0 0.3 6.1 1.1 1.0 0.4 6.3 Pine " 450 .. 32.0 0.6 0.1 4.3 0.5 1.4 0.6 22.6 Moss 250 .. 19.2 2.6 1.6 2.2 1.1 0.9 1.0 5.5 Fern 250 .. 50.7 18.0 2.1 6.2 3.5 4.2 1.8 10.3 Heath 200 10.0 16.6 2.1 1.1 3.6 1.6 1.1 0.7 4.9 Broom 250 .. 13.6 4.8 0.3 2.2 1.6 1.1 0.4 1.3 Sea-Weed 150 14.0 122.3 15.9 28.1 16.7 10.0 3.8 26.3 2.5

X. GRAINS AND SEEDS. Winter Wheat 144 20.8 16.9 5.3 0.4 0.6 2.0 7.9 0.1 0.4 Spring Wheat 143 20.5 18.3 5.5 0.4 0.5 2.2 8.9 0.3 0.3 Spelt, without husk 143 22.0 14.2 5.1 0.5 0.4 1.7 6.0 .. 0.2 Spelt, with husk 148 16.0 36.6 5.7 0.4 1.0 2.4 7.6 1.1 17.1 Winter Rye 143 17.6 17.9 5.6 0.3 0.5 2.1 8.4 0.2 0.4 Winter Barley 145 16.0 17.0 2.6 0.7 0.2 2.1 5.6 0.5 4.9 Spring Barley 143 16.0 22.2 4.5 0.6 0.6 1.9 7.7 0.4 6.1 Oats 143 19.2 27.0 4.4 0.6 1.0 1.9 6.2 0.4 12.8 Millet 140 20.3 29.8 3.4 0.4 0.2 2.9 5.9 0.1 15.8 Indian Corn 144 16.0 13.0 3.7 0.2 0.3 2.0 5.9 0.2 0.2 Sorghum 140 .. 16.0 3.3 0.5 0.2 2.4 8.1 .. 1.2 Buckwheat 140 14.4 11.8 2.7 0.7 0.5 1.5 5.7 0.2 0.1 Peas 143 35.8 23.5 9.8 0.2 1.2 1.9 8.6 0.8 0.2 Field Beans 145 40.8 30.7 13.1 0.4 1.5 2.2 11.9 0.8 0.2 Garden Beans 150 39.0 27.4 12.0 0.4 1.8 2.0 9.7 1.1 0.2 Vetch 143 44.0 26.8 8.1 2.1 2.1 2.4 10.0 1.0 0.3 Lupine 130 56.6 34.1 10.2 0.1 3.0 4.0 14.3 1.5 0.2 Red Clover 150 30.5 38.3 13.5 0.4 2.5 4.9 14.5 0.9 0.5 White Clover 150 .. 33.8 12.3 0.2 2.5 3.9 11.6 1.6 0.8 Esparsette 160 .. 38.4 11.0 1.1 12.3 2.6 9.2 1.2 0.3 Ruta-bagas 140 .. 48.8 9.1 8.5 7.6 8.6 7.6 2.1 1.1 Sugar-Beet 146 .. 45.3 11.1 4.2 10.2 7.3 7.5 2.0 0.8 Carrots 120 .. 74.8 14.3 3.5 29.1 5.0 11.8 4.2 4.0 Succory 130 .. 54.6 6.5 4.6 17.3 5.9 16.5 2.4 0.6 Turnips 125 .. 34.6 7.6 0.4 6.1 3.1 14.0 2.5 0.2 Rape 118 31.2 39.1 9.6 0.6 5.5 4.6 16.5 0.9 0.5 Summer-Rape 120 .. 34.9 7.7 .. 5.2 4.7 14.9 2.3 .. Mustard 130 .. 36.5 5.9 2.0 7.0 3.7 14.6 1.8 0.9 Poppy 147 28.0 52.9 7.2 0.5 18.7 5.0 16.6 1.0 1.7 Linseed 118 32.8 32.6 10.0 0.7 2.6 4.7 13.5 0.8 0.4 Hemp 122 26.1 45.3 9.4 0.4 10.9 2.6 16.9 0.1 5.5 Grape-Seeds 110 .. 25.0 7.2 .. 8.4 2.1 6.0 0.6 0.3 Horse-chestnuts, 492 10.2 12.0 7.1 .. 1.4 0.1 2.7 0.3 0.3 fresh Acorns, fresh 560 .. 9.6 6.2 0.1 0.7 0.5 1.4 0.4 0.1

XI. VARIOUS ANIMAL PRODUCTS Cows' Milk 875 5.1 6.2 1.5 0.6 1.3 0.2 1.7 .. .. Sheep 860 5.5 8.4 1.8 0.3 2.5 0.1 3.0 0.1 0.2 Cheese 450 45.3 67.4 2.5 26.6 6.9 0.2 11.5 .. .. Ox-blood 790 32.0 7.5 0.6 3.4 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.2 0.1 Calf-blood 800 29.0 7.1 0.8 2.9 0.1 0.1 0.6 0.1 .. Sheep-blood 790 32.0 7.5 0.5 3.3 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.1 .. Swine-blood 800 29.0 7.1 1.5 2.2 0.1 0.1 0.9 0.1 .. Ox-flesh 770 36.0 12.6 5.2 .. 0.2 0.4 4.3 0.4 0.3 Calf flesh 780 34.9 12.0 4.1 1.0 0.2 0.2 5.8 .. 0.1 Swine-flesh 740 34.7 10.4 3.9 0.5 0.8 0.5 4.6 .. .. Living Ox 597 26.6 46.6 1.7 1.4 20.8 0.6 18.6 .. 0.1 Living Calf 662 25.0 38.0 2.4 0.6 16.3 0.5 13.8 .. 0.1 Living Sheep 591 22.4 31.7 1.5 1.4 13.2 0.4 12.8 .. 0.2 Living Swine 528 20.0 21.6 1.8 0.2 9.2 0.4 8.8 .. .. Eggs 672 21.8 61.8 1.5 1.4 54.0 1.0 3.7 0.1 0.1 Wool, washed 120 94.4 9.7 1.8 0.3 2.4 0.6 0.3 .. 2.5 Wool, unwashed 150 54.0 98.8 74.6 1.9 4.2 1.6 1.1 4.0 3.0 - -

B.—AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF VARIOUS MANURES.

W Water. OS Organic Substance. A Ash. N Nitrogen. P Potash. S Soda. L Lime. M Magnesia. PhA Phosphoric Acid. SA Sulphuric Acid. S&S Silica and Sand. C&F Chlorine and Florine.

- - Name of Fertilizer. W OS A N P S L M PhA SA S&S C&F - - I. Animal Excrements. (In 1000 parts of Manure.) Fresh Faeces: Horse 757 211 31.6 4.4 3.5 0.6 1.5 1.2 3.5 0.6 19.6 0.2 Cattle 838 145 17.2 2.9 1.0 0.2 3.4 1.3 1.7 0.4 7.2 0.2 Sheep 655 314 31.1 5.5 1.5 1.0 4.6 1.5 3.1 1.4 17.5 0.3 Swine 820 150 30.0 6.0 2.6 2.5 0.9 1.0 4.1 0.4 15.0 0.3 Fresh Urine: Horse 901 71 28.0 15.5 15.0 2.5 4.5 2.4 .. 0.6 0.8 1.5 Cattle 938 35 27.4 5.8 4.9 6.4 0.1 0.4 .. 1.3 0.3 3.8 Sheep 872 83 45.2 19.5 22.6 5.4 1.6 3.4 0.1 3.0 0.1 6.5 Swine 967 28 15.0 4.3 8.3 2.1 .. 0.8 0.7 0.8 .. 2.3 Fresh Dung (with straw:)[A] Horse 713 254 32.6 5.8 5.3 1.0 2.1 1.4 2.8 0.7 17.7 0.4 Cattle 775 203 21.8 3.4 4.0 1.4 3.1 1.1 1.6 0.6 8.5 1.0 Sheep 646 318 35.6 8.3 6.7 2.2 3.3 1.8 2.3 1.5 14.7 1.7 Swine 724 250 25.6 4.5 6.0 2.0 0.8 0.9 1.9 0.8 10.8 1.7 Common Barn-yard Manure: Fresh 710 246 44.1 4.5 5.2 1.5 5.7 1.4 2.1 1.2 12.5 1.5 Moderately rotted 750 192 58.0 5.0 6.3 1.9 7.0 1.8 2.6 1.6 16.8 1.9 Thoroughly rotted 790 145 65.0 5.8 5.0 1.3 8.8 1.8 3.0 1.3 17.0 1.6 Drainage from Barn-yard Manure 982 7 10.7 1.5 4.9 1.0 0.3 0.4 0.1 0.7 0.2 1.2 Human Faeces, fresh 772 198 29.9 10.0 2.5 1.6 6.2 3.6 10.9 0.8 1.9 0.4 " Urine, " 963 24 13.5 6.0 2.0 4.6 0.2 0.2 1.7 0.4 .. 5.0 Mixed human excrements, fresh 933 51 16.0 7.0 2.1 3.8 0.9 0.6 2.6 0.5 0.2 4.0 Mixed human excrements, mostly liquid 955 30 15.0 3.5 2.0 3.0 1.0 0.6 2.8 0.4 0.2 4.3 Dove Manure, fresh 519 308 173.0 17.6 10.0 0.7 16.0 5.0 17.8 3.3 20.2 .. Hen " " 560 255 185.0 16.3 8.5 1.0 24.0 7.4 15.4 4.5 35.2 .. Duck " " 566 262 172.0 10.0 6.2 0.5 17.0 3.5 14.0 3.5 28.0 .. Geese " " 771 134 95.0 5.5 9.5 1.3 8.4 2.0 5.4 1.4 14.0 .. II. Commercial Manures. (In 100 parts of Fertilizer.) Peruvian Guano 14.8 51.4 33.8 13.0 2.3 1.4 11.0 1.2 13.0 1.0 1.7 1.3 Norway Fish-Guano 12.6 53.4 34.0 9.0 0.3 0.9 15.4 0.6 13.5 0.3 1.6 1.1 Poudrette 24.0 27.0 49.0 2.0 0.9 1.0 18.6 0.5 2.1 1.0 5.4 1.5 Pulverized Dead Animals 5.7 56.9 37.4 6.5 0.3 0.8 18.2 0.4 13.9 1.0 1.7 0.2 Flesh-Meal 27.8 56.6 15.6 9.7 .. .. 7.0 0.3 6.3 0.1 1.1 .. Dried Blood 14.0 79.0 7.0 11.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.1 1.0 0.4 2.1 0.4 Horn-Meal and Shavings 8.5 68.5 25.0 10.2 .. .. 6.6 0.3 5.5 0.9 11.0 .. Bone-Meal 6.0 33.3 60.7 3.8 0.2 0.3 31.3 1.0 23.2 0.1 3.5 0.3 Bone-Meal from solid parts 5.0 31.5 63.5 3.5 0.1 0.2 33.0 1.0 25.2 0.1 3.0 0.2 Bone-Meal from soft parts 7.0 37.3 55.7 4.0 0.2 0.3 29.0 1.0 20.0 0.1 3.5 0.2 Bone-black, before used 6.0 10.0 84.0 1.0 0.1 0.3 43.0 1.1 32.0 0.4 5.0 .. Bone-black, spent 10.0 6.0 84.0 0.5 0.1 0.2 37.0 1.1 26.0 0.4 15.0 .. Bone ash 6.0 3.0 91.0 .. 0.3 0.6 46.0 1.2 35.4 0.4 6.5 .. Baker Guano 10.0 9.2 81.0 0.5 0.2 1.2 41.5 1.5 34.8 1.5 0.8 0.3 Jarvis Guano 11.8 8.2 80.0 0.4 0.4 0.3 39.1 0.5 20.6 18.0 0.5 0.2 Estremadura Apatite 0.6 .. .. .. 0.7 0.3 48.1 0.1 37.6 0.2 9.0 1.5 Sombrero Phosphate 8.5 .. 91.5 0.1 .. 0.8 43.5 0.6 35.0 0.5 1.0 0.6 Navassa Phosphate 2.6 5.4 92.0 0.1 .. .. 37.5 0.6 33.2 0.5 5.0 0.1 Nassau Phosphorite, rich 2.6 .. 97.4 .. 0.8 0.4 45.1 0.2 33.0 0.3 5.5 3.1 Nassau Phosphorite, medium 2.5 .. 97.5 .. 0.7 0.4 40.1 0.2 24.1 .. 20.8 1.5 Westphalian Phos- phorite 6.5 1.6 91.8 .. .. .. 21.8 0.9 19.7 1.0 22.0 1.6 Hanover Phos- phorite 2.0 3.5 94.5 .. .. .. 37.2 0.2 29.2 0.5 3.3 1.5 Coprolites 4.3 .. 95.7 .. 1.0 0.5 45.4 1.0 26.4 0.8 7.5 0.1 Sulphate of Ammonia 4.0 .. .. 20.0 .. .. 0.5 .. .. 58.0 3.0 1.4 Nitrate of Soda 2.6 .. .. 15.5 .. 35.0 0.2 .. .. 0.7 1.5 1.7 Wool-dust and offal 10.0 56.0 34.0 5.2 0.3 0.1 1.4 0.3 1.3 0.5 29.0 0.2 Lime-cake 6.5 47.0 46.5 3.1 .. .. 20.5 2.4 3.0 .. 8.0 .. Whale-oil refuse 23.0 68.4 8.6 5.7 .. .. 3.0 0.2 2.3 .. 3.0 .. Common Salt 5.0 .. 95.0 .. .. 44.3 1.2 0.2 .. 1.4 2.0 48.2 Gypsum or Plaster 20.0 .. 80.8 .. .. .. 31.0 0.1 .. 44.0 4.0 .. Gas-lime 7.0 1.3 91.7 0.4 0.2 .. 64.5 1.5 .. 12.5 3.0 .. Sugar-House Scum 34.5 24.5 41.0 1.2 0.2 0.6 20.7 0.3 1.5 0.3 9.1 0.1 Leached wood ashes 20.0 5.0 75.0 .. 2.5 1.3 24.5 2.5 6.0 0.3 20.0 .. Wood-soot 5.0 71.8 23.2 1.3 2.4 0.5 10.0 1.5 0.4 0.3 4.0 .. Coal-soot 5.0 70.2 24.8 2.5 0.1 .. 4.0 1.5 .. 1.7 16.0 .. Ashes from Deciduous trees 5.0 5.0 90.0 .. 10.0 2.5 30.0 5.0 6.5 1.6 18.0 0.3 Ashes from Evergreen trees 5.0 5.0 90.0 .. 6.0 2.0 35.0 6.0 4.5 1.6 18.0 0.3 Peat-ashes 5.0 .. 95.0 .. 1.5 0.8 ? 1.5 0.6 1.3 ? 0.2 Bituminous coal-ashes 5.0 .. 95.0 .. 0.5 0.4 ? 3.2 0.2 3.5 ? .. Anthracite coal-ashes 5.0 5.0 90.0 .. 0.1 0.1 ? 3.0 0.1 5.0 ? .. III. Superphosphate, from Peruvian Guano 16.0 41.9 42.1 10.0 2.0 1.2 9.5 1.0 10.5 15.0 1.5 1.1 Baker Guano 15.0 6.2 78.8 0.3 0.1 0.8 25.9 0.9 21.8 28.5 0.9 0.2 Estremadura Apatite 15.0 .. 85.0 .. 0.4 0.2 28.2 0.1 22.1 28.5 5.3 0.9 Sombrero Phosphate 15.0 .. 85.0 .. .. 0.5 26.4 0.4 20.2 25.5 0.6 0.4 Navassa Phosphate 15.0 2.5 82.5 .. .. ? 17.0 0.3 15.4 19.5 2.3 ? Nassau Phosphorite, rich 15.0 .. 85.0 .. 0.5 0.2 26.5 0.1 19.4 25.5 3.2 1.8 Nassau Phosphorite, medium 12.0 .. 88.0 .. 0.3 0.1 24.2 0.1 16.6 19.5 13.5 1.3 Bone-black 15.0 8.0 77.0 0.3 .. 0.1 25.0 0.7 16.2 21.0 9.3 .. Bone-Meal 13.0 23.8 63.2 2.0 0.1 0.2 22.4 0.7 16.6 19.5 2.5 0.2 Phospho-guano (manu- factured.) 15.5 13.0 80.3 3.3 0.3 0.4 24.0 .. 20.5 28.8 3.0 0.9 - -

[A] It is estimated that in the case of horses, cattle, and swine, one-third of the urine drains away. The following is the amount of wheat-straw used daily as bedding for each animal. Horse, 6 lbs.; Cattle, 8 lbs.; Swine, 4 lbs., and sheep, 0.6 lbs.

2.—TABLE SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF INGREDIENTS IN SOME MANUFACTURING PROCESSES.

DS Dry Substance. N Nitrogen. A Ash. P Potash. L Lime. M Magnesia. PhA Phosphoric Acid.

+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ - Name of Material. DS N A P L M PhA + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ - 1. Brewing. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. 1000 lbs. Barley, contain 855 15.2 22.23 4.48 0.58 1.92 7.71 15 " Hops " 13.2 .. 1.00 0.345 0.167 0.056 0.168 Distribution of the Ingredients: Water .. .. 1.23 0.852 0.039 0.045 0.234 Malt-Sprouts 33 1.38 2.43 0.749 0.069 0.066 0.653 Brewers' Grains 269 8.74 13.08 0.580 1.474 1.134 3.631 Spent Hops 9 .. 0.54 0.032 0.160 0.055 0.062 Yeast 30 2.94 2.27 0.643 0.097 0.185 1.349 Beer .. 2.14 3.65 1.998 .. 0.484 0.939 2. Distillery. a. 1000 lbs. Potatoes, contain 250 3.2 9.43 5.69 0.24 0.44 1.63 40 " Kiln-Malt 37 0.56 1.06 0.184 0.040 0.088 0.388 20 " Yeast-Malt 18.5 0.28 0.53 0.092 0.020 0.044 0.194 The Slump, contains 125 4.04 11.02 5.966 0.300 0.572 2.212 (b.) Grain Spirits. 800 lbs. Rye, contain 684 14.08 14.32 4.501 0.376 1.648 6.710 200 " Kiln-Malt, contain 184 2.82 5.12 0.883 0.195 0.429 1.526 50 " Yeast-Malt, " 46 0.71 1.28 0.221 0.049 0.107 0.382 The Slump, contains 443 17.61 20.72 5.605 0.620 2.184 8.618 3. Yeast Manufacture. 700 lbs. bruised Rye, contain 599 12.32 12.53 3.941 0.329 1.444 5.876 300 " Barley-Malt, " 276 4.23 7.67 1.325 0.293 0.643 2.801 Distribution of the Ingredients: Yeast 45 4.60 3.41 1.273 0.192 0.367 2.672 Grains and Slump 325 11.95 16.79 3.993 0.430 1.720 6.005 4. Starch Manufacture. 1000 lbs. Potatoes, contain 250 3.20 9.43 5.69 0.24 0.44 1.63 The remains in the Fibre 75 0.60 0.51 0.086 0.266 0.042 0.133 " " " Water 45 2.60 8.89 5.604 .. 0.398 1.497 5. Milling. 1000 lbs. Wheat, contain 857 20.80 16.88 5.26 0.57 2.02 7.94 Distribution of the Ingredients: Flour (77.5 per cent) 664 14.65 5.50 1.980 0.154 0.458 2.862 Mill-feed ( 6.5 " ) 58 1.64 1.80 0.648 0.050 0.148 0.936 Bran (16.0 " ) 135 4.51 9.60 2.762 0.396 1.394 4.102 6. Cheese-Making. 1000 lbs. Milk, contain 125 4.80 6.10 1.505 1.333 0.186 1.735 Distribution of the Ingredients: Cheese 65 4.53 2.84 0.247 0.687 0.028 1.515 Whey 60 0.27 3.26 1.258 0.646 0.158 0.584 7. Beet-Sugar Manufacture. 1000 lbs. Roots, contain 184 1.60 7.10 3.914 0.379 0.536 0.780 Distribution of the Ingredients: Tops and Tails (12 per cent of roots) 19 0.24 1.15 0.336 0.108 0.132 0.144 Pomace (15 per cent of roots) 46 0.44 1.71 0.585 0.390 0.105 0.165 Skimmings (4 per cent of roots) 24 0.60 1.20 0.380 8.640 0.240 0.384 Molasses (3 per cent of roots) 25 0.32 2.47 1.741 0.141 0.009 0.015 Sugar and loss 85 .. 0.57 0.872 .. 0.040 0.072 8. Flax Dressing. 1000 lbs. Flax-Stalks, contain 860 .. 30.36 9.426 6.751 1.995 3.990 Distribution of the Ingredients: In the Water 215 .. 25.15 9.175 4.100 1.850 3.400 Stems or Husks 460 .. 4.03 0.171 2.052 0.096 0.474 Flax and Tow 155 .. 1.22 0.054 0.648 0.054 0.126 + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -



INDEX.

Absorptive Powers of Soils, 217 Ammonia Absorbed by Soil from the Atmosphere, 219 Ammonia and Superphosphate, 242 " and Weeds, 254 " Converted into Nitric Acid in the Soil, 313 " for Oats, 253-254 " for Potatoes, 261 " for Wheat, 192-213 " in Fresh Horse-dung, 96 " in Limed and Unlimed Soils, 220 " in the Soil Liberated by Lime, 221 " Locked Up in the Soil, 221 " Loss of by Fermenting Manure, 98 " on Grass Land, 273 " Potential, 31 " Quantity of to Produce One Bushel of Wheat, 211-212 " Required to Produce a Bushel of Barley, 240-242 " Retained by the Soil, 218 " Salts, Composition of, 312 " " How to Apply, 286-312 " " for Private Gardens, 297 Anderson, J. M. B., Letter from, 345 Animals, Composition of Manure from Different, 306 " What They Remove from the Food, 301 Apple Trees, Nitrate of Soda for, 314 Artificial Manures, Will They Pay, 214 Ashes, Burnt Earth, 72 " Coal, 72 " for Barley, 241 " for Indian Corn, 279 " for Oats, 253 " for Potatoes, 259 " of Manure for Wheat, 173 " on Long Island, 346 " Plaster and Hen-dung for Potatoes, 255 " Wood, 104

Barley After Ten Crops of Turnips, 250 " a Large Yield of, 242 " and Clover after a heavily-manured Root-crop, 287 " Best Soil for, 227 " Cost of Raising With and Without Manure, 245 " Lawes' and Gilbert's Experiments on, 227 " Potash Increases the Crop of at Rothamsted, 329 " Profits of Raising in Poor Seasons, 243 " Quality and Price of, 242 " Yield Per Acre, 11 Barn-yard Manure, Difference in Quality of, 246 Bean-straw for Manure, 48 Beets, Sugar, Lawes' and Gilbert's Experiments on, 288 " " Manure for, 286 Blood, 32 Bone-dust, 314 " " Composition of Compared with Stable Manure, 316 " " Fermented with Manure, 316 " " Made into Superphosphate, 319 " " on Dairy Farms, 315 Bones as Manure, 102 Bran, 26 " for Manure, 102 " Richer in Plant-food than Wheat, 301 Brewer, Prof. W. H., Letter from, 341

Cabbage and Barn-yard Manure, Composition of, 292 " Composition of, 290-292 " Hog and Cow Manure for, 302 " Lime for, 292 " Manure for, 275-290 " Manure for Early and Late, 291 " Needs a Large Supply of Nitrogen in the Soil. Though it Removes but Little, 293 " Potash for, 292 " Special Manure for, 323 " Yield of per Acre, 291 Cattle vs. Sheep as Manure-makers, 303 Cheese, from a Ton of Hay, 111 " Plant-food in, 101 " versus Beef, 110 Clay Retains Ammonia, 219 Clover and Indian Corn, 275 " as a Renovating and Exhausting Crop, 277 " as Manure, 119-122 " as Manure for Wheat, 158 " Does it Get Nitrogen from the Atmosphere, 133-138 " Dr. Voelcker's Experiments on, 135 " for Wheat, 126 " Gathers Up Manure from the Sub-soil, 287 " Hay, Composition of, 129-137 " Hay, English and German, for Manure, 47 " How to Make a Farm Rich by Growing, 133-163 " Letting it Rot on the Surface as Manure, 134 " Nitrogen as a Manure for, 141 " Pasturing by Sheep versus Mowing for Hay, 137 " Plowing Under versus Feeding Out, 123 " Roots, Amount of per Acre, 143-144-155 " Roots, Composition of, 145-147 " Seed, Amount of Roots per Acre, 162 " Water Evaporated by, 132 " Why it Enriches Land, 131 Coal-ashes to Mix with Artificial Manures, 312 Composting Cow-manure with Muck, Leaves, etc, 302 Compost of Stable-manure and Earth, 342 Corn, as a Renovating Crop, 275 " Ashes for, 279 " Barn-yard Manure for, 284 " Cost of Raising, 9 " Crop, Composition of, 25 " Experiments on, 279 " Guano for, 279-284 " Manure for, 275 " Meal for Manure, 185 " Superphosphate for, 279-284 " Fodder, 275 " " vs. Mangel-wurzels, 288 " " Plaster for, 277 " " vs. Wheat, Yield per acre, 276 Cotton-seed Cake, 46-339 Cow-manure, 86-100 " " and How to Use it, 302 " " Composition of, 306 Cows, Feeding Grain to, 110-113 " Feeding in Winter for Manure, 256 Crops Best to Apply Manure to, 265 " How to Get Larger, 28-36 " Raised and Sold from the Farm, 27 " Rotation of, 116-168 " We Must Raise Larger per Acre, 266 " Why so Poor, 28

Dairy Farms, Bone-dust on, 315 Drainage from Barn-yard, 306 Dry Earth for Pig Pens, 304

Earth-closet Manure, 310 " " " on Grass, 225

Fallow, Fall, 12 " for Wheat, How to—Mr. Lawes' Experiments, 35 " Summer, for Wheat, 15-34 Farm Dairy, Receipts and Expenses of, 109 " Hon. George Geddes', 119 " Hon. Joseph Shull's, 109 " John Johnston's, 76-81-120 " Mr. Dewey's, 39 " Mr. Joseph O. Sheldon's, 15 " to Restore a Worn Out, 37 Farming, a Poor Business, 9 " Difference Between High and Good, 11 " Faith in Good, 14 " Good Does Not Lead to Over Production, 14 " Slow Work, 17 Fermenting Manure to Kill Weed-Seeds, 97 Fish as Manure, 347 Food, Nothing Added to it by the Animal, 42

Gardens, Manure for Private, 296 Geddes, Hon. George, 17-117 Grains, Malt, English and German, 47 Grass a Saving's Bank, 41 " Importance of Rich, 113 " Manure for, 120 Guano as a Top-dressing for Wheat, 270 " for Barley, 240 " for Oats, 253 " for Peas, 17 " for Potatoes, 255-258 " on Wheat, 120-180-184 " Peruvian, Composition of, 311 " " for Onions, 294 " " Price and Composition of Now and 30 Y'rs Ago, 327 " " Rectified for Turnips, 286 " " What it is, 311 Gypsum, 104-116-126 " for Oats, 254 " for Peas, 17 " for Potatoes, 255-259

Harison, T. L., Letter from, 115 Hay, Best Manure for, 274 " Plant-food in, 101 Heacock, Joseph, Letter from, 348 Henderson, Peter, Letter from, 344 Hen Manure, 43-104-301 " " for Potatoes, 255 High Farming, 12 " " versus Good Farming, 11 Hops, Manure for, 274 Horse-manure, Composition of, 306 Hot-beds, Manure for, 297 Human Excrements, Composition of, 308

Indian Corn. See Corn. Irrigation on Market Gardens, 295

Jessup, Edward, Letter from, 342 Johnson, Prof. S. W., on the Value of Fertilizers, 324

Lawes' and Gilbert's Experiments on Barley, 227 Lawes' and Gilbert's Experiments on Oats, 252 Lawes' and Gilbert's Experiments on Permanent Meadows, 271 Lawes' and Gilbert's Experiments on the Amount of Excrements Voided by Man, 309 Lawes' and Gilbert's Experiments on Sugar beets and Mangel-wurzels, 288 Lawes' and Gilbert's Experiments on Wheat, 170 Lawes' and Gilbert's Experiments, Potash Beneficial for Barley, 329 Lawes' Table, Showing Composition and Value of Foods, 45 Lettuce, Manure for, 289 " Superphosphate for, 290-293 Lewis, Hon. Harris, Letter from, 103 Liebig's Special Manures, 321 Lime as Manure, 215 " Beneficial Effect of for Thirty Years, 216 " Changes the Chemical and Physical Character of the Soil, 224 " Composting with Old Sods, 224 " for Cabbage, 292 " Hastens the Maturity of the Crop, 222 " Impoverishes the Soil, 222 " in Connecticut, 224 " in Delaware, 223 " in New Jersey, 223 " in Pennsylvania, 224 " Mixed with Barn-yard Manure, 222 " on Grass Land, 223 " on Lime-stone Land, 217 " Quantity per Acre, 216 " Sets Free Ammonia in the Soil, 221 " Silicate Absorbs Ammonia from Atmosphere, 219 " When to Apply, 223 " Why Beneficial, 220 Liquid Manure, 306 Lowland, Draining, 30

Malt-combs, 46 Mangel-wurzels for Manure, 48 " " Manure for, 103-286-288 " " Yield per Acre, 11 Manure Absorbing Liquid, 115 " Amount from Feed and Bedding, 78 " Amount Made by a Horse, 50-346 " " Made by Horses, Cows, Sheep, and Pigs, 51 " Amount Made on a 250-acre Farm, 257 " Amount of Rain Required to Dissolve, 267 " Amount of Straw in Horse, 346 " and Rotation of Crops, 246 " Applying Artificial, 312 " Applying Near the Surface, 267 " Applying on the Surface, 173 " as Top-dressing, 269 " Barn-yard for Barley, 240 " Barn-yard vs. Artificial for Indian Corn, 284 " Basin for, 92 " Best for Hay, 274 " Bone-dust, 314-316 " Brings in Red Clover, 82 " Buying, 306 " Buying by Measure or Weight, 305 " Buying by the Load or Ton, 306 " Cellar, 114 " Cheapest a Farmer Can Use, 127 " Clover as, 119-122 " Clover-seed as, 127 " Comes from the Land, 42 " Common Salt as, 200 " Composition of Fresh Barnyard, 51 " Composition of from Different Animals, 306 " Composition of Heap at Different Periods, 57 " Corn-meal for, 185 " Cost of Hauling, 342 " Cost of Loading and Drawing, 77 " Cow, 87-100 " Dairy-farm, How to Save and Apply, 114 " Dr. Voelcker's Experiments on, 51 " Drawing Out to the Field, 89 " English Plan of Keeping, 69 " Equivalent to Water, 296 " Farm-yard for Potatoes, 261 " Fermenting in Winter, 85-92-93 " Fermenting, Shrinkage in, 116 " Fire-fang, 84-98 " Fish, as, on Long Island, 347 " Foods which Make Rich, 45 " for Cabbage, Parsnips, Onions, Carrots, Lettuce, etc, 289 " for Corn, 80 " for Grass, 82 " for Hops, 274 " for Hot-beds, 297 " for Indian Corn, 275 " for Mangel-wurzels and Sugar-beets, 287 " for Market Gardens, 294 " for Oats, 252 " for Potatoes, 255 " for Seed-growing Farms, 296 " for Sorghum or Chinese Sugar-cane, 283 " for Tobacco, 275 " for Turnips, 285-322 " for Wheat, 167 " from Cows, 302 " from Earth-closet, 310 " from Oxen, 303 " from Pigs, Mr. Lawes' Experiments, 301 " from Sheep, 303 " Grain Farms, Management of, 117 " Guano, Price of Now and Thirty Years Ago, 328 " Guano, Rectified Peruvian, 319 " Gypsum and Clover as, 125 " Heap, Changes in, 67 " " Fermenting, 38 " " in Winter, 84 " " Piling in Field, 88-89-90 " " Turning, 88 " Hen, 43-104-301 " Horse, 32-86 " Horse and Farm-yard, 50 " How and When it Should be Applied, 267 " How John Johnston Manages it, 76 " How Made and Used in Maryland, 349 " How the Deacon Makes it, 74 " How to Make, 41 " How to Make More, 256 " How to Make More and Better on Dairy Farms, 105 " How to Make Poor, Rich, 274-293 " How to Make Richer, 257 " How Much it Shrinks by Fermentation, 342 " How Much Nitrogen in a Load of, 306 " in Kansas, 340 " in Philadelphia, Interesting Facts, 338 " Keeping Under Cover, 59 " Lime as, 215 " Liquid, 306 " Management of in Canada, 335 " Mr. Lawes' Experiments with, 95 " Loss from Leaching, 99 " Management of, 94 " Market Value of, 104 " Mixed with Lime, 222 " Natural, 23 " Night soil as, 308 " Nitrate of Soda as, 134 " Not Available, 95 " on Dairy Farm, 101 " on Permanent Meadows and Pastures, 271 " Preserved by the Soil, 177 " Pigs', 86 " Piling, 116 " Potash as, 329 " Price of in Boston, 344 " " " Maryland, 339 " " " New Haven, 341 " " " New York, 334 " " per Horse in New York, 336 " Quantity Made on a Farm, 12 " Quantity of Used on Long Island. Interesting Statistics, 336 " Reduced by Fermentation, 297 " Richer in Plant-food than the Food from which it is Derived, 301 " Sea-weed as, 337 " Sheep, 86 " Should be Broken Up Fine, 268 " Soluble Phosphates in, 72 " Special, 140-320 " Specific Gravity of from Different Animals, 305 " Spread in Open Yard, 63 " Stable, Management, 333 " Straw and Chaff as, 200 " Superphosphate, How Made, 317 " Swamp-Muck as, 29 " Tank, 115 " the Author's Plan of Managing, 83 " Tillage as, 32-121-225 " Top-dressing for Wheat in Kansas, 350 " " " on Growing Crops, 343 " to What Crops Should it be Applied, 265 " Value of, 78 " Value of Depends on the Food, Not on the Animal, 43 " Value of Straw as, 123 " Water in, 124 " Weeds as, 24 " Weight of, 343-350 " Well-rotted, Composition of, 65 " Well-rotted, Loss from Leaching, 65 " What is it?, 19-22 " Why Do We Ferment?, 94 Market Gardens, Irrigation in, 295 " " Manure for, 294 " " Pig-manure on, 295 Meadows, Manure for, 271

Night soil, 225-308 Nitrate of Potash, 312 Nitrate of Soda, 134 " " Acts Quicker than Ammonia, 313 " " as a Top-dressing for Wheat, 270 " " Composition of, 312 " " for Apple Trees, 314 " " for Barley, 243 " " for Oats, 252 " " for Onions, 294 " " for Sugar-Beets, 289 " " for Wheat, 159 " " How to Apply, 312 Nitric Acid, 341 Nitrogen, Amount per Acre in the Soil, 28-162 " as Manure, 28 " in Soils, 106-226-336-341 " Makes Poor Manure Rich, 246 Nurserymen, Manure for, 297

Oats, Experiments on in Virginia, 253 " Experiments on at Moreton Farm, 254 " Lawes' and Gilbert's Experiments on, 252 " Manures for, 252 Oil-cake for Sheep, 76 Onions, Manure for, 294

Peas for Pigs, 17 Pea-straw for Manure, 48 Peat, Composition of, 31 Phosphates, 27 " Exhaustion of on Dairy Farms, 101 " Soluble in Barn-yard Manure, 72 Phosphoric Acid in Soils, 106-226 " " per Acre in Soils, 162 " " Retained by the Soil, 219 " " Removed from the Farm by Hay, and by Milch Cows, 316 Pig Manure, 43-86 " " Composition of, 306 " " for Cabbage, 302 Pigs as Manure-Makers for Market Gardeners, 295 Pigs' Bedding, 31 " for Enriching Pasture-Land, 304 " How to Save Manure from, 304 " Manure from, 301-304 Piling Manure, 97 Plant-food, 21-105 " " Amount of in an Acre, 24-39 " " in New and Cultivated Land, 39 Plaster for Indian Corn, 277 Plowing in the Fall, 17 Potash, Amount of in the Soil, 25-329 " as Manure, 329 " as Manure for Wheat, 215 " for Cabbages, 292 " for Potatoes, 255-260 " for Potatoes and Root-Crops, 330 " How to Ascertain when the Soil Needs, 330 " in Nitrate of Potash, 314 " Not a Special Manure for Turnips, 322 " on Grass Land, 273 " our Soils not so likely to be Deficient in, as of Nitrogen and Phosphoric Acid, 330 " Retained by the Soil, 219 " Value of in Artificial Manures, 326 Potatoes, after Root-Crops, 287 " Ammonia for, 261 " Cost of Raising, 10 " Experiments on at Moreton Farm, 259 " for Manure, 48 " How to Raise a Large Crop, 255 " Manures for, 255 " Mr. Hunter's Experiments on in England, 260 " on Rich Land, 263 " Profits of Using Artificial Manures on, 263 " Will Manure Injure, Quality of, 264

Rape-cake, 46 " " as Manure for Hops, 274 Roots, Amount of Left in Soil by Different Crops, 164 Root-crops, 17 Rotation of Crops and Manures, 246 Rushmore, J. H., Letter from, 345 Routzahn, H. L., Letter from, 349

Salt as a Manure for Wheat, 270 " Common as Manure for Wheat, 200 " for Mangel-wurzels, 104 Saw-dust for Bedding, 103 Season, a Poor, Profitable for Good Farmers, 213 " and Manure for Oats, 253 " Influence of on the Growth of Wheat, 210 " Profit in Raising Oats in a Poor, 253 " Profit in Raising Barley in a Poor, 243 Seasons, Influence on Crops, 21 Seed Growers, Manures for, 296 Sewage, 308 Sheep-Manure, 303-333-339 " " Composition of, 306 " vs. Oxen as Manure Makers, 303 Shelton, Prof. E. M., Letter from, 350 Soil, Composition of, 144-150 " Exhaustion of, 23-27-332 " from Earth-closet, 225 " Nitrogen and Phosphoric Acid in, 226 " Plant-food in, 105 " Weight of per Acre, 221 Soils Absorb Ammonia from Atmosphere, 219 " Absorptive Powers of, 217 Sorghum, Manures for, 283 Special Manures, 320 Straw, 26 " Amount of Manure from, 124 " and Chaff for Manure, 200 " for Manures, 48 " on Grain Farms, 118 " Selling, 123 Sturtevant, Dr. E. L., Letter from, 344 Superphosphate, 116 " for Barley, 241 " for Indian Corn, 279 " for Potatoes, 259 " for Private Gardens, 296 " for Turnips, 285-322 " for Wheat, 168-169 " from Bones, Composition of, 319 " from Mineral Phosphates, 320 " How Applied, 320 " on Dairy Farms, 315 " on Grass Land, 273 " Value of as Compared with Bone-Dust, 319 " What Crops Best for, 243 Superphospate of Lime, Doctor Tells How it is Made, 317 Superphosphate of Lime, When First Made in the United States, 324 Surface Application of Manure, 70-268 Swamp-muck, 29 " " Composition of, 31 Swine, see Pigs.

Thomas, J. J., Remarks on the Application of Manures, 269 Tillage is Manure, 32-121-163-225 Tobacco, Manure for, 275 Top dressing with Manure, 269 Turnips, Do They Absorb Nitrogen from the Atmosphere, 250 " Impoverish the Soil More than Grain, 250 " Manure for, 285 " and Wheat, Special Manures for, 321

Urine from Farm Animals Richer than Human, 309 " vs. Solid Manure, 294

Valuation of Fertilizers, 324

Water, Amount Given Off by Plants During Their Growth, 131 Water Equivalent to Manure, 296 Weeds, 15-41-189 Weed-seeds in Manure, 97 Weld, Col. M. C., Letter from, 344 Wheat, Ammonia for, 192 " Artificial Manures for Should be Drilled in with Seed, 168-169 " Common Salt as Manure for, 200 " Crop, Composition of, 26-129-138-340 " Effect of Manure on, in Poor Season, 213 " Influence of Season on, 210 " is it Deteriorating? 189 " Larger Crops per Acre, 122 " Lawes' and Gilbert's Experiments on, 140-170-333 " Manures for, 167 " Mr. Lawes' Experiments on, 122 " Nitrogen as Manure for, 141 " Plant-food in, 101 " Potash as Manure for, 215 " Straw and Chaff as a Manure for, 200 " Summer Fallowing for, 35-168 " the 20th Crop on Same Land, 213 " Top-dressing for, 270 " vs. Corn, Comparative Yield of, 276 " Well-rotted Manure for, 267 " Why Our Crops are so Poor, 214 " Yield per Acre, 11

* * * * *

Sent Free on Application

Descriptive Catalog of Rural Books

Containing 128 8vo Pages, Profusely Illustrated, and Giving Full Descriptions of the Best Works on the Following Subjects : : : :

Farm and Garden Fruits, Flowers, etc. Cattle, Sheep and Swine Dogs, Horses, Riding, etc. Poultry, Pigeons and Bees Angling and Fishing Boating, Canoeing and Sailing Field Sports and Natural History Hunting, Shooting, etc. Architecture and Building Landscape Gardening Household and Miscellaneous

Publishers and Importers

Orange Judd Company 315-321 Fourth Avenue NEW YORK

Books will be Forwarded, Postpaid, on Receipt of Price

Feeding Farm Animals

By Professor THOMAS SHAW. This book is intended alike for the student and the farmer. The author has succeeded in giving in regular and orderly sequence, and in language so simple that a child can understand it, the principles that govern the science and practice of feeding farm animals. Professor Shaw is certainly to be congratulated on the successful manner in which he has accomplished a most difficult task. His book is unquestionably the most practical work which has appeared on the subject of feeding farm animals. Illustrated. 5-1/2 x 8 inches. Upward of 500 pages. Cloth. $2.00

Profitable Dairying

By C. L. PECK. A practical guide to successful dairy management. The treatment of the entire subject is thoroughly practical, being principally a description of the methods practiced by the author. A specially valuable part of this book consists of a minute description of the far-famed model dairy farm of Rev. J. D. Detrich, near Philadelphia, Pa. On the farm of fifteen acres, which twenty years ago could not maintain one horse and two cows, there are now kept twenty-seven dairy cattle, in addition to two horses. All the roughage, litter, bedding, etc., necessary for these animals are grown on these fifteen acres, more than most farmers could accomplish on one hundred acres. Illustrated. 5 x 7 inches. 200 pages. Cloth. $0.75

Practical Dairy Bacteriology

By Dr. H. W. CONN, of Wesleyan University. A complete exposition of important facts concerning the relation of bacteria to various problems related to milk. A book for the classroom, laboratory, factory and farm. Equally useful to the teacher, student, factory man and practical dairyman. Fully illustrated with 83 original pictures. 340 pages. Cloth. 5-1/2 x 8 inches. $1.25

Modern Methods of Testing Milk and Milk Products

By L. L. VanSLYKE. This is a clear and concise discussion of the approved methods of testing milk and milk products. All the questions involved in the various methods of testing milk and cream are handled with rare skill and yet in so plain a manner that they can be fully understood by all. The book should be in the hands of every dairyman, teacher or student. Illustrated. 214 pages. 5 x 7 inches. $0.75

Animal Breeding

By THOMAS SHAW. This book is the most complete and comprehensive work ever published on the subject of which it treats. It is the first book which has systematized the subject of animal breeding. The leading laws which govern this most intricate question the author has boldly defined and authoritatively arranged. The chapters which he has written on the more involved features of the subject, as sex and the relative influence of parents, should go far toward setting at rest the wildly speculative views cherished with reference to these questions. The striking originality in the treatment of the subject is no less conspicuous than the superb order and regular sequence of thought from the beginning to the end of the book. The book is intended to meet the needs of all persons interested in the breeding and rearing of live stock. Illustrated. 405 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.50

Forage Crops Other Than Grasses

By THOMAS SHAW. How to cultivate, harvest and use them. Indian corn, sorghum, clover, leguminous plants, crops of the brassica genus, the cereals, millet, field roots, etc. Intensely practical and reliable. Illustrated. 287 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.00

Soiling Crops and the Silo

By THOMAS SHAW. The growing and feeding of all kinds of soiling crops, conditions to which they are adapted, their plan in the rotation, etc. Not a line is repeated from the Forage Crops book. Best methods of building the silo, filling it and feeding ensilage. Illustrated. 364 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.50

The Study of Breeds

By THOMAS SHAW. Origin, history, distribution, characteristics, adaptability, uses, and standards of excellence of all pedigreed breeds of cattle, sheep and swine in America. The accepted text book in colleges, and the authority for farmers and breeders. Illustrated. 371 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.50

Clovers and How to Grow Them

By THOMAS SHAW. This is the first book published which treats on the growth, cultivation and treatment of clovers as applicable to all parts of the United States and Canada, and which takes up the entire subject in a systematic way and consecutive sequence. The importance of clover in the economy of the farm is so great that an exhaustive work on this subject will no doubt be welcomed by students in agriculture, as well as by all who are interested in the tilling of the soil. Illustrated. 5 x 7 inches. 337 pages. Cloth. Net. $1.00

Land Draining

A handbook for farmers on the principles and practice of draining, by MANLY MILES, giving the results of his extended experience in laying tile drains. The directions for the laying out and the construction of tile drains will enable the farmer to avoid the errors of imperfect construction, and the disappointment that must necessarily follow. This manual for practical farmers will also be found convenient for reference in regard to many questions that may arise in crop growing, aside from the special subjects of drainage of which it treats. Illustrated. 200 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.00

Barn Plans and Outbuildings

Two hundred and fifty-seven illustrations. A most valuable work, full of ideas, hints, suggestions, plans, etc., for the construction of barns and outbuildings, by practical writers. Chapters are devoted to the economic erection and use of barns, grain barns, horse barns, cattle barns, sheep barns, cornhouses, smokehouses, icehouses, pig pens, granaries, etc. There are likewise chapters on birdhouses, doghouses, tool sheds, ventilators, roofs and roofing, doors and fastenings, workshops, poultry houses, manure sheds, barnyards, root pits, etc. 235 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.00

Irrigation Farming

By LUTE WILCOX. A handbook for the practical application of water in the production of crops. A complete treatise on water supply, canal construction, reservoirs and ponds, pipes for irrigation purposes, flumes and their structure, methods of applying water, irrigation of field crops, the garden, the orchard and vineyard, windmills and pumps, appliances and contrivances. New edition, revised, enlarged and rewritten. Profusely illustrated. Over 500 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $2.00

Forest Planting

By H. NICHOLAS JARCHOW, LL. D. A treatise on the care of woodlands and the restoration of the denuded timberlands on plains and mountains. The author has fully described those European methods which have proved to be most useful in maintaining the superb forests of the old world. This experience has been adapted to the different climates and trees of America, full instructions being given for forest planting of our various kinds of soil and subsoil, whether on mountain or valley. Illustrated. 250 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.50

* * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Errors and Anomalies noted by transcriber:

Close quotes have been supplied or deleted where unambiguous, and paragraph-ending full stops (periods) have been silently supplied. No other attempt was made to regularize quotation format or punctuation.

The Deacon, the Doctor, the Squire, Charlie _the name is spelled "Charley" everywhere else_ it would seem desirable to apply the superphosphate _text reads "superhosphate"_ wherever agri-_culture_ is practised. _so in original_ Turning over, and fining a manure-heap _word "fining" probably technical term, not error_ said the Doctor, "but value." "Suppose, Deacon," said he _quotation marks as in original (same speaker)_ carbonaceous matter and water, of little or no value?" _text has question mark after close quote_ It would be a very exceptional case. _word "It" illegible_ "7. In the insoluble organic matters _number 7 missing from original; adjacent paragraphs have 6 and 8_ would be reduced to 49.6-10 tons _numeral format as in original: 49-6/10 or 49.6, though computed total is 49.508_ Dr. Voelcker draws the following conclusions _text reads "Voelcker" with separate vowels: all other citations use [oe] ligature_ It is high, rolling land, but needed underdraining. _text reads "under / draining" at line break without hyphen_ "Why so?" asked the Deacon. _text has question mark after close quote_ and consequently will ferment or putrefy much more rapidly _text reads "putrify"_ crenic and apocrenic acids are produced _text reads "aprocrenic"_ 100 tons of hay lying dormant _text reads "dorment"_ endeavor to persuade them to eat more _text reads "persaude"_ when we draw deductions from the facts of the case _text reads "the the case"_ and I think the mechanical condition of the land _text reads "mechancial"_ "In 672 lbs. of clover-ash, we find: _open quote missing_ Organic matter ... 64.76 _text reads "Oganic"_ "Now," said the Doctor, "... in the soil_." "There was more clover-roots per acre... _unclear whether speaker is the same for both paragraphs (delete close quote) or changes (from the Doctor to Harris)_ For the superphosphate of lime, _text reads "superphoshate"_ Table VII. Manures and Produce; 7th Season, 1849-50. 6b .. *00 200 _first digit of number is missing: probably "300"_ Even gold may be bought too dear. _text reads "to dear"_ The value of quick-lime as a manure _anomalous hyphen in original_ Table IV. Offal Corn per Acre lbs. 1 N. }(94){ 283 109 ... 2 N. } { 228 286 ... _double lines as printed: should be one year earlier?_ ] cotton-seed-cake _hyphenation as in original (two occurrences); similarly "Beech-nut-cake", "Palm-oil-cake" etc._ fish-scrap, woollen-rags, Peruvian guano _hyphens as in original_ the plants / came up first, and exhibited a healthy, dark-green _text reads "exhibted"_ for sugar-making purposes, or for fodder _text reads "foddder"_ ruta-bagas _hyphenation is standard for this text_ Isn't it paying a little too much for the whistle? _text reads "Is'nt"_ And this fact ought to be understood _text reads "An this fact" with invisible "d"_ The plaintain, which I believe is sometimes sown _spelling "plaintain" as in original_ ... his book on Manure, "Praktische Duengerlehre," Dr. Emil Wolff _text reads "Wollf"_

[Index] Note that the Index uses short dashes where commas would be expected Crops Best to Apply Manure to "Crops" entries printed out of sequence, between "Corn" and "Cotton" Farm Dairy // Mr. Joseph O. Sheldon's name in body text is James O. Sheldon

THE END

Previous Part     1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11
Home - Random Browse