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Supplemental Nights, Volume 1
by Richard F. Burton
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The Twenty-sixth Night of the Month.

When came the night, the king summoned his Wazir and bade him tell the story of the King who lost kingdom and wife and wealth. He replied, "Hearing and obeying! Give ear, O sovran, to



The Tale of the King who lost Kingdom and Wife and Wealth and Allah restored them to Him.[FN#508]



There was once a king of the kings of Hind, who was a model of morals, praiseworthy in policy, lief of justice to his lieges, lavish to men of learning and piety and abstinence and devoutness and worship and shunning mischief-makers and froward folk, fools and traitors. After such goodly fashion he abode in his kingship what Allah the Most High willed of watches and days and twelvemonths,[FN#509] and he married the daughter of his father's brother, a beautiful woman and a winsome, endowed with brightness and perfection, who had been reared in the king's house in delicacy and delight. She bare him two sons, the most beauteous that might be of boys, when came Destiny from whose decree is no deliverance and Allah the Most High raised up against the King another king, who came forth upon his realm, and was joined by all the folk of the city that had a mind to lewdness and frowardness. So he strengthened himself by means of them against the King and compassed his kingdom, routing his troops and killing his guards. The King took his wife, the mother of his sons, and what he might of monies and saved his life and fled in the darkness of the night, unknowing whither he should wend. Whenas wayfare grew sore upon them, there met them highwaymen on the way, who took all that was with them, so that naught remained to each of them save a shirt and trousers; the robbers left them without even provaunt or camels or other riding-cattle, and they ceased not to fare on afoot, till they came to a copse, which was an orchard of trees on the ocean shore.[FN#510] Now the road which they would have followed was crossed by a sea-arm, but it was shallow and scant of water; wherefore, when they reached that place, the king took up one of his children and fording the water with him, set him down on the further bank and returned for his other son, whom also he seated by his brother. Lastly, returning for their mother, he took her up and passing the water with her, came to the place where he had left his children, but found them not. Thereupon he looked at the midst of the island and saw an old man and an old woman, engaged in making themselves a reed-hut: so he set down his wife over against them and started off in quest of his children, but none gave him news of them and he went round about right and left, yet found not the whereabouts they were. On this wise fared it with him; but as to the children, they had entered the copse to make water, and they found there a forest of trees, wherein, if a sturdy horseman[FN#511] strayed, he might wander by the week, and never know its first from its last. So the boys pushed into it and wotted not how they should return and went astray in that wood, for a purpose willed of Allah Almighty, whilst their father sought them, but found them not. So he returned to their mother and they abode weeping for their children; as for whom, when they entered the forest, it swallowed them up and they fared at hap-hazard, wandering in it many days, knowing not whence they came or whither they went, till they issued forth, at another side, upon the open country. Meanwhile, their parents, the king and queen, tarried in the island, over against the old man and his old woman, and ate of the fruits and drank of the rills that were in it till, one day of the days, as they sat, behold, up came a ship and made fast to the island-side, for provisioning with water, whereupon they[FN#512] looked one at other and spoke. The master of the craft was a Magian man and all that was therein, both crew and goods, belonged to him, for he was a trader and went round about the world. Now greed of gain deluded the old man, the owner of the island, and he fared to the ship and gave the Guebre news of the King's wife, setting out to him her charms, till he made him long for her and his soul moved[FN#513] him to practise treachery and cozenage upon her and take her from her husband. Accordingly, he sent to her, saying, "Aboard with us is a woman with child, and we dread lest she be delivered this night: hast thou aught of skill in midwifery?" She replied, "Yes." Now it was the last of the day; so he sent to her to come up into the ship and deliver the woman, for that the labour-pangs were come upon her; and he promised her clothes and spendingmoney. Hereat, she embarked confidently, with heart at ease for herself, and transported her gear to the ship; but no sooner had she come thither than the sails were hoisted and the canvas was loosed[FN#514] and the ship set sail. When the King saw this, he cried out and his wife wept in the ship and would have cast herself into the waves; but the Magian bade his men lay hands on her. So they seized her and it was but a little while ere the night darkened and the ship vanished from the King's eyes; whereupon he fainted away for excess of weeping and lamentation and passed his night bewailing his wife and his children. And when the morning morrowed he began improvising these couplets:—[FN#515]

"O World, how long, this spite, this enmity? Say me, dost ever spare what spared can be? And look! my friends have fard fain and free! They went and went wi' them my dear delight E'en from the day when friends to part were dight And turbid made their lost life's clarity. By Allah, ne'er I wist their worth aright Nor ever wot I worth of friends unite Till fared they, leaving flame in heart of me!

I'll ne'er forget them since what day each wight Hied and withdrew fro' me his well-loved sight And yet I weep this parting-blow to dree. I vow an Heaven deign my friends return And cry the crier in mine ears that yearn "The far is near, right soon their sight shalt see!" Upon their site my cheeks I'll place, to sprite I'll say, "Rejoice, thy friends return to thee!" Nor blame my heart when friends were lief to flee: I rent my heart ere rent my raimentry."

He sat weeping for the severance of his wife and children till the morning, when he went forth wandering at a venture, unweeting what he should do, and ceased not walking along the sea-shore days and nights, unknowing whither he went and taking no food save the herbs of the earth and seeing neither man nor wildling nor other living thing, till his wayfare brought him to a mountain-top. He sojourned in the highland and abode awhile there alone, eating of its fruits and drinking of its founts; then he came down thence and trudged along the high road three days, when he hit upon tilled fields and villages and gave not over going till he made a great city on the shore of the salt sea and came to its gate at the last of the day. The gatekeepers allowed him no admission; so he spent his night anhungered, and when he arose in the morning, he sat down hard by the portal. Now the king of the city was dead and had left no son, and the citizens fell out anent who should be ruler over them: and their words and redes differed, so that civil war was like to befal them thereupon. But it came to pass that, after long jangle, they agreed to leave the choice to the late king's elephant and that he unto whom he consented should be king and that they would not contest with him the sway. So to this they sware and on the morrow, they brought out their elephant and fared forth to a site within sight of the city; nor was there man or woman but was present at that moment. Then they adorned the elephant and raising the throne on his back, gave him the crown in his trunk; and he went round about examining the countenances of the folk, but stopped not over against any of them till he came at last to the forlorn King, the exile who had lost his children and his wife, when the beast prostrated himself to him and placing the crown on his head, took him up and set him upon his back. Thereupon the people all prostrated themselves and gave mutual joy of this and the drums[FN#516] of good tidings beat before him, and he entered the city and went on till he reached the House of Justice and the Audience-hall of the Palace and sat down upon the throne of the kingdom, crown on head; whereat the lieges entered to congratulate him and to bless him. Then he addressed himself, as was his wont in the kingship, to forwarding the affairs of the folk and ranging the troops according to their ranks and looking into their affairs and those of all the Ryots. He also released those who were in the dungeons and abolished the custom-dues and gave honourable robes and lavished great gifts and bestowed largesse and conferred favours on the Emirs and Wazirs and Lords of the realm, and the Chamberlains'[FN#517] and Nabobs presented themselves before him and did him homage. So the city people rejoiced in him and said, "Indeed, this be none other than a King of the greatest of the kings." And presently he assembled the sages and the theologians and the sons of the Sovrans and conversed with them and asked them subtile questions and casuistical problems and talked over with them things manifold of all fashions that might direct him to rectitude in the kingship; and he questioned them also of mysteries and religious obligations and of the laws of the land and the regulations of rule and of that which it beseemeth the liege lord to do of looking into the affairs of the lieges and repelling the foe and fending off his malice with force and fight; so the subjects' contentment redoubled and their exultation in that which Allah Almighty had vouchsafed them of his kingship over them. On such wise he upheld the ordinance of the realm, and the affairs abode stablished upon the accepted custom and local usage. Now the late king had left a wife and two daughters, and the people would fain have married the Princess royal to the new king that the rule might not pass clean away from the old rulers. Accordingly, they proposed to him that he should wed her or the other of the deceased king's daughters, and he promised them this, but he put them off from him, of his respect for the covenant he had made with his former wife, his cousin, that he would marry none other than herself. Then he betook himself to fasting by day and praying through the night, multiplying his alms-deeds and beseeching Allah (extolled and exalted be He!) to reunite him with his children and his wife, the daughter of his father's brother. When a year had elapsed, there came to the city a ship, wherein were many merchants and much merchandise. Now it was their custom from time immemorial that the king, whenever a ship made the port, sent to it such of his pages as he trusted in, who took agency of the goods, to the end that they might be first shown to the Sovran, who bought as much of them as befitted him and gave the merchants leave to sell whatso he wanted not. So he commissioned, according to his custom, a man who should fare to the ship and seal up the bales and set over them one who could watch and ward them. Meanwhile the Queen his wife, when the Magian fled with her and proffered himself to her and lavished upon her abounding wealth, rejected him and was like to kill herself[FN#518] for chagrin at that which had befallen and for concern anent her separation from her husband. She also refused meat and drink and resolved to cast herself into the sea; but the Magian chained her and straitened her and clothed her in a coat of wool and said to her, "I will continue thee in wretchedness and humiliation till thou obey me and accept me." So she took patience and looked for the Almighty to deliver her from the hand of that accursed; and she ceased not travelling with him from country to country till he came with her in fine to the city wherein her husband was king and his goods were put under seal. Now the woman was in a chest and two youths of the late king's pages, who were now in the new King's service, were those who had been charged with the watch and ward of the craft and her cargaison. When the evening evened on them, the twain began talking and recounted that which had befallen them in their days of childhood and the manner of the faring forth of their father and mother from their country and kingdom when the wicked overcame their realm, and how they had gone astray in the forest and how Fate had severed them from their parents; for short, they told their tale from first to last. When the woman heard their talk, she knew that they were her sons and cried out to them from the chest, "I am your mother, Such-an-one, and the token between you twain and me is thus and thus." The young men knew the token and falling upon the chest, brake the lock and brought out their mother, who seeing them, strained them to her bosom, and they fell upon her and fainted away, all three. When they came to themselves, they wept awhile and the people assembled about them, marvelling at that they saw, and questioned them of their case. So the young Princes vied each with other who should be the first to discover the story to the folk; and when the Magian saw this, he came up, crying out, "Alack!" and "Ruin!" and said to them, "Why and wherefore have ye broken open my chest? Verily, I had in it jewels and ye have stolen them, and this damsel is my slave-girl and she hath agreed with you both upon a device to take my wealth." Then he rent his raiment and cried for aid, saying, "I appeal to Allah and to the just King, so he may quit me of these wrongous youths!" They both replied, "This is our mother and thou stolest her:" whereupon words waxed manifold between them and the folk plunged into talk with many a "he said" and "'twas said" concerning their affair and that of the pretended slave-girl, and the strife increased between them, so that at last they carried them all four to the King's court. When the two young men presented themselves between his hands and stated their case to him and to the folk and the sovran heard their speech, he knew them and his heart was like to fly for joy: the tears poured from his eyes at their sight and the sight of his wife, and he thanked Allah Almighty and praised Him for that He had deigned reunite them. Then he bade the folk who were present about him be dismissed and commanded the Magian and the woman and the two youths be to morrow committed to his armoury[FN#519] for the night, ordering that they should keep guard over them all until the Lord should make the morning to morrow, so he might assemble the Kazis and the Justiciaries and Assessors and determine between them, according to Holy Law, in the presence of the four judges. So they did this and the King passed the night praying and praising Allah of All-might for that which he had vouchsafed him of kingship and power and victory over the wight who had wronged him and thanking Him who had reunited him with his own. When the morning morrowed, he assembled the Kazis and Deputies and Assessors[FN#520] and summoning the Magian and the two youths and their mother, questioned them of their case; whereupon the two young men began and said, "We are the sons of King Such-an-one and foemen and lewd fellows gat the mastery of our realm; so our sire fled forth with us and wandered at haphazard, for fear of the foe." And they recounted to him all that had betided them, from beginning to end.[FN#521] Quoth he, "Ye tell a marvel-tale; but what hath Fate done with your father?" Quoth they, "We know not how Fortune dealt with him after our loss." And he was silent. Then he bespake the woman, "And thou, what sayst thou?" So she set forth to him her case and all that had betided her and her husband, from the beginning of their hardships to the end, and recounted to him their adventures up to the time when they took up their abode with the old man and woman who dwelt on the sea-shore. Then she reported that which the Magian had practised on her of fraud and how he had carried her off in the craft and everything that had betided her of humiliation and torment; all this while the Kazis and judges and Deputies hearkening to her speech as they had lent ear to the others' adventures. When the King heard the last of his wife's tale, he said, "Verily, there hath betided thee a mighty grievous matter; but hast thou knowledge of what thy husband did and what came of his affair?" She replied, "Nay, by Allah; I have no knowledge of him, save that I leave him no hour unremembered in righteous prayer, and never, whilst I live, will he cease to be to me the father of my children and my cousin and my flesh and my blood." Then she wept and the King bowed his head, whilst his eyes welled tears at her tale. Presently he raised his head to the Magian and cried to him, "Say thy say, thou also." So the Magian replied, "This is my slave-girl, whom I bought with my money from such a land and for so many dinars, and I made her my betrothed[FN#522] and loved her exceedingly and gave my monies into her charge; but she falsed me in my substance and plotted with one of my lads to slay me, tempting him by a promise that she would kill me and become his wife. When I knew this of her and was assured that she purposed treason against me, I awoke from my dream of happiness and did with her that which I did, fearing for my life from her craft and perfidy; for indeed she is a trickstress with her tongue and she hath taught these two youths this pretence, by way of sleight and of her guile and her malice: so be you not deluded by her and by her talk." "Thou liest, O accursed," cried the King and bade lay hands on him and iron him. Then he turned to the two youths, his sons, and strained them to his breast, weeping sore and saying, "O all ye people who are present of Kazis and Assessors and Lords of the land, know that these twain are my sons and that this is my wife and the daughter of my father's brother; for that whilome I was king in such a realm." And he recounted to them his history from commencement to conclusion, nor is there aught of fruition in repetition; whereupon the folk cried out with weeping and wailing for the stress of what they heard of marvellous chances and that wondrous story. As for the king's wife, he bade carry her into his palace and lavished upon her and upon her sons all that befitted and beseemed them of bounties, whilst the lieges flocked to offer up prayers for him and give him joy of his reunion with his wife and children. When they had made an end of blessings and congratulations, they besought the king to hasten the punishment of the Magian and heal their hearts with tormenting and abasing him. So he appointed them for a day on which they should assemble to witness his requitement and that which should betide him of torment, and shut himself up with his wife and two sons and abode thus private with them three days, during which they were veiled from the folk. On the fourth day the King entered the Hammam, and faring forth, sat down on the throne of his kingship, crown on head, whereupon the folk came in to him, according to their custom and after the measure of their several dignities and degrees, and the Emirs and Wazirs entered, and eke the Chamberlains and Nabobs and Captains of war and the Falconers and Armbearers and Commanders of the body-guard. Then he seated his two sons, one on his right and the other on his left hand, whilst the subjects all stood before him and lifted up their voices in thanksgiving to Allah the Most High and glorification of Him and were instant in orisons for the king and in setting forth his virtues and excellent qualities. He answered them with the most gracious of answers and bade carry the Magian outside the city and set him on a high scaffold which had been builded for him there; and he said to the folk, "Behold, I will torture him with torments of all kinds and fashions." Then he began telling them that which he had wrought of villainy with his cousin-wife and what he had caused her of severance between her and her husband and how he had required her person of her, but she had sought refuge for her chastity against him with Allah (to whom belong honour and glory) and chose abasement rather than obedience to him, despite stress of torture: neither recked she aught of that which he lavished to her of monies and raiment, jewels and ornaments. When the King had made an end of his story, he bade the bystanders spit in the Magian's face and curse him; and they did this. Then he bade cut out his tongue and on the next day he bade lop off his ears and nose and pluck out both his eyes. On the third day he bade hew off his hands and on the fourth his feet; and they ceased not to dismember him, limb after limb, and each member they cast into the fire, after its amputation, before his face, till his soul departed, after he had endured torments of all kinds and fashions. Then the King bade crucify his trunk on the city wall for three days; after which he gave orders to burn it and reduce its ashes to powder and scatter them abroad in air. And when this was done, the King summoned the Kazi and the Witnesses and commanded them marry the old king's daughter and her sister to his own sons; so the youths wedded them, after the King had made a bride-feast three days and displayed their brides to them from nightfall to day-dawn. Then the two Princes went in unto their brides and abated their maidenheads and loved them and were vouchsafed issue by them. As for the King their sire, he abode with his cousin-wife, their mother, what while Allah (to whom be honour and glory) willed, and they rejoiced in reunion each with other. The kingship endured unto them and high degree and victory, and the sovran continued to rule with justice and equity, so that the lieges loved him and prayed for him and for his sons length of life and durance of days; and they lived the most delightsome of existences till there came to them the Destroyer of delights and Severer of societies, the Depopulator of palaces and Garnerer of graves; and this is all that hath come down to us of the story of the King and his Wife and Sons. "Nor," continued the Wazir, "if this story be a solace and a diversion, is it pleasanter or more diverting than the tale of the Youth of Khorasan and his mother and sister." When King Shah Bakht heard this story, it pleased him and he bade the Minister hie away to his own house.

The Twenty-seventh Night of the Month.

When evening came, the king Shah Bakht bade fetch the Wazir; so he presented himself before him and the King ordered him to tell the tale. So he said, "Hearkening and obedience. Give ear, O sovran, to



The Tale of Salim, the Youth of Khorasan, and Salma, his Sister.



Know, O king (but Allah alone knoweth His secret purpose and is versed in the past and the foredone among folk bygone) that there was once, in the parts of Khorasan, a man of its affluent, who was a merchant of the chiefest of the merchants[FN#523] and was blessed with two children, a son and a daughter.[FN#524] He was diligent exceedingly in rearing them and they were educated with the fairest of education; for he used to teach the boy, who taught his sister all that he learnt, so that, by means of her brother, the damsel became perfect in the knowledge of the Traditions of the Prophet and in polite letters. Now the boy's name was Salm and that of the girl Salm. When they grew up and were fully grown, their father built them a mansion beside his own and lodged them apart therein and appointed them slave-girls and servants to tend them and assigned to each of them pay and allowances and all that they needed of high and low; meat and bread; wine, dresses, and vessels and what not else. So Salim and Salma abode in that palace, as they were one soul in two bodies, and they used to sleep on one couch and rise amorn with single purpose, while firmly fixed in each one's heart were fond affection and familiar friendship for the other. One night, when the half was spent, as Salim and Salma sat recounting and conversing, they heard a noise on the ground floor; so they looked out from a latticed casement which gave upon the gate of their father's mansion and saw a man of fine presence, whose clothes were hidden under a wide cloak. He came straight up to the gate and laying hold of the door-ring, rapped a light rap; whereupon the door opened and behold, out came their sister, with a lighted taper, and after her their mother, who saluted the stranger and embraced him, saying, "O dearling of my heart and light of mine eyes and fruit of my vitals, enter." So he went in and shut the door, whilst Salim and Salma abode amazed. The youth turned to the girl and said to her, "O sister mine, how deemest thou of this trouble and what advice hast thou to offer?" She replied, "O my brother, indeed I know not what I shall say anent the like of this; but he is not disappointed who divine direction seeketh, nor doth he repent who counsel taketh. One getteth not the better of the traces of burning by haste, and know that this is an affliction that hath descended[FN#525] on us and a calamity foreordained to us; so we have need of wise rede to do it away and contrivance which shall wash our shame from our faces." And they ceased not watching the gate till daybreak, when the young man opened the door and their mother farewelled him; after which he went his way and she entered, she and her handmaid. Hereat said Salim to his sister, "Know thou I am resolved to slay this man, an he return the next night, and I will say to the folk, He was a robber, and none shall weet that which hath befallen. Then I will address myself to the slaughter of whosoever knoweth what is between the fellow and my mother." But Salma said, "I fear lest an thou slay him in our dwelling-place and he be not convicted of robberhood, suspicion and ill-fame will revert upon ourselves, and we cannot be assured that he belongeth not to a tribe whose mischief is to be feared and whose enmity is to be dreaded, and thus wilt thou have fled from hidden shame to open shame and to disgrace public and abiding." Asked Salim: "What then is it thy rede to do?" And she answered, "Is there no help but thou kill him? Let us not hasten unto slaughter, for that the slaughter of a soul without just cause is a mighty grave matter." When Shahbn[FN#526] heard this, he said within himself, "By Allah, I have indeed been hasty and reckless in the slaying of women and girls, and Alhamdolillah—lauded be the Lord—who hath occupied me with this damsel from the slaughter of souls, for that the slaughter of souls is a grave matter and a grievous! By the Almighty if Shah Bakht spare the Wazir, I will assuredly spare Shhrzd!"[FN#527] Then he gave ear to the story and heard her say to her sister:—Quoth Salma to Salim, "Hasten not to slay him, but overthink the matter and consider the issue whereto it may tend; for whoso considereth not of actions the end hath not Fortune to friend." Then they arose on the morrow and busied themselves with contriving how they should turn away their parent from that man, and the mother forefelt mischief from them, for what she saw in their eyes of change, she being wily and keen of wit. So she took precaution for herself against her children and Salma said to Salim, "Thou seest what we have fallen upon through this woman, and very sooth she hath sensed our purpose and wotteth that we have discovered her secret. So, doubtless, she will plot against us the like of that which we plot for her; for indeed up to now she had concealed her affair, and from this time forth she will become harsh to us; wherefore, methinks, there is a thing forewritten to us, whereof Allah (extolled and exalted be He!) knew in His foreknowledge and wherein He carrieth out His commandments." He asked, "What is that?" and she answered, "It is that we arise, I and thou, and go forth this night from this land and seek us a town wherein we may wone and witness naught of the doings of yonder traitress; for whoso is absent from the eye is absent from the heart, and quoth one of the poets in the following couplet:[FN#528]—

'Tis happiest, best for thee, the place to leave, * For then no eye can see, nor heart can grieve."

Quoth Salim to her,[FN#529] "'Tis for thee to decide and right is thy rede; so let us do this, in the name of Allah the Almighty, trusting in Him for guiding and grace." Accordingly they arose and took the richest of their raiment and the lightest of that which was in their treasuries of gems and things of price and gathered together much matter. Then they equipped them ten mules and hired them servants of other than the people of the country; and Salim bade his sister Salma don man's dress. Now she was the likest of all creatures to him, so that, when she was clad in man's clothing, the folk knew no difference between them— extolled be the perfection of Him who hath no like, there is no god but He! Then he told her to mount a mare, whilst he himself took another, and they set out under cover of the night; nor did any of their family or household know of them. So they fared on into Allah's wide world and gave not over going night and day for a space of two months, at the end of which they came to a city on the sea-shore of the land of Makran,[FN#530] by name Al-Sharr, and it is the first city in Sind.[FN#531] They lighted down within sight of the place and when they arose in the morning, they saw a populous city and a goodly, seemly of semblance and great, abounding in trees and rills and fruits and wide of suburbs which stretched to the neighbouring villages. So the young man said to his sister Salma, "Tarry thou here in thy place, till I enter the city and make proof of it and its people and seek us out a stead which we may buy and whereto we may remove. An it befit us, we will make us a home therein, otherwise will we take counsel of departing elsewhere." Quoth she, "Do this, trusting in the bounty of Allah (to whom belong honour and glory) and in His blessing." Accordingly he took a belt, wherein were a thousand gold pieces, and girding it about his waist, entered the city and ceased not going round about its streets and bazars and gazing upon its houses and sitting with those of its citizens whose aspect showed signs of worth and wealth, till the day was half spent, when he resolved to return to his sister and said to himself, "Needs must I buy what we may eat of ready-cooked food; I and my sister." Hereupon he addressed a man who sold roast meat and who was clean of person, albe foul in his way of getting a living, and said to him, "Take the price of this dishful and add thereto of fowls and chickens and what not else is in your market of meats and sweetmeats and bread and arrange it in the plates." So the Kitchener took the money and set apart for him what he desired, then calling a porter, he laid it in the man's crate, and Salim, after paying the price of provisions and porterage in fullest fashion, was about to go away, when the Cook said to him, "O youth, doubtless thou art a stranger?" He replied, "Yes;" and the other rejoined, "'Tis reported in one of the Traditions that the Apostle said, Loyal admonition is a part of religion; and the wise and ware have declared counsel is of the characteristics of True Believers. And verily that which I have seen of thy ways pleaseth me and I would fain give thee a warning." Rejoined Salim, "Speak out thy warning, and may Allah strengthen thy purpose!" Then said the Cook, "Know, O my son, that in this our city, when a stranger entereth and eateth of flesh-meat and drinketh not old wine upon it, 'tis harmful to him and disturbeth his body with disorders which be dangerous. Wherefore, an thou have provided thee somewhat of wine it is well, but, if not, haste to procure it, ere thou take the meat and carry it away." Quoth Salim, "Allah requite thee with weal— Canst thou shew me where liquor is sold?" and quoth the Cook, "With me is all thou seekest. The youth asked, "Is there a way for me to see it?" and the Cook sprang up and answered, "Pass on." So he entered and the man showed him somewhat of wine; but he said, "I desire better than this;" whereupon he opened a door and entering, said to Salim, Come in, and follow me." Accordingly Salim followed him till he brought him to an underground chamber and showed him somewhat of wine that suited him. So he occupied him with looking at it and taking him unawares, sprang upon him from behind and threw him to the ground and sat upon his breast. Then he drew a knife and set it to his jugular; whereupon there betided Salim that wherewith Allah made him forget all that He had decreed to him,[FN#532] and he cried to the Cook, "Why dost thou this thing, O good fellow? Be mindful of the Almighty and fear Him. Seest thou not I am a stranger man? And knowest thou not I have behind me a forlorn defenceless[FN#533] woman? Wherefore wilt thou kill me?" Quoth the Kitchener, "Needs must I kill thee, so I may take thy money;" and quoth Salim, "Take my money, but kill me not, neither enter into sin against me; and do with me kindness, for indeed the taking of my coin is more venial than the taking of my life." The Cook replied, "This is nonsense. Thou canst not deliver thyself herewith, O youth, because in thy deliverance is my destruction." Cried Salim, "I swear to thee and give thee the bond of Allah (to whom belong honour and glory) and His covenant, which He took of His prophets that I will not discover thy secret; no, never." But the Kitchener replied, "Away! Away! Alas! Alas! To this there is no path." However, Salim ceased not to conjure him and humble himself to him and weep, while the Cook persisted in his intent to cut his throat: then he shed tears and recited these couplets;[FN#534]

"Haste not to that thou dost desire, for haste is still unblest; * Be merciful to men, as thou on mercy reckonest: For no hand is there but the hand of God is over it * And no oppressor but shall be with worse than he opprest."

Quoth the Kitchener, "There is no help save that I slay thee, O fellow; for an I spare thee, I shall myself be slain." But Salim said, "O my brother, I will advise thee somewhat[FN#535] other than this." Asked the Cook, "What is it? Say and be brief, ere I cut thy throat;" and Salim answered, "Suffer me to live and keep me as thy Mameluke, thy white slave, and I will work at a craft of the skilled workmen, wherefrom there shall result to thee every day two dinars." Quoth the Kitchener, "What is the craft?" and quoth Salim, "The cutting of gems and jewels." When the man heard this, he said to himself, "'Twill do me no hurt if I imprison him and fetter him and bring him that whereat he may work. An he tell truth, I will let him live, and if he prove a liar, I will kill him." So he took a pair of stout shackles and fitting them on Salim's legs, jailed him within his house and charged a man to guard him. Then he asked him what tools he needed for work; and Salim described to him whatso he required, and the Cook went out from him awhile and brought him all he wanted. Then Salim sat and wrought at his craft; and he used every day to earn two dinars; and this was his wont and custom with the Kitchener, who fed him not but half his fill. Thus befel it with Salim; but returning to his sister Salma, she awaited him till the last of the day, yet he appeared not; and she expected him a second day and a third and a fourth, yet there came no news of him. So she wept and beat hand on breast and bethought her of her affair and her strangerhood and the disappearance of her brother; and she improvised these couplets,—

"Salam t'you! Would I could see you again, * To the joy of my heart and the coolth of my eyes: You are naught but my hope and the whole of my hope * And under my ribs[FN#536] love for you buried lies."

She tarried on this wise awaiting him till the end of the month, but no tidings of him came nor happened she upon aught of his trace; wherefore she was troubled with exceeding trouble and sending her servants hither and thither in search of him, abode in the sorest that might be of chagrin and concern. When it was the beginning of the new month, she arose in the morning and bidding one of her men cry her brother throughout the city, sat to receive visits of condolence, nor was there any in town but made act of presence to condole with her; and they were all sorry for her, doubting not her being a man. When three nights had passed over her with their days of the second month, she despaired of him and her tears never dried: then she resolved to take up her abode in that city, and making choice of a dwelling, removed thither. The folk resorted to her from all parts, to sit with her and hear her speech and witness her fine breeding; nor was it but a little while ere the king died and the folk differed anent whom they should invest with the kingship after him, so that civil war was like to befal them. However, the men of judgment and the folk of understanding and the people of experience directed them to crown the youth who had lost his brother, for that they still held Salma to be a man. They consented to this one and all; and, betaking themselves to her, offered the kingship.[FN#537] She refused, but they were urgent with her, till she consented, saying within herself, "My sole desire in the kingship is to find my brother." Then they seated her upon the throne of the realm and set the crown upon her head, after which she undertook the business of governance and ordinance of affairs; and they rejoiced in her with the utmost joy. On such wise fared it with her; but as for Salim he abode with the Cook a whole year's space, bringing him two dinars a day; and when his affair waxed longsome, the man felt for him and pitied him. Presently he promised him release on condition that, if he let him go, he should not discover his illdeeds to the Sultan; for that it was his wont now and then to entrap a man and carry him to his house and slay him and take his money and cook his flesh and give it to the folk to eat.[FN#538] So he asked him, "O youth, wilt thou that I release thee from this thy misery, on condition that thou be reasonable and never discover aught of thine affair?" Salim answered, "I will swear to thee by whatsoever oath thou wilt administer that I will keep thy secret and will not speak one syllable anent thee, what while l am in the land of the living." Quoth the Kitchener, "I purpose to send thee forth with my brother and cause thee voyage with him over the sea, on condition that thou be to him a Mameluke, a boughten slave; and when he cometh to the land of Hind, he shall sell thee and thus wilt thou be delivered from prison and slaughter." And quoth Salim, "'Tis well: be it as thou sayst, may Allah the Most High requite thee with weal!" Accordingly the Cook equipped his brother and freighting him a craft, stowed therein a cargaison of merchandise. Then he committed Salim to him and they set out with the ship. The Lord decreed them safety, so that they arrived at the first city of Hind, which is known as AlMansrah,[FN#539] and cast anchor there. Now the king of that city had died, leaving a daughter and a widow who, being the quickest-witted of women and cleverest of the folk of her day, gave out that the girl was a boy, so that the kingship might be established unto them. The troops and the Emirs gave credit that the case was as she avouched and that the Princess was a Prince; wherefore they obeyed her bidding and the Queenmother took order for the matter and used to dress the girl in man's habit and seat her on the throne of the kingship, so that the Lords of the land and the chief officers of the realm used to go in to her and salute her and do her service and depart, nothing doubting but she was a boy. After this fashion they fared for months and years and the Queen-mother ceased not to do thus till the Cook's brother came to the town in his ship, and with him Salim. He landed with the youth and displayed him for sale to the Queen who, when she saw him, prognosticated well of him; presently she bought him and was kind to him and entreated him with honour. Then began she to prove him in his moral parts and make assay of him in his affairs, and she found in him all that is in kings' sons of understanding and fine breeding and good manners and qualities. Thereupon she sent for him in private and said to him, "I am minded to do thee a service, so thou canst keep a secret."[FN#540] He promised her all that she desired and she discovered to him her mystery in the matter of her daughter, saying, "I will marry thee to her and commit to thee the governance and constitute thee king and ruler over this city." He thanked her and promised to carry out all she should order him, and she said to him, "Go forth to such-an-one of the neighbouring provinces privily." So he went forth and on the morrow she made ready loads and gear and gifts and bestowed on him abundant substance, all of which they loaded on the backs of baggage-camels. Then she gave out among the folk that the nephew of the king, the son of his brother, was come and bade the Grandees and troops go forth to meet him in a body: she also decorated the city in his honour and the kettle-drums of good tidings beat for him whilst all the king's household went out and dismounting before him, escorted him into, and lodged him with the Queen-mother in the palace. Then she bade the Headmen of the state attend his assembly; so they obeyed and witnessed of his breeding and good parts that which amazed them and made them forget the breeding of the kings who had preceded him. When they were grown to like him, the Queenmother began sending privily for the Emirs and Councillors, one by one, and swearing them to conceal her project; and when she was assured of their discretion, she discovered to them that the king had left naught save a daughter and that she had done this only that she might continue the kingship in his family and that the rule should not go forth from them; after which she informed them that she was minded to marry her daughter with her nephew, the new-comer; and that he should be the holder of the kingship. They approved her proposal and when she had discovered the secret to the last of them and assured herself of their aid, she published the news abroad and threw off all concealment. Then she sent for the Kazis and Assessors, who drew up the contract of marriage between Salim and the Princess, and they lavished gifts upon the soldiery and overwhelmed them with largesse. The bride was incontinently carried in procession to the young man and the kingship was established to him. They tarried after this fashion a whole year when Salim said to the Queen-mother, "Know that my life is not pleasing to me nor can I abide with you in content till I get me tidings of my sister and learn how her affair hath ended and how she hath fared after me. So I will go forth and be absent from you a year's space; then will I return to you, Inshallah—an it please God the Most High—and I win of this that which I hope." Quoth she, "I will not trust to thy word, but will go with thee and help thee to whatso thou wishest and further thee myself therein." Then she took a ship and loaded it with all manner things of price, goods and monies and the like. Furthermore, she appointed one of the Wazirs, a man in whom she trusted for his conduct and contrivance, to rule the realm, saying to him, "Abide in governance a full year and ordain all thou needest." Presently the Queenmother and her daughter and son-in-law Salim went down to the ship and sailed on till they made the land of Makran. Their arrival there befel at the last of the day; so they nighted in their ship, and when the morn was near to dawn, the young king landed, that he might go to the Hammam, and walked marketwards. As he drew near the bath, the Cook met him on the way and knew him; so he seized him and pinioning him straitly, carried him to his house, where he clapped the old fetters on his feet and cast him back into his former place of durance vile.[FN#541] Salim, finding himself in that sorry condition and considering that wherewith he was afflicted of tribulation and the reverses of his fair fortune, in that he had been a king and was now returned to fetters and prison and hunger, wept and groaned and lamented and improvised these couplets,

"My God, no patience now can aid afford; * Strait is my breast, O Thou of Lords the Lord: My God, who in resource like thine hath force? * And Thou, the Subtle, dost my case record."

On this wise fared it with Salim; but as regards his wife and her mother, when she awoke in the morning and her husband returned not to her with break of dawn, she forebode all manner of calamity and, straightway arising, she despatched her servants and all who were with her in quest of her spouse; but they happened not on any trace of him nor could they hear aught of his news. So she bethought herself concerning the case and plained and wept and groaned and sighed and blamed Fortune the fickle, bewailing the changes of Time and reciting these couplets,[FN#542]

"God keep the days of love-delight! How passing sweet they were! * How joyous and how solaceful was life in them whilere! Would he were not, who sundered us upon the parting-day! * How many a body hath he slain, how many a bone laid bare! Sans fault of mine, my blood and tears he shed and beggared me * Of him I love yet for himself gained nought thereby whate'er."

When she had made an end of her verses, she considered her affair and said within herself, "By Allah, all these things have betided by the predestination of Almighty Allah and His decree and this upon the forehead was written in lines." Then she landed and walked on till she came to a spacious place, and an open, where she asked of the folk and hired a house. Thither she transported forthright all that was in the ship of goods and sending after brokers, sold all that was with her. Presently she took part of the price and began enquiring of the folk, so haply she might scent out tidings of the lost one; and she addressed herself to lavishing alms and preparing medicines for the sick, clothing the naked and watering the dry ground[FN#543] of the forlorn. She ceased not so doing a whole year, and little by little she sold off her goods and gave charitable gifts to the sick and sorry; whereby her report was bruited abroad in the city and the folk abounded in her praise. All this while Salim lay in fetters and strait prison, and melancholy gat hold of him by reason of that whereinto he had fallen of this affliction. At last, when care waxed on him and calamity grew longsome, he fell sick of a sore sickness. Then the Kitchener, seeing his plight (and verily he was like to sink for much suffering), loosed him from the fetters and bringing him forth of the prison, committed him to an old woman, who had a nose the bigness of a gugglet,[FN#544] and bade her nurse him and medicine him and serve him and entreat him kindly, so haply he might be made whole of that his sickness. Accordingly the old woman took him and carrying him to her lodging, began nursing him and giving him to eat and drink; and when he was delivered of that torment, he recovered from the malady which had afflicted him. Now the old woman had heard from the folk of the lady who gave alms to the sick, and indeed the news of her bounties reached both poor and rich; so she arose and bringing out Salim to the door of her house, laid him upon a mat and wrapped him in an Ab-gown and sat over against him. Presently, it befel that the lady passed by them, and the old woman seeing her rose to her and blessed her, saying, "O my daughter, O thou to whom belong goodness and beneficence and charity and almsdoing,[FN#545] know that this young man is a foreigner, and indeed lack and lice and hunger and nakedness and cold slay him." When the lady heard this, she gave her alms and presented her with a part of that which was with her; and indeed her charitable heart inclined to Salim, but she knew him not for her spouse. The old woman received the alms from her and carrying it to Salim, took part for herself and with the rest bought him an old shirt,[FN#546] in which she clad him, after she had stripped him of that he had on. Then she threw away the frock she had taken from off him and arising forthwith, washed his body of that which was thereon of grime and scented him with somewhat of scent. She also bought chickens and made him broth; so he ate and his life returned to him and he abode with her in all comfort of condition till the morrow. Next morning the old woman said to Salim, "When the lady cometh to thee, arise and buss her hand and say to her, I am a homeless man and indeed cold and hunger kill me;' so haply she may give thee somewhat that thou mayest expend upon thy case." And he answered, "To hear is to obey." Then she took him by the hand and carrying him without her house, seated him at the door; and as he sat, behold, the lady came up to him, whereupon the old woman rose to her and Salim kissed her hand and, looking at her the while, blessed her. But when he saw her, he knew her for his wife; so he shrieked and shed tears and groaned and plained, at which she came up to him and threw herself upon him; for indeed she knew him with all knowledge, even as he knew her. So she hung to him and embraced him and called to her serving-men and attendants and those who were about her; and they took him up and carried him forth of that stead. When the old woman saw this, she cried out to the Cook within the house, and he said to her, "Fare thou before me." So she forewent him and he ran after her and ceased not running till he overtook the party and seizing Salim, exclaimed "What aileth you to take my slave-lad?" Whereupon the Queen cried out at him, saying, "Know that this is my husband, whom I had lost;" and Salim also cried out, saying, "Mercy! Mercy! I appeal to Allah and to the Sultan against this Satan!" Therewith a world of folk straightway gathered together and loud rose the cries and the clamours between them; but the most part of them said, "Carry their case up to the Sultan." So they referred the matter to the king, who was none other than Salim's sister Salma. Then they repaired to the palace and the dragoman went in to Salma and said to her, "O king of the age, here is a Hindi woman, who cometh from the land of Hind, and she hath laid hands on a servant, a young man, claiming him as her husband, who hath been lost to her these two years, and she journeyed not hither save for his sake, and in very sooth these many days she hath done almsdeeds in thy city. And here is a fellow, a Kitchener, who declareth that the young man is his slave."[FN#547] When the Queen heard these words, her vitals quivered and she groaned from a grieving heart and called to mind her brother and that which had betided him. Then she bade those around her bring them between her hands, and when she saw them, she knew her brother and was about to cry aloud; but her reason restrained her; yet she could not prevent herself rising up and sitting down.[FN#548] At last, however, she enforced her soul to patience and said to them, "Let each and every of you acquaint me with his case." So Salim came forward and kissing ground before the king, lauded him and related to him his story from first to last, until the time of their coming to that city, he and his sister, telling him how he had entered the place and had fallen into the hands of the Cook and that which had betided him and whatso he had suffered from him of beating and collars, of fetters and pinioning, till the man had made him his brother's Mameluke, a boughten slave, and how the brother had sold him in Hind and he had become king by marrying the Princess: and how life was not lovesome to him till he should foregather with his sister and now the same Cook bad fallen in with him a second time and had pinioned and fettered him. Brief, he acquainted her with that which had betided him of sickness and sorrow for the space of a whole year. When he had made an end of his speech, his wife straightways came forward and told her story, from incept to termination, how her mother bought him[FN#549] from the Cook's partner and the people of the kingdom came under his rule; nor did she cease telling till she came, in her history, to that city and acquainted the king with the manner of her meeting her husband. When she had made an end of her adventure, the Kitchener exclaimed, "Alack, what befals us from lying rascals. By Allah, O king, this woman lieth against me, for this youth is my rearling[FN#550] and he was born of one of my slave-girls. He fled from me and I found him again." When the Queen heard the last of the talk, she said to the Cook, "The decree between you shall not be save in accordance with justice." Then she dismissed all those who were present and turning to her brother, said to him, "Indeed thy truth is stablished with me and the sooth of thy speech, and praised be Allah who hath brought about reunion between thee and thy wife! So now begone with her to thy country and cease to seek thy sister Salma and depart in peace." But, hearing this, Salim replied, "By Allah, by the might of the All-knowing King, I will not turn back from seeking my sister till I die or I find her, Inshallah!" Then he called his sister to mind and improvised from a heart disappointed, troubled, afflicted these couplets,

"O thou who blam'st me for my heart, in anger twitting me, * Hadst tasted what my heart did taste, thou wouldst be pitying me! By Allah, O my chider for my sister leave, ah! leave * My heart to moan its grief and feel the woes befitting me. Indeed I grew to hold her dear privily, publicly; * And in my bosom bides a pang at no time quitting me; And in my vitals burns a flame that ne'er was equalled by * The fire of hell and blazeth high to Death committing me."

Now when his sister Salma heard what he said, she could no longer restrain her soul, but threw herself upon him and discovered to him her case. When he knew her, he threw himself upon her swooning awhile; after which he came to himself and cried, "Lauded be the Lord, the Bountiful, the Beneficent!" Then they plained each to other of that they had suffered from the pangs of parting, whilst Salim's wife wondered at this and Salma's patience and endurance pleased her. So she saluted her with the Salam, and thanked her for her fair boons, saying, "By Allah, O my lady, all that we are in of gladness never befel us save by thy blessing; so praised be Allah who deigned vouchsafe us thy sight!" Then they tarried all three, Salma, Salim and his wife, in joy and happiness and delight three days, veiled from the folk; and it was bruited abroad in the city that the king had found his brother, who was lost for many a year, and had saved him from the Cook's house. On the fourth day, all the troops and the lieges assembled together to see the King and standing at his gate, craved leave to enter. Salma bade admit them; so they entered and paid her royal suit and service and gave her joy of her brother's safe return. She bade them do homage to Salim, and they consented and sware fealty to him; after which they kept silence awhile, so they might hear what the king should command. Then quoth Salma, "Ho, ye gathering of soldiers and subjects, ye wot that ye forced me willy-nilly to accept the kingship and besought me thereof and I consented to your desires anent my being raised to rule over you; and I did this against my will; for I would have you know that I am a woman and that I disguised myself and donned man's dress, so peradventure my case might be concealed when I lost my brother. But now Allah hath deigned reunite me with my brother, and it is no longer lawful to me that I be king and Sultan over the people, and I a woman; because there is no Sultanate for women, whenas men are present.[FN#551] For this reason, an it suit you, set my brother on the throne of the kingdom, for this is he; and I will busy myself with the worship of Allah the Most High and thanksgiving to Him for my reunion with my brother. Or, an ye prefer it, take your kingship and make whom ye will ruler and liege lord thereof." Upon this the folk all cried out, saying, "We accept him to king over us;" and they did him suit and service and gave him joy of the kingship. So the preachers preached the sermon[FN#552] in his name and the court-poets praised him; and he lavished largesse upon the soldiery and the suite and overwhelmed them with favours and bounties and was prodigal to the Ryots of justice and equity, with goodly policy and polity. When he had effected this much of his affect, he caused bring forth the Cook and his household to the divan, but spared the old woman who had nursed him, because she had been the cause of his deliverance. Then all assembled without the town and he tormented the Cook and those who were with him with all manner torments, after which he did him to die by the foulest of deaths[FN#553] and burning him with fire, scattered his ashes far and wide in the air. After this Salim abode in the governance, invested with the Sultanate, and ruled the people a whole year, when he returned to Al-Mansrah and sojourned there another year. And he and his wife ceased not to go from city to city and tarry in this a year and that a year, till he was vouchsafed children and they grew up, whereupon he appointed him of his sons, who was found fitting, to be his deputy in one kingdom and he ruled in the other; and he lived, he and his wife and children, what while Almighty Allah willed.[FN#554] "Nor" (continued the Wazir), "O King of the age, is this story rarer or stranger than the King of Hind and his wronged and envied Minister." When the King heard this, his mind was occupied,[FN#555] and he bade the Wazir hie to his own house.

The Twenty-eighth and Last Night of the Month.

When the evening evened, the King summoned the Minister and bade him tell the story of the King of Hind and his Wazir. So he said, "Hearkening and obedience. Give ear, O auspicious King, to



The Tale of the King of Hind and his Wazir.



There was once in the Hind-land a king illustrious of worth, endowed with understanding and policy, and his name was Shah Bakht. He had a Minister, a godly man and a sagacious, right prudent in rede, conformable to him in governance and just in judgment; for which cause his enviers were many and many were the hypocrites who sought faults in him and set snares for him, so that they insinuated into King Shah Bakht's eyes hatred against him and sowed in his heart despite towards him; and plot followed plot, and their rancour waxed until the king was brought to arrest him and lay him in jail and to confiscate his wealth and degrade him from his degree. When they knew that there was left him no possession for which the king might lust, they feared lest the sovran release him, by the influence of the Wazir's good counsel upon the king's heart, and he return to his former case, so should their machinations be marred and their degrees degraded, for that they knew that the king would heed whatso he had known from that man nor would forget aught wherewith he was familiar in him. Now it came to pass that a certain person of perverted belief[FN#556] found a way to the adorning of falsehood with a semblance of fair-seeming and there proceeded from him that whereby the hearts of the folk were occupied, and their minds were corrupted by his lying tales; for that he made use of Indian quiddities[FN#557] and forged them into proof for the denial of the Maker the Creator, extolled be His might and exalted be He and glorified and magnified above the speech of the deniers. He avouched that it is the planets which order all worldly affairs and he set down twelve mansions[FN#558] to twelve Zodiacal signs and made each sign thirty degrees,[FN#559] after the number of the days of the month, so that in twelve mansions there are three hundred and sixty, after the number of the days of the year; and he wrought a work, wherein he lied and was an infidel and denied the Deity, be He for ever blessed! Then he laid hold of the king's heart and the enviers and haters aided him against the Minister and won the royal favour and corrupted his intent against the Wazir, so that he got of him that which he got and at last his lord banished him and thrust him away. By such means the wicked man obtained that which he sought of the Minister and the case was prolonged till the affairs of the kingdom became disordered, by dint of ill government, and the most part of the king's reign fell off from him and he came nigh unto ruin. On this wise he was assured of the loyalty of his whilome, sagacious Wazir and the excellence of his ordinance and the rectitude of his rede. So he sent after him and brought him and the wicked man before him and summoning to his presence the Lords of his land and the Chiefs of his chieftainship, gave them leave to talk and dispute and forbade the wicked man from his perverted belief. [FN#560] Then arose that wise Minister and skilful and praised Allah Almighty and lauded Him and glorified Him and hallowed Him and attested His unity and disputed with the miscreant and overcame him and silenced him; nor did he cease from him till he compelled him to make confession of repentance from that which he had misbelieved. Therewith King Shah Bakht rejoiced with exceeding great joy and cried, "Praise be to the Lord who hath saved me from this man and hath preserved me from the loss of my kingship and my prosperity!" So the affair of the Wazir returned to order and stablishment and the king restored him to his place and raised him to higher rank. Lastly, he assembled the folk who had striven against him and destroyed them all, to the last man. "And how like" (continued the Wazir), "is this story to that of myself and King Shah Bakht, with regard to that which befel me of the changing of the King and his crediting others against me; but now is the fairness of my fashion fulfilled in thine eyes, for that Allah Almighty hath inspired thee with wisdom and endowed thee with longanimity and patience to hear from me whatso He allotted to those who forewent us, till He hath shown forth my innocence and made manifest unto thee the truth. For lo and behold! the days are now past, wherein it was declared to the king that I should labour for the loss of my soul,[FN#561] that is within the month; and lookye, the probation-time is gone by, and past is the season of evil and it hath ceased by the protection of the King and his good fortune." Then he bowed his head and was silent. When King Shah Bakht heard his Wazir's speech, he was abashed before him and confounded, and he marvelled at the gravity of his intellect and his long-suffering. So he sprang up to him and embraced him and the Minister kissed his feet. Then the King called for a costly robe of honour and cast it over Al-Rahwan and honoured him with the highmost honour and showed him especial favour and restored him to his degree and Wazirate. Furthermore he imprisoned those who had devised his destruction with lies and leasing and gave him full leave and license to pass judgment upon the Interpreter who had expounded to him the dream. So the Wazir abode in the ordering of the realm until Death came to them; "And this" (added Shahrazad) "is all, O king of the age, that hath come down to us of King Shah Bakht and his Wazir."



SHAHRAZAD AND SHAHRYAR.



As for King Shahryar, he wondered at Shahrazad with the utmost wonder and drew her near to his heart of his abounding affection for her; and she was magnified in his eyes and he said within himself, "By Allah, the like of this is not deserving of slaughter, for indeed the time favoureth us not with her equal. By the Almighty, I have been reckless of mine affair, and had not the Lord overcome me with His ruth and put his one at my service so she might recount to me instances manifest and cases truthful and admonitions goodly and traits edifying, such as should restore me to the right road, I had come to ruin! Wherefore to Allah be the praise here for and I beseech the Most High to make my end with her like that of the Wazir and Shah Bakht." Then sleep overcame the king and glory be unto Him who sleepeth not![FN#562] When it was the Nine hundred and thirtieth Night, Shahrazad said, "O king, there is present in my thought a tale which treateth of women's trickery and wherein is a warning to whoso will be warned and an admonishment to whoso will be admonished and whoso hath sight and insight; but I fear lest the hearing of this belittle me with the liege-lord and lower my degree in his esteem; yet I hope that this will not be, because tis a rare tale. Women are indeed mischief-makers; their craft and their cunning may not be told nor may their wiles be known; while men enjoy their company and are not instant to uphold them in the right way, neither are they vigilant over them with all vigilance, but relish their society and take whatso is winsome and regard not that which is other than this. Indeed, they are like unto the crooked rib, which an thou go about to straighten, thou distortest it, and which an thou persist in straightening, thou breakest it,[FN#563] so it behoveth the wise man to be silent concerning them." Thereupon quoth Dinarzad, "O sister mine, bring forth that which is with thee and that which is present to thy mind of the story concerning the guile of women and their wiles, and have no fear lest this lessen thee with the king; for that women are, like jewels, of all kinds and colours. When a gem falleth into the hand of an expert, he keepeth it for himself and leaveth all beside it. Eke he preferreth some of them over others, and in this he is like the potter,[FN#564] who filleth his liln with all the vessels he hath moulded and under them kindleth his fire. When the making is done and he taketh out that which is in the kiln, he findeth no help for it but that he must break some of them, whilst others are what the folk need and whereof they make use, while yet others there are which return to be as they were. So fear thou not nor deem it a grave matter to adduce that which thou knowest of the craft of women, for that in this is profit for all folk." Then said Shahrazad, "Then relate, O king (but Allah alone knoweth the secret things) the Tale of



End of Volume 11



Arabian Nights, Volume 11 Footnotes



[FN#1] Arab. "Al-Nim wa al-Yakzn." This excellent story is not in the Mac. Or Bresl. Edits.; but is given in the Breslau Text, iv. 134-189 (Nights cclxxii.-ccxci.). It is familiar to readers of the old "Arabian Nights Entertainments" as "Abou-Hassan or the Sleeper Awakened;" and as yet it is the only one of the eleven added by Galland whose original has been discovered in Arabic: the learned Frenchman, however, supplied it with embellishments more suo, and seems to have taken it from an original fuller than our text as is shown by sundry poetical and other passages which he apparently did not invent. Lane (vol. ii. chap. 12), noting that its chief and best portion is an historical anecdote related as a fact, is inclined to think that it is not a genuine tale of The Nights. He finds it in Al-Ishk who finished his history about the close of Sultan Mustaf the Osmanli's reign, circa A.H. 1032 (= 1623), and he avails himself of this version as it is "narrated in a simple and agreeable manner." Mr. Payne remarks, "The above title (Asleep and Awake) is of course intended to mark the contrast between the everyday (or waking) hours of Aboulhusn and his fantastic life in the Khalif's palace, supposed by him to have passed in a dream;" I may add that amongst frolicsome Eastern despots the adventure might often have happened and that it might have given a hint to Cervantes.

[FN#2] i.e., The Wag. See vol. i. 311: the old version calls him "the Debauchee."

[FN#3] Arab. "Al-Frs"; a people famed for cleverness and debauchery. I cannot see why Lane omitted the Persian, unless he had Persian friends at Cairo.

[FN#4] i.e., the half he intended for spending-money.

[FN#5] i.e., "men," a characteristic Arab idiom: here it applies to the sons of all time.

[FN#6] i.e., make much of thee.

[FN#7] In Lane the Caliph is accompanied by "certain of his domestics."

[FN#8] Arab. "Khubz Mutabbak," = bread baked in a platter, instead of an oven, an earthen jar previously heated, to the sides of which the scones or bannocks of dough are applied: "it is lighter than oven-bread, especially if it be made thin and leavened." See Al-Shakr, a medical writer quoted by Dozy.

[FN#9] In other parts of The Nights Harun al-Rashid declines wine-drinking.

[FN#10] The 'Allmah (doctissimus) Sayce (p. 212, Comparative Philology, London, Trbner, 1885) goes far back for Khalfah = a deputy, a successor. He begins with the Semitic (Hebrew?) root "Khaliph" = to change, exchange: hence "Khaleph" = agio. From this the Greeks got their {Greek} and Cicero his "Collybus," a money-lender.

[FN#11] Arab. "Harfsh" (in Bresl. Edit. iv. 138, "Kharfsh"), in popular parlance a "blackguard." I have to thank Mr. Alexander J. Cotheal, of New York, for sending me a MS. Copy of this tale.

[FN#12] Arab. "Ta'm," in Egypt and Somaliland = millet seed (Holcus Sorghum) cooked in various ways. In Barbary it is applied to the local staff of life, Kuskus, wheaten or other flour damped and granulated by hand to the size of peppercorns, and lastly steamed (as we steam potatoes), the cullender-pot being placed over a long-necked jar full of boiling water. It is served with clarified butter, shredded onions and meat; and it represents the Risotto of Northern Italy. Europeans generally find it too greasy for digestion. This Barbary staff of life is of old date and is thus mentioned by Leo Africanus in early sixth century. "It is made of a lump of Dow, first set upon the fire, in a vessel full of holes and afterwards tempered with Butter and Pottage." So says good Master John Pory, "A Geographical Historie of Africa, by John Leo, a Moor," London, 1600, impensis George Bishop.

[FN#13] Arab. "Bi al-Salm" (pron. "Bissalm") = in the Peace (of Allah).

[FN#14] And would bring him bad luck if allowed to go without paying.

[FN#15] i.e., of the first half, as has been shown.

[FN#16] Arab. "Kumjah" from the Persian Kumsh = bread unleavened and baked in ashes. Egyptians use the word for bannocks of fine flour.

[FN#17] Arab. "Kal," our "alcali" ; for this and other abstergents see vol. i. 279.

[FN#18] These lines have occurred twice in vol. i. 117 (Night xii.); I quote Mr. Payne.

[FN#19] Arab. "Y 'llah, y 'llh;" vulg. Used for "Look sharp!" e.g., "Y 'llah jri, y walad" = Be off at once, boy."

[FN#20] Arab. "Banj akrtash," a term which has occurred before.

[FN#21] A natural clock, called West Africans Cokkerapeek = Cock-speak. All the world over it is the subject of superstition: see Giles's "Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio" (i. 177), where Miss Li, who is a devil, hears a cock crow and vanishes.

[FN#22] In Lane Al-Rashid "found at the door his young men waiting for him and ordered them to convey Abu-l-Hasan upon a mule and returned to the palace; Abu-l-Hasan being intoxicated and insensible. And when the Khaleefah had rested himself in the palace, he called for," etc.

[FN#23] Arab. "Kursi," Assyrian "Kuss" = throne; and "Korsi" in Aramaic (or Nabathean as Al-Mas'udi calls it), the second growth-period of the "Semitic" family, which supplanted Assyrian and Babylonian, and became, as Arabic now is, the common speech of the "Semitic" world.

[FN#24] Arab. "Makn mahjb," which Lane renders by "a private closet," and Payne by a "privy place," suggesting that the Caliph slept in a numro cent. So, when starting for the "Trakki Campaign," Sir Charles Napier (of Sind), in his zeal for lightening officers' baggage, inadvertently chose a water-closet tent for his head-quarters—magno cum risu not of the staff, who had a strange fear of him, but of the multitude who had not.

[FN#25] Arab. "Dar al-Salam," one of the seven "Gardens" into which the Mohammedan Paradise is divided. Man's fabled happiness began in a Garden (Eden) and the suggestion came naturally that it would continue there. For the seven Heavens, see vol. viii., 111.

[FN#26] Branch of Pearl, see vol. ii. 57.

[FN#27] Arab. "Kahbah," the lowest word (vol. i. 70), effectively used in contrast with the speaker's surroundings.

[FN#28] Arab. "Y kabr," = mon brave, my good man.

[FN#29] This exaggeration has now become familiar to English poets.

[FN#30] Like an Eastern he goes to the water-closet the first thing in the morning, or rather dawn, and then washes ceremonially before saying the first prayer. In Europe he would probably wait until after breakfast. See vol. iii. 242.

[FN#31] I have explained why an Eastern does not wash in the basin as Europeans do in vol. i. p. 241.

[FN#32] i.e., He was confused that he forgot. All Moslems know how to pray, whether they pray or not.

[FN#33] The dawn-prayer consists of only four inclinations (raka'at); two "Farz" (divinely appointed), and two Sunnah (the custom of the Apostle). For the Raka'h see Lane, M.E. chapt. iii.; it cannot be explained without illustrations.

[FN#34] After both sets of prayers, Farz and Sunnah, the Moslem looks over his right shoulder and says, "The Peace (of Allah) be upon you and the ruth of Allah," and repeats the words over the left shoulder. The salutation is addressed to the Guardian Angels or to the bystanders (Moslems), who, however, do not return it.

[FN#35] i.e., Ibrahim of Mosul the musician. See vol. iv. 108.

[FN#36] Arab. "Lyth" plur. of "layth," a lion: here warriors are meant.

[FN#37] The Abbasides traced their descent from Al-Abbas, Mohammed's uncle, and justly held themselves as belonging to the family of the Prophet. See vol. ii. 61.

[FN#38] Arab. "Nmshah" = "half-sword." See vol. ii. p. 193.

[FN#39] i.e., May thy dwelling-place never fall into ruin. The prayer has, strange to say, been granted. "The present city on the eastern bank of the Tigris was built by Haroun al-Rashid, and his house still stands there and is an object of reverent curiosity." So says my friend Mr. Grattan Geary (vol. i. p. 212, "Through Asiatic Turkey," London: Low, 1878). He also gives a sketch of Zubaydah's tomb on the western bank of the Tigris near the suburb which represents old Baghdad; it is a pineapple dome springing from an octagon, both of brick once revetted with white stucco.

[FN#40] In the Bresl. Edit. four hundred. I prefer the exaggerated total.

[FN#41] i.e., the raised recess at the upper end of an Oriental saloon, and the place of honour, which Lane calls by its Egyptian name "Lwn." See his vol. i. 312 and his M.E. chapt. i.: also my vol. iv. p. 71.

[FN#42] "Bit o'Musk."

[FN#43] "A gin," a snare.

[FN#44] "A gift," a present. It is instructive to compare Abu al-Hasan with Sancho Panza, sprightly Arab wit with grave Spanish humour.

[FN#45] i.e., he fell down senseless. The old version has "his head knocked against his knees."

[FN#46] Arab. "Waddi" vulg. Egyptian and Syrian for the classical "Add" (ii. of Ad = preparing to do). No wonder that Lane complains (iii. 376) of the vulgar style, abounding in errors."

[FN#47] O Apple, O Repose o' Hearts, O Musk, O Choice Gift.

[FN#48] Arab. "Doghr," a pure Turkish word, in Egypt meaning "truly, with truth," straightforwardly; in Syria = straight (going), directly.

[FN#49] Arab. "Mristn," see vol. i. 288.

[FN#50] The scene is a rechauff of Badr al-Din Hasan and his wife, i. 247.

[FN#51] Arab. "Janzr," another atrocious vulgarism for "Zanjr," which however, has occurred before.

[FN#52] Arab. "Arafshah."

[FN#53] In the "Mishkt al-Masbih" (ii. 341), quoted by Lane, occurs the Hadis, "Shut your doors anights and when so doing repeat the Basmalah; for the Devil may not open a door shut in Allah's name." A pious Moslem in Egypt always ejaculates, "In the name of Allah, the Compassionating," etc., when he locks a door, covers up bread, doffs his clothes, etc., to keep off devils and dmons.

[FN#54] An Arab idiom meaning, "I have not found thy good fortune (Ka'b = heel, glory, prosperity) do me any good."

[FN#55] Arab. "Y Nakbah" = a calamity to those who have to do with thee!

[FN#56] Koran cxii., the "Chapter of Unity." See vol. iii. 307

[FN#57] See vol. iii. 222.

[FN#58] Here the author indubitably speaks for himself, forgetting that he ended Night cclxxxi. (Bresl. Iv. 168), and began that following with Shahrazad's usual formula.

[FN#59] i.e., "Delight of the vitals" (or heart).

[FN#60] The trick is a rechauff of the trick played on Al- Rashid and Zubaydah.

[FN#61] "Kalb" here is not heart, but stomach. The big toes of the Moslem corpse are still tied in most countries, and in some a sword is placed upon the body; but I am not aware that a knife and sale (both believed to repel evil spirits) are so used in Cairo.

[FN#62] The Moslem, who may not wear unmixed silk during his lifetime, may be shrouded in it. I have noted that the "Shukkah," or piece, averages six feet in length.

[FN#63] A vulgar ejaculation; the "hour" referring either to birth or to his being made one of the Caliph's equerries.

[FN#64] Here the story-teller omits to say that Masrr bore witness to the Caliph's statement.

[FN#65] Arab. "Wa kuntu rihah ursil wark," the regular Fellah language.

[FN#66] Arab. "'Irk al-Hshim." See vol. ii. 19. Lane remarks, "Whether it was so in Hashim himself (or only in his descendants), I do not find; but it is mentioned amongst the characteristics of his great-grandson, the Prophet."

[FN#67] Arab. "Bostn al-Nuzhah," whose name made the stake appropriate. See vol. ii. 81.

[FN#68] Arab. "Tamsl" = generally carved images, which, amongst Moslem, always suggest idols and idolatry.

[FN#69] The "Shubbk" here would be the "Mashrabiyah," or latticed balcony, projecting from the saloon-wall, and containing room for three or more sitters. It is Lane's "Mesrebeeyeh," sketched in M.E. (Introduction) and now has become familiar to Englishmen.

[FN#70] This is to show the cleverness of Abu al-Hasan, who had calculated upon the difference between Al-Rashid and Zubaydah. Such marvels of perspicacity are frequent enough in the folk-lore of the Arabs.

[FN#71] An artful touch, showing how a tale grows by repetition. In Abu al-Hasan's case (infra) the eyes are swollen by the swathes.

[FN#72] A Hadis attributed to the Prophet, and very useful to Moslem husbands when wives differ overmuch with them in opinion.

[FN#73] Arab. "Masarat f-h," which Lane renders, "And she threw money to her."

[FN#74] A saying common throughout the world, especially when the afflicted widow intends to marry again at the first opportunity.

[FN#75] Arab. "Y Khlati" = O my mother's sister; addressed by a woman to an elderly dame.

[FN#76] i.e., That I may put her to shame.

[FN#77] Arab. "Zalbiyah."

[FN#78] Arab. "Al al-Kaylah," which Mr. Payne renders by "Siesta-carpet." Land reads "Kiblah" ("in the direction of the Kiblah") and notes that some Moslems turn the corpse's head towards Meccah and others the right side, including the face. So the old version reads "feet towards Mecca." But the preposition "Al" requires the former sig.

[FN#79] Many places in this text are so faulty that translation is mere guess-work; e.g. "Bashrah" can hardly be applied to ill- news.

[FN#80] i.e. of grief for his loss.

[FN#81] Arab. "Tobni" which Lane renders "two clods." I have noted that the Tob (Span. Adobe = Al-Tob) is a sunbaked brick. Beating the bosom with such material is still common amongst Moslem mourners of the lower class, and the hardness of the blow gives the measure of the grief.

[FN#82] i.e. of grief for her loss.

[FN#83] Arab. "Ihtirk" often used in the metaphorical sense of consuming, torturing.

[FN#84] Arab. "Halwat," lit.=a sweetmeat, a gratuity, a thank- offering.

[FN#85] Bresl. Edit., vol. vi. Pp. 182-188, Nights ccccxxxii.- ccccxxxiv.

[FN#86] "The good Caliph" and the fifth of the Orthodox, the other four being Abu Bakr, Omar, Osman and Ali; and omitting the eight intervening, Hasan the grandson of the Prophet included. He was the 13th Caliph and 8th Ommiade A.H. 99-101 (=717-720) and after a reign of three years he was poisoned by his kinsmen of the Banu Umayyah who hated him for his piety, asceticism, and severity in making them disgorge their ill-gotten gains. Moslem historians are unanimous in his praise. Europeans find him an anachorte couronn, froide et respectable figure, who lacked the diplomacy of Mu'awiyah and the energy of Al-Hajjj. His principal imitator was Al-Muhtadi bi'llh, who longed for a return to the rare old days of Al-Islam.

[FN#87] Omar 'Adi bin Artah; governor of Kufah and Basrah under "the good Caliph."

[FN#88] Jarr al-Khatafah, one of the most famous of the "Islm" poets, i.e. those who wrote in the first century (A.H.) before the corruption of language began. (See Terminal Essay, p. 230). Ibn Khallikan notices him at full length i. 294.

[FN#89] Arab. "Bkiyah," which may also mean eternal as opposed to "Fniyah" = temporal. Omar's answer shows all the narrow- minded fanaticism which distinguished the early Moslems: they were puritanical as any Praise-God-Barebones, and they hated "boetry and bainting" as hotly as any Hanoverian.

[FN#90] The Saturday Review (Jan. 2, '86), which has honoured me by the normal reviling in the shape of a critique upon my two first vols., complains of the "Curious word Abhak" as "a perfectly arbitrary and unusual group of Latin letters." May I ask Aristarchus how he would render "Sal'am" (vol ii. 24), which apparently he would confine to "Arabic MSS."(!). Or would he prefer A(llah) b(less) h(im) a(nd) k(eep) "W.G.B." (whom God bless) as proposed by the editor of Ockley? But where would be the poor old "Saturnine" if obliged to do better than the authors it abuses?

[FN#91] He might have said "by more than one, including the great Labd."

[FN#92] F-hi either "in him" (Mohammed) or "in it" (his action).

[FN#93] Chief of the Banu Sulaym. According to Tabari, Abbas bin Mirdas (a well-known poet), being dissatisfied with the booty allotted to him by the Prophet, refused it and lampooned Mohammed, who said to Ali, "Cut off this tongue which attacketh me," i.e. "Silence him by giving what will satisfy him." Thereupon Ali doubled the Satirist's share.

[FN#94] Arab. "Y Bill": Bilal ibn Rabah was the Prophet's freedman and crier: see vol. iii. 106. But bilal also signifies "moisture" or "beneficence," "benefits": it may be intended for a double entendre but I prefer the metonymy.

[FN#95] The verses of this Kasidah are too full of meaning to be easily translated: it is fine old poetry.

[FN#96] i.e. of the Koraysh tribe. For his disorderly life see Ibn Khallikan ii. 372: he died, however, a holy death, battling against the Infidels in A.H. 93 (= 711-12), some five years before Omar's reign.

[FN#97] Arab. "Bayn farsi-k wa 'l-dam" = lit. between fces and menses, i.e., the foulest part of his mistress's person. It is not often that The Nights are "nasty"; but here is a case. See vol. v. 162.

[FN#98] "Jamil the Poet," and lover of Buthaynah: see vol. ii. 102, Ibn Khallikan (i.331), and Al-Mas'udi vi. 381, who quotes him copiously. He died A.H. 82 (= 701), or sixteen years before Omar's reign.

[FN#99] Arab. "Safh" = the slab over the grave.

[FN#100] A contemporary and friend of Jaml and the famous lover of Azzah. See vol. ii. 102, and Al-Mas'udi, vi. 426. The word "Kuthayyir" means "the dwarf." Term. Essay, 231.

[FN#101] i.e. in the attitude of prayer.

[FN#102] In Bresl. Edit. "Al-Akhwass," clerical error, noticed in Ibn Khallikan i. 526. His satires banished him to Dahlak Island in the Red Sea, and he died A.H. 179 (= 795-96).

[FN#103] Another famous poet Ab Firs Hammm or Humaym (dimin. Form), as debauched as Jarir, who died forty days before him in A.H. 110 (= 728-29), as Basrah. Cf. Term. Essay, 231.

[FN#104] A famous Christian poet. See C. de Perceval, Journ. Asiat. April, 1834, Ibn Khallikan iii. 136, and Term. Essay, 231.

[FN#105] The poet means that unlike other fasters he eats meat openly. See Pilgrimage (i. 110), for the popular hypocrisy.

[FN#106] Arab. "Bath" the lowlands and plains outside the Meccan Valley. See al-Mas'udi, vi. 157. Mr. (now Sir) W. Muir in his Life of Mahomet, vol. i., p. ccv., remarks upon my Pilgrimage (iii.252) that in placing Arafat 12 miles from Meccah, I had given 3 miles to Muna, + 3 to Muzdalifah + 3 to Arafat = 9. But the total does not include the suburbs of Meccah and the breadth of the Arafat-Valley.

[FN#107] The words of the Azn, vol. i. 306.

[FN#108] Wine in Arabic is feminine, "Shaml" = liquor hung in the wind to cool, a favourite Arab practice often noticed by the poets.

[FN#109] i.e. I will fall down dead drunk.

[FN#110] Arab. "rm," plur. of Irm, a beautiful girl, a white deer. The word is connected with the Heb. Reem (Deut. xxxiii. 17), which has been explained unicorn, rhinoceros, and aurochs. It is at the Ass. Rimu, the wild bull of the mountains, provided with a human face, and placed at the palace-entrance to frighten away foes, demon or human.

[FN#111] i.e. she who ensnares [all] eyes.

[FN#112] Imam, the spiritual title of the Caliph, as head of the Faith and leader (lit. "foreman," Antistes) of the people at prayer. See vol. iv. 111.

[FN#113] For Yammah see vol. ii. 104. Omar bin Abd-al-Aziz was governor of the province before he came to the Caliphate. To the note on Zark, the blue-eyed Yamamite, I may add that Marwan was called Ibn Zark, son of "la femme au drapeu bleu," such being the sign of a public prostitute. Al-Mas'udi, v. 509.

[FN#114] Rain and bounty, I have said, are synonymous.

[FN#115] About 4.

[FN#116] i.e. what is thy news.

[FN#117] Bresl. Edit., vol. vi. pp. 188-9, Night ccccxxxiv.

[FN#118] Of this masterful personage and his energie indomptable I have spoken in vol. iv. 3, and other places. I may add that he built Wsit city A.H. 83 and rendered eminent services to literature and civilization amongst the Arabs. When the Ommiade Caliph Abd al-Malik was dying he said to his son Walid, "Look to Al-Hajjaj and honour him for, verily, he it is who hath covered for you the pulpits; and he is thy sword and thy right hand against all opponents; thou needest him more than he needeth thee, and when I die summon the folk to the covenant of allegiance; and he who saith with his head—thus, say thou with thy sword—thus" (Al-Siyuti, p 225) yet the historian simply observes, "the Lord curse him."

[FN#119] i.e. given through his lieutenant.

[FN#120] "Necks" per synecdochen for heads. The passage is a description of a barber-surgeon in a series of double-entendres the "nose-pierced" (Makhzm) is the subject who is led by the nose like a camel with halter and ring and the "breaker" (hshim) may be a breaker of bread as the word originally meant, or breaker of bones. Lastly the "wealth" (ml) is a recondite allusion to the hair.

[FN#121] Arab. "Kadr" which a change of vowel makes "Kidr" = a cooking-pot. The description is that of an itinerant seller of boiled beans (Fl mudammas) still common in Cairo. The "light of his fire" suggests a double-entendre some powerful Chief like masterful King Kulayb. See vol. ii. 77.

[FN#122] Arab. "Al-Suff," either ranks of fighting-men or the rows of thread on a loom. Here the allusion is to a weaver who levels and corrects his threads with the wooden spate and shuttle governing warp and weft and who makes them stand straight (behave aright). The "stirrup" (rikb) is the loop of cord in which the weaver's foot rests.

[FN#123] "Adab." See vols. i. 132, and ix. 41.

[FN#124] Bresl. Edit., vol. vi. pp. 189-191, Night ccccxxxiv.

[FN#125] Arab. "Za'm," a word little used in the Cal., Mac. or Bul. Edit.; or in the Wortley Montague MS.; but very common in the Bresl. text.

[FN#126] More double-entendres. "Thou hast done justice" ('adalta) also means "Thou hast swerved from right;" and "Thou hast wrought equitably" (Akasta iv. of Kast) = "Thou hast transgressed."

[FN#127] Koran vi. 44. Allah is threatening unbelievers, "And when they had forgotten their warnings We set open to them the gates of all things, until, when they were gladdened," etc.

[FN#128] Arab. "Ta'dil," also meaning, "Ye do injustice": quoted from Koran iv. 134.

[FN#129] Arab. "Al-Ksitna," before explained. Koran lxxii. 15.

[FN#130] Bresl. Edit. vol. vi. pp. 191-343, Nights ccccxxxv- cccclxxxvii. This is the old Persian Bakhtyr Nmeh, i.e., the Book of Bakhtyar, so called from the prince and hero "Fortune's Friend." In the tale of Jili'ad and Shimas the number of Wazirs is seven, as usual in the Sindibad cycle. Here we have the full tale as advised by the Imm al-Jara': "it is meet for a man before entering upon important undertakings to consult ten intelligent friends; if he have only five to apply twice to each; if only one, ten times at different visits, and if none, let him repair to his wife and consult her; and whatever she advises him to do let him do the clear contrary" (quoting Omar), or as says Tommy Moore,

Whene'er you're in doubt, said a sage I once knew, 'Twixt two lines of conduct which course to pursue, Ask a woman's advice, and whate'er she advise Do the very reverse, and you're sure to be wise.

The Romance of the Ten Wazirs occurs in dislocated shape in the "Nouveaux Contes Arabes, ou Supplment aux Mille et une Nuits," etc., par M. l'Abb * * * Paris, 1788. It is the "Story of Bohetzad (Bakht-zd=Luck-born, v.p.), and his Ten Viziers," in vol. iii., pp. 2-30 of the "Arabian Tales," etc., published by Dom Chavis and M. Cazotte, in 1785; a copy of the English translation by Robert Heron, Edinburgh, 1792, I owe to the kindness of Mr. Leonard Smithers of Sheffield. It appears also in vol. viii. of M. C. de Perceval's Edition of The Nights; in Gauttier's Edition (vol. vi.), and as the "Historia Decem Vizirorum et filii Regis Azad-bacht," text and translation by Gustav Kns, of Goettingen (1807). For the Turkish, Malay and other versions see (p. xxxviii. etc.) "The Bakhtiy r N ma," etc. Edited (from the Sir William. Ouseley version of 1801) by Mr. W. A. Clouston and privately printed, London, 1883. The notes are valuable but their worth is sadly injured by the want of an index. I am pleased to see that Mr. E. J. W. Gibb is publishing the "History of the Forty Vezirs; or, the Story of the Forty Morns and Eves," written in Turkish by "Sheykh-Zadah," evidently a nom de plume (for Ahmad al-Misri?), and translated from an Arabic MS. which probably dated about the xvth century.

[FN#131] In Chavis and Cazotte, the "kingdom of Dineroux (comprehending all Syria and the isles of the Indian Ocean) whose capital was Issessara." An article in the Edinburgh Review (July, 1886), calls the "Supplement" a "bare-faced forgery"; but evidently the writer should have "read up" his subject before writing.

[FN#132] The Persian form; in Arab. Sijistn, the classical Drangiana or province East of Fars=Persia proper. It is famed in legend as the feof of hero Rustam.

[FN#133] Arab. Rwi=a professional tale-teller, which Mr. Payne justly holds to be a clerical error for "Ri, a beholder, one who seeth."

[FN#134] In Persian the name would be Bahr-i-Jaur="luck" (or fortune, "bahr") of Jaur- (or Jr-) city.

[FN#135] Supply "and cared naught for his kingdom."

[FN#136] Arab. "Atrf," plur. of "Tarf," a great and liberal lord.

[FN#137] Lit. "How was," etc. Kayf is a favourite word not only in the Bresl. Edit., but throughout Egypt and Syria. Classically we should write "M;" vulgarly "Aysh."

[FN#138] Karmania vulg. and fancifully derived from Kirmn Pers.=worms because the silkworm is supposed to have been bred there; but the name is of far older date as we find the Asiatic Aethiopians of Herodotus (iii. 93) lying between the Germanii (Karman) and the Indus. Also Karmana appears in Strabo and Sinus Carmanicus in other classics.

[FN#139] Arab. "Ka'd"; lit.=one who sits with, a colleague, hence the Span. Alcayde; in Marocco it is=colonel, and is prefixed e.g. Ka'd Maclean.

[FN#140] A favourite food; Al-Hariri calls the dates and cream, which were sold together in bazars, the "Proud Rider on the desired Steed."

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