Supplemental Nights, Volume 6
by Richard F. Burton
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"At him I wonder who from woe is free, * And who no joy displays[FN#419] when safe is he: And I admire how Time deludes man when * He views the past; but ah, Time's tyranny."

So the Sultan Habib read over these verses more than once, and wept till he swooned away; then recovering himself he said in his mind, "To me death were pleasanter than life without my love!" and turning to the closets which lay right and left he opened them all and gazed upon the hillocks of gold and silver and upon the heaps and bales of rubies and unions and precious stones and strings of pearls, wondering at all he espied, and quoth he to himself "Were but a single magazine of these treasures revealed, wealthy were all the peoples who on earth do dwell." Then he walked up to the curtain whereupon Jinns and Ifrits appeared from every site and side, and voices and shrieks so loudened in his ears that his wits well-nigh flew from his head. So he took patience for a full-told hour when behold, a smoke which spired in air thickened and brooded low, and the sound ceased and the Jinns departed. Hereat, calling to mind the charge of Al-Abbus, he took out the cotton he had by him and after quilting the golden hooks he withdrew the curtain and sighted the portal which the Jinni had described to him. So he fitted in the key and opened it, after which, oblivious of the warning, he slammed-to the door noisily in his fear and forgetfulness, but he did not venture to look behind him. At this the Jinns flocked to him from every side and site crying, "O thou foulest of mankind, wherefore dost thou provoke us and disturb us from our stead? and, but for thy wearing the gear of the Jann, we had slain thee forthright." But Habib answered not and, arming himself with patience and piety, he tarried awhile until the hubbub was stilled, nor did the Jann cry at him any more: and, when the storm was followed by calm, he paced forward to the shore and looked upon the ocean crashing with billows dashing. He marvelled at the waves and said to himself, "Verily none may know the secrets of the sea and the mysteries of the main save only Allah!" Presently, he beheld a ship passing along shore, so he took seat on the strand until Night let down her pall of sables upon him; and he was an-hungered with exceeding hunger and athirst with excessive thirst. But when morrowed the morn and day showed her sheen and shone serene, he awoke in his sore distress and behold, he saw two Mermaidens of the daughters of the deep (and both were as moons) issue forth hard by him. And ere long quoth one of the twain, "Say me, wottest thou the mortal who sitteth yonder?" "I know him not," quoth the other, whereat her companion resumed, "This be the Sultan Habib who cometh in search of Durrat al-Ghawwas, our Queen and liege lady." Hearing these words the youth considered them straitly and marvelling at their beauty and loveliness he presently rejoiced and increased in pleasure and delight. Then said one to other, "Indeed the Sultan Habib is in this matter somewhat scant and short of wits; how can he love Durrat al-Ghawwas when between him and her is a distance only to be covered by the sea-voyage of a full year over most dangerous depths? And, after all this woe hath befallen him, why doth he not hie him home and why not save himself from these horrors which promise to endure through all his days and to cast his life at last into the pit of destruction?" Asked the other, "Would heaven I knew whether he will ever attain to her or not!" and her companion answered, "Yes, he will attain to her, but after a time and a long time and much sadness of soul." But when Habib heard this promise of success given by the Maidens of the Main his sorrow was solaced and he lost all that troubled him of hunger and thirst. Now while he pondered these matters there suddenly issued from out the ocean a third Mermaid, which asked her fellows, "Of what are you prattling?" and they answered, "Indeed the Sultan Habib sitteth here upon the sea-shore during this the fourth successive night." Quoth she, "I have a cousin the daughter of my paternal uncle and when she came to visit me last night I enquired of her if any ship had passed by her and she replied, 'Yea verily, one did sail driven towards us by a violent gale, and its sole object was to seek you.'" And the others rejoined, "Allah send thee tidings of welfare!" The youth hearing these words was gladdened and joyed with exceeding joy; and presently the three Mermaidens called to one another and dove into the depths leaving the listener standing upon the strand. After a short time he heard the cries of the crew from the craft announced and he shouted to them and they, noting his summons, ran alongside the shore and took him up and bore him aboard: and, when he complained of hunger and thirst, they gave him meat and drink and questioned him saying, "Thou! who art thou? Say us, art of the trader-folk?" "I am the merchant Such-and-such," quoth he, "and my ship foundered albe 'twas a mighty great vessel; but one chance day of the days as we were sailing along there burst upon us a furious gale which shivered our timbers and my companions all perished while I floated upon a plank of the ship's planks and was carried ashore by the send of the sea. Indeed I have been floating for three days and this be my fourth night." Hearing this adventure from him the traders cried, "Grieve no more in heart but be thou of good cheer and of eyes cool and clear: the sea voyage is ever exposed to such chances and so is the gain thereby we obtain; and if Allah deign preserve us and keep for us the livelihood He vouchsafed to us we will bestow upon thee a portion thereof." After this they ceased not sailing until a tempest assailed them and blew their vessel to starboard and larboard and she lost her course and went astray at sea. Hereat the pilot cried aloud, saying, "Ho ye company aboard, take your leave one of other for we be driven into unknown depths of ocean, nor may we keep our course, because the wind bloweth full in our faces." Hereupon the voyagers fell to beweeping the loss of their lives and their goods, and the Sultan Habib shed tears which trickled adown his cheeks and exclaimed, "Would Heaven I had died before seeing such torment: indeed this is naught save a matter of marvel." But when the merchants saw the youth thus saddened and troubled of soul, and weeping withal, they said to him, "O Monarch of the Merchants, let not thy breast be straitened or thy heart be disheartened: hapty Allah shall vouchsafe joy to us and to thee: moreover, can vain regret and sorrow of soul and shedding of tears avail aught? Do thou rather ask of the Almighty that He deign relieve us and further our voyage." But as the vessel ran through the middle of the main, she suddenly ceased her course and came to a stop without tacking to the right or the left, and the pilot cried out, "O folk, is there any of you who conneth this ocean?" But they made answer, "We know thereof naught, neither in all our voyage did we see aught resembling it." The pilot continued, "O folk, this main is hight 'The Azure';[FN#420] nor did any trader at any time therein enter but he found destruction; for that it is the home of Jinns and the house of Ifrits, and he who now withholdeth our vessel from its course is known as Al-Ghashamsham,[FN#421] and our lord Solomon son of David (upon the twain be The Peace!) deputed him to snatch up and carry off from every craft passing, through these forbidden depths whatever human beings, and especially merchants, he might find a-voyaging, and to eat them alive." "Woe to thee!" cried Habib. "Wherefore bid us take counsel together when thou tellest us that here dwelleth a Demon over whom we have no power to prevail, and thou terrifiest us with the thoughts of being devoured by him? However, feel ye no affright; I will fend off from you the mischief of this Ifrit." They replied, "We fear for thy life, O Monarch of the Merchants," and he rejoined, "To you there is no danger." Thereupon he donned a closely woven mail-coat and armed himself with the magical scymitar and spear; then, taking the skins of animals freshly slain,[FN#422] he made a hood and vizor thereof and wrapped strips of the same around his arms and legs that no harm from the sea might enter his frame. After this he bade his shipmates bind him with cords under his armpits and let him down amiddlemost the main. And as soon as he touched bottom he was confronted by the Ifrit, who rushed forward to make a mouthful of him, when the Sultan Habib raised his forearm and with the scymitar smote him a stroke which fell upon his neck and hewed him into two halves. So he died in the depths; and the youth, seeing the foeman slain, jerked the cord and his mates drew him up and took him in, after which the ship sprang forward like a shaft outshot from the belly[FN#423] of the bow. Seeing this all the traders wondered with excessive wonderment and hastened up to the youth, kissing his feet and crying, "O Monarch of the Merchants, how didst thou prevail against him and do him die?" "When I dropped into the depths," replied he, "in order to slay him, I asked against him the aidance of Allah, who vouchsafed His assistance, and on such wise I slaughtered him." Hearing these good tidings and being certified of their enemy's death the traders offered to him their good and gains whereof he refused to accept aught, even a single mustard seed. Now, amongst the number was a Shaykh well shotten in years and sagacious in all affairs needing direction; and this oldster drew near the youth, and making lowly obeisance said to him, "By the right of Who sent thee uswards and sent us theewards, what art thou and what may be thy name and the cause of thy falling upon this ocean?" The Sultan Habib began by refusing to disclose aught of his errand, but when the Shaykh persisted in questioning he ended by disclosing all that had betided him first and last, and as they sailed on suddenly the Pilot cried out to them, "Rejoice ye with great joy and make ye merry and be ye gladdened with good news, O ye folk, for that ye are saved from the dangers of these terrible depths and ye are drawing near the city of Sabur, the King who overruleth the Isles Crystalline; and his capital (which be populous and prosperous) ranketh first among the cities of Al-Hind, and his reign is foremost of the Isles of the Sea." Then the ship inclined thither, and drawing nearer little by little entered the harbour[FN#424] and cast anchor therein, when the canoes[FN#425] appeared and the porters came on board and bore away the luggage of the voyagers and the crew, who were freed from all sorrow and anxiety. Such was their case; but as regards Durrat al-Ghawwas, when she parted from her lover, the Sultan Habib, severance weighed sore and stark upon her, and she found no pleasure in meat and drink and slumber and sleep. And presently whilst in this condition and sitting upon her throne of estate, an Ifrit appeared to her and coming forwards between her hands said, "The Peace of Allah upon thee, O Queen of the Age and Empress of the Time and the Tide!" whereto she made reply, "And upon thee be The Peace and the ruth of Allah and His blessings. What seekest thou O Ifrit?" Quoth he, "There lately hath come to us a shipful of merchants and I have heard talk of the Sultan Habib being amongst them." As these words reached her ear she largessed the Ifrit and said to him, "An thou speak sooth I will bestow upon thee whatso thou wishest." Then, having certified herself of the news, she bade decorate the city with the finest of decorations and let beat the kettledrums of glad tidings and bespread the way leading to the Palace with a carpeting of sendal,[FN#426] and they obeyed her behest. Anon she summoned her pages and commanded them to bring her lover before her; so they repaired to him and ordered him to accompany them. Accordingly, he followed them and they ceased not faring until they had escorted him to the Palace, when the Queen bade all her pages gang their gait and none remained therein save the two lovers; to wit, the Sultan Habib and Durrat al-Ghawwas. And after the goodly reunion she sent for the Kazi and his assessors and bade them write out her marriage-writ[FN#427] with Habib. He did as he was bidden and the witnesses bore testimony thereto and to the dowry being duly paid; and the tie was formally tied and the wedding banquets were dispread. Then the bride donned her choicest of dresses and the marriage procession was formed and the union was consummated and both joyed with joy exceeding. Now this state of things endured for a long while until the Sultan Habib fell to longing after his parents and his family and his native country; and at length, on a day of the days, when a banquet was served up to him by his bride, he refused to taste thereof, and she, noting and understanding his condition, said to him, "Be of good cheer, this very night thou shalt find thee amongst thine own folk." Accordingly she summoned her Wazir of the Jann, and when he came she made proclamation amongst the nobles and commons of the capital saying, "This my Wazir shall be my Viceregent over you and whoso shall gainsay him that man I will slay." They replied with "Hearkening to and obeying Allah and thyself and the Minister." Then turning to her newly-established deputy she said, "I desire that thou guide me to the garden wherein was the Sultan Habib;" and he replied, "Upon my head be it and on my eyes!" So an Ifrit was summoned, and Habib mounting him pick-a-back together with the Princess Durrat al-Ghawwas bade him repair to the garden appointed, and the Jinni took flight, and in less than the twinkling of an eye bore the couple to their destination. Such was the reunion of the Sultan Habib with Durrat al-Ghawwas and his joyous conjunction;[FN#428] but as regards the Emir Salamah and his wife, as they were sitting and recalling to memory their only child and wondering in converse at what fate might have betided him, lo and behold! the Sultan Habib stood before them and by his side was Durrat al-Ghawwas his bride, and as they looked upon him and her, weeping prevailed over them for excess of their joyance and delight and both his parents threw themselves upon him and fell fainting to the ground. As soon as they recovered the youth told them all that had betided him, first and last, whereupon one congratulated other and the kettledrums of glad tidings were sounded, and a world of folk from all the Badawi tribes and the burghers gathered about them and offered hearty compliments on the reunion of each with other. Then the encampment was decorated in whole and in part, and festivities were appointed for a term of seven days full-told, in token of joy and gladness; and banquets were arrayed and trays were dispread, and all sat down to them in the pleasantest of life eating and drinking; and the hungry were filled, and the mean and the miserable and the mendicants were feasted until the end of the seventh day. After this they applied them to the punishment of the ten Knights whom the Emir Salamah had despatched to escort his son; and the Sultan Habib gave order that retribution be required from them, and restitution of all the coin and the good and the horses and the camels entrusted to them by his sire. When these had been recovered he commanded that there be set up for them as many stakes in the garden wherein he sat with his bride, and there in their presence he let impale[FN#429] each upon his own pale. And thenceforward the united household ceased not living the most joyous of lives and the most delectable until the old Emir Salamah paid the debt of nature, and they mourned him with excessive mourning for seven days. When these were ended his son, the Sultan Habib, became ruler in his stead and received the homage of all the tribes and clans who came before him and prayed for his victory and his length of life; and the necks of his subjects, even the most stubborn, were bowed in abasement before him. On this wise he reigned over the Crystalline Isles of Sabur, his sire-in-law, with justice and equity, and his Queen, Durrat al-Ghawwas, bare to him children in numbers who in due time followed in their father's steps. And here is terminated the tale of Sultan Habib and Durrat al-Ghawwas with all perfection and completion and good omen.

Note On The History of Habib

The older translators of this "New Arabian Night" have made wild work with this Novel at least as the original is given by my text and the edition of Gauttier (vii, 60-90): in their desire to gallicise it they have invested it with a toilette purely European and in the worst possible style. Amongst the insipid details are the division of the Crystalline Islands into the White, Yellow, Green and Blue; with the Genies Abarikaff, the monstrous Racachik, Ilbaccaras and Mokilras; and the terrible journey of Habib to Mount Kaf with his absurd reflections: even the "Roc" cannot come to his aid without "a damask cushion suspended between its feet by silken cords" for the greater comfort of the "Arabian Knight." The Treasury of Solomon, "who fixed the principles of knowledge by 366 hieroglyphics (sic) each of which required a day's application from even the ablest understanding, before its mysterious sense could be understood," is spun out as if the episode were copy intended for the daily press. In my text the "Maidens of the Main" are introduced to say a few words and speed the action. In the French version Ilzaide the elder becomes a "leading lady," whose role is that of the naive ingenue, famous for "smartness" and "vivacty": "one cannot refrain from smiling at the lively sallies of her good nature and simplicity of heart." I find this young person the model of a pert, pretty, prattling little French soubrette who, moreover, makes open love to "the master." Habib calls the "good old lady," his governess "Esek! Esek!" which in Turk. means donkey, ass. I need hardly enlarge upon these ineptitudes; those who wish to pursue the subject have only to compare the two versions.

At the end of the Frenchified tale we find a note entitled:—Observations by the French Editor, on the "History of Habib and Dorathil-goase, or the Arabian Knight," and these are founded not upon the Oriental text but upon the Occidental perversion. It is described "from a moral plane rather as a poem than a simple tale," and it must be regarded as "a Romance of Chivalry which unites the two chief characteristics of works of that sort,—amusement and instruction." Habib's education is compared with that of Telemachus, and his being inured to fatigue is according to the advice of Rousseau in his "Emilius" and the practice of Robinson Crusoe. Lastly "Grandison is a here already formed: Habib is one who needs to be instructed." I cannot but suspect when reading all this Western travesty of an Eastern work that M. Cazotte, a typical litterateur, had prepared for caricaturing the unfortunate Habib by carefully writing up Fenelon, Rousseau, and Richardson; and had grafted his own ideas of morale upon the wild stem of the Arabian novel.



The Say of Haykar the Sage (Pp.1-30).

Haykar's precepts may be compared advantageously with those of other nations of the East and West (at a corresponding stage of civilisation) which, as a rule, follow very similar lines. Many of them find their parallels not only in Proverbs and Ecclesiastes, as we might reasonably expect, but even in the Havamal of the Elder Edda, respecting which Thorpe remarks in his translation (i. p. 36 note): "Odin is the 'High One.' The poem is a collection of rules and maxims, and stories of himself, some of them not very consistent with our ideas of a supreme deity." The style of the Icelandic poem, and the manners of the period when it was composed, are of course as wide apart from those of Haykar as is Iceland from Syria, but human nature remains the same.

Pp. 22-24.—Two classes of subterfuges similar to those employed by Haykar are common in folk-tales. In one, the hero vanquishes, and generally destroys, his adversary (usually a giant) by imposing on his credulity, like Jack when he hid himself in a corner of the room, and left a faggot in his bed for the giant to belabour, and afterwards killed the giant by pretending to rip himself up, and defying the other to do the same. In other cases, the hero foils his opponents by subterfuges which are admitted to be just, but which are not intended actually to deceive, as in the devices by which the blind Shaykh instructs the merchant to baffle the sharpers, in one of the Sindibad stories (vol. vi., pp. 202-212, No. 135x., of our Table). In the present story Pharaoh was baffled by the superior cunning of Haykar but it is not made quite clear whether he actually believed in his power to build a castle in the air or not. However the story probably belongs to the second class.

P. 25.—Twisting ropes out of sand was a device by which Michael Scot baffled a devil for whom he had to find constant employment. (Cf. Scott's "Lay of the Last Minstrel," and notes.)

The History of Al-Bundukani (Pp. 31-68).

I believe the "Robber-Caliph" is sometimes played as a burlesque, for which it is well adapted. The parallel suggested between the Caliph and a robber may remind the reader of the interview between Alexander the Great and the Robber, in "Evenings at Home." One cannot help sympathising with the disappointed young Merchant who acted as an informer, and feeling glad that he got off with a whole skin.

P. 34.—In some versions of this story Harun's abstention from his bride for a year is attributed to a previous vow.

P. 46 and note 4.—This passage, relative to the character of the Caliph, may be compared with his forgetfulness respecting Nur Al-Din Ali and Anis Al-Jalis. (Vol. ii. p, 42, and note.)

The Linguist-dame, the Duenna, and the King's Son (Pp. 69-87).

This story, though much shorter, is very closely paralleled by that of Prince Calaf and the Princess of China, in the Thousand and One Days (cf. vol. x., App, pp. 499, 500) Prince Calaf (the son of the King of the Nogais Tartars) and his parents are driven from their kingdom by the Sultan of Carizme (Khwarizm), and take refuge with the Khan of Berlas, where the old King and Queen remain, while Calaf proceeds to China, where he engages in an intellectual contest with Princess Tourandocte (Turandot, i.e. Turandokht or Turan's daughter). When Turandot is on the point of defeat, she sends her confidante, a captive princess, to Calaf, to worm out his secret (his own name). The confidante, who is herself in love with Calaf, horrifies him with the invention that Turandot intends to have him secretly assassinated; but although he drops his name in his consternation, he refuses to fly with his visitor. In the morning Turandot declares Calaf's name to him but comforts him by saying that she has nevertheless determined to accept him as her husband, instead of cutting off his head; and the slave princess commits suicide. Messengers are then sent for Calaf's parents, who arrive in company with the friendly Khan who had granted them an asylum; and Calaf marches against the Sultan of Carizme, who is defeated and slain, when his subjects readily submit to the conqueror.

P. 77.—According to Jewish tradition, the Rod of Moses became transformed into so terrible a dragon that the Egyptians took to flight, and 60,000 of them were slain in the press.—(Sale's Koran, chap. 7, note.)

P. 77, note 4.—It was long denied that ants store up grain, because our English ants do not; but it is now well known that many foreign species, some of which inhabit countries bordering on the Mediterranean (including Palestine), store up large quantities of grass seeds in their nests; and one ant found in North America is said to actually cultivate a particular kind of grass.

P. 81, note 6.—Those interested in the question of the succession of the Patriarchs may refer to Joseph Jacobs' article on "Junior-right in Genesis,"[FN#430] in which the writer argues that it was the original custom among the Hebrews, as among other nations, for the youngest son to succeed to his father's estates, after the elder ones had already established themselves elsewhere. Much may be urged in favour of this writer's conclusions, and it will be remembered that our own Monarchy was not recognised as hereditary until the time of the Conquest, the most able or the strongest relative of the late King usually succeeding to the Crown, and minors being always set aside, unless powerful politicians intended to use them as mere tools. In the Esthonian Kalevipoeg the system comes out still more strongly. Three sons are living at home at the time of the death of Kalev, but the youngest is designated by him as his successor, and is afterwards indicated by lot as the peculiar favourite of the gods.

P. 84, note 4.—Although it has nothing to do with the present story, yet I may point out the great importance of the bridle in all the folk-tales which deal with the transformation of human beings into domestic animals. It is clearly implied (though not actually expressed) in the story of Julnar the Sea Born (No. 153) that the power of Abdallah and Badr Basim over Queen Lab, while she bore the form of a mule, depended entirely on their keeping possession of the bridle (cf. Nights, vol. vii., p. 304, and note). There are many stories of magicians who transform themselves into horses, &c., for their friends to sell; but the bridle must on no account be given with the horse. Should this be neglected (purposely or otherwise) the magician is unable to reassume his human form at will. Cf. also Spitta-Bey's story No. 1 (infra).

The Tale of the Warlock and the Young Cook of Baghdad (Pp. 95-112).

This story appears in Chavis and Cazotte's version, and in the various translations made from the French, in a very highly elaborated form, under the title of "The Adventures of Simoustapha, and the Princess Ilsetilsone." The Caliph and his Wazir are identified with Harun Al-Rashid and Ja'afar, but they suffer no transformations at the hands of the Magician after whose death Prince Simoustapha is protected by Setelpedour Ginatille, whose name is interpreted as meaning the Star of the Seven Seas, though the first name appears rather to be a corruption of Sitt El Bubur. She is the queen of Ginnistan, and the daughter of Kokopilesobe (Satan), whose contests with Mahomet and Michael (the former of whom continues the conflict by "becoming man") are described on the approved Miltonic lines. Her chief councillors are Bahlisboull (Beelzebub) and Asmonchar (Asmodeus), but ultimately she falls in love with Simoustapha, and adjures her sovereignty, after which he carries her off, and marries her, upon which the mother of Ilsetilsone, "the sensible Zobeide, formed now a much truer and more favourable judgment of her daughter's happiness, since she had shared the heart of Simoustapha with Setelpedour, and at last agreed that the union of one man with two women might be productive of great happiness to all the three, provided that one of the wives happened to be a fairy." (Weber, ii. p. 50.) A most encouraging sentiment for would-be polygamists, truly, especially in Europe, where fairies appear to fly before the advance of civilisation as surely as the wild beasts of the forest!

P. 99.—These apparitions resemble those which usually precede the visions which appear in the well-known pool of ink. But the sweeper is not mentioned in the present story, nor do I remember reading of his appearing in cases of crystal seeing, though Dante Gabriel Rossetti introduces him into his fine poem, "Rose Mary," as preparing the way for the visions seen in the beryl:

"'I see a man with a besom grey That sweeps the flying dust away.' 'Ay, that comes first in the mystic sphere; But now that the way is swept and clear Heed well what next you look on there.'"

P. 104, note 1.—Apropos of the importance of "three days," I may refer to the "three days and three nights" which Christ is commonly said to have passed in the tomb, and I believe that some mystics assert that three days is the usual period required by a man to recover consciousness after death.

Pp. 106, 107.—These worked lions recall the exhibition of power made by Abu Mohammed hight Lazybones (No. 37; Nights, iv., p. 165). Their Oriental prototypes are probably the lions and eagles with which the Jinn ornamented the throne of Solomon. In the West, we meet with Southey's amusing legend of the Pious Painter:

"'Help, help, Blessed Mary,' he cried in alarm, As the scaffold sunk under his feet; From the canvass the Virgin extended her arm; She caught the good Painter; she saved him from harm; There were hundreds who saw in the street."

The enchanted palaces of the Firm Island, with their prodigies of the Hart and the Dogs, &c., may also be mentioned (Amadis of Gaul, book II., chap. 21, &c.).

Pp. 107, 108.—Stories of changed sex are not uncommon in Eastern and classical mythology and folk-lore; usually, as in this instance, the change of a man into a woman, although it is the converse (apparent, of course) which we meet with occasionally in modern medical books.

In the Nights, &c., we have the story of the Enchanted Spring (No. 135j) in the great Sindibad cyclus (Nights, vi., pp. 145-150), and Lane (Modern Egyptians, chap. xxv.) relates a story which he heard in Cairo more resembling that of the transformed Wazir. In classical legend we have the stories of Tiresias, Caeneus, and Iphis. Turning to India, we meet with the prototype of Caeneus in Amba, who was reincarnated as Sikhandin, in order to avenge herself on Bhishma, and subsequently exchanged her sex with a Yaksha, and became a great warrior (Mahabharata Udyoga-Parva, 5942-7057). Some of the versions of the Enchanted Spring represent the Prince as recovering his sex by an exchange with a demon, thus showing a transition from the story of Sikhandin to later replicas. There is also a story of changed sex in the Hindi Baital Pachisi; and no doubt many others might be quoted.

History of What Befel the Fowl-let with the Fowler (Pp. 119-128).

One of the most curious stories relative to the escape of a captured prey is to be found in the 5th Canto of the Finnish Kalevala. Vainaimoinen, the old minstrel, is fishing in the lake where his love, Aino, has drowned herself, because she would not marry an old man. He hooks a salmon of very peculiar appearance, and while he is speculating about cutting it up and cooking it, it leaps from the boat into the water, and then reproaches him with his folly, telling him that it is Aino (now transformed into a water-nymph) who threw herself in his way to be his life-companion, but that owing to his folly in proposing to eat her, he has now lost her for ever. Hereupon she disappears, and all his efforts to rediscover her are fruitless.

The Tale of Attaf (Pp. 129-170).

P. 138, note 6.—I may add that an episode is inserted in the Europeanised version of this story, relative to the loves of the son of Chebib and the Princess of Herak, which is evidently copied from the first nocturnal meeting of Kamaralzaman and Budur (No. 21, Nights, iii., pp. 223-242), and is drawn on exactly similar lines (Weber, i. pp. 508-510).

History of Prince Habib, and What Befel Him with the Lady Durrat Al-Ghawwas (Pp. 171-201).

P. 197, note 1.—Epithets of colour, as applied to seas, frequently have a purely mythological application in Eastern tales. Thus, in the story of Zaher and Ali (cf. my "New Arabian Nights," p. 13) we read, "You are now upon an island of the Black Sea, which encompasses all other seas, and flows within Mount Kaf. According to the reports of travellers, it is a ten years' voyage before you arrive at the Blue Sea, and it takes full ten years to traverse this again to reach the Green Sea, after which there is another ten years' voyage before you can reach the Greek Sea, which extends to inhabited countries and islands."

Kenealy says (in a note to his poem on "Night") that the Atlantic Ocean is called the Sea of Darkness, on account of the great irruption of water which occasioned its formation; but this is one of his positive statements relative to facts not generally known to the world, for which he considered it unnecessary to quote his authority.

P. 200.—According to one account of impalement which I have seen, the stake is driven through the flesh of the back beneath the skin.

Reading the account of the Crucifixion between the lines, I have come to the conclusion that the sudden death of Christ was due to his drinking from the sponge which had just been offered to him. The liquid, however, is said to have been vinegar, and not water; but this might have had the same effect, or water may have been substituted, perhaps with the connivance of Pilate. In the latter case vinegar may only have been mentioned as a blind, to deceive the fanatical Jews. The fragmentary accounts of the Crucifixion which have come down to us admit of many possible interpretations of details.

Index to the Tales, and Proper Names, Together with Alphabetical Table of Notes in Volumes XI. To XVI. Also Additional Notes on the Bibliography of the Thousand and One Nights.

Index to the Tales and Proper Names in the Supplemental Nights.

N.B.—The Roman numerals denote the volume, the Arabic the page. {The Arabic numerals have been discarded}

Abbaside, Ja'afar bin Yahya and Abd Al-Malik bin Salih the, i. Abd Al-Malik bin Salih the Abbaside, Ja'afar bin Yahya and, i. Abdullah bin Nafi', Tale of Harun Al-Rashid and, ii. Abu Niyattayn, History of Abu Niyyah and, iv. Abu Niyyah and Abu Niyyatayn, History of, iv. Abu Sabir, Story of, i. Abu Tammam, Story of Aylan Shah and, i. Advantages of Patience, Of the, i. Adventure of the Fruit Seller and the Concubine, iv. Adventures of Khudadad and his Brothers, iii. Adventures of Prince Ahmad and the Fairy Peri-Banu, iii. Al-'Abbas, Tale of King Ins bin Kays and his daughter with the Son of King, ii. Alaeddin, or the Wonderful Lamp, iii. Al-Bundukani, or the Caliph Harun Al-Rashid and the daughter of King Kisra, vi. Al-Hajjaj and the Three Young Men, i. Al-Hajjaj bin Yusuf and the Young Sayyid, History of, v. Al-Hayfa and Yusuf, The Loves of, v. Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves, Story of, iii. Ali Khwajah and the Merchant of Baghdad, Story of, iii. Allah, Of the Speedy relief of, i. Allah, Of Trust in, i. Al-Maamun and Zubaydah, i. Al-Maamun, The Concubine of, ii. Al-Malik Al-Zahir Rukn Al-Din Bibars al-Bundukdari and the Sixteen Captains of Police, ii. Al-Nu'uman and the Arab of the Banu Tay, i. Al-Rahwan, King Shah Bakht and his Wazir, i. Al-Rashid and the Barmecides, i. Al-Rashid, Ibn Al-Sammak and, i. Appointed Term, which, if it be Advanced may not be Deferred, and if it be Deferred, may not be Advanced, Of the, i. Arab of the Banu Tay, Al-Nu'uman and the, i. Ass, Tale of the Sharpers with the Shroff and the, i. Attaf, The Tale of, vi. Attaf, The Tale of, (by Alex. J. Cotheal), vi. Aylan Shah and Abu Tammam, Story of, i. Baba Abdullah, Story of the Blind Man, iii. Babe, History of the Kazi who bare a, iv. Bakhtzaman, Story of King, i. Banu Tay, Al-Nu'uman and the Arab of the, i. Barber and the Captain, The Cairenne Youth, the, v. Barber's Boy and the Greedy Sultan, Story of the Darwaysh and the, v. Barmecides, Al-Rashid and the, i. Barmecides,. Harun Al-Rashid and the Woman of the, i. Beautiful Daughter to the Poor Old Man, Tale of the Richard who married his, i. Bhang-Eater and his Wife, History of the, iv. Bhang-Eater,. Tale of the Kazi and the, iv. Bihkard, Story of King, i. Blind Man, Baba Abdullah, Story of the, iii. Broke-Back Schoolmaster, Story of the, iv. Cadette, Tale of the Two Sisters who envied their, iii. Cairenne Youth, the Barber and the Captain, The, v. Cairo (The good wife of) and her four gallants, v. Caliph Harun Al-Rashid and the daughter of King Kisra, The History of Al-Bundukam or the, vi. Caliph Omar Bin Abd Al-Aziz and the Poets, The, i. Caliph's Night Adventure, History of the, iii. Caliph, The Concubine and the, ii. Captain, The Cairenne Youth, the Barber and the, v. Captain, The Tailor and the Lady and the, v. Cheat and the Merchants, Tale of the, i. China, The Three Princes of, v. Clemency, Of, i. Clever Thief, A Merry Jest of a, ii. Cock and the Fox, The pleasant history of the, vi. Coelebs the droll and his wife and her four Lovers, v. Compeer, Tale of the Two Sharpers who each cozened his, i. Concubine, Adventure of the Fruit Seller and the, iv. Concubine and the Caliph, The, ii. Concubine of Al-Maamun, The, ii. Constable's History, First, ii. Constable's History, Second, ii. Constable's History, Third, ii. Constable's History, Fourth, ii. Constable's History, Fifth, ii. Constable's History, Sixth, ii. Constable's History, Seventh, ii. Constable's History, Eighth, ii. Constable's History, Ninth, ii. Constable's History, Tenth, ii. Constable's History, Eleventh, ii. Constable's History, Twelfth, ii. Constable's History, Thirteenth, ii. Constable's History, Fourteenth, ii. Constable's History, Fifteenth, ii. Constable's History, Sixteenth, ii. Cook, Story of the Larrikin and the, i. Coyntes, The Lady with the two, v. Crone and the Draper's Wife, Story of the, i. Crone and the King, Tale of the Merchant, the, i. Cunning She-thief, The Gate Keeper of Cairo and the, v. Dadbin and his Wazirs, Story of King, i. Darwaysh and the Barber's Boy and the Greedy Sultan, Story of the, v. Darwaysh, The Sultan who fared forth in the habit of a, iv. Daryabar, History of the Princess of, iii. Daughter of King Kisra, The History of Al-Bundukani, or the Caliph Harun Al-Rashid and the, vi. David and Solomon, Story of, i. Destiny or that which is written on the Forehead, i. Dethroned Ruler, whose reign and wealth were restored to him, Tale of the, i. Devotee accused of Lewdness, Tale of the, i. Disciple's Story, The, i. Druggist, Tale of the Singer and the, i. Drummer Abu Kasim became a Kazi, How, iv. Duenna and the King's Son, The Linguist-Dame, the, vi. Eighth Constable's History, ii. Eleventh Constable's History, ii. Enchanting Bird, Story of the King of Al-Yaman and his Three Sons, and the, iv. Enchanting Bird, Tale of the Sultan and his Three Sons and the, iv. Ends of Affairs, Of Looking to the, i. Envy and Malice, Of, i. Fairy Peri-Banu, Adventures of Prince Ahmad and the, iii. Falcon and the Locust, Story of the, i. Fellah and his Wicked Wife, The, v. Fifteenth Constable's History, ii. Fifth Constable's History, ii. First Constable's History, ii. First Larrikin, History of the, iv. First Lunatic, Story of the, iv. Firuz and his Wife, i. Fisherman and his Son, Tale of the, iv. Forehead, Of Destiny or that which is Written on the, i. Forty Thieves, Story of Ali Baba and the, iii. Fourteenth Constable's History, ii. Fourth Constable's History, ii. Fowl with the Fowler, History of what befel the, vi. Fox, The Pleasant History of the Cock and the, vi. Fruit seller and the Concubine, Adventure of the, iv. Fruit seller's Tale, The, iv. Fuller and his Wife and the Trooper, Tale of the, i. Gallants, The Goodwife of Cairo and her Four, v. Gatekeeper of Cairo and the Cunning She-thief, The, v. Girl, Tale of the Hireling and the, i. Good and Evil Actions, Of the Issues of, i. Goodwife of Cairo and her Four Gallants, The, v. Greedy Sultan, Story of the Darwaysh and the Barber's Boy and the, v. Hajjaj (Al-) and the Three Young Men, i. Harun Al-Rashid and Abdullah bin Nafi', Tale of, ii. Harun Al-Rashid and the Woman of the Barmecides, i. Harun Al-Rashid and the Youth Manjab, Night Adventure of, v. Harun Al-Rashid Tale of the Damsel Tohfat al-Kulub and the Caliph, ii. Haykar the Sage, The Say of, vi. History of King Azadbakht and his Son, The Ten Wazirs; or the, i. History of what befel the Fowl with the Fowler, vi. Hireling and the Girl, Tale of the, i. How Allah gave him relief, Story of the Prisoner and, i. How Drummer Abu Kasim became a Kazi, iv. Husband, Tale of the Simpleton, v. Ibn al-Sammak and Al-Rashid, i. Ibrahim and his Son, Story of, i. Ill Effects of Impatience, Of the, i. Impatience, Of the Ill Effects of, i. Ins bin Kays (King) and his Daughter with the Son of King Al-'Abbas, Tale of, ii. Isa, Tale of the Three Men and our Lord, i. Issues of Good and Evil Actions, Of the, i. Ja'afar bin Yahya and Abd Al-Malik bin Salih the Abbaside, i. Kazi and the Bhang-Eater, Tale of the, iv. Kazi and the Slipper, Story of the, iv. Kazi, How Drummer Abu Kasim became a, iv. Kazi schooled by his Wife, The, v. Kazi who bare a babe, History of the, iv. Khalbas and his Wife and the Learned Man, Tale of the, i. Khudadad and his Brothers, Adventures of, iii. Khwajah Hasan al-Habbal, History of, iii. King and his Chamberlain's Wife, Tale of the, i. King Azadbakht and his Son, The Ten Wazirs; or the History of, i. King Bakhtzaman, Story of, i. King Bihkard, Story of, i. King Dadbin and his Wazirs, Story of, i. King Ibrahim and his Son, Story of, i. King of Al-Yaman and his Three Sons and the Enchanting Bird, Story of the, iv. King of Hind and his Wazir, Tale of, i. King Shah Bakht and his Wazir Al-Rahwan, i. King Sulayman Shah and his Niece, Story of, i. King Tale of himself told by the, v. King Tale of the Merchant, the Crone and the, i. King who kenned the quintessence of things, Tale of the, i. King who lost Kingdom and Wife and Wealth and Allah restored them to him, Tale of the, i. King's Son of Sind and the Lady Fatimah, The History of, v. King's Son, The Linguist-Dame, the Duenna and the, vi. Kurd Sharper, Tale of Mahmud the Persian and the, iv. Lady and the Captain, The Tailor and the, v. Lady Durrat al-Ghawwas, History of Prince Habib and what befel him with the, vi. Lady Fatimah, The History of the King's Son of Sind and the, v. Lady with the two Coyntes, The, v. Larrikin and the Cook, Story of the, i. Larrikin concerning himself, Tale of the Third, iv. Larrikin History of the First, iv. Larrikin History of the Second, iv. Larrikin History of the Third, iv. Leach (Tale of the Weaver who became a), by order of his wife, i. Learned Man, Tale of Khalbas and his Wife and the, i. Lewdness, Tale of the Devotee accused of, i. Limping Schoolmaster, Story of the, iv. Linguist-Dame, the Duenna, and the King's Son, The, vi. Locust, Story of the Falcon and the, i. Looking to the Ends of Affairs, Of, i. Lovers, Coelebs the Droll and his wife and her four, v. Lovers of Syria, History of the, v. Loves of Al-Hayfa and Yusuf, The, v. Luck, Story of the Merchant who lost his, i. Lunatic, Story of the First, iv. Lunatic, Story of the Second, iv. Mahmud the Persian and the Kurd Sharper, Tale of, iv. Man of Khorassan, his Son and his Tutor, Tale of the, i. Man whose Caution slew him, Tale of the, i. Man who was Lavish of his House, and his Provision for one whom he knew not, i. Malice, Of Envy and, i. Melancholist and the Sharper, Tale of the, i. Merchant and his Sons, Tale of the, i. Merchant of Baghdad, Story of Ali Khirajah and the, iii. Merchant's Daughter and the Prince of Al-Irak, The, v. Merchants, Tale of the Cheat and the, i. Merchant, the Crone and the King, Tale of the, i. Merchant who lost his luck, Story of the, i. Merry Jest of a Clever Thief, A, ii. Mistress and his Wife, Mohammed the Shalabi and his, v. Mohammed, Story of a Sultan of Al-Hind and his Son, iv. Mohammed Sultan of Cairo, History of, iv. Mohammed the Shalabi and his Mistress and his Wife, v. Mohsin and Musa, Tale of, v. Musa, Tale of Mohsin and, v. Niece, Story of King Sulayman Shah and his, i. Night Adventure of Sultan Mohammed of Cairo with the Three Foolish Schoolmasters, The, iv. Night Adventure of Harun Al-Rashid and the Youth Manjab, v. Ninth Constable's History, ii. Nur al-Din Ali of Damascus and the damsel Sitt al-Milah, ii. Omar Bin Abd Al-Aziz and the Poets, The Caliph, i. Patience, Of the advantages of, i. Persistent Ill Fortune, Of the Uselessness of Endeavor against the, i. Picture, Tale of the Prince who fell in love with the, i. Pleasant History of the Cock and the Fox, The, vi. Poets, The Caliph Omar Bin Abd Al-Aziz and the, i. Poor man who brought to him Fruit, Tale of the Sultan and the, iv. Poor old man, Tale of the Richard who married his beautiful Daughter to the, i. Prince Ahmad and the Fairy Peri-Banu, Adventures of, iii. Prince Bihzad, Story of, i. Prince Habib and what befel him with the Lady Durrat al-Ghawwas, History of, vi. Prince of Al-Irak, The Merchant's Daughter and the, v. Princess of Daryabar, History of, iii. Prince who fell in love with the Picture, Tale of the, i. Prisoner and how Allah gave him relief, Story of, i. Quintessence of things, Tale of the King who kenned the, i. Richard, Tale of the, who married his beautiful daughter to the Poor Old Man, i. Righteous Wazir wrongfully gaoled, The, v. Robber and the Woman, Tale of the, i. Sage and his Three Sons, Tale of the, i. Sage and the Scholar, Story of the, iv. Salim the Youth of Khorasan, and Salma, his Sister, Tale of, i. Salma, his Sister, Tale of Salim the Youth of Khorasan and, i, Say of Haykar the Sage, The, vi. Scholar, Story of the Sage and the, iv. Schoolmaster, Story of the Broke-Back, iv. Schoolmaster, Story of the Limping, iv. Schoolmaster, Story of the Split-mouthed, iv. Second Constable's History, ii. Second Larrikin, History of the, iv. Second Lunatic, Story of the, iv. Seventh Constable's History, ii. Shah Bakht and his Wazir Al-Rahwan, King, i. Sharpers with the Shroff and the Ass, Tale of the, i. Sharper, Tale of the Melancholist and the, i. Sharper, Tale of the old, ii. Shroff and the Ass, Tale of the Sharpers with the, i. Sidi Nu'uman, History of, iii. Singer and the Druggist, Tale of the, i. Simpleton Husband, Tale of the, i. Simpleton Husband, Tale of the, v. Sitt al-Milah, Nur al-Din Ali of Damascus and the Damsel, ii. Sixteen Captains of Police, Al-Malik Al-Zahir Rukn Al-Din Bibars al-Bundukdari and the, ii. Sixteenth Constable's History, ii. Sixth Constable's History, ii. Sleeper and the Waker, The, i. Slipper, Story of the Kazi and the, iv. Solomon, Story of David and, i. Sons, Tale of the Merchant and his, i. Speedy relief of Allah, Of the, i. Split-mouthed Schoolmaster, Story of the, iv. Sulayman Shah and his Niece, Story of King, i. Sultanah, Story of three Sisters and their Mother the, iv. Sultan and his Three Sons and the Enchanting Bird, Tale of the, iv. Sultan and the Poor Man who brought to him Fruit, Tale of the, iv. Sultan Mohammed of Cairo with the Three Foolish Schoolmasters, The Night Adventure of, iv. Sultan of Al-Hind and his Son Mohammed, Story of the, iv. Sultan of Al-Yaman and his Three Sons, Story of, iv. Sultan who fared forth in the habit of a Darwaysh, The, iv. Syria, History of the Lovers of, v. Syrian and the Three Women of Cairo, The, v. Tailor and the Lady and the Captain, The, v. Tale of Himself told by the King, v. Tenth Constable's History, ii. Ten Wazirs; or, the History of King Azadbakht and his Son, The, i. Thief's Tale, The, ii. Third Constable's History, ii. Third Larrikin concerning himself, Tale of, iv. Third Larrikin, History of the, iv. Thirteenth Constable's History, ii. Three Foolish Schoolmasters, The Night Adventure of Sultan Mohammed of Cairo with the, iv. Three men and our Lord Isa, Tale of the, i. Three Princes of China, The, v. Three Sharpers, Story of the, iv. Three Sisters and their Mother the Sultanah, Story of the, iv. Three Sons, Tale of the Sage and his, i. Three Women of Cairo, The Syrian and the, v. Three Young Men, Al-Hajjaj and the, i. Tither, Tale of the Unjust King and the, i. Tohfat al-Kulub and the Caliph Harun Al-Rashid, Tale of the Damsel, ii. Trooper, Tale of the Fuller and his wife and the, i. Trust in Allah, Of, i. Tutor, Tale of the Man of Khorassan, his Son and his, i. Twelfth Constable's History, ii. Two Kings and the Wazir's daughters, Tale of the, ii. Two Lack-Tacts of Cairo and Damascus, Story of the, v. Two Sharpers who each cozened his Compeer, Tale of the, i. Two Sisters who envied their Cadette, Tale of the, iii. Ugly man and his beautiful Wife, Tale of the, i. Unjust King and the Tither, Tale of the, i. Uselessness of Endeavour against the Persistent Ill Fortune, Of the, i. Virtue, The whorish wife who vaunted her, v. Waker, The Sleeper and the, i. Warlock and the Young Cook of Baghdad, Tale of the, vi. Wazir Al Rahwan, King Shah Bakht and his, i. Wazir, Tale of the King of Hind and his, i. Wazir, (The Righteous) wrongfully gaoled, v. Wazir's Daughters, Tale of the Two Kings and the, ii. Wazirs; or the History of King Azadbakht and his Son, The Ten, i. Wazirs, Story of King Dadbin and his, i. Weaver who became a Leach by order of his wife, Tale of the, i. Whorish wife who vaunted her virtue, The, v. Wicked wife, The Fellah and his, v. Wife, Firuz and his, i. Wife, History of the Bhang Eater and his, iv. Wife, Story of the Crone and the Draper's, i. Wife, Tale of the King and his Chamberlain's, i. Wife, Tale of the Ugly man and his beautiful, i. Wife, Tale of the Weaver who became a Leach by order of his, i. Wife, The Kazi schooled by his, v. Wives, Story of the Youth who would futter his father's, v. Woman of the Barmecides, Harun Al-Rashid and the, i. Woman, Tale of the Robber and the, i. Woman who humoured her lover at her husband's expense, The, v. Women's Wiles, ii. Wonderful Lamp, Alaeddin; or the, iii. Young Cook of Baghdad, Tale of the Warlock and the, vi. Young Sayyid, History of Al-Hajjaj bin Yusuf and the, v. Youth Manjab, Night Adventure of Harun Al-Rashid and the, v. Youth who would futter his father's wives, Story of the, v. Yusuf, The Loves of Al-Hayfa and, v. Zayn al-Asnam, Tale of, iii. Zubaydah, Al-Maamun and, i.

Variants and Analogues of Some of the Tales in the Supplemental Nights.

By W. A. Clouston.

Aladdin; or the Wonderful Lamp, iii. Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves, iii. Ali Khwajah and the Merchant of Baghdad, iii. Al Malik Al-Zahir and the Sixteen Captains of Police, ii. Blind Man, Baba Abdullah, The Story of the, iii. Damsel Tuhfat al-Kulub, The, ii. Devout woman accused of Lewdness, The, ii. Fifteenth Constable's Story, The, ii. Firuz and his Wife, ii. Fuller, his Wife and the Trooper, The, ii. Khudadad and his Brothers, iii. Khwajah Hasan al-Habbal, History of, iii. King Aylan Shah and Abu Tammam, ii. King Dadbin and his Wazirs, ii. King Ins bin Kays and his Daughter, ii. King Shah Bakht and his Wazir Al-Rahwan, ii. King Sulayman Shah and his Niece, ii. King who kenned the Quintessence of things, The, ii. King who lost Kingdom, Wife and Wealth, The, ii. Melancholist and the Sharper, The, ii. Ninth Constable's Story, The, ii. Nur al-Din and the Damsel Sitt al-Milah, ii. On the Art of Enlarging Pearls, ii. Prince Ahmad and the Peri Banu, iii. Prince who fell in love with the Picture, The, ii. Sidi Nu'man, History of, iii. Simpleton Husband, The, ii. Singer and the Druggist; The, ii. Sleeper and the Waker, ii. Ten Wazirs, or the History of King Azadbakht and his son, ii. Thief's Tale, The, ii. Three men and our Lord Isa, The, ii. Two Sisters who envied their Cadette, The, iii. Weaver who became a leach by order of his wife, The, ii. Women's Wiles, ii. Zayn al-Asnarn, The tale of, iii.

Additional Notes. By W. A. Clouston.

Aladdin, or the Wonderful Lamp, iii. Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves, iii. Firuz and his Wife, ii. Fuller, his wife and the Trooper, The, ii. Prince Ahmad, The Tale of, iii. Singer and the Druggist, The, ii. Zayn al-Asnam, The Tale of, iii.

By W. F. Kirby.

Additional Notes to some of Tales in vol. iv.; v. Additional Notes to some of Tales in vol. v.; v. Additional Notes to some of Tales in vol. vi.; vi. Additional Bibliographical Notes to the Tales in the Supplemental Nights, vi.

Additional Notes on the Bibliography of the Thousand and One Nights. (Cf. Nights, X., App. Ii., P. 414.)

By W. F. Kirby.

Herewith I add notes on any works of importance which I had not seen when my "Contributions" were published, or which have appeared since.

Zotenberg's Work on Aladdin and on Various Manuscripts of the Nights.

One of the most important works which has appeared lately in connection with the Thousand and One Nights, is the following:

Histoire d' 'Ala Al-Din ou la Lampe Merveilleuse. Texte Arabe publie avec une notice sur quelques manuscrits des Mille et une Nuits par H. Zotenberg, roy. 8vo. Paris, Imprimerie Nationale, 1888

The publication of this work puts an end to the numerous conjectures of scholars as to the source of Galland's unidentified tales; and the notes on various MSS. of the Nights are also very valuable. It therefore appears desirable to give a tolerably full sketch of the contents of the book.[FN#431]

M. Zotenberg begins with general remarks, and passes on to discuss Galland's edition. [Section I.]—Although Galland frequently speaks of Oriental tales[FN#432], in his journal, kept at Constantinople in 1672 and 1673, yet as he informs us, in his Dedication to the Marquise d'O., he only succeeded in obtaining from Syria a portion of the MS. of the Nights themselves with considerable difficulty after his return to France.

There is some doubt as to the date of appearance of the first 6 vols. of Galland's "Mille et une Nuit." According to Caussin de Perceval, vols. 1 and 2 were published together in 1704, and vols. 3 and 4 in the course of the same year. Nevertheless, in the copy in the Bibliotheque Nationale, vols. 1 and 4 are dated 1704, and vols. 2, 5 and 6 are dated 1705; vol. 3 is missing, just as we have only odd volumes of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th English editions in the British Museum, the 1st being still quite unknown.

M. Zotenberg proceeds to give an account of Galland's MS. (cf. Nights, x. App., p. 414), and illustrates it by a specimen page in facsimile. Judging from the character of the writing, &c., he considers it to have been transcribed about the second half of the 14th century (Sir R. F. Burton suggests about A.D. 1384). It is curious that there is a MS. of the 15th century in the Library of the Vatican, which appears to be almost a counterpart of Galland's, and likewise contains only the first 282 Nights. Galland's MS. wants a leaf extending from part of Night 102 to the beginning of Night 104, and containing an account of the Hunchback and his buffooneries; this hiatus is filled up in the Vatican MS.

Habicht's version is noted as more approaching Galland's MS. than do the texts founded on the Egyptian texts; but in thus speaking, Zotenberg does not notice the assertion that Habicht's MS., though obtained at Tunis, came originally from Egypt. He considers the ordinary Egyptian texts to be generally abridged and condensed.

Although it is clear that Galland made great use of this MS. for his translation, yet M. Zotenberg points out numerous discrepancies, especially those at the commencement of the work, which led Caussin de Perceval to regard Galland's work as a mere paraphrase of the original. M. Zotenberg, however (p. 14), writes, "Evidemment, Galland, pour la traduction du commencement du recit, a suivi un texte plus developpe que celui du MS. 1508, texte dont la redaction egyptienne ne presente qu'un maladroit abrege." He quotes other instances which seem to show that Galland had more than one text at his disposal.

[Section II.]—At the beginning of the 17th century, only two MSS. of the Nights existed m the libraries of Paris, one in Arabic, and the other in Turkish. The Arabic MS. contains 870 Nights, and is arbitrarily divided into 29 sections. M. Zotenberg considers that it was to this MS. that Galland referred, when he said that the complete work was in 36 parts The tales follow the order of our Table as far as No. 7 (Nos. 2ab, 2ac and 3ba are wanting), the remainder are irregular, and run as follows: 153, 154, 154a, 20; story of Khailedjan ibn Haman, the Persian; Story of the Two Old Men, and of Baz al-Aschbab Abou Lahab; 9, apparently including as episodes 9a, 9aa, 21, 8, 9b, 170, 181r to 181bb 137, 154 (commencement repeated), 181u to 181bb (repeated), 135a, Adventures of a traveller who entered a pond (etang) and underwent metamorphoses:[FN#433] anecdotes and apothegms; a portion of the Kalila and Dimna ?

The Turkish MS. (in 11 vols.) is made up of several imperfect copies, which have been improperly put together. The bulk is formed by vols. 2-10 which are written in three different hands, and some of which bear date 1046 A.H. The contents of these nine vols. are as follows: Introduction and 1-3 (wanting 2ab), Story of 'Abdallah of Basra, 5; Story of 'Attaf ibn Isma'il al-Schoqlani of Damascus and the schaikh Abou-'l-Baraka al-Nawwam, 6; Story told by the Christian Merchant (relating to Qamar al-Zaman during the reign of Sultan Mahmoud, and different from the story known under this title); Story of Ahmad al- Saghir (the tattle) and Schams al-Qosour; Story of the Young Man of Baghdad and the Bathman (Baigneur, attendant in a Hammam), 7; 153; 21; Story of Khaledjan ibn Mahani; Story of Nour al-Din 'All and of Dounya (or Dinar) of Damascus, 133, Story of Prince Qamar-Khan and of the schaikh 'Ate, of the Sultan Mahmoud-Khan, of Bahram-Schah, of 'Abdallah ibn Hilal, of Harout and Marout, &c.; Story of Qowwat al-Qoloub; 9, including as episodes 9a; 8; Story of Moubaref who slept in the bath; ( ? = 96); and 170; Fables.

The other volumes (1 and 11 of the MS.) both contain the beginning of the MS. Vol. I was written towards the end of the 17th century, and extends about as far as Night 55, concluding with No. 7, which follows No. 3. Vol. 11., which once belonged to Galland, includes only a portion of the Introduction. The text of these two fragments is similar, but differs considerably from that of vol. 2 of the MS.; and specimens of the commencement of vols. 1 and 2 are given to show this. Yet it is singular that Galland does not seem to have used these Turkish volumes; and the second MS. which he actually used, like the 4th vol. of the copy preserved in the Bibliotheque Nationale, appears to be missing.

M. Zotenberg then remarks on the missing vol. 4 of Galland, and quotes extracts from Galland's Diary, strewing that Nos. 191, 192 and 192a, which were surreptitiously introduced into his work without his knowledge, and greatly to his annoyance, were translated by Petis de la Croix, and were probably intended to be included in the Thousand and One Days, which was published in 1710.

[Section III.]—This is one of the most important in the book, in which extracts from Galland's Diary of 1709 are quoted, shewing that he was then in constant communication with a Christian Maronite of Aleppo, named Hanna (Jean), who was brought to Paris by the traveller Paul Lucas, and who related stories to Galland, of which the latter took copious notes, and most of which he worked up into the later volumes of his "Mille et une Nuit" (sic). Among these were 193, 194a, 194b, 59, 197, 198, 174, 195, 194c, 196. The following tales he did not use: An Arab story of two cousins, Camar eddin and Bedr el Bodour; the Golden City (another version of the story of the Three Princes, in No. 198, combined with the story of the woman who slew pretenders who were unable to solve a riddle); The Three Princes, the Genius Morhagian, and his Daughters; and the story of the seller of ptisanne (or diet-drinks) and his son Hassan.

Further extracts from Galland's Diary are added, extending from the time of Hanna's departure from Paris between June and October, 1709, and the completion of the 12th volume of the Mille et une Nuit in 1712. These relate to the gradual progress of the work; and to business in connection with it; and Hanna's name is occasionally mentioned.

Hanna supplied Galland with a written version of No. 193, and probably of 194 a-c; (i.e. most of the tales in vol. 9 and 10); but the tales in vols. 11 and 12 were apparently edited by Galland from his notes and recollections of Hanna's narrations. These are Nos. 195, 196, 59, 197 and 198. M. Zotenberg concludes that Hanna possessed a MS. containing all these tales, part of which he copied for Galland, and that this copy, like several other important volumes which Galland is known or believed to have possessed, was lost. M. Zotenberg thinks that we may expect to meet with most of Hanna's tales either in other copies of the Nights, or in some other collection of the same kind. The latter supposition appears to me to be by far the most probable.

[Section IV.]—M. Zotenberg proceeds to give an account of one or two very important MSS. of the Nights in the Bibliotheque Nationale. One of these is a MS. which belonged to the elder Caussin, and was carefully copied by Michael Sabbagh from a MS. of Baghdad. Prof. Fleischer, who examined it, states (Journal Asiatique, 1827, t. II., p. 221) that it follows the text of Habicht, but in a more developed form. M. Zotenberg copies a note at the end, finishing up with the word "Kabikaj" thrice repeated. This, he explains, "est le nom du genie prepose au regne des insectes. Les scribes, parfois, l'invoquent pour preserver leurs manuscrits de l'atteinte de vers."

This MS. was copied in Parts on European paper at the beginning of the century, though Caussin de Perceval was not acquainted with it in 1806, but only with a MS. of the Egyptian redaction. This MS. agrees with Galland's only as far as the 69th Night. It differs from it in two other points; it contains No. 1c, and the end of No. 3 coincides with the end of Night 69. The contents of Nights 70-1001 are as follows: 246, 4, 5, 6, 20, 7, 153, 21, 170, 247, The Unhappy Lover confined in the Madhouse (probably = 204c), 8, 191, 193,174, 9, 9b (not 9a, or 9aa) and as episodes, 155, 32, and the story of the two brothers 'Amir and Ghadir, and their children Djamil and Bathina.

Another MS., used by Chavis and Cazotte, and Caussin de Perceval, was written in the year 1772. It has hitherto been overlooked, because it was erroneously stated in the late M. Reinaud's Catalogue to be a MS. containing part of the 1001 Nights, extending from Night 282 to Night 631, and copied by Chavis. It is not from Chavis' hand, and does not form part of the ordinary version of the Nights, but contains the following tales: 174, 248, Story of King Sapor, 246, 3a, 36, 3c, 153, Story of the Intendant, the Interpreter, and the Young Man; 247, 204c, 240, 250, Story of the Caliph and the Fisherman (probably = 156), the Cat and the Fox, and the Little Bird and the Fowler.

Another MS., really written by Chavis, commences exactly where Vol. 3 of Galland's MS leaves off, i. e. in the middle of No. 21, and extends from Night 281 to Night 631. M. Zotenberg supposes it to have been written to supply the place of the last volume of Galland's set. It contains the following tales in addition to the conclusion of No. 21: 170, 247, 204c, 8, 191, 193 and 174. M. Zotenberg suggests that the first part of this MS may have been copied from Galland's last volume, which may have existed at the time in private hands.

The two last MSS. contain nearly the same tales, though with numerous variations.

M. Zotenberg discusses the hypothesis of Chavis' MS. being a translation from the French, and definitely rejects it.

[Section V.]—Here M. Zotenberg discusses the MSS. of the Nights in general, and divides them into three categories. 1. MSS. proceeding from Muslim parts of Asia. These, except the MSS. of Michael Sabbagh and that of Chavis, contain only the first part of the work. They are all more or less incomplete, and stop short in the middle of the text. They are not quite uniform, especially in their readings, but generally contain the same tales arranged in the same order. II. Recent MSS. of Egyptian origin, characterised by a special style, and a more condensed narrative; by the nature and arrangement of the tales, by a great number of anecdotes and fables; and by the early part of the work containing the great romance of chivalry of King Omar Bin Al-Nu'uman. III. MSS. mostly of Egyptian origin, differing as much among themselves in the arrangement of the tales as do those of the other groups.

The following MSS. are mentioned as belonging to the first group:—

I. Galland's MS. in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Nos. 1506-1508. II. MS. in the Vatican, No. 782. III. Dr. Russell's MS. from Aleppo. IV. MS. in the Bibl. Nat. (Suppl. 1715, I and II.). V. MS. in the Library of Christ Church College, Oxford (No. ccvii.). VI. MS. in the Library of the India Office, London (No. 2699). VII. Sir W. Jones' MS., used by Richardson. VIII. Rich's MS. in the Library of the British Museum (Addit. 7404). IX. MS. in Bibl. Nat. (Suppl. 2522 and 2523) X. MS. in Bibl. Nat. (Suppl. 1716).

The following MSS. are enumerated as belonging to the second group:—

I. Salt's MS. (printed in Calcutta in 4 vols.). II-IV. Three complete MSS. in Bibliotheque Nationale (Suppl. Arabe, Nos. 1717,1718, 1719). V. Incomplete MS. of Vol. II. in Bibl. Nat. (Suppl. Arabe, Nos 2198 to 2200). VI. Incomplete MS. of Vol. 4 (Suppl. Arabe, Nos. 2519 to 2521). VII. Odd vol. containing Nights 656 to 1001 (Suppl. Arabe, No. 1721, III.). XII. MS. containing Nights 284 to 327 (Suppl. Arabe, No. 1720). XIII. MS. in British Museum (Oriental MSS., Nos. 1593 to 1598). XIV. Ditto (Oriental MSS., Nos. 2916 to 2919). XV. Burckhardt's MS. in the University Library at Cambridge (B. MSS. 106 to 109). XVI. MS. in the Vatican (Nos. 778 to 781). XVII. MS. in the Ducal Library at Gotha. XVIII. Odd vol. in ditto. XIX. MS. in the Royal Library at Munich. XX. Ditto, incomplete (De Sacy's). XXI. Fragment in the Library of the Royal and Imperial Library at Vienna (No. CL.). XXII. MS. in the Imperial Public Library at St. Petersburg (Von Hammer's). XXIII.MS. in the Library of the Institute for the Study of Oriental languages at St. Petersburg (Italinski's). XXIV. Mr. Clarke's MS. (cf. Nights, x., App. pp. 444- 448). XXV. Caussin de Perceval's MS. XXVI. Sir W. Ouseley's MSS.

The above list does not include copies or fragments in various libraries of which M. Zotenberg has no sufficient information, nor miscellaneous collection in which tales from the Nights are mixed with others.

Portions of Habicht's MS. appear to belong to the Egyptian recension, and others to have come from further East.

There is a MS. in the Bibliotheque Nationale (Suppl. Arabe, No. 1721, IV.) from Egypt, containing the first 210 Nights, which somewhat resembles Habicht's MS. both in style and in the arrangement of the tales. The Third Shaykh's Story (No. 1 c.) is entirely different from those in the ordinary MSS., nor is it the same as that in the Turkish version of the Nights, which is again quite different from either. In this MS. (No. 1721, IV.) No. 6 is followed by Nos. 7, 174, and 133.

Then follow notices of Anderson's MS., used by Scott, but which cannot now be traced the Calcutta edition of the first 200 Nights; and of the Wortley Montague MS. These form M. Zotenberg's third group of MSS.

M. Zotenberg does not enter into the question of the original form, date and constituents of the primitive work, but concludes that the complete work as we now have it only assumed its present form at a comparatively recent period. But it must not be forgotten that the details, description, manners, and style of the tales composing this vast collection, are undergoing daily alteration both from narrators and copyists.

Then follows an Appendix, in which M. Zotenberg has copied two tales from Galland's journals, which he took down as related by the Maronite Hanna. One of these is new to me, it is the story of the Three Princes, and the Genius Morhagian and his Daughters (added at the end of this section); and the other is the well-known story of the Envious Sisters.

The remainder of M. Zotenberg's volume contains the Arabic text of the story of 'Ala Al-Din, or the Wonderful Lamp, with numerous critical notes, most of which refer to Galland's version. A few pages of Chavis' text are added for comparison.

The story itself, M. Zotenberg remarks, is modern, giving a faithful picture of Egyptian manners under the reign of the last Mamlouk Sultans. Some expressions which occur in the French Arabic Dictionary of Ellions Bocthor and of A. Caussin de Perceval, are apparently derived from the story of 'Ala Al-Din.

Story of the Three Princes and the Genius Morhagian and His Daughters.

[Reprinted by M. Zotenberg (pp. 53-61) from Galland's Journal, MS. francais, No. 15277, pp. 120-131. The passages in brackets are added by the present translator (chiefly where Galland has inserted "etc.") to fill up the sense.]

When the Sultan of Samarcand had reached a great age, he called the three princes, his sons, and after observing that he was much pleased to see how much they loved and revered him, he gave them leave to ask for whatever they most desired. They had only to speak, and he was ready to grant them whatever they asked, let it be what it might, on the sole condition that he should satisfy the eldest first, and the two younger ones afterwards, each in his turn. The eldest prince, whose name was Rostam, begged the Sultan to build him a cabinet of bricks of gold and silver alternately, and roofed with all kinds of precious stones.

The Sultan issued his orders that very day, but before the roof of the cabinet was finished, indeed before any furniture had been put into it, Prince Rostam asked his father's leave to sleep there. The Sultan tried to dissuade him, saying that [the roof] ought to be finished first, but the prince was so impatient that he ordered his bed to be removed there, and he lay down. He was reading the Koran about midnight, when suddenly the floor opened and he beheld a most hideous genius named Morhagian rise from the ground, who cried out, "You are a prince, but even if you were the Sultan himself, I would not refrain from taking vengeance for your rashness in entering this house which has been built just above the palace of my eldest daughter." At the same time he paced around the cabinet, and struck its walls, when the whole cabinet was reduced to dust so fine that the wind carried it away, and left not a trace of it. The prince drew his sword, and pursued the genius, who took to flight until he came to a well, into which he plunged [and vanished]. When the prince appeared before his father the Sultan next morning, he was overwhelmed with confusion [not only at what had happened, but on account of his disobedience to his father, who reproached him severely for having disregarded his advice].

The second prince, whose name was Gaiath Eddin (Ghayath al-Din), then requested the Sultan to build him a cabinet constructed entirely of the bones of fishes. The Sultan ordered it to be built, at great expense. Prince Gaiath Eddin had no more patience to wait till it was quite finished than his brother Rostam. He lay down in the cabinet notwithstanding the Sultan's warnings, but took care to keep his sword by his side The genius Morhagian appeared to him also at midnight, paid him the same compliment, and told him that the cabinet was built over the palace of his second daughter. He reduced it to dust, and Prince Gaiath Eddin pursued him, sword in hand, to the well, where he escaped; and next day the prince appeared before his father, the Sultan [as crestfallen as his brother].

The third prince, who was named Badialzaman (Badiu'l-Zaman = Rarity of the Age) obtained leave from the Sultan to build a cabinet entirely of rock crystal. He went to sleep there before it was entirely finished, but without saying anything to the Sultan, as he was resolved to see whether Morhagian would treat him in the same way. Morhagian arrived at midnight, and declared that the cabinet was built over the palace of his third daughter. He destroyed the cabinet' and when the prince seized his sword, Morhagian took to flight. The prince wounded him three times before he reached the well, but he nevertheless succeeded in escaping.

Prince Badialzaman did not present himself to the Sultan, but went to the two princes, his brothers, and urged them to pursue the genius in the well itself. The three went together, and the eldest was let down into the well by a rope, but after descending a certain distance, he cried out, and asked to be drawn up a rain. He excused his failure by saying that he felt a burning heat [and was almost suffocated]. The same thing happened to Prince Gaiath Eddin, who likewise cried out till he was drawn up. Prince Badialzaman then had himself let down but commanded his brothers not to draw him up again, even if he should cry out. They let him down, and he cried out, but he continued to descend till he reached the bottom of the well, when he untied himself from the rope, and called out to his brothers that the air was very foul. At the bottom of the well he found an open door and he advanced for some distance between two walls, at the end of which he found a golden door, which he opened, and beheld a magnificent palace. He entered and passed through the kitchen and the storerooms, which were filled with all kinds of provisions, and then inspected the rooms, when he entered one magnificently furnished with sofas and divans. He was curious to find out who lived there, so he hid himself. Soon afterwards he beheld a flight of doves alight at the edge of a basin of water in the middle of the court The doves plunged into the water, and emerged from it as women, each of whom immediately set about her appointed work. One went to the store room, another to the kitchen a third began to sweep [and so on]. They prepared a feast [as if for expected guests]. Some time afterwards, Badialza man beheld another flight of ten doves of different colours who surrounded an eleventh, which was quite white, and these also perched on the edge of the basin. The ten doves plunged into the basin and came forth as women, more beautiful than the first and more magnificently robed. They took the white dove and plunged her into a smaller basin, which was [filled with] rose [water] and she became a woman of extraordinary beauty. She was the eldest daughter of the genius, and her name was Fattane. (Fattanah = The Temptress.)

Two of her attendants then took Fattane under the armpits, and led her to her apartment, followed by the others. She took her seat on a small raised sofa, and her women separated, some to the right and some to the left, and set about their work. Prince Badialzaman had dropped his handkerchief. One of the waiting women saw it and picked it up, and when she looked round, she saw the prince. She was alarmed, and warned Fattane, who sent some of her women to see who the stranger was. The prince came forward, and presented himself before Fattane, who beheld a young prince, and gave him a most gracious reception. She made him sit next to her, and inquired what brought him there? He told his story from the beginning to the end, and asked where he could find the genius, on whom he wished to take vengeance. Fattane smiled, and told him to think no more about it, but only to enjoy himself in the good company in which he found himself. They spread the table, and she made him sit next to her, and her women played on all kinds of musical instruments before they retired to rest.

Fattane persuaded the prince to stay with her from day to day: but on the fortieth day he declared that he could wait no longer, and that it was absolutely necessary for him to find out where Morhagian dwelt. The princess acknowledged that he was her father, and told him that his strength was so great [that nobody could overcome him]. She added that she could not inform him where to find him, but that her second sister would tell him. She sent one of her women to guide him to her sister's palace through a door of communication, and to introduce him. He was well received by the fairy, for whom he had a letter, and he found her younger and more beautiful than Fattane. He begged her to inform him where he could find the genius, but she changed the subject of conversation, entertained him magnificently, and kept him with her for forty days. On the fortieth day she permitted him to depart, gave him a letter, and sent him to her youngest sister, who was a still more beautiful fairy. He was received and welcomed with joy. She promised to show him Morhagian's dwelling, and she also entertained him for forty days. On the fortieth day she tried to dissuade him from his enterprise, but he insisted. She told him that Morhagian would grasp his head in one hand, and his feet in the other, and would tear him asunder in the middle. But this did not move him, and she then told him that he would find Morhagian in a dwelling, long, high and wide in proportion to his bulk. The prince sought him out, and the moment he caught sight of him, he rushed at him, sword in hand. Morhagian stretched out his hand, seized his head in one hand and his feet in the other, rent him in two with very little effort, and threw him out of a window which overlooked a garden.

Two women sent by the youngest princess each took a piece of the body of the prince, and brought it to their mistress, who put them together, reunited them, and restored life to the prince by applying water [of life ?] to the wounds. She then asked the prince where he came from, and it seemed to him that he had just awakened from sleep; and she then recalled everything to his recollection. But this did not weaken his firm resolve to kill the genius. The fairy begged him to eat, but he refused; and she then urged that Morhagian was her father, and that he could only be killed by his own sword, which the prince could not obtain.[FN#434] "You may say what you please," answered the prince; "but there is no help for it, and he must die by my hand [to atone for the wrongs which my brothers and I have suffered from him]."

Then the princess made him swear solemnly to take her as his bride, and taught him how he might succeed in killing the genius. "You cannot hope to kill him while he wakes," said she, "but when he sleeps it is not quite impossible. If he sleeps, you will hear him snore, but he will sleep with his eyes open, which is a sign that he has fallen into a very profound slumber. As he fills the whole room, step upon him and seize his sword which hangs above his head, and then strike him on the neck. The blow will not kill him, but as he wakes, he will tell you to strike him a second time. But beware of doing this [for if you strike him again, the wound will heal of itself, and he will spring up and kill you, and me after you]."

Then Badialzaman returned to Morhagian's room, and found him snoring so loud that everything around him shook. The prince entered, though not without trembling, and walked over him till he was able to seize the sword when he struck him a violent blow on the neck. Morhagian awoke, cursing his daughter, and cried out to the prince, whom he recognised, "Make an end of me." The prince answered that what he had done was enough, and he left him, and Morhagian died.

The prince carried off Morhagian's sword, which he thought would be useful to him in other encounters; and as he went, he passed a magnificent stable in which he saw a splendid horse. He returned to the fairy and related to her what he had done, and added that he would like to carry off the horse, but he feared it would be very difficult. "Not so difficult as you think," said she. "Go and cut off some hair from his tail, and take care of it, and whenever you are in need, burn one or two of the hairs, and he will be with you immediately [and will bring you whatever you require]."

After this the three fairies assembled together, and the prince promised that the two princes, his brothers, should marry the other two sisters. Each fairy reduced her palace to the size of a small ball, which she gave to the prince

The prince then took the three fairies to the bottom of the well. His father, the Sultan, had long believed that he was dead, and had put on mourning for him. His two brothers often came to the well, and they happened to be there just at the time. Badialzaman attracted their attention by his shouts, told them what had happened, and added that he had brought the three fairies with him. He asked for a rope and fastened the eldest fairy to it, calling out, "Pull away, Prince Rostam, I send you your good fortune." The rope was let down again, and he fastened the second fairy to it, calling out "Brother Gaiath Eddin, pull up your good fortune too."

The third fairy, who was to marry Badialzaman, begged him to allow himself to be drawn up before her [as she was distrustful of his brothers], but he would not listen to her. As soon as the two princes had drawn her up so high that they could see her, they began to dispute who should have her. Then the fairy cried out to Badialzaman, "Prince, did I not warn you of this ?"

The princes were obliged to agree that the Sultan should settle their dispute. When the third fairy had been drawn out of the well, the three fairies endeavoured to persuade the two princes to draw up their youngest brother, but they refused, and compelled them to follow them. While they carried off the youngest princess, the other two asked leave to say adieu to Prince Badialzaman They cried out from the top of the well, "Prince have patience till Friday, when you will see six bulls pass by—three red ones and three black ones. Mount upon one of the red ones and he will bring you up to the earth, but take good care not to mount upon a black one, for he would carry you down to the Seventh Earth."[FN#435]

The princes carried off the three fairies, and on Friday, three days afterwards, the six bulls appeared. Badialzaman was about to mount upon a red one, when a black one prevented him, and compelled him to mount his back, when he plunged through the earth till he stopped at a large town in another world. He entered the town, and took up his abode with an old woman, to whom he gave a piece of gold to provide him with something to eat, for he was almost famished. When he had eaten enough, he asked for something to drink. "You cannot be a native of this country," said the old woman ["or you would not ask for drink"]. She then brought him a sponge, saying that she had no other water. She then informed him that the town was supplied with water from a very copious spring, the flow of which was interrupted by a monster. They were obliged to offer up a girl to be devoured by it on every Friday. To-day the princess, the Sultan's daughter, was to be given up to him, and while the monster emerged from his lair to devour her, enough water would flow for everyone to supply himself until the following Friday.

Badialzaman then requested the old woman to show him the way to the place where the princess was already exposed; but she was so much afraid that he had much trouble in persuading her to come out of her house to show him what direction to take. He went out of the town, and went on till he saw the princess, who made a sign to him from a distance to approach no nearer; and the nearer he came, the more anxiety she displayed. As soon as he was within hearing, he shouted to her not to be afraid; and he sat down beside her, and fell asleep, after having begged her to wake him as soon as the monster appeared. Presently a tear from the princess fell upon his face, and he woke up, and saw the monster, which he slew with the sword of Morhagian, and the water flowed in abundance The princess thanked her deliverer, and begged him to take her back to the Sultan her father, who would give proofs of his gratitude; but he excused himself. She then marked his shoulder with the blood of the monster without his noticing it. The princess then returned to the town, and was led back to the palace, where she related to the Sultan [all that had happened]. Then the Sultan commanded that all the men in the town should pass before himself and the princess under pain of death. Badialzaman tried to conceal himself in a khan, but he was compelled to come with the others. The princess recognised him, and threw an apple at him to point him out. He was seized, and brought before the Sultan, who demanded what he could do to serve him. The prince hesitated, but at length he requested the Sultan to show him the way to return to the world from whence he came. The Sultan was furious, and would have ordered him to be burned as a heretic [but the princess interceded for his life]. The Sultan then treated him as a madman, and drove him ignominiously from the town, and he wandered away without knowing where he was going. At length he arrived at a mountain of rock, where he saw a great serpent rising from his lair to prey on young Rokhs. He slew the serpent with the sword of Morhagian, and the father and mother of the Rokhs arrived at the moment, and asked him to demand whatever he desired in return. He hesitated awhile, but at length he asked them to show him the way to the upper world. The male Rokh then told him to prepare ten quarters of mutton, to mount on his back, and to give him some of the meat whenever he should turn his head either to one side or to the other on the journey.

The prince mounted on the back of the Rokh, the Rokh stamped with his foot, and the earth opened before them wherever he turned. They reached the bottom of the well when the Rokh turned his head, but there was no more meat left, so the prince cut off the calf of his leg and gave it to him. When the Rokh arrived at the top of the well, the prince leaped to the ground, when the Rokh perceived [that he was lame, when he inquired the reason, and the prince explained what had happened]. The Rokh then disgorged the calf of the leg, and returned it to its place, when it grew fast, and the prince was cured immediately.

As the prince left the well, he met a peasant, and changed clothes with him, but he kept the sword, the three balls, and the horse-hair. He went into the town, where he took lodgings with a tailor, and kept himself in retirement. The prince gradually rose in the tailor's esteem by letting him perceive that he knew how to sew [and all the arts of an accomplished tailor]. Presently, preparations were made for the wedding of Prince Rostam, and the tailor with whom Badialzaman lodged was ordered to prepare the fairy's robes. Badialzaman, who slept in the shop, took clothes from one of the balls similar to those which were already far advanced, and put them in the place of the others. The tailor was astonished [at their fine workmanship] and wished to take the prince with him to receive a present, but he refused, alleging as an excuse that he had so lately come to the town. When the fairies saw the clothes, they thought it a good omen.

The wedding day arrived, and they threw the jarid[FN#436] [and practised other martial exercises]. It was a grand festival, and all the shops were closed. The tailor wished to take the prince to see the spectacle, but he put him off with an excuse. However, he went to a retired part of the town, where he struck fire with a gun,[FN#437] and burned a little of the horse hair. The horse appeared, and he told him to bring him a complete outfit all in red, and that he should likewise appear with trappings, jewels, &c., and a reed (jarid) of the same colour. The prince then mounted the horse, and proceeded to the race-course, where his appearance excited general admiration. At the close of the sports, he cut off the head of Prince Rostam, and the horsemen pursued him, but were unable to overtake him, and soon lost sight of him. He returned to the shop dressed as usual before the arrival of the tailor, who related to him what had happened, of which he pretended to be entirely ignorant. There was a great mourning at the court; but three months afterwards, fresh robes were ordered for the wedding of the second prince. The fairies were confirmed in their suspicions when they saw the fresh clothes [which Badialzaman sent them].

On the wedding day they again assembled to throw the jarid. Prince Badialzaman now presented himself on the white horse, robed in white, and with pearls and jewels to match, and again he attracted general admiration. He pushed himself into the midst of a guard of eight hundred horsemen, and slew Gaiath Eddin. They rushed upon him, and he allowed himself to be carried before the Sultan, who recognised him [and pronounced his decision]. "A brother who has been abandoned to die by his brothers has a right to kill them."

After this, Prince Badialzaman espoused the youngest princess, and the two others were given in marriage to two princes who were related to the Sultan.

Cazotte's Continuation, and the Composite Editions of the Arabian Nights (Pp. 418-422).

P. 422.—There is a small Dutch work, the title of which is as follows:

Oostersche Vertellingen, uit de Duizend-en-cen-Nacht: Naar de Hoogduitsche Bewerking van M. Claudius,[FN#438] voor de Nederlandsche Jeugduiitgegeven door J. J. A. Gouverneur. Te Groningen, bij B. Wolters, n.d. 8vo., pp. 281, colt front. (illustrating No. 170).

A composite juvenile edition, including Introduction (very short), and Nos. 251g, 36a 163 (complete form), 6ef, 4, 5, 1, 52, 170, 6ee, 223, 207c, 6, 194c, 206a, 204h, 2a, 174a and Introduction (a).

Derived from at least four different sources.

Translations of the Printed Texts (Pp. 438-439).

Under this heading I have to record Sir Richard and Lady Burton's own works.

Lady Burton's Edition of her husband's Arabian Nights, translated literally from the Arabic, prepared for household reading by Justin Huntly McCarthy, M.P., London, Waterlow and Sons, Roy. 8vo. 6 vols.

In preparing this edition for the press, as much as possible has been retained, both of the translation and notes; and it has not been found necessary to omit altogether more than a very few of the least important tales. The contents of the 6 volumes are as follows:—

Vol. I. (1886), Front's piece (Portrait of Lady Burton), Preface, Translator's Foreword Introduction 1-9 (pp. xxiii. 476).

Vol. II. (1886), Front's piece (Portrait of Sir Richard F. Burton), 9 (continued), 9a-29 (pp. ii. 526).

Vol. III. (1887), 29 (continued)-133e (pp. viii. 511).

Vol. IV. (1887), 133e (continued)-154a (pp. iv. 514).

Vol. V. (1887), 154a (continued)-163 (pp. iv. 516).

Vol. VI. (1886) [? 1888], 163 (continued)-169 (pp. ii. 486).

Also includes Terminal Essay, Index to Tales and Proper Names, Contributions to Bibliography, as far as it relates to Galland's MS. and Translations; Comparative Table of Tales; Opinions of the Press; and Letters from Scholars.

Supplemental Nights to the Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night, with notes anthropological and explanatory, by Richard F. Burton. Benares, printed by the Kamashastra Society for private subscribers only. Roy. 8vo.

The contents of the 6 volumes are as follows:

Vol. I. (1886) Translator's Foreword, 170-181bb.

Vol. II. (1886) 182-189. Appendix: Variants and analogues of some of the tales in vols. i. and ii., by Mr. W. A. Clouston.

These two volumes contain the tales peculiar to the Breslau Text, and cover the same ground as Mr. Payne's 3 vols. of "Tales from the Arabic."

Vol. III. (1887) Foreword, 191-198. Appendix: Variants and Analogues of the Tales in the Supplemental Nights, vol. iii., by Mr. W. A. Clouston.

This volume, the bulkiest of the whole series, contains such of Galland's tales as are not to be found in the ordinary texts of the Nights.

Vol. IV. (1887) The Translator's Foreword, 203-209; App. A. Ineptiae Bodleianae; App. B., The three untranslated tales in Mr. E. J. W. Gibb's "Forty Vezirs."

Vol. V. (1888) 210-241a, Translator's Foreword; App. i. Catalogue of Wortley Montague Manuscript, Contents, App. ii. Notes on the Stories contained in vols. iv. and v. of Supplemental Nights, by Mr. W. F. Kirby.

These two volumes contain tales translated from the Wortley Montague MS., used by Jonathan Scott, and now in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. The following tales, not in our table, are added:—

Vol. IV. Story of the Limping Schoolmaster (between 204i and 204j).

How Drummer Abu Kasim became a Kazi, and Story of the Kazi and his Slipper. (These two tales come between 206a and 206b.)

Adventure of the Fruit-seller and the Concubine (between 207c and 207d).

Tale of the third Larrikin concerning himself (between 208 and 209).

On the other hand, a few tales in the MS. are omitted as repetitions, or as too unimportant to be worth translating:—

Vol. VI. (1888) Translator's Foreword: 248; 246; The Linguist-Dame, the Duenna, and the King's Son; 247; The Pleasant History of the Cock and the Fox; History of what befel the Fowl-let with the Fowler; 249; 250.

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