Out burst all with one accord, 5 "This is paradise for hell! Let France, let France's king, Thank the man that did the thing!" What a shout, and all one word, "Herve Riel!" 10 As he stepped in front once more, Not a symptom of surprise In the frank blue Breton eyes, Just the same man as before.
Then said Damfreville, "My friend, 15 I must speak out at the end, Though I find the speaking hard. Praise is deeper than the lips; You have saved the King his ships, You must name your own reward. 20 Faith, our sun was near eclipse! Demand whate'er you will, France remains your debtor still. Ask to heart's content and have!—or my name's not Damfreville." 25
Then a beam of fun outbroke On the bearded mouth that spoke, As the honest heart laughed through Those frank eyes of Breton blue: "Since I needs must say my say, Since on board the duty's done— And from Malo Roads to Croisic Point, what is it but a run?— Since 'tis ask and have, I may— 5 Since the others go ashore—? Come! A good whole holiday! Leave to go and see my wife, whom I call the Belle Aurore!" That he asked and that he got,—nothing more.
Name and deed alike are lost: 10 Not a pillar nor a post In his Croisic keeps alive the feat as it befell; Not a head in white and black On a single fishing smack, In memory of the man but for whom had gone to wrack 15 All that France saved from the fight whence England bore the bell. Go to Paris: rank on rank Search the heroes flung pell-mell On the Louvre, face and flank! 20 You shall look long enough ere you come to Herve Kiel. So, for better and for worse, Herve Riel, accept my verse! In my verse, Herve Riel, do thou once more Save the squadron, honor France, love thy wife the Belle 25 Aurore!
1. What about the man Herve Riel do you admire most? Try to describe his character. Tell how he saved the fleet.
2. Notes: Line 13, page 312, refers to the custom of painting or carving the head of a hero on the bow of a ship.—Lines 16-17, page 312. Formerly a bell was the prize given the victor in a race.
THE SONG OF THE CAMP
BY BAYARD TAYLOR
This is a song of the Crimean War, a war between Russia on one side and Turkey, Great Britain, France, and Sardinia on the other. Guarding Sebastopol (the chief city of the Crimea) were several forts among which were the Redan and the Malakoff, mentioned herein. These, as well as the works of Balaklava, were held by the Russians. It was at Balaklava, you will recall, that the "Charge of the Light Brigade" was made, a charge made famous by Tennyson's poem.
"Give us a song!" the soldiers cried, The outer trenches guarding, When the heated guns of the camps allied Grew weary of bombarding.
The dark Redan, in silent scoff, 5 Lay grim and threatening under; And the tawny mound of the Malakoff No longer belched its thunder.
There was a pause. A guardsman said, "We storm the forts to-morrow: 10 Sing while we may; another day Will bring enough of sorrow."
They lay along the battery's side, Below the smoking cannon— Brave hearts from Severn and from Clyde 15 And from the banks of Shannon.
They sang of love and not of fame; Forgot was Britain's glory; Each heart recalled a different name, But all sang Annie Laurie.
Voice after voice caught up the song, 5 Until its tender passion Rose like an anthem, rich and strong— Their battle-eve confession.
Dear girl, her name he dared not speak, But as the song grew louder, 10 Something upon the soldier's cheek Washed off the stains of powder.
Beyond the darkening ocean burned The bloody sunset's embers, While the Crimean valleys learned 15 How English love remembers.
And once again a fire of hell Rained on the Russian quarters, With scream of shot, and burst of shell, And bellowing of the mortars! 20
And Irish Nora's eyes are dim For a singer dumb and gory; And English Mary mourns for him Who sang of Annie Laurie.
Sleep, soldiers! Still in honored rest Your truth and valor wearing; The bravest are the tenderest— The loving are the daring.
1. At what time of day did the singing take place? Why, do you suppose, did the British soldiers sing Annie Laurie? Repeat some of the lines of that song.
2. What and where are the Severn, the Clyde, and the Shannon?
3. Who was Florence Nightingale? How was she connected with the Crimean War?
CABIN BOY AND ADMIRAL
Sir Cloudesley Shovel (1650?-1707) was the cabin boy of this story. He went to sea when quite young, and by his ability and courage won constant promotion, finally becoming admiral. In the sea fight between the English and French at La Hogue in 1692 (see Browning's "Herve Riel," page 307) Shovel's was the first English ship to break through the enemy's line.
It was a gray autumn evening more than two hundred years ago, in the reign of King Charles II. There was the moan of a rising storm over the North Sea, and the lowering sky, the flying streamers of cloud, and the great leaden waves, heaving sullenly far as the eye could reach, 5 warned even the bravest sailor that it was a day to keep safe in port. For what ship could live in such a sea as that?
Yet the English fleet, far from keeping in port, was beating seaward against wind and wave. On the quarter deck 10 of the flagship stood Admiral Sir John Narborough—the first seaman in England—who thirty-five years before had been a cabin boy. His daring and dauntless courage had earned for him the name of "Gunpowder Jack," and that dark autumn day was to test how well the bold name fitted him. But he had been tried many a time, and tempest and sea and the fire of the enemy could not make 5 his stout heart quail.
Suddenly his grave face lighted up and his stern gray eyes sparkled with joy. Far away along the eastern sky he saw a bristling line of tall masts with a flag which he knew well floating over them. The shadow of a smile of scorn 10 changed for a moment the expression of the admiral's face. For a moment only. There was no time for smiles. There was mighty work to be done. The floating flag told that the Dutch were coming; and that day must see the enemy of England swept from the sea or England herself 15 forget her ancient glory.
Next to an old friend the British sailor loves an old enemy; and as soon as the men saw the flag of Holland they were eager for battle. On came the enemy in grim silence until their nearest vessels were within musket 20 range of the English. Then, all at once, bang! went the whole broadside from the admiral's vessel, and with a crash that seemed to echo to the sky the deadly struggle began.
The English blood was soon up and the only thought 25 was to fight to the last. Amid the blinding smoke, the reek of gunpowder, the thunder of cannon, and the grinding tear of the shot through the strong timbers, the sailors did noble duty that day in the dogged faith that they would "give as good as they got, anyhow!" 30
Aided by a sudden change of the wind, the Dutch vessels closed around the flagship with a perfect circle of fire. Two guns were disabled, the main and mizzen masts had been shot away, and a long line of wounded and dying men were lying among the shattered rigging. The thunder from the guns on the right showed that there the English were getting the best of it; but even if help should come to the 5 admiral from that quarter, it might come too late.
But how should help be summoned? No signal could be seen in that smoke, and as for lowering a boat, the great waves that rushed roaring up the battered sides of the flagship were a sufficient warning against that. 10
"Lads," cried Sir John, going forward with a scrap of paper in his hand, "this order must go at once to Captain Hardy, and the only way is for one of you to swim with it. Fifty guineas to anyone that will volunteer!"
Such a request, in the face of that boiling sea and that 15 hailstorm of shot, was little better than a sentence of death; yet before the words were well out of his mouth, half the crew stepped forward. Before any of them could speak, however, a shrill, childish voice made itself heard: "Let me go, your honor!" 20
And there stood a ragged little cabin boy, bareheaded and barefooted, touching his forelock to Sir John, just as Sir John had touched his to the admiral, five and thirty years ago. The boy had evidently been in the thick of the fight. His hands were grimed with powder and there 25 were splashes of blood upon his tattered clothing. But through his bright, fearless blue eyes there shone a spirit worth that of ten ordinary men.
"You, my boy? Why, you can never swim so far in this sea, and with all that shot flying about." 30
"Can't I?" echoed the boy indignantly. "I've done more than that before now; and, as for the shot, I don't care that for it. I'm not going to sit still while everybody else is fighting the Dutch. Flog me at the gangway to-morrow, if you like, your honor, but let me do this job to-day."
The old warrior's stern eyes glistened as if tears were 5 forcing their way. He grasped the thin little hand in his own.
"You're a chip of the old block," he growled, "and no mistake! Off with you, then; and may God keep you safe!" 10
The words were hardly spoken when the boy, thrusting the dispatch into his mouth, plunged headlong into the roaring sea. And then for fifteen fierce minutes all was one scene of fire and tumult and slaughter.
Many a time in that terrible quarter of an hour did the 15 weary men strain their bloodshot eyes, and strain them in vain, to catch a glimpse of English colors breaking through the smoke. "If help is to come at all, it must come soon," said more than one worn-out sailor.
Suddenly the admiral's grim face brightened with a 20 light never seen there before, and he drew a long, deep breath like one shaking off a heavy burden. At the same moment there broke out a fresh thunder of guns on the right, and through the smoke burst the flag of England, sweeping all before it like mists scattered by the rising sun. 25
The battle was won, and the few Dutch vessels that had escaped were disappearing in the dimness of night when the admiral and his remaining officers gathered on the quarter-deck to do honor to the little hero. He stood in their presence with a boyish smile upon his face; but when Sir 30 John held out a well-filled purse, the boy turned his head proudly away.
"Your honor, I did not do this job for money," said he firmly. "I did it for the sake of the flag and because you have been good to me. If you say you are satisfied, that is all I want."
The listening crew, forgetting all restraint, broke into a 5 deafening cheer; and the admiral's iron face softened strangely as he laid his blackened hand on the bare white shoulder: "God bless you, my brave lad! I shall live to see you on a quarter-deck of your own yet."
Thirty years later, when Queen Anne's greatest admiral, 10 Sir Cloudesley Shovel, sailed up the Thames in triumph, the first to greet him as he stepped ashore was an old white-haired man who still retained traces of the fire and energy that had once distinguished "Gunpowder Jack."
"Welcome home, my lad!" said he, heartily. "I said 15 I'd live to see you on a quarter-deck of your own; and, thank God, I have lived to see you there!"
1. What other sea fights have you read about? Make a list of sea books and sea battles with which you are acquainted.
2. What is the high point of interest in this story? What happened? How is the story related to Browning's "Herve Riel"?
3. In modern warfare, how do the ships communicate with each other? Contrast briefly naval warfare in Queen Anne's time (the early seventeen hundreds) with naval warfare of to-day as to: (a) propulsion of ships; (b) armor; (c) guns; (d) range of fighting.
4. What modern machines operate now in water fighting? Describe one of these.
BY FRANCIS O. TICKNOR
This poem is based on an actual occurrence. A lad, nursed back to life, rejoins the hard-pressed Southern troops and is killed in the first battle. Ticknor (1822-1874) was a Georgian. By profession a physician, his love of poetry led to the production of some of the finest lyrics of the South. Among these the best known are "Little Giffen" and "The Virginians of the Valley."
Out of the focal and foremost fire— Out of the hospital walls as dire— Smitten of grapeshot and gangrene— Eighteenth battle and he sixteen— Specter such as you seldom see, 5 Little Giffen of Tennessee.
"Take him and welcome," the surgeon said; "Little the doctor can help the dead!" So we took him and brought him where The balm was sweet in our summer air; 10 And we laid him down on a wholesome bed— Utter Lazarus, heel to head!
And we watched the war with bated breath— Skeleton boy against skeleton death! Months of torture, how many such! 15 Weary weeks of the stick and crutch; And still a glint in the steel-blue eye Told of a spirit that wouldn't die,
And didn't! Nay, more! in death's despite The crippled skeleton learned to write. "Dear Mother," at first, of course; and then, "Dear Captain," inquiring about the men. Captain's answer: "Of eighty and five, 5 Giffen and I are left alive."
Word of gloom from the war, one day: "Johnston's pressed at the front, they say!" Little Giffen was up and away; A tear—his first—as he bade good-by, 10 Dimmed the glint of his steel-blue eye. "I'll write, if spared." There was news of fight, But none of Giffen.—He did not write.
I sometimes fancy that were I king Of the courtly knights of Arthur's Ring, 15 With the voice of the minstrel in mine ear And the tender legend that trembles here, I'd give the best on his bended knee— The whitest soul of my chivalry— For Little Giffen of Tennessee. 20
1. In what war did the incidents described occur? When and between whom did this war take place? Name some of its great battles; its great commanders.
2 On which side was Little Giffen? Prove your answer from the poem. Who was Johnston, line 8, page 321? How old was Giffen? How much service had he seen?
3. Explain the meaning of: Utter Lazarus (see Luke xvi: 20); specter; gangrene; line 14, page 320; line 15, page 321.
4. Name some other writers of the South.
(Used by permission of the Neale Publishing Company.)
BY FITZ-GREENE HALLECK
Marco Bozzaris (1790-1823) was born among the mountains of Suli, in Epirus, a province of Greece. He had early military training in the French service; but at the age of thirty he undertook to battle against the Turks, who were holding the Greeks in heavy subjection. At the head of his countrymen, the Suliotes, he won many battles; but finally, through treachery, he and his forces were besieged. To relieve the siege, Bozzaris led his troops against the enemy in a night attack and won a complete victory, but the hero fell, dying in the hour of triumph.
At midnight, in his guarded tent, The Turk was dreaming of the hour When Greece, her knee in suppliance bent, Should tremble at his power; In dreams, through camp and court, he bore 5 The trophies of a conqueror; In dreams, his song of triumph heard; Then wore his monarch's signet ring; Then pressed that monarch's throne—a king; As wild his thoughts, and gay of wing, 10 As Eden's garden bird.
At midnight, in the forest shades, Bozzaris ranged his Suliote band, True as the steel of their tried blades, Heroes in heart and hand. 15 There had the Persian's thousands stood, There had the glad earth drunk their blood, On old Plataea's day; And now, there breathed that haunted air The sons of sires who conquered there, With arm to strike, and soul to dare, 5 As quick, as far, as they.
An hour passed on—the Turk awoke; That bright dream was his last; He woke to hear his sentries shriek, "To arms!—they come! the Greek! the Greek!" 10 He woke—to die midst flame, and smoke, And shout, and groan, and saber stroke, And death shots falling thick and fast As lightning from the mountain cloud— And heard, with voice as trumpet loud, 15 Bozzaris cheer his band: "Strike—till the last armed foe expires; Strike—for your altars and your fires; Strike—for the green graves of your sires, God—and your native land!" 20
They fought—like brave men, long and well; They piled that ground with Moslem slain; They conquered—but Bozzaris fell Bleeding at every vein. His few surviving comrades saw 25 His smile when rang their proud huzza And the red field was won; Then saw in death his eyelids close, Calmly as to a night's repose, Like flowers at set of sun. 30
Come to the bridal chamber, Death! Come to the mother, when she feels, For the first time, her first-born's breath; Come when the blessed seals That close the pestilence are broke, 5 And crowded cities wail its stroke; Come in consumption's ghastly form, The earthquake's shock, the ocean's storm; Come when the heart beats high and warm With banquet song, and dance, and wine,— 10 And thou art terrible!—The tear, The groan, the knell, the pall, the bier; And all we know, or dream, or fear, Of agony are thine.
But to the hero, when his sword 15 Has won the battle for the free, Thy voice sounds like a prophet's word, And in its hollow tones are heard The thanks of millions yet to be. Bozzaris! with the storied brave 20 Greece nurtured in her glory's time, Rest thee; there is no prouder grave, Even in her own proud clime. We tell thy doom without a sigh; For thou art Freedom's now, and Fame's.— 25 One of the few, the immortal names, That were not born to die!
1. This is a stirring selection to read aloud. What makes it so? Read the lines that you like best.
2. What has the first stanza on page 324 to do with the poem?
3. Explain: Suliote; Moslem; Plataea; lines 25-27, page 324.
SAN JUAN HILL
BY GENERAL JOHN J. PERSHING
Santiago, Cuba, was the center of some of the heaviest fighting of the Spanish-American War. The Spanish fleet had taken refuge from the American fleet in Santiago Harbor. The Spanish army had been concentrated there to protect their fleet. The American army, under the general command of Major General Shafter, invested the city. The following extract describes picturesquely the fighting three days before the Spanish fleet put to sea.
On June 30th the general order came to move forward and every man felt that the final test of skill at arms would soon come. The cavalry division of six regiments, camped in its tracks at midnight on El Pozo Hill, awoke next morning to find itself in support of Grimes' Battery, 5 which was to open fire here on the left.
The morning of July 1st was ideally beautiful, the sky was cloudless and the air soft and balmy, peace seemed to reign supreme, great palms towered here and there above the low jungle. It was a picture of a peaceful valley. 10 There was a feeling that we had secretly invaded the Holy Land. The hush seemed to pervade all nature as though she held her bated breath in anticipation of the carnage.
Captain Capron's field guns opened fire upon the southern field at El Caney and the hill resounded with echoes. 15 Then followed the rattle of the musketry of the attacking invaders. The firing in our front burst forth and the battle was on.
The artillery duel began and in company with foreign military attaches and correspondents we all sat watching the effect of the shots as men witness any friendly athletic contest, eagerly trying to locate the enemy's smokeless batteries. A force of insurgents near the old Sugar Mill applauded at the explosion of each firing charge, apparently 5 caring for little except the noise.
Now and then a slug of iron fell among the surrounding bushes or buried itself deep in the ground near us. Finally a projectile from an unseen Spanish gun disabled a Hotchkiss piece, wounded two cavalrymen, and smashed into the 10 old Sugar Mill in our rear, whereupon the terrorized insurgents fled and were not seen again near the firing line until the battle was over.
When the Tenth Cavalry arrived at the crossing of San Juan River our observation balloon had become lodged in 15 the treetops above and the enemy had just begun to make a target of it. A converging fire upon all the works within range opened upon us that was terrible in its effect. Our mounted officers dismounted and the men stripped off at the roadside everything possible and prepared for business. 20
We were posted for a time in the bed of the stream directly under the balloon, and stood in the water to our waists awaiting orders to deploy. Standing there under that galling fire of exploding shrapnel and deadly Mauser bullets the minutes seemed like hours. General Wheeler 25 and a part of his staff stood mounted a few minutes in the middle of the stream. Just as I raised my hand to salute in moving up the stream to post the leading squadron of my regiment, a piece of bursting shell struck between his horse's feet and covered us both with water. 30
Pursuant to orders, with myself as guide, the second squadron of the Tenth forced its way through wire fence and almost impenetrable thicket to its position. The regiment was soon deployed as skirmishers in an opening across the river to the right of the road and, our line being partly visible from the enemy's position, their fire was turned upon us and we had to lie down in the grass a few 5 minutes for safety. Two officers of the regiment were wounded; here and there were frequent calls for the surgeon, but no order came to move forward. Whatever may have been the intention of the commanding general as to the part to be played by the cavalry division on that day, the 10 officers present were not long in deciding the part their command should play, and the advance began.
White regiments, black regiments, regulars and rough riders, representing the young manhood of the North and South, fought shoulder to shoulder unmindful of race or 15 color, unmindful of whether commanded by an ex-Confederate or not, and mindful only of their common duty as Americans.
Through streams, tall grass, tropical undergrowth, under barbed-wire fences and over wire entanglements, regardless 20 of casualties, up the hill to the right this gallant advance was made. As we appeared on the crest we found the Spaniards retreating only to take up a new position farther on, spitefully firing as they retired and only yielding their ground inch by inch. 25
Our troopers halted and lay down for a moment to get a breath and in the face of continued volleys soon formed for attack on the blockhouses and intrenchments on the second hill. This attack was supported by troops including some of the Tenth who had originally moved to the left 30 toward this second hill and had worked their way in groups, slipping through the tall grass and bushes, crawling when casualties came too often, courageously facing a sleet of bullets, and now hugging the steep southern declivity ready to spring forward the few remaining yards into the teeth of the enemy. The fire from the Spanish position had doubled in intensity until the popping of their rifles 5 made a continuous roar. There was a moment's lull and our line moved forward to the charge across the valley separating the two hills. Once begun it continued dauntless in its steady, dogged, persistent advance until like a mighty resistless torrent it dashed triumphant over the 10 crest of the hill, and firing a final volley at the vanishing foe, planted the regimental colors on the enemy's breastworks and the Stars and Stripes over the blockhouse on San Juan Hill to stay.
This was a time for rejoicing. It was glorious. 15
—From an address given in Chicago, November 27, 1898.
1. When was the Spanish-American War fought? Why? What were its greatest battles? Tell how each of the following figured in this war: Dewey, Sampson, Schley, Shafter, Wheeler, Roosevelt.
2. Imagine yourself in Lieutenant Pershing's place on the field of battle. Describe the engagement.
3. Report briefly from notes taken on outside reading on the battle of Manila Bay, or the cruise of the Oregon, or the destruction of the Spanish fleet off Santiago.
4. General John Joseph Pershing was born in Missouri, September 13, 1860. He was graduated from the West Point Military Academy; served in a number of Indian campaigns, was a military instructor; served with the Tenth Cavalry in the Cuban campaign, 1898, and in the Philippines, 1899-1903; commanded the U. S. troops in pursuit of the bandit Villa in Mexico in 1916; was in command of the American Expeditionary Forces in the World War. If possible, read an account of Pershing's early life and report on it in class.
BURIAL OF A SOLDIER IN FRANCE
BY GERALD M. DWYER
This is part of a letter home from Private Dwyer, Co. A, 121st Engineers, A. E. F. It is used here by permission of The Springfield (Mass) Republican.
Even far behind the lines of battle, in this beautiful France, little scenes take place which bring home to one the seriousness and sadness of life. Picture to yourself a dark-green hillside divided into sections by the hedge fences which the French peasant makes so much use of. 5 In one of these fields soldiers are at work making roads and little pathways. At one end are a number of flower-covered mounds, each one marked with a wooden cross, for this particular little field is one of the American Expeditionary Force's cemeteries. 10
On the day which I have in mind, a drizzling rain comes softly, though steadily, down. A number of soldiers, hardly distinguishable from the mud in which they are working, are busy leveling off the ground around a flagpole which stands in the center of the cemetery. Presently they stop 15 work and stand listening to the drumbeats which can be heard faintly in the distance. The little group gathers about the flagpole, waiting.
Slowly up the roadway comes a procession headed by the band playing the sweetly solemn funeral march. Behind 20 it is carried a plain wooden box, draped with the Stars and Stripes, while a firing squad marches in the rear. They stop at a newly dug grave and gently lower the coffin. In clear, concise tones the chaplain reads the funeral service. A mist seems to creep up from the valley and wisps of it wind themselves through the air. In the neighboring field the sheep who have been grazing huddle together and gaze, as only sheep can, at the performance going on near them. Like the sheep, the soldiers in the cemetery gather closer to each 5 other, each one's eyes filled with tears, and each one conscious of a queer sensation going on within him. . . .
Now the chaplain has finished, the members of the firing squad take their places. A dead silence ensues, broken by the shots of their rifles. Two more salvos are fired and the 10 ceremony is finished. Finally, when the mist has become very dense, the clear notes of the bugle ring out, blowing taps for a soldier's last farewell sleep.
You will never really appreciate the beauty and pathos of the notes of taps unless you have heard them while lying 15 on your hard bunk some night at the end of a hard day. The music seems to say that some day things will be peaceful again, all these hardships will be merely incidents to laugh over in the happy days to come. And so, singing its farewell to you, the notes die away, leaving you to slip into 20 the balm of sleep.
The grave has now been covered and the procession and workers gone. The fields and valley seem forsaken and alone in the late afternoon. But no, there by the graves, flitting through the rain in their capes and hoods, and looking 25 like so many little sparrows, are some little French girls, daughters of the near-by peasants. Tenderly their little hands decorate the newest grave with flowers, their tribute to one who risked all for the safety of little maidens. Thus the grave is left, heaped with green branches and flowers, a 30 pretty resting place.
—The Springfield Republican.
_Of old sat Freedom on the heights, The thunders breaking at her feet: Above her shook the starry lights, She heard the torrents meet.
There in her place she did rejoice, Self-gathered in her prophet mind, But fragments of her mighty voice Came rolling on the wind.
Then stepped she down through town and field To mingle with the human race, And part by part to men revealed The fullness of her face._
AMERICA FOR ME
BY HENRY VAN DYKE
Doctor van Dyke (1852-) is a noted clergyman, writer, and educator. He has long been connected with Princeton University. From 1913-1917, during the trying period of the World War, he was United States minister to Holland. His many visits to Europe have served only to increase his devotion to his native land. The following poem is a fine expression of the genuine homesickness of the traveled scholar for his own country. You should read it and re-read it until it has sung itself into your memory.
(From The Poems of Henry van Dyke. Copyright, 1920, by Charles Scribner's Sons.)
'Tis fine to see the Old World, and travel up and down Among the famous palaces and cities of renown, To admire the crumbly castles and the statues of the kings— But now I think I've had enough of antiquated things. 5
So it's home again, and home again, America for me! My heart is turning home again, and there I long to be, In the land of youth and freedom beyond the ocean bars, Where the air is full of sunlight and the flag is full of stars.
Oh, London is a man's town, there's power in the air; 10 And Paris is a woman's town, with flowers in her hair; And it's sweet to dream in Venice, and it's great to study Rome; But when it comes to living, there is no place like home.
I like the German fir woods, in green battalions drilled; I like the gardens of Versailles with flashing fountains filled; But, oh, to take your hand, my dear, and ramble for a day In the friendly western woodland where Nature has her 5 way!
I know that Europe's wonderful, yet something seems to lack; The Past is too much with her, and the people looking back; But the glory of the Present is to make the Future free,— 10 We love our land for what she is and what she is to be.
Oh, it's home again, and home again, America for me! I want a ship that's westward bound to plow the rolling sea, To the blessed Land of Room Enough beyond the ocean bars, 15 Where the air is full of sunlight and the flag is full of stars.
1. How many places are mentioned by name? Tell what and where each is.
2. What does the author admire in the Old World? What does he mean by his distinction between London and Paris? List the things the author misses in the Old World. How is America contrasted with Europe? Explain line 15, page 334.
3. Report on other writings of Dr. van Dyke. Which of his outdoor books do you know?
* * * * *
Love thou thy land, with love far-brought From out the storied Past, and used Within the Present, but transfused Through future time by power of thought.
WARREN'S ADDRESS AT THE BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL
BY JOHN PIERPONT
Stand! the ground's your own, my braves! Will ye give it up to slaves? Will ye look for greener graves? Hope ye mercy still? What's the mercy despots feel? 5 Hear it in that battle peal! Read it on yon bristling steel! Ask it—ye who will!
Fear ye foes who kill for hire? Will ye to your homes retire? 10 Look behind you! they're afire! And, before you, see Who have done it! From the vale On they come!—and will ye quail?— Leaden rain and iron hail 15 Let their welcome be!
In the God of battles trust! Die we may—and die we must; But, oh, where can dust to dust Be consigned so well, 20 As where heaven its dews shall shed On the martyred patriot's bed, And the rocks shall raise their head, Of his deeds to tell?
WHAT IS AN AMERICAN?
BY HECTOR SAINT JEAN DE CREVEC[OE]UR
De Crevec[oe]ur (1731-1813) was a French writer who emigrated to America at the age of twenty-three. He settled on a farm near the City of New York, and came to know many of the great men of his day. For instance, he had the friendship of Washington and Franklin. France appointed him as her consul at New York. In 1782 Crevec[oe]ur published his Letters of an American Farmer. As this extract shows, it is almost prophetic in its insight into the future.
What then is the American, this new man? He is either a European, or the descendant of a European, hence that strange mixture of blood which you will find in no other country. I could point out to you a family whose grandfather was an Englishman, whose wife was 5 Dutch, whose son married a French woman, and whose present four sons have now four wives of different nations.
An American is he who, leaving behind him all his ancient prejudices and manners, receives new ones from the new mode of life he has embraced, the new government he 10 obeys, and the new rank he holds. He becomes an American by being received in the broad lap of our great Alma Mater. Here individuals of all nations are melted into a new race of men, whose labors and posterity will one day cause great changes in the world. Americans are the western 15 pilgrims, who are carrying along with them that great mass of arts, sciences, vigor, and industry which began long since in the East; they will finish the great circle.
The Americans were once scattered all over Europe; in America they are incorporated into one of the finest systems of population which has ever appeared, and which will hereafter become distinct by the power of the different climates they inhabit. The American ought therefore to love his country much better than that wherein either he 5 or his forefathers were born. Here the rewards of his industry follow with equal steps the progress of his labor; his labor is founded on the basis of nature, self-interest. Can it want a stronger allurement?
Women and children, who before in vain demanded a 10 morsel of bread, now gladly help their men folk to clear those fields whence exuberant crops are to arise to feed and to clothe them all, without any part being claimed either by a despotic prince, a rich abbot, or a mighty lord.
Religion demands but little of the American: a small 15 voluntary salary to the minister, and gratitude to God. Can he refuse these?
The American is a new man, who acts upon new principles; he must therefore entertain new ideas and form new opinions. From involuntary idleness, servile dependence, 20 penury, and useless labor, he has passed to toils of a very different nature, rewarded by ample subsistence.—This is an American.
—Letters of an American Farmer.
1. What is Crevec[oe]ur's definition of an American? How would you define an American to-day?
2. Explain lines 15-18, on page 336. What does the last clause of the sentence mean?
3. What reasons does the author give for a great love of country on the part of Americans? Do these reasons still hold good?
4. Explain: Alma Mater, posterity, allurement, voluntary, servile, penury, subsistence.
THE RISING OF '76
BY THOMAS BUCHANAN READ
Read this selection entirely through before stopping to inquire the meaning of puzzling passages. Then re-read it for the references not previously clear to you. A final reading should enable you to get the fullness of the author's meaning. On your first reading you should be able to determine generally when the events took place, where, and what happened.
Out of the North the wild news came, Far flashing on its wings of flame, Swift as the boreal light that flies At midnight through the startled skies. And there was tumult in the air, 5 The fife's shrill note, the drum's loud beat And through the wide land everywhere The answering tread of hurrying feet; While the first oath of Freedom's gun Came on the blast of Lexington; 10 And Concord, roused, no longer tame, Forgot her old baptismal name, Made bare her patriot arm of power, And swelled the discord of the hour.
Within its shade of elm and oak 15 The church of Berkeley Manor stood; There Sunday found the rural folk, And some esteemed of gentle blood. In vain their feet with loitering tread Passed mid the graves where rank is naught; All could not read the lesson taught In that republic of the dead.
How sweet the hour of Sabbath talk, The vale with peace and sunshine full, 5 Where all the happy people walk, Decked in their homespun flax and wool! Where youth's gay hats with blossoms bloom, And every maid, with simple art, Wears on her breast, like her own heart, 10 A bud whose depths are all perfume; While every garment's gentle stir Is breathing rose and lavender.
The pastor came: his snowy locks Hallowed his brow of thought and care; 15 And calmly, as shepherds lead their flocks, He led into the house of prayer. The pastor rose; the prayer was strong; The psalm was warrior David's song; The text, a few short words of might,— 20 "The Lord of hosts shall arm the right!"
He spoke of wrongs too long endured, Of sacred rights to be secured; Then from his patriot tongue of flame The startling words for Freedom came. 25 The stirring sentences he spake Compelled the heart to glow or quake, And rising on his theme's broad wing, And grasping in his nervous hand The imaginary battle brand, In face of death he dared to fling Defiance to a tyrant king. 5
Even as he spoke, his frame, renewed In eloquence of attitude, Rose, as it seemed, a shoulder higher; Then swept his kindling glance of fire From startled pew to breathless choir; 10 When suddenly his mantle wide His hands impatient flung aside, And lo! he met their wondering eyes Complete in all a warrior's guise.
A moment there was awful pause,— 15 When Berkeley cried, "Cease, traitor! Cease! God's temple is the house of peace!" The other shouted, "Nay, not so, When God is with our righteous cause; His holiest places then are ours, 20 His temples are our forts and towers That frown upon the tyrant foe; In this, the dawn of Freedom's day, There is a time to fight and pray!"
And now before the open door— 25 The warrior priest had ordered so— The enlisting trumpet's sudden roar Rang through the chapel, o'er and o'er, Its long reverberating blow, So loud and clear, it seemed the ear Of dusty death must wake and hear; And there the startling drum and fife Fired the living with fiercer life.
While overhead, with wild increase, 5 Forgetting its ancient toll of peace, The great bell swung as ne'er before. It seemed as it would never cease; And every word its ardor flung From off its jubilant iron tongue 10 Was, "War! War! War!"
"Who dares?"—this was the patriot's cry, As striding from the desk he came,— "Come out with me, in Freedom's name, For her to live, for her to die?" 15 A hundred hands flung up reply, A hundred voices answered, "I."
1. Explain the following references in the first stanza: "the North"; "wild news"; "boreal light"; "first oath of Freedom's gun"; "Concord . . . forgot her old baptismal name."
2. Where does this story begin? What is the purpose of the first stanza? Where is the scene laid? What is the date of the action? Who was Berkeley? What occurs?
3. What other dramatic Revolutionary War episodes do you know? Name three other Revolutionary War poems.
4. Thomas Buchanan Read (1822-1872) was a Pennsylvanian by birth. His interests in art and literature took him abroad, and he spent several years in Italy. A number of his poems and paintings are highly esteemed.
OUR OWN COUNTRY
BY JAMES MONTGOMERY
There is a land of every land the pride, Beloved of Heaven o'er all the world beside, There brighter suns dispense serener light And milder moons imparadise the night. O land of beauty, virtue, valor, truth, 5 Time-tutored age, and love-exalted youth! There is a spot of earth supremely blest, A dearer, sweeter spot than all the rest, Where man, creation's tyrant, casts aside His sword and scepter, pageantry and pride, 10 While in his softened looks benignly blend The sire, the son, the husband, brother, friend. Where shall that land, that spot of earth, be found? Art thou a man, a patriot? Look around! O thou shalt find, howe'er thy footsteps roam, 15 That land thy country and that spot thy home.
1. Make a list of songs whose theme is love of country. Name the national hymns of the chief countries of the world. What songs have love of home as their theme?
2. Write the meaning of the above poem in a few short sentences.
3. Select five unusual words from the poem, give a brief definition of each, and use each in a sentence.
4. Find out the following facts about the life of Montgomery: dates of birth and death; nationality; business or profession; chief writings.
PATRICK HENRY'S SPEECH
In March, 1775, a month before Lexington, Patrick Henry electrified the Virginia convention with the speech that here follows. A resolution was before the convention "that the colony be immediately put in a state of defence." Speaking to that resolution, Henry thrilled the delegates with his review of British mistreatment and his climax of "give me liberty or give me death."
Mr. President, it is natural for man to indulge in the illusions of hope. We are apt to shut our eyes against a painful truth, and to listen to the song of the siren till she transforms us into beasts. Is this the part of wise men engaged in the great and arduous struggle for 5 liberty? Are we disposed to be of the number of those who, having eyes see not, and having ears hear not, the things which so nearly concern their temporal salvation? For my part, whatever anguish of spirit it may cost, I am willing to know the whole truth; to know the worst and to 10 provide for it.
I have but one lamp by which my feet are guided and that is the lamp of experience. I know of no way of judging of the future but by the past. And judging by the past, I wish to know what there has been in the conduct of the 15 British ministry for the last ten years to justify those hopes with which gentlemen have been pleased to solace themselves and the House. Is it that insidious smile with which our petition has been lately received? Trust it not, sir; it will prove a snare to your feet. Suffer not yourselves 20 to be betrayed with a kiss. Ask yourselves how this gracious reception of our petition comports with those warlike preparations which cover our waters and darken our land. Are fleets and armies necessary to a work of love and reconciliation? Have we shown ourselves so unwilling to be reconciled that force must be called in to win back our love? 5
Let us not deceive ourselves, sir. These are the implements of war and subjugation, the last argument to which kings resort. I ask, sir, what means this martial array, if its purpose be not to force us to submission? Can gentlemen assign any other possible motive for it? Has 10 Great Britain any enemy in this quarter of the world to call for all this accumulation of navies and armies? No, sir, she has none. They are meant for us. They can be meant for no other. They are sent over to bind and rivet upon us those chains which the British ministry have been 15 so long forging.
And what have we to oppose them? Shall we try argument? Sir, we have been trying that for the last ten years. Have we anything new to offer upon the subject? Nothing. We have held the subject up in every light of which it is 20 capable; but it has been all in vain. Shall we resort to entreaty and supplication? What terms shall we find that have not been already exhausted? Let us not, I beseech you, sir, deceive ourselves longer. Sir, we have done everything that could have been done to avert the storm 25 that is now coming on. We have petitioned, we have remonstrated, we have supplicated, we have prostrated ourselves before the throne and have implored its interposition to arrest the tyrannical hands of the ministry and Parliament. 30
Our petitions have been slighted, our remonstrances have produced additional violence and insult, our supplications have been disregarded, and we have been spurned with contempt from the foot of the throne. In vain, after these things, may we indulge the fond hope of peace and reconciliation. There is no longer any room for hope. If we wish to be free, if we mean to preserve inviolate these 5 inestimable privileges for which we have been so long contending, if we mean not basely to abandon the noble struggle in which we have been so long engaged, and which we have pledged ourselves never to abandon until the glorious object of our contest shall be obtained, we must 10 fight! I repeat, sir, we must fight! An appeal to arms and to the God of hosts is all that is left us.
They tell us, sir, that we are weak; unable to cope with so formidable an adversary. But when shall we be stronger? Will it be the next week or the next year? 15 Will it be when we are totally disarmed, and when a British guard shall be stationed in every house? Shall we gather strength by irresolution and inaction? Shall we acquire the means of effectual resistance by lying supinely on our backs, and hugging the delusive phantom, hope, 20 until our enemies shall have bound us hand and foot? Sir, we are not weak if we make a proper use of those means which the God of Nature hath placed in our power.
Three millions of people armed in the holy cause of liberty, and in such a country as that which we possess, 25 are invincible by any force which our enemy can send against us. Besides, sir, we shall not fight our battles alone. There is a just God who presides over the destinies of nations, and who will raise up friends to fight our battles for us. The battle, sir, is not to the strong alone; it is to 30 the vigilant, the active, the brave. Besides, sir, we have no election. If we were base enough to desire it, it is now too late to retire from the contest. There is no retreat but in submission and slavery! Our chains are forged. Their clanking may be heard on the plains of Boston! The war is inevitable, and let it come! I repeat, sir, let it come! 5
It is vain, sir, to extenuate the matter. Gentlemen may cry Peace, peace! But there is no peace. The war is actually begun! The next gale that sweeps from the North will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here 10 idle? What is it that gentlemen wish? What would they have? Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take, but as for me, give me liberty or give me death! 15
1. The following outline sets forth the major topics of the speech. Find the paragraphs each includes. What did Henry say on each point?
I. Introduction 1. The speaker is willing to face facts II. Body 1. The past acts of the British ministry are not favorable to present hope 2. The present assembly of British armies and navies means subjugation for the colonists 3. The colonists cannot meet this force with petitions, for a. Petitions have been tried and are useless 4. The colonists can meet the British only with force of arms, for a. It is the only means left, and b. The colonists have the strength to fight III. Conclusion 1. Therefore, let us make ready for battle.
ABRAHAM LINCOLN TO MRS. BIXBY
Executive Mansion, Washington. November 21, 1864.
Mrs. Bixby, Boston, Massachusetts.
Dear Madam: I have been shown in the files of the War Department a statement of the Adjutant General of Massachusetts 5 that you are the mother of five sons who have died gloriously on the field of battle. I feel how weak and fruitless must be any words of mine which should attempt to beguile you from the grief of a loss so overwhelming. But I cannot refrain from tendering to you the 10 consolation that may be found in the thanks of the Republic they died to save. I pray that our heavenly Father may assuage the anguish of your bereavement, and leave you only the cherished memory of the loved and lost, and the solemn pride that must be yours to have laid so costly a 15 sacrifice upon the altar of freedom.
Yours very sincerely and respectfully, Abraham Lincoln.
1. Undoubtedly the most difficult kind of letter to write is the letter of sympathy, expressing sorrow for loss by death. Why? Lincoln's little letter to Mrs. Bixby has long been considered a classic of its kind. It is sincere, sympathetic, and helpful. What makes it so?
2. How did Lincoln come to write this letter? What does the fact that he wrote it show about the man? What was his object in writing it? Do you think he succeeded? What consolation did he offer the mother?
THE FLOWER OF LIBERTY
BY OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES
What flower is this that greets the morn, Its hues from heaven so freshly born? With burning star and naming band It kindles all the sunset land: Oh, tell us what its name may be,— 5 Is this the Flower of Liberty? It is the banner of the free, The starry Flower of Liberty!
In savage nature's far abode Its tender seed our fathers sowed; 10 The storm winds rocked its swelling bud, Its opening leaves were streaked with blood, Till lo! earth's tyrants shook to see The full-blown Flower of Liberty! Then hail the banner of the free, 15 The starry Flower of Liberty!
Behold its streaming rays unite One mingling flood of braided light,— The red that fires the Southern rose, With spotless white from Northern snows, 20 And, spangled o'er its azure, see The sister stars of Liberty! Then hail the banner of the free, The starry Flower of Liberty!
The blades of heroes fence it round, Where'er it springs in holy ground; From tower and dome its glories spread; It waves where lonely sentries tread; It makes the land as ocean free, 5 And plants an empire on the sea! Then hail the banner of the free, The starry Flower of Liberty.
Thy sacred leaves, fair Freedom's flower, Shall ever float on dome and tower, 10 To all their heavenly colors true, In blackening frost or crimson dew,— And God love us as we love thee, Thrice-holy Flower of Liberty! Then hail the banner of the free, 15 The starry Flower of Liberty.
1. What is "The Flower of Liberty?" Does Holmes gain anything by calling it a flower? Substitute its real name and read the poem through thus, to test your answer.
2. Interpret the following passages: "hues from heaven"; "burning star"; "flaming band"; lines 9-14, page 348; lines 19-20, page 348; "blades of heroes"; "empire on the sea"; "thrice-holy."
3. What other poems on the flag have you read? Which do you like best? How does this one compare in quality with the others?
4. Bring to class another poem by Holmes and read an interesting extract from it.
BY BENJAMIN HARRISON
Benjamin Harrison (1833-1901) was the twenty-third President of the United States; the grandson of President William Henry Harrison; and the great-grandson of Benjamin Harrison, Sr., a signer of the Declaration of Independence. He was well qualified to speak on the subject of real patriotism as against mere loyalty to political party.
Let us exalt patriotism and moderate our party contentions. Let those who would die for the flag on the field of battle give a better proof of their patriotism and a higher glory to their country by promoting fraternity and justice. A party success that is achieved by unfair methods 5 or by practices that partake of revolution is hurtful and evanescent, even from a party standpoint. We should hold our different opinions in mutual respect; and, having submitted them to the arbitrament of the ballot, should accept an adverse judgment with the same respect that we 10 would have demanded of our opponents if the decision had been more in our favor.
No other people have a government more worthy of their respect and love, or a land so magnificent in extent, so pleasant to look upon, and so full of generous suggestion 15 to enterprise and labor. God has placed upon our head a diadem, and has laid at our feet power and wealth beyond definition or calculation. But we must not forget that we take these gifts upon the condition that justice and mercy shall hold the reins of power, and that the upward 20 avenues of hope shall be free for all the people.
I do not mistrust the future. Dangers have been in frequent ambush along our path, but we have uncovered and vanquished them all. Passion has swept some of our communities, but only to give us a new demonstration that the great body of our people are stable, patriotic, and law-abiding. 5 No political party can long pursue advantage at the expense of public honor, or by rude and indecent methods, without protest and fatal disaffection in its own body. The peaceful agencies of commerce are more fully revealing the necessary unity of all our communities, and 10 the increasing intercourse of our people is promoting mutual respect. We shall find unalloyed pleasure in the revelation which our census will make of the swift development of the great resources of some of the states. Each state will bring its generous contributions to the great aggregate of 15 the nation's increase. And when the harvests from the fields, the cattle from the hills, and the ores from the earth, shall have been weighed, counted, and valued, we will turn from all to crown with the highest honor the state that has most promoted education, virtue, justice, and patriotism 20 among its people.
1. When was Benjamin Harrison President? What did he know about the party defeats he mentions? Was he ever a defeated candidate?
2. What are the leading political parties of our country at present? Are they essential to our form of government? Support your answer by reasons.
3. Explain what Harrison meant by: "A party success . . . achieved by unfair methods"; "the arbitrament of the ballot"; "justice and mercy shall hold the reins of power"; the last sentence.
AMERICA THE BEAUTIFUL
BY KATHARINE LEE BATES
O beautiful for spacious skies, For amber waves of grain, For purple mountain majesties Above the fruited plain! America! America! 5 God shed His grace on thee, And crown thy good with brotherhood From sea to shining sea!
O beautiful for pilgrim feet, Whose stern, impassioned stress 10 A thoroughfare for freedom beat Across the wilderness! America! America! God mend thine every flaw, Confirm thy soul in self-control, 15 Thy liberty in law!
O beautiful for heroes proved In liberating strife, Who more than self their country loved, And mercy more than life! 20 America! America! May God thy gold refine Till all success be nobleness And every gain divine!
O beautiful for patriot dream That sees, beyond the years, Thine alabaster cities gleam Undimmed by human tears! America! America! 5 God shed His grace on thee, And crown thy good with brotherhood From sea to shining sea!
1. The author mentions many ways in which America is beautiful. Which of these are real, matter-of-fact? Which are not?
2. To whom is the reference in lines 9-10 applicable? Explain lines 14-16. Paraphrase line 19. What is meant by line 7, page 353?
3. Memorize at least one stanza of the poem.
O BEAUTIFUL! MY COUNTRY!
BY JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL
This is a part of Lowell's "Commemoration Ode" written in honor of the heroes of Harvard College, killed in the Civil War. Lowell here imagines America as a beautiful woman—a Goddess of Liberty—now fully restored to her worshipers.
O beautiful! My Country! ours once more! Smoothing thy gold of war-disheveled hair O'er such sweet brows as never other wore, . . . What were our lives without thee? What all our lives to save thee? 5 We reck not what we gave thee; We will not dare to doubt thee, But ask whatever else, and we will dare!
THE PROBLEMS OF THE REPUBLIC
BY THEODORE ROOSEVELT
The following is extracted from the inaugural address of President Roosevelt, delivered March 4, 1905. It is of special interest to read it in connection with Mr. Hughes's speech (page 356) and to compare the ideas of citizenship and of our country as expressed in the two. In reading this speech you should bear in mind that the era was one of peace, long undisturbed by war. Our problems then were the ordinary problems of everyday living.
Modern life is both complex and intense, and the tremendous changes wrought by the extraordinary industrial development of the half century are felt in every fiber of our social and political being. Never before have men tried so vast and formidable an experiment as that of 5 administering the affairs of a continent under the form of a democratic republic. The conditions which have told for our marvelous material well-being, which have developed to a very high degree our energy, self-reliance, and individual initiative, also have brought the care and anxiety 10 inseparable from the accumulation of great wealth in industrial centers.
Upon the success of our experiment much depends, not only as regards our own welfare, but as regards the welfare of mankind. If we fail, the cause of free self-government 15 throughout the world will rock to its foundations, and therefore our responsibility is heavy, to ourselves, to the world as it is to-day, and to the generations yet unborn.
There is no good reason why we should fear the future, but there is every reason why we should face it seriously, 20 neither hiding from ourselves the gravity of the problems before us, nor fearing to approach these problems with the unbending, unflinching purpose to solve them aright.
Yet after all, though the problems are new, though the tasks set before us differ from the tasks set before our 5 fathers who founded and preserved this republic, the spirit in which these tasks must be undertaken and these problems faced, if our duty is to be well done, remains essentially unchanged. We know that self-government is difficult. We know that no people needs such high traits 10 of character as that people which seeks to govern its affairs aright through the freely expressed will of the free men who compose it.
But we have faith that we shall not prove false to memories of the men of the mighty past. They did their work; 15 they left us the splendid heritage we now enjoy. We in our turn have an assured confidence that we shall be able to leave this heritage unwasted and enlarged to our children's children.
To do so, we must show, not merely in great crises, but in the everyday affairs of life, the qualities of practical 20 intelligence, of courage, of hardihood, of endurance, and above all, the power of devotion to a lofty ideal, which made great the men who founded this republic in the days of Washington; which made great the men who preserved this republic in the days of Abraham Lincoln. 25
1. Give a full report of Roosevelt's life and activities—political, literary, personal. Try to describe the kind of man you think he was.
2. Find in this section of your Reader expressions similar to lines 10-13, page 355.
3. What qualities does Roosevelt say we must display if our country is to survive? Why does he speak of our form of government as an experiment?
THE MEANING OF AMERICANISM
BY CHARLES EVANS HUGHES
Charles Evans Hughes (1862- ) has had a conspicuous political career. He has been successively governor of New York for two terms, a justice of the Supreme Court; Republican nominee for the Presidency; and Secretary of State.
At the time of the delivery of this speech Europe was in the throes of the World War. America was soon to join forces with the Allies against Germany. This extract from Mr. Hughes's speech should be read with the spirit of portending war in mind. But the four-square interpretation of Americanism that is herein set forth holds to-day with as much force as in 1916. Read the selection especially to get the notion of an ideal America and the ideal citizen.
We want something more than thrills in our patriotism—we want thought; we want intelligence—a new birth of the sentiment of unity in the nation.
My dream of America is America represented in public office by its best men working entirely for the good of the 5 Republic and according to the laws and ordinances established by the people for the government of their conduct, and not for personal or political desires and ambitions; America working her institutions as they were intended to be worked, with men whose sole object shall be to secure 10 the end for which the offices were designed.
And if one will throw his personal fortunes to the winds, if he will perform in each place, high or low, the manifest obligations of that place, we will soon have those victories of democracy which will make the Fourth of July in its 15 coming years a far finer and nobler day than it has ever been in the fortunate years of the past.
When we are thinking of the ideals of democracy, we are thinking of the schools, and we deplore every condition in which we find man lower than he should be under a free government, and we want greater victories of democracy, that the level of success shall be raised. 5
We are not a rash people; we are not filled with the spirit of militarism. We are not anxious to get into trouble, but if anybody thinks that the spirit of service and sacrifice is lost and that we have not the old sentiment of self-respect, he doesn't understand the United States. 10
We want patriotism, and I don't think that we are going to lose it very soon, although I do devoutly hope that out of the perils and difficulties of this time may come a new birth of the sentiment of unity. I do hope that in the midst of all these troublesome conditions we will have a 15 better realization of our national strength and the import of our democratic institutions.
The boy is going to thrill at the sight of the flag to-day just as he did fifty years or one hundred years ago. We are all going to thrill when we hear the words of our 20 national hymn and we think of the long years of struggle and determination that have brought us to this hour. But we want something more than thrills in our patriotism: we want thought; we want intelligence.
Not vast extent of territory, not great population, not 25 simply extraordinary statistics of national wealth, although they speak in eloquent words of energy and managing ability; but what we need more than anything else is an intelligent comprehension of the ideals of democracy. Those ideals are that every man shall have a fair and equal 30 chance according to his talents. It is not an ideal of democracy that one alone shall emerge because of conspicuous ability, but that there shall be a great advance of the plain people of the country, upon whom the prosperity of the country depends.
It is all very well to talk about the Declaration of Independence and the strong sentiments it contains, but that 5 was backed by men who couldn't have committed it to memory, men who couldn't have repeated it, but men in whose lives was the incarnation of independence and whose spirit was breathed into that immortal document.
It is because we had men who were willing to suffer, to 10 die, to venture, to sacrifice, that we have a country, and it is only by that spirit that we will ever be able to keep a country. I love to think of those hardy men coming here with the same spirit that led the pioneers to the West and Farther West, the same spirit which in every part of our 15 land has accounted for our development.
Quiet men, not noisy men; sensible men, not foolish men; straight men, honest men, dependable men, real men—that is what we mean by Americanism.
—From a Speech Delivered at Easthampton, L. I., July 4, 1916.
1. What evidences do you find in the speech that it was delivered in war times? When did we enter the World War? On what occasion was the speech made?
2. Explain what Mr. Hughes describes as his "dream of America."
3. Discuss: "But we want something more than thrills in our patriotism," lines 22-24, page 357.
4. What ideals of democracy are described?
5. Define Americanism in your own words.
6. Explain what you think an ideal citizen of your community should be and do; of your school.
WHAT CONSTITUTES A STATE?
BY WILLIAM JONES
What constitutes a State? Not high-raised battlement or labored mound, Thick wall or moated gate; Not cities proud with spires and turrets crowned; Not bays and broad-armed ports, 5 Where, laughing at the storm, rich navies ride; Not starred and spangled courts, Where low-browed baseness wafts perfume to pride. No:—men, high-minded men, With powers as far above dull brutes endued 10 In forest, brake, or den, As beasts excel cold rocks and brambles rude; Men who their duties know, But know their rights, and knowing, dare maintain, Prevent the long-aimed blow, 15 And crush the tyrant while they rend the chain:— These constitute a State.
1. What is meant by the word "State" as it is here used? In what "State" do you live?
2. How many things are named, which do not constitute a State? Why do these things not make a State?
3. What is it that makes a State? Why?
4. Give in your own words the meaning of lines 13-16.
A PATRIOTIC CREED
BY EDGAR A. GUEST
To serve my country day by day At any humble post I may; To honor and respect her flag, To live the traits of which I brag; To be American in deed 5 As well as in my printed creed.
To stand for truth and honest toil, To till my little patch of soil, And keep in mind the debt I owe To them who died that I might know 10 My country prosperous and free, And passed this heritage to me.
I must always in trouble's hour Be guided by the men in power; For God and country I must live, 15 My best for God and country give; No act of mine that men may scan Must shame the name American.
To do my best, and play my part, American in mind and heart; 20 To serve the flag and bravely stand To guard the glory of my land; To be American in deed,— God grant me strength to keep this creed.
(From Over Here, copyrighted by Reilly & Lee Co., Publishers. Reproduced by permission.)
FROM GREAT BOOKS
Only a few great books can be represented in this small section of your Reader. The extracts are offered in the firm belief that you will wish to read further in the volumes from which they were taken. Good books are like good friends; the better you know them the better you like them; and they stand ready always to give you genuine pleasure.
THE LISTS AT ASHBY
BY SIR WALTER SCOTT
The following is the larger part of chapter eight of Scott's Ivanhoe. The hero of the novel is a Saxon knight, Wilfred of Ivanhoe, son of Cedric. Ivanhoe is in love with his father's ward, Rowena, but Cedric wishes her to marry a thick-headed Saxon thane, or lord, called Athelstane. According to Scott, the period was one of unrest. England had come into the possession of the Normans, and the native Saxons hated their new masters. Richard was king. But since he had gone to the Holy Land as a leader in one of the crusades, his brother, Prince John, ruled in his stead. Both were foreigners, but the common people liked Richard and hated John, who was not only a tyrant, but was also planning to seize his brother's throne. He had had Richard imprisoned in Austria, and had surrounded himself with ambitious and dissatisfied Norman knights. The tournament at Ashby was really a trial at arms between the Prince's followers and those of Richard, of whom Ivanhoe was one.
The lists now presented a most splendid spectacle. The sloping galleries were crowded with all that was noble, great, wealthy, and beautiful in the northern and midland parts of England; and the contrast of the various dresses of these dignified spectators rendered the view as 5 gay as it was rich, while the interior and lower space, filled with the substantial burgesses and yeomen of merry England, formed, in their more plain attire, a dark fringe, or border, around this circle of brilliant embroidery, relieving, and at the same time setting off, its splendor. 10
The heralds finished their proclamation with their usual cry of "Largess, largess, gallant knights!" and gold and silver pieces were showered on them from the galleries, it being a high point of chivalry to exhibit liberality toward those whom the age accounted at once the secretaries and the historians of honor. The bounty of the spectators was acknowledged by the customary shouts of "Love of 5 Ladies—Death of Champions—Honor to the Generous—Glory to the Brave!" To which the more humble spectators added their acclamations, and a numerous band of trumpeters the flourish of their martial instruments. When these sounds had ceased, the heralds withdrew from 10 the lists in gay and glittering procession, and none remained within them save the marshals of the field, who, armed cap-a-pie, sat on horseback, motionless as statues, at the opposite ends of the lists.
Meantime, the inclosed space at the northern extremity 15 of the lists, large as it was, was now completely crowded with knights desirous to prove their skill against the challengers, and when viewed from the galleries presented the appearance of a sea of waving plumage intermixed with glistening helmets and tall lances, to the extremities of 20 which were, in many cases, attached small pennons of about a span's breadth, which, fluttering in the air as the breeze caught them, joined with the restless motion of the feathers to add liveliness to the scene.
At length the barriers were opened, and five knights 25 chosen by lot advanced slowly into the area; a single champion riding in front and the other four following in pairs. All were splendidly armed, and my Saxon authority records at great length their devices, their colors, and the embroidery of their horse trappings. It is unnecessary to be 30 particular on these subjects. To borrow lines from a contemporary poet, who has written but too little—
"The knights are dust, And their good swords are rust, Their souls are with the saints, we trust."
Their escutcheons have long moldered from the walls of their castles. Their castles themselves are but green 5 mounds and shattered ruins—the place that once knew them knows them no more—nay, many a race since theirs has died out and been forgotten in the very land which they occupied with all the authority of feudal lords. What, then, would it avail the reader to know their names or the 10 evanescent symbols of their martial rank!
Now, however, no whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats, the champions advanced through the lists, restraining their fiery steeds and compelling them to move slowly, while, at the same time, they 15 exhibited their paces, together with the grace and dexterity of the riders. As the procession entered the lists, the sound of a wild barbaric music was heard from behind the tents of the challengers, where the performers were concealed. It was of Eastern origin, having been brought from the Holy 20 Land; and the mixture of the cymbals and bells seemed to bid welcome at once, and defiance, to the knights as they advanced.
With the eyes of an immense concourse of spectators fixed upon them, the five knights advanced up the platform 25 upon which the tents of the challengers stood, and there separating themselves, each touched slightly, and with the reverse of his lance, the shield of the antagonist to whom he wished to oppose himself. The lower orders of spectators in general—nay, many of the higher class, and 30 it is even said several of the ladies—were rather disappointed at the champions choosing the arms of courtesy. For the same sort of persons who, in the present day, applaud most highly the deepest tragedies were then interested in a tournament exactly in proportion to the danger incurred by the champions engaged.
Having intimated their more pacific purpose, the champions 5 retreated to the extremity of the lists, where they remained drawn up in a line; while the challengers, sallying each from his pavilion, mounted their horses, and headed by Brian de Bois-Guilbert, descended from the platform and opposed themselves individually to the knights 10 who had touched their respective shields.
At the flourish of clarions and trumpets they started out against each other at full gallop; and such was the superior dexterity or good fortune of the challengers that those opposed to Bois-Guilbert, Malvoisin, and Front-de-B[oe]uf, 15 rolled on the ground. The antagonist of Grantmesnil, instead of bearing his lance point fair against the crest or the shield of his enemy, swerved so much from the direct line as to break the weapon athwart the person of his opponent—a circumstance which was accounted more disgraceful 20 than that of being actually unhorsed; because the latter might happen from accident, whereas the former evinced awkwardness and want of management of the weapon and of the horse. The fifth knight alone maintained the honor of his party and parted fairly with the 25 Knight of St. John, both splintering their lances without advantage on either side.
The shouts of the multitude, together with the acclamations of the heralds and the clangor of the trumpets, announced the triumph of the victors and the defeat of 30 the vanquished. The former retreated to their pavilions, and the latter, gathering themselves up as they could, withdrew from the lists in disgrace and dejection, to agree with their victors concerning the redemption of their arms and their horses, which, according to the laws of the tournament, they had forfeited. The fifth of their number alone tarried in the lists long enough to be greeted by the 5 applauses of the spectators, amongst whom he retreated, to the aggravation, doubtless, of his companions' mortification.
A second and a third party of knights took the field; and although they had various success, yet, upon the whole, the advantage decidedly remained with the challengers, 10 not one of whom lost his seat or swerved from his charge—misfortunes which befell one or two of their antagonists in each encounter. The spirits, therefore, of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably dampened by their continued success. Three knights only appeared on the fourth 15 entry, who, avoiding the shields of Bois-Guilbert and Front-de-B[oe]uf, contented themselves with touching those of the three other knights, who had not altogether manifested the same strength and dexterity. This politic selection did not alter the fortune of the field: the challengers 20 were still successful. One of their antagonists was overthrown and both the others failed in the attaint, that is, in striking the helmet and shield of their antagonist firmly and strongly with the lance held in a direct line, so that the weapon might break unless the champion was overthrown. 25
After this fourth encounter, there was a considerable pause; nor did it appear that anyone was very desirous of renewing the contest. The spectators murmured among themselves; for, among the challengers, Malvoisin and Front-de-B[oe]uf were unpopular from their characters, and 30 the others, except Grantmesnil, were disliked as strangers and foreigners.
But none shared the general feeling of dissatisfaction so keenly as Cedric the Saxon, who saw, in each advantage gained by the Norman challengers, a repeated triumph over the honor of England. His own education had taught him no skill in the games of chivalry, although, with the 5 arms of his Saxon ancestors, he had manifested himself on many occasions a brave and determined soldier.
He looked anxiously to Athelstane, who had learned the accomplishments of the age, as if desiring that he should make some personal effort to recover the victory which was 10 passing into the hands of the Templar and his associates. But, though both stout of heart and strong of person, Athelstane had a disposition too inert and unambitious to make the exertions which Cedric seemed to expect from him. 15
"The day is against England, my lord," said Cedric, in a marked tone; "are you not tempted to take the lance?"
"I shall tilt to-morrow," answered Athelstane, "in the melee; it is not worth while for me to arm myself to-day."
Two things displeased Cedric in this speech. It contained 20 the Norman word melee (to express the general conflict), and it evinced some indifference to the honor of the country; but it was spoken by Athelstane, whom he held in such profound respect that he would not trust himself to canvass his motives or his foibles. Moreover, he 25 had no time to make any remark, for Wamba thrust in his word, observing, "It was better, though scarce easier, to be the best man among a hundred than the best man of two."
Athelstane took the observation as a serious compliment; 30 but Cedric, who better understood the jester's meaning, darted at him a severe and menacing look; and lucky it was for Wamba, perhaps, that the time and place prevented his receiving, notwithstanding his place and service, more sensible marks of his master's resentment.
The pause in the tournament was still uninterrupted, excepting by the voices of the heralds exclaiming—"Love 5 of ladies, splintering of lances! Stand forth, gallant knights, fair eyes look upon your deeds!"
The music also of the challengers breathed from time to time wild bursts expressive of triumph or defiance, while the clowns grudged a holiday which seemed to pass away 10 in inactivity; and old knights and nobles lamented in whispers the decay of martial spirit, spoke of the triumphs of their younger days, but agreed that the land did not now supply dames of such transcendent beauty as had animated the justs of former times. 15
Prince John began to talk to his attendants about making ready the banquet, and the necessity of adjudging the prize to Brian de Bois-Guilbert who had, with a single spear, overthrown two knights and foiled a third.
At length, as the Saracenic music of the challengers concluded 20 one of those high and long flourishes with which they had broken the silence of the lists, it was answered by a solitary trumpet, which breathed a note of defiance from the northern extremity. All eyes were turned to see the new champion which these sounds announced, and no 25 sooner were the barriers opened than he paced into the lists.
As far as could be judged from a man sheathed in armor, the new adventurer did not greatly exceed the middle size and seemed to be rather slender than strongly made. 30 His suit of armor was formed of steel, richly inlaid with gold, and the device on his shield was a young oak tree pulled up by the roots with the Spanish word Desdichado, signifying "disinherited". He was mounted on a gallant black horse, and as he passed through the lists he gracefully saluted the prince and the ladies by lowering his lance. The dexterity with which he managed his steed, 5 and something of youthful grace which he displayed in his manner, won him the favor of the multitude, which some of the lower class expressed by calling out, "Touch Ralph de Vipont's shield—touch the Hospitaler's shield; he has the least sure seat; he is your cheapest bargain." 10
The champion, moving onward amid these well-meant hints, ascended the platform by the sloping alley which led to it from the lists, and to the astonishment of all present, riding straight up to the central pavilion, struck with the sharp end of his spear the shield of Brian de 15 Bois-Guilbert until it rang again.
All stood astonished at his presumption, but none more than the redoubted knight whom he had thus defied to mortal combat and who, little expecting so rude a challenge, was standing carelessly at the door of the pavilion. 20
"Have you confessed yourself, brother," said the Templar, "and have you heard Mass this morning, that you peril your life so frankly?"
"I am fitter to meet death than thou art," answered the Disinherited Knight; for by this name the stranger had 25 recorded himself in the books of the tourney.
"Then take your place in the lists," said Bois-Guilbert, "and look your last upon the sun; for this night thou shalt sleep in Paradise."
"Gramercy for thy courtesy," replied the Disinherited 30 Knight, "and to requite it, I advise thee to take a fresh horse and a new lance, for by my honor you will need both."
Having expressed himself thus confidently, he reined his horse backward down the slope which he had ascended and compelled him in the same manner to move backward through the lists till he reached the northern extremity, where he remained stationary in expectation of his antagonist. 5 This feat of horsemanship again attracted the applause of the multitude.
However incensed at his adversary for the precautions which he recommended, Brian de Bois-Guilbert did not neglect his advice; for his honor was too nearly concerned 10 to permit his neglecting any means which might insure victory over his presumptuous opponent. He changed his horse for a proved and fresh one of great strength and spirit. He chose a new and tough spear, lest the wood of the former might have been strained in the previous encounters 15 he had sustained. Lastly, he laid aside his shield, which had received some little damage, and received another from his squires. His first had only borne the general device of his order, representing two knights riding upon one horse, an emblem expressive of the original humility and 20 poverty of the Templars, qualities which they had since exchanged for the arrogance and wealth that finally occasioned their suppression. Bois-Guilbert's new shield bore a raven in full flight, holding in its claws a skull, and bearing the motto Gare le Corbeau. 25
When the two champions stood opposed to each other at the two extremities of the lists, the public expectation was strained to the highest pitch. Few augured the possibility that the encounter could terminate well for the Disinherited Knight, yet his courage and gallantry secured 30 the general good wishes of the spectators.
The trumpets had no sooner given the signal than the champions vanished from their posts with the speed of lightning and closed in the center of the lists with the shock of a thunderbolt. The lances burst into shivers up to the very grasp and it seemed at the moment that both knights had fallen, for the shock had made each horse recoil 5 backwards upon its haunches. The address of the riders recovered their steeds by use of the bridle and spur; and having glared on each other for an instant with eyes which seemed to flash fire through the bars of their visors, each made a demivolt, and retiring to the extremity of the 10 lists, received a fresh lance from the attendants.
A loud shout from the spectators, waving of scarfs and handkerchiefs, and general acclamations, attested the interest taken by the spectators in this encounter; the most equal, as well as the best performed, which had graced the day. 15 But no sooner had the knights resumed their station than the clamor of applause was hushed into a silence so deep and so dead that it seemed the multitude were afraid even to breathe.
A few minutes' pause having been allowed, that the 20 combatants and their horses might recover breath, Prince John with his truncheon signed to the trumpets to sound the onset. The champions a second time sprung from their stations and closed in the center of the lists, with the same speed, the same dexterity, the same violence, but not the 25 same equal fortune as before.
In this second encounter, the Templar aimed at the center of his antagonist's shield and struck it so fair and forcibly that his spear went to shivers, and the Disinherited Knight reeled in his saddle. On the other hand, that champion 30 had, in the beginning of his career, directed the point of his lance toward Bois-Guilbert's shield, but changing his aim almost in the moment of encounter, he addressed it to the helmet, a mark more difficult to hit, but which, if attained, rendered the shock more irresistible. Fair and true, he hit the Norman on the visor, where his lance's point kept hold of the bars. 5
Yet, even at this disadvantage, the Templar sustained his high reputation; and had not the girths of his saddle burst, he might not have been unhorsed. As it chanced, however, saddle, horse, and man rolled on the ground under a cloud of dust. 10
To extricate himself from the stirrups and fallen steed was to the Templar scarce the work of a moment; and, stung with madness, both at his disgrace and at the acclamations with which it was hailed by the spectators, he drew his sword and waved it in defiance of his conqueror. 15 The Disinherited Knight sprang from his steed and also unsheathed his sword. The marshals of the field, however, spurred their horses between them and reminded them that the laws of the tournament did not, on the present occasion, permit this species of encounter. 20
"We shall meet again, I trust," said the Templar, casting a resentful glance at his antagonist; "and where there are none to separate us."
"If we do not," said the Disinherited Knight, "the fault shall not be mine. On foot or horseback, with spear, 25 with ax, or with sword, I am alike ready to encounter thee."
More and angrier words would have been exchanged, but the marshals, crossing their lances betwixt them, compelled them to separate. The Disinherited Knight returned to his first station, and Bois-Guilbert to his 30 tent, where he remained for the rest of the day in an agony of despair.
Without alighting from his horse, the conqueror called for a bowl of wine, and opening the beaver, or lower part of his helmet, announced that he quaffed it "To all true English hearts, and to the confusion of foreign tyrants." He then commanded his trumpet to sound a defiance to 5 the challengers, and desired a herald to announce to them that he should make no election, but was willing to encounter them in the order in which they pleased to advance against him.
The gigantic Front-de-B[oe]uf, armed in sable armor, was 10 the first who took the field. He bore on a white shield a black bull's head, half defaced by the numerous encounters which he had undergone, and bearing the arrogant motto, Cave, adsum. Over this champion the Disinherited Knight obtained a slight but decisive advantage. Both 15 knights broke their lances fairly, but Front-de-B[oe]uf, who lost a stirrup in the encounter, was adjudged to have the disadvantage.
In the stranger's third encounter, with Sir Philip Malvoisin, he was equally successful; striking that baron so 20 forcibly on the casque that the laces of the helmet broke, and Malvoisin, only saved from falling by being unhelmeted, was declared vanquished like his companions.
In his fourth combat, with De Grantmesnil, the Disinherited Knight showed as much courtesy as he had 25 hitherto evinced courage and dexterity. De Grantmesnil's horse, which was young and violent, reared and plunged in the course of the career so as to disturb the rider's aim, and the stranger, declining to take the advantage which this accident afforded him, raised his lance, and passing 30 his antagonist without touching him, wheeled his horse and rode back again to his own end of the lists, offering his antagonist, by a herald, the chance of a second encounter. This De Grantmesnil declined, avowing himself vanquished as much by the courtesy as by the address of his opponent.
Ralph de Vipont summed up the list of the stranger's 5 triumphs, being hurled to the ground with such force that the blood gushed from his nose and his mouth and he was borne senseless from the lists.
The acclamations of thousands applauded the unanimous award of the prince and marshals, announcing that day's 10 honors to the Disinherited Knight.
1. Describe the lists as Scott makes you see them. What was the order of proceeding at the outset?
2. Who were the Norman knights upon whom Prince John relied to win the tournament? Which of these was considered the best lance?
3. Where does the interest in the story begin suddenly to increase? How does Scott make the situation exciting?
4. Describe the combat between Bois-Guilbert and the Disinherited Knight. Why did they not fight to a finish? What makes you think they do before the novel is finished? Tell of the succeeding combats in turn.
5. As you have probably guessed, the Disinherited Knight is Ivanhoe. Did anybody present recognize him? How do you think Prince John felt at the outcome?
6. Gare le Corbeau means "Look out for the raven," a boast that the ravens would pick the bones of Brian's enemies. Cave, adsum means "Beware, I am here." Select a list of ten other words or phrases for your classmates to explain.
7. Report either on Scott's life and writings or on another chapter from Ivanhoe.
THE TWENTY-THIRD PSALM
The Bible serves, first, as a great religious teacher. Second, it stands as a model of literature whose greatness is everywhere acknowledged. Men like John Bunyan and Abraham Lincoln learned to write their beautiful prose through their close, continued reading of the Scriptures. No finer poetry exists than the Psalms of David, among which the following is a favorite.
The Lord is my shepherd: I shall not want.
He maketh me to lie down in green pastures: He leadeth me beside the still waters.
He restoreth my soul: He leadeth me in the paths of righteousness for His name's sake. 5
Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil: for Thou art with me; Thy rod and Thy staff they comfort me.
Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies: Thou anointest my head with oil; my cup 10 runneth over.
Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life: and I will dwell in the house of the Lord forever.
1. This psalm should be among your collection of memory gems. Repeat it aloud in unison with the other members of your class. Why does it especially lend itself to being spoken?
2. Palestine is a semiarid country. Why should David make the reference to "green pastures" and "still waters"? Why is there no mention of running brooks and woods?
3. What is your understanding of lines 9-11?
4. What does David mean to convey to his hearers in this psalm?
BY JOHN BUNYAN
Books are like men: great ones are rare. Occasionally a book is written that affects the thinking of people for centuries. To this class belongs John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, published 1678-1684.
It is the story of the journey of a man named Christian the Pilgrim, who travels from the City of Destruction to the Holy City. On this journey Christian is beset by all manner of terrors, temptations, and evils. The story is an allegory, portraying life and its struggles if one attempts to live righteously. Its language is that of the Bible. Its dialogue and characters seem real, and its narrative is full of action.
Now I beheld in my dream that Christian and Hopeful had not journeyed far until they came where the river and the way parted, at which they were not a little sorry; yet they durst not go out of the way. Now the way from the river was rough, and their feet tender 5 by reason of their travel; so the souls of the pilgrims were much discouraged because of the way. Wherefore, still as they went on, they wished for a better way.
Now, a little before them, there was on the left hand of the road a meadow, and a stile to go over into it; and that 10 meadow is called Bypath Meadow. Then said Christian to his fellow, "If this meadow lieth along by our wayside, let us go over into it." Then he went to the stile to see, and behold a path lay along by the way on the other side of the fence. 15
"'Tis according to my wish," said Christian; "here is the easiest going; come, good Hopeful, and let us go over."
"But how if this path should lead us out of the way?"
"That is not likely," said the other. "Look, doth it not go along by the wayside?"
So Hopeful, being persuaded by his fellow, went after him over the stile. When they were gone over, and were 5 got into the path, they found it very easy for their feet; and withal they, looking before them, espied a man walking as they did, and his name was Vain-Confidence: so they called after him, and asked him whither that way led. 10
He said, "To the Celestial Gate."
"Look," said Christian, "did not I tell you so? By this you may see we are right."
So they followed, and he went before them. But, behold, the night came on, and it grew very dark; so that 15 they who were behind lost sight of him that went before. He, therefore, that went before—Vain-Confidence by name—not seeing the way before him, fell into a deep pit and was dashed in pieces with his fall.
Now Christian and his fellow heard him fall; so they 20 called to know the matter. But there was no answer, only they heard a groan.
Then said Hopeful, "Where are we now?"
Then was his fellow silent, as mistrusting that he had led him out of the way; and now it began to rain and 25 thunder and lightning in a most dreadful manner, and the water rose amain, by reason of which the way of going back was very dangerous.
Yet they adventured to go back; but it was so dark and the flood so high, that in their going back they had 30 like to have been drowned nine or ten times. Neither could they, with all the skill they had, get back again to the stile that night. Wherefore, at last lighting under a little shelter, they sat down there until daybreak. But being weary, they fell asleep.
* * * * *
Now there was, not far from the place where they lay, a castle, called Doubting Castle, the owner whereof was 5 Giant Despair; and it was in his grounds they now were sleeping. Wherefore he, getting up in the morning early, and walking up and down in his fields, caught Christian and Hopeful asleep in his grounds. Then with a grim and surly voice he bid them awake, and asked them whence 10 they were and what they did in his grounds.
They told him they were pilgrims, and that they had lost their way.
Then said the giant, "You have this night trespassed on me, by trampling in and lying on my grounds, and therefore 15 you must go along with me."
So they were forced to go, because he was stronger than they. They also had but little to say, for they knew themselves in a fault. The giant, therefore, drove them before him and put them into his castle, in a very 20 dark dungeon.
Here, then, they lay from Wednesday morning till Saturday night, without one bit of bread, or drop of drink, or light, or any to ask how they did: they were, therefore, here in evil case, and were far from friends and acquaintance. 25
Now Giant Despair had a wife, and her name was Diffidence. So, when he was gone to bed, he told his wife that he had taken a couple of prisoners, and had cast them into his dungeon for trespassing on his grounds. Then he asked her also what he had best do to them. So she asked him 30 what they were, whence they came, and whither they were bound; and he told her. Then she counseled him that when he arose in the morning he should beat them without mercy.
So when he arose, he getteth him a grievous crab-tree cudgel, and goes into the dungeon to them, and there first 5 falls to rating of them as if they were dogs, although they never gave him an unpleasant word. Then he fell upon them and beat them fearfully, in such sort that they were not able to help themselves or to turn them upon the floor. This done he withdraws and leaves them there to condole 10 their misery and to mourn under their distress. So all that day they spent their time in nothing but sighs and bitter lamentations.
The next night she, talking with her husband further about them, and understanding that they were yet alive, 15 did advise him to counsel them to make away with themselves.
So, when morning was come, he goes to them in a surly manner as before, and perceiving them to be very sore with the stripes that he had given them the day before, 20 he told them that, since they were never like to come out of that place, their only way would be forthwith to make an end of themselves, either with knife, halter, or poison. "For why," he said, "should you choose to live, seeing it is attended with so much bitterness?" 25
But they desired him to let them go. With that he looked ugly upon them, and rushing to them, had doubtless made an end of them himself, but that he fell into one of his fits and lost for a time the use of his hands. Wherefore he withdrew, and left them, as before, to 30 consider what to do.
Then did the prisoners consult between themselves, whether it was best to take his counsel or no. But they soon resolved to reject it; for it would be very wicked to kill themselves; and, besides, something might soon happen to enable them to make their escape.