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Spenser's The Faerie Queene, Book I
by Edmund Spenser
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19. HE FEEDES UPON, he enjoys. A Latinism: cf. Vergil's Aeneid, iii.

37. PHOEBE, a surname of Diana, or Artemis, the goddess of the moon.

45. Spenser probably takes the suggestion from the fountain in the gardens of Armida in Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered, xiv, 74. Cf. also the fountain of Salmacis in Ovid's Metamorphoses, xv, 819 seq.

56. POURD OUT, a metaphor borrowed from Euripides (Herac., 75) and Vergil (Aeneid, ix, 317).

62. HIS LOOSER MAKE, his too dissolute companion.

67. AN HIDEOUS GEANT, Orgoglio, symbolizing Inordinate Pride, and the Pope of Rome, who then claimed universal power over both church and state (x). For a list of many other giants of romance see Brewer's Handbook, pp. 376-379.

104. THAT DIVELISH YRON ENGIN, cannon. The invention of artillery by infernal ingenuity is an old conception of the poets. There is a suggestion of it in Vergil's Aeneid, vi, 585 seq., which is elaborated in Ariosto's Orlando Furioso, ix, 91, which Milton in turn imitated in Paradise Lost, vi, 516 seq. So in the romance of Sir Triamour.

112. TH' ONELY BREATH, the mere breath.

119. DO HIM NOT TO DYE, slay him not; cf. "done to death."

138. A MONSTROUS BEAST, on which the woman of Babylon sat; Revelation, xiii and xvii, 7.

139. This refers to the Romish policy of fostering ignorance among its members.

140. THAT RENOWMED SNAKE, the Lernaean Hydra, a monster with nine or more heads, offspring of Typhon and Echidna. It was slain by Hercules. STREMONA is a name of Spenser's own invention.

147. The reference is to the cruelty and insensibility of the Romish Church.

150. Its tail reached to the stars. Revelation, xii, 4.

155. AND HOLY HEASTS FORETAUGHT, and holy commands previously taught (them).

161. HIS FORLORNE WEED, his abandoned clothing.

165. MONIMENTS, the sorrowful, mournful relics.

182. SO HARDLY HE, etc. So he with difficulty coaxes the life which has flown to return into her body. According to the Platonic teaching, the body is the prison-house of the soul. Cf Psalms, cxlii, 7.

202. BUT SEELED UP WITH DEATH, but closed in death. "Seel" was a term in falconry, meaning "to sew up" (the eyes of the hawk).

219. THE BITTER BALEFULL STOUND, the bitter, grievous moment during which she listens to the story.

220. IF LESSE THEN THAT I FEARE, etc., if it is less bitter than I fear it is, I shall have found more favor (been more fortunate) than I expected.

231. SORROWFULL ASSAY, the assault of sorrow (on her heart).

236. WAS NEVER LADY, etc., there never was lady who loved day (life) dearer.

249. A GOODLY KNIGHT. Prince Arthur, son of King Uther Pendragon and Queen Ygerne, the model English gentleman, in whom all the virtues are perfected (Magnificence). According to Upton and most editors, Prince Arthur represents Lord Leicester; according to another tradition, Sir Philip Sidney. Could the author have possibly intended in him compliment to Sir Walter Raleigh? See Spenser's Letter to Raleigh. Arthur is the beau ideal of knighthood, and upon him the poet lavishes his richest descriptive powers. His armor, his shield Pridwen, his lance Roan, and sword Exculibur, were made by the great enchanter Merlin in the isle of Avallon.

259. SHAPT LIKE A LADIES HEAD, an effigy of Queen Elizabeth, the Faerie Queene.

260. LIKE HESPERUS, the evening star. Cf. Phosphorus, the morning star.

268. The dragon couchant was also the crest of Arthur's father, Uther, surnamed on this account Pen-dragon. The description in this stanza is imitated from Tasso's description of the helmet of the Sultan in Jerusalem Delivered, ix, 25, which in turn follows Vergil's Aeneid, vii, 785 seq.

280. GREENE SELINIS, a town in Sicily.

284. HIS WARLIKE SHIELD. Spenser here follows closely the description of the shield of the magician Atlante in Ariosto's Orlando Furioso, ii, 55.

300. SILVER CYNTHIA, the moon. It was popularly supposed that magicians and witches had power to cause eclipses of the moon.

304. All falsehood and deception. Truth and Wisdom are symbolized (Upton).

306. WHEN HIM LIST, when it pleased him. Him is dative.

314. IT MERLIN WAS. Ambrose Merlin, the prince of enchanters, son of the nun Matilda, and an incubus, "half-angel and half-man." He made, in addition to Prince Arthur's armor and weapons, the Round Table for one hundred and fifty knights at Carduel, the magic fountain of love, and built Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain. He died spellbound by the sorceress Vivien in a hollow oak. See Tennyson's Idylls of the King.

326. DID TRAMPLE AS THE AIRE, curveted as lightly as the air.

335. AND FOR HER HUMOUR, etc., and to suit her (sad) mood framed fitting conversation.

355. The subject of found is the substantive clause who... impart.

xli. Observe the antithetical structure of this stanza, both in the Stichomuthia, or balance of line against line, and in the lines themselves. In this rapid word-play Arthur wins his point by appealing to Una's faith.

363. NO FAITH SO FAST, etc., no faith is so firm that human infirmity may not injure it.

376. Una, Truth, is the sole daughter of Eden.

377. WHILEST EQUAL DESTINIES, etc., whilst their destinies (Fates) revolved equally and undisturbed in their orbits. (Astronomical figure.)

381. PHISON AND EUPHRATES, etc., three of the four rivers that watered Eden, the Hiddekel being omitted. See Genesis, ii, 11-14. In this stanza the poet strangely mixes Christian doctrine and the classical belief in the envy of the gods working the downfall of men.

385. TARTARY, Tartarus (for the rhyme), the lowest circle of torment in the infernal regions.

391. Has this obscure line any reference to prophecy? Cf. Daniel, vii, 25, Revelation, xii, 6, 14.

394. THAT HEAVEN WALKS ABOUT, under the sky.

404. THAT NOBLE ORDER, the Order of the Garter, of which the Maiden Queen was head. The figure of St. George slaying the dragon appears on the oval and pendant to the collar of this Order.

405. OF GLORIANE, Queen Elizabeth.

407. CLEOPOLIS IS RED, is called Cleopolis, i.e. the city of Glory, or London.

425. MY DOLEFULL DISADVENTUROUS DEARE, my sad misadventurous injury.

429. THAT HE MY CAPTIVE LANGUOR, the languishing captivity of my parents.

432. MY LOYALTY, i.e. the loyalty of me that rather death desire, etc.

441. THAT BROUGHT NOT BACKE, etc., (and whence) the body full of evil was not brought back dead.

QUESTIONS AND TOPICS

(Canto VII)

1. Relate how the Knight fell into the hands of the Giant. 2. Note the fine adaptation of sound to sense in vii. 3. Who were the parents and the foster-father of Orgoglio? 4. What are the principal characteristics of the giants of romance as seen in Orgoglio? cf. with the giants in Pilgrim's Progress. 5. In the description of the giant do the last two lines (viii) add to or detract from the impression? Why? 6. To whom does Spenser ascribe the invention of artillery? 7. Explain the allegory involved in the relations of Duessa and Orgoglio. 8. How does Una act on hearing the news of the Knight's capture? 9. What part does the Dwarf play? 10. Is Una just to herself in ll. 200-201? 11. Is she over sentimental or ineffective—and is the pathos of her grief kept within the limits of the reader's pleasure? 12. Express in your own words the main thought in xxii. 13. Note the skillful summary of events in xxvi, and observe that this stanza is the Central Crisis and Pivotal Point of the whole Book. The fortunes of the Knight reach their lowest ebb and begin to turn. The first half of the Book has been the complication of the plot, the second half will be the resolution. 14. Give a description of Prince Arthur. 15. What mysterious power was possessed by his shield? Cf. the Holy Grail. 16. Observe carefully the scene between Una and Arthur, noting the changes in her mood. What light is thrown on her character? What are her feelings toward the Knight? 17. Explain the various threads of allegory in this Canto.

CANTO VIII

I. The Plot: Prince Arthur and Una are conducted by the Dwarf to Orgoglio's Castle. At the blast of the Squire's horn the Giant comes forth attended by Duessa mounted on the seven-headed Beast. In the battle which ensues Arthur wounds the Beast, slays the Giant and captures Duessa. Prince Arthur finds the Redcross Knight half starved in a foul dungeon and releases him. Duessa is stripped of her gaudy clothes and allowed to hide herself in the wilderness.

II. The Allegory: 1. Magnificence, the sum of all the virtues, wins the victory over Carnal Pride, and restores Holiness to its better half, Truth. With the overthrow of Pride, Falsehood, which is the ally of that vice, is stripped of its outward show and exposed in all its hideous deformity.

2. The false Romish Church becomes drunk in the blood of the martyrs. There is a hint of the persecutions in the Netherlands, in Piedmont, of the massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day and the burnings under Bloody Mary. Protestant England is delivered from Popish tyranny by the honor and courage of the English people. Militant England (Prince Arthur) is assisted by the clergy (Squire) with his horn (Bible) and is guided by Truth and Common Sense (Dwarf).

23. HORNE OF BUGLE SMALL, the English Bible. Spenser here imitates the description of the magic horn of Logistilla in Ariosto's Orlando Furioso, xv, 15, 53. Such horns are frequently mentioned in romance, e.g., Chanson de Roland, Morte d' Arthur, Hawes' Pastime, Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered, Huon of Bordeaux, Romance of Sir Otarel, Cervantes' Don Quixote, etc.

50. LATE CRUELL FEAST, a probable reference to the massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day in Paris in 1572, and to the persecutions of Alva's Council of Blood in the Netherlands in 1567.

ix. This stanza is an imitation of Homer's Iliad, xiv, 414.

95. IN CYMBRIAN PLAINE, probably the Crimea, the ancient Tauric Chersonese. Some connect it with the Cimbric Chersonese, or Jutland, which was famous for its herds of bulls.

96. KINDLY RAGE, natural passion.

105. Note the Latinism "threatened his heads," and the imperfect rhyme "brands."

118. HER GOLDEN CUP, suggested by Circe's magic cup in Homer's Odyssey, x, 316, and the golden cup of the Babylonish woman in Revelation, xvii, 4.

148. THROUGH GREAT IMPATIENCE OF HIS GRIEVED HED, etc., through inability to endure (the pain of) his wounded head, he would have cast down his rider, etc.

155. IN ONE ALONE LEFT HAND, in one hand alone remaining. His left arm had been cut off (x).

xix. The uncovered shield represents the open Bible. The incident is an imitation of Ruggiero's display of his shield in Orlando Furioso, xxii, 85.

246. YOUR FORTUNE MAISTER, etc., be master of your fortune by good management.

268. UNUSED RUST, rust which is due to disuse; a Latinism.

296. WITH NATURES PEN, etc., i.e. by his gray hairs, at that age to which proper seriousness belongs. "I cannot tell" did not become his venerable looks.

310. THAT GREATEST PRINCES, etc. This may mean (1) befitting the presence of the greatest princes, or (2) that the greatest princes might deign to behold in person. The first interpretation is preferable.

312. A general reference to the bloody persecutions without regard to age or sex carried on for centuries by the Romish Church, often under the name of "crusades," "acts of faith," "holy inquisition," etc.

315. This may refer to the burning of heretics, under the pretext that the Church shed no blood. Kitchin thinks that it means "accursed ashes."

317. AN ALTARE, cf. Revelation, vi, 9. CARV'D WITH CUNNING YMAGERY, "in allusion to the stimulus given to the fine arts by the Church of Rome" (Percival).

366. BRAWNED BOWRS, brawny muscles.

375. WHAT EVILL STARRE, etc. In Spenser's day, belief in astrology, the pseudo-science of the influence of the stars on human lives, was still common.

381. There was an old familiar ballad entitled Fortune my Foe.

384. i.e. your good fortune will be threefold as great as your evil fortune.

384. GOOD GROWES OF EVILS PRIEFE, good springs out of our endurance of the tests and experience of evil.

391. BEST MUSICKE BREEDS DELIGHT, etc. A troublesome passage. Upton and Jortin emend delight to dislike; Church inserts no before delight and omits best; Kitchin suggests despight; Grosart prefers the text as it stands with the meaning that although the best music pleases the troubled mind, it is no pleasure to renew the memory of past sufferings. I venture to offer still another solution, based on the context. When Una shows a desire to hear from her Knight a recountal of his sufferings in the dungeon, and he is silent, being loath to speak of them, Arthur reminds her that a change of subject is best, for the best music is that which breeds delight in the troubled ear.

xlvi. In this passage Spenser follows closely the description of the witch Alcina in Ariosto's Orlando Furioso, vii, 73. Rogero has been fascinated by her false beauty, and her real foulness is exposed by means of a magic ring. The stripping of Duessa symbolizes the proscription of vestments and ritual, and the overthrow of images, etc., at the time of the Reformation. Duessa is only banished to the wilderness, not put to death, and reappears in another book of the poem.

QUESTIONS AND TOPICS

(Canto VIII)

1. What moral reflections are found in i? 2. What were the duties of the Squire in chivalry? 3. What part does Arthur's Squire play? 4. What does the Squire's horn symbolize? 5. Observe the classical figure in ix. 6. Describe the battle before the Giant's Castle, stating what part is taken by each of the four engaged. 7. Point out several of the characteristics of a typical battle of romance, and compare with combats in classical and modern times. 8. What additional traits of Una's character are presented in this Canto? Note especially her treatment of the Knight. 9. How is the unchangeableness of truth illustrated in this story? 10. Who is the old man in xxx seq.? 11. Who is the woful thrall in xxxvii? 12. In what condition, mental and physical, is the Knight when liberated? 13. How long was he a captive? 14. What was Duessa's punishment? Was it adequate? Explain its moral and religious meaning. 15. Observe the use of thou and ye (you) in this Canto. 16. Find examples of antithesis, alliteration, Latinisms.

CANTO IX

I. The Plot: Prince Arthur tells Una of his vision of the Faerie Queene and of his quest for her. After exchanging presents with the Redcross Knight, he bids farewell to Una and her companions. These pursue their journey and soon meet a young knight, Sir Trevisan, fleeing from Despair. Sir Trevisan tells of his narrow escape from this old man, and unwillingly conducts the Redcross Knight back to his cave. The Knight enters and is almost persuaded to take his own life. He is saved by the timely interposition of Una. This is the most powerful canto of Book I.

II. The Allegory: 1. The moral allegory in Canto VII presents the transition of the Soul (Redcross) from Pride to Sin (Duessa) through distrust of Truth (Una), and it thus comes into the bondage of Carnal Pride (Orgoglio). In Canto IX the Soul suffers a similar change from Sin to Despair. Having escaped from actual sin, but with spiritual life weakened, it almost falls a victim to Despair through excess of confidence and zeal to perform some good action. The Soul is saved by Truth, by which it is reminded to depend on the grace of God.

2. The allegory on its religious side seems to have some obscure reference to the long and bitter controversies between Protestantism (Calvinism) and Roman Catholicism allied with infidelity.

1. O GOODLY GOLDEN CHAINE, chivalry or knightly honor, the bond that unites all the virtues.

18. THANKLESSE, because not knowing whom to thank.

26. In Malory's Morte d'Arthur, Arthur is taken from his mother, Ygerne, at birth, and committed to the care of Sir Ector as his foster-father, i, 3. In Merlin Sir Antor is his foster-father.

33. RAURAN MOSSY HORE, Rauran white with moss. A "Rauran-vaur hill" in Merionethshire is mentioned by Selden. Contrary to the older romancers, Spenser makes Prince Arthur a Welshman, not a Cornishman.

34. THE RIVER DEE, which rises in Merionethshire and flows through Lake Bala.

39. MY DISCIPLINE TO FRAME, etc., to plan my course of instruction, and, as my tutor, to supervise my bringing up.

45. IN HER JUST TERME, in due time.

57. OR THAT FRESH BLEEDING WOUND, i.e. his love for Gloriana.

59. WITH FORCED FURY, etc., supplying "me" from "my" in l. 58 the meaning is: the wound ... brought ... me following its bidding with compulsive (passionate) fury, etc. In the sixteenth century his was still almost always used as the possessive of it. Its does not occur in the King James Version of the Bible (1611).

63. COULD EVER FIND (the heart) to grieve, etc. A Euphuistic conceit.

64. According to the physiology of Spenser's age, love was supposed to dry up the humors ("moysture") of the body.

70. BUT TOLD, i.e. if it (my love) is told.

100. ENSAMPLE MAKE OF HIM, witness him (the Redcross knight).

113. WHILES EVERY SENCE, etc., while the sweet moisture bathed all my senses.

146. NEXT TO THAT LADIES LOVE, i.e. next to his love (loyalty) for Gloriana. Does the poet mean that allegiance to queen and country comes before private affection?

149. WAS FIRMEST FIXT, etc., were strongest in my extremity (in the giant's dungeon).

169. A BOOKE, the New Testament, an appropriate gift from the champions of the Reformed Church.

182. AN ARMED KNIGHT, Sir Trevisan, who symbolizes Fear.

189. PEGASUS, the winged horse of the Muses. For note on the false possessive with his, see note on V, 44.

233. HAD NOT GREATER GRACE, etc., had not greater grace (than was granted my comrade) saved me from it, I should have been partaker (with him of his doom) in that place.

249. AFTER FAIRE AREEDES, afterwards graciously tells.

267. WITH DYING FEARE, with fear of dying.

269. WHOSE LIKE INFIRMITIE, etc., i.e. if you are a victim of love, you may also fall into the hands of despair.

270. BUT GOD YOU NEVER LET, but may God never let you, etc.

272. TO SPOYLE THE CASTLE OF HIS HEALTH, to take his own life. Cf. Eliot's Castell of Helthe, published in 1534.

273. I WOTE, etc. I, whom recent trial hath taught, and who would not (endure the) like for all the wealth of this world, know (how a man may be so gained over to destroy himself).

275. This simile is a very old one. See Homer's Iliad, i, 249; Odyssey, xviii, 283; Song of Solomon, iv, 11; and Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered, ii, 51.

286. FOR GOLD NOR GLEE. Cf. for love or money.

294-296. Imitated from Vergil's Aeneid, vi, 462.

315. AS, as if.

320. A DREARIE CORSE, Sir Terwin, mentioned in xxvii.

332. JUDGE AGAINST THEE RIGHT, give just judgment against thee.

333. TO PRICE, to pay the price of.

336. WHAT JUSTICE, etc., what justice ever gave any other judgment but (this, that) he, who deserves, etc.

340. IS THEN UNJUST, etc., is it then unjust to give each man his due?

xxxix. Observe the subtle argument on suicide in this and st. xl.

xli. Spenser here puts into the mouth of the Knight Socrates' argument to Cebes in their dialogue on the immortality of the soul. Plato's Phaedo, vi.

367. QUOTH HE, Despair.

403. THY DATE, the allotted measure or duration of thy life.

408. THY SINFULL HIRE, thy service of sin.

431. AS HE WERE CHARMED, etc., as if he were under the spell of magic incantation.

438. IN A TABLE, in a picture. The horrors of the Last Judgment and the torments of the lost were favorite subjects of the mediaeval Catholic painters.

468. FIRE-MOUTHED DRAGON. The dragons of romance are all described as fire-breathing,

473. THAT CHOSEN ART, a reference to the doctrine of Election. Mark, xiii, 20.

476. ACCURST HAND-WRITING. A reference to Paul's letter to the Colossians, ii, 14, in which he declares that the gospel of grace has superseded the law of Moses.

484. HE SO HIMSELFE HAD DREST, he had thus attempted (to take his life).

QUESTIONS AND TOPICS

(Canto IX)

1. Give an account of Prince Arthur's vision of the Faerie Queene. 2. Interpret his search for her as an allegory of the young man's quest after his ideal. 3. Observe in xvii an allusion to Spenser's patron, Lord Leicester, who was a favored suitor for Elizabeth's hand. 4. What presents did the Knights exchange at parting? 5. Characterize Sir Trevisan by his appearance, speech, and actions. What does he symbolize? 6. Note the skill with which Spenser arouses interest before telling of the interview with Despair. 7. What was the fate of Sir Terwin? Its moral significance? 8. Describe the Cave of Despair, and show what effects are aimed at by the poet. 9. Compare with Despair Bunyan's Giant Despair and the Man in the Iron Cage. 10. Trace the sophistries by which Despair works in the mind of the Knight, e.g. the arguments from necessity (fatalism), humanity, cowardice, discouragement and disgust on account of his past failures, dread of the future, of God's justice, and the relief of death. 11. Does Despair show knowledge of the Knight's past? 12. With what powerful truths does Una meet the arguments of Despair? 13. Where do you find reference to mediaeval art?

14. Find examples of Euphuism, metaphors, similes, Latinisms, and alliteration. 15. Explain the verb forms in ll. 154, 321, 336.

CANTO X

I. The Plot: The Redcross Knight is conducted by Una to the House of Holiness, where they are welcomed by Dame Coelia and graciously entertained. The Knight is instructed by Fidelia, Speranza, and Charissa, the three daughters of Coelia, in his relations to God and his fellow-men. He is healed in body, and undergoes discipline for his sins. Mercy conducts him through the Hospital of Good Works, where he sees her seven Beadsmen. He then with Una climbs the Hill of Contemplation and hears from a holy man the story of his past with a prophecy of his future, and obtains a view of the City of Heaven.

This must be pronounced the most beautiful canto of the first book.

II. The Allegory: 1. The Soul is brought by the Truth to a knowledge of the Heavenly Life (Coelia), and is led, through repentance, to seek forgiveness and to desire a holier life. Having learned Faith and Hope, it acquires a zeal for Good Works (Charity), and is strengthened by exercising Patience and Repentance. At last it enjoys a mood of happy Contemplation of the past with bright prospects for the future. The whole canto sets forth the beauty in a life of faith combined with good deeds.

2. The religious allegory presents the doctrine, discipline, and spirit of Protestantism in the sixteenth century. A close parallel may be drawn between this canto and many things in Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress. For his House of Holiness and its management, Spenser has no doubt taken many suggestions from the great manor house of some Elizabethan gentleman.

19. AN AUNTIENT HOUSE, the House of Holiness.

28. DAME COELIA, i.e. the Heavenly Lady.

33. FIDELIA AND SPERANZA, Faith and Hope.

35. FAIRE CHARISSA, Charity, or Love. Cf. I Corinthians, xiii, 13.

44. HIGHT HUMILTA, named Humility.

59. AND KNEW HIS GOOD, etc., and knew how to conduct himself to all of every rank.

77. EVER-DYING DREAD, constant dread of death.

78. LONG A DAY, many a long day.

79. THY WEARY SOLES TO LEAD, to guide thy weary feet (to rescue them).

xiii. The description of Fidelia is full of biblical allusions, viz.; her white robe (Revelation, vii, 9); the sacramental cup filled with wine and water according to the custom of the early Christians (John, xix, 34); the serpent symbolical of healing power (Numbers, xxi, and Mark, xiv, 24); the book sealed with the blood of the Lamb (Revelation, v, 1, and II Corinthians, v, 7).

144. ENCREASE is in the optative subj. with God as subject.

172. AND WHEN SHE LIST, etc., and when it pleased her to manifest her higher spiritual power. These miracles of Faith are based on the following passages: Joshua, x, 12; II Kings, xx, 10; Judges, vii, 7; Exodus, xiv, 21; Joshua, iii, 17; Matthew, xxi, 21.

176. This line is given in the folio edition of 1609, but is wanting in the edition of 1590 and 1596.

209. HARDLY HIM INTREAT, scarcely prevail on him.

213. The absolutions granted by the clergy.

215. THE PASSION OF HIS PLIGHT, his suffering condition.

xxx. Percival points out the resemblance between Spenser's Charity and Andrea del Sarto's famous painting La Charite in the Louvre.

277. WHOSE PASSING PRICE, etc., whose surpassing value it was difficult to calculate.

292. WELL TO DONNE, well doing, right doing.

318. SEVEN BEAD-MEN, seven men of prayer, corresponding to the Seven Deadly Sins of the House of Pride. They represent good works: (1) entertainment of strangers; (2) food to the needy; (3) clothing to the naked; (4) relief to prisoners; (5) comfort to the sick; (6) burial of the dead, and (7) care of widows and orphans.

354. PRICE OF BRAS, ransom in money. Bras is a Latinism from aes.

355. FROM TURKES AND SARAZINS. In the sixteenth century thousands of Christians were held captive in Turkish and Saracen prisons, and many of these were ransomed by the charitable of Europe. Prescott tells us that Charles V found 10,000 Christians in Tunis at its capture in 1535.

359. HE THAT HARROWD HELL. The Harrowing of Hell was the mediaeval belief in the descent of Christ to hell to redeem the souls of Old Testament saints, and to despoil the powers of darkness. It is the subject of an old miracle play.

374. The reference is to the resurrection from the dead.

378. I DEAD BE NOT DEFOULD, that I (when) dead be not defiled. This prayer was answered, for the poet received honorable burial in Westminster Abbey.

381. AND WIDOWES AYD, i.e. had charge (to) aid widows, etc.

382. IN FACE OF JUDGEMENT, before the judgment-seat.

422-423. HIS ... HER, Redcross Knight...mercy.

430. FOR NOUGHT HE CAR'D, for he cared nought that his body had been long unfed.

470. THAT SAME MIGHTY MAN OF GOD, Moses. See Exodus, xiv, 16, xxiv, and xxxiv.

471. THAT BLOOD-RED BILLOWES, of the Red Sea.

478. THAT SACRED HILL, the mount of Olives.

483. THAT PLEASAUNT MOUNT, mount Parnassus, the seat of the nine Muses (l. 485), the patronesses of the arts and of learning. Sacred and profane literature are beautifully blended in the thoughts of the contemplative man.

489. A GOODLY CITIE, the Celestial City, Heaven. The description is suggested by that in Revelation, xxi, 10 seq.

515. THAT GREAT CLEOPOLIS, London, "the city of glory."

519. PANTHEA, probably Westminster Abbey, in which Elizabeth's ancestors were buried.

524. FOR EARTHLY FRAME, for an earthly structure.

549. SAINT GEORGE OF MERY ENGLAND. St. George became the patron Saint of England in 1344, when Edward III consecrated to him the Order of the Garter. Church and Percival say that merry means pleasant and referred originally to the country, not the people. Cf. Mereweather.

lxii. Observe that lines 1, 2, 5, 6 are spoken by the Knight, the rest by Contemplation.

565. BEQUEATHED CARE, the charge intrusted to thee (by Una).

579. AND MANY BLOODY BATTAILES, etc., and fought many bloody pitched battles.

585. CHAUNGELINGS. The belief in the power of fairies to substitute their elf-children for human babies is frequently referred to in writers of Spenser's time. In the Seven Champions the witch Kalyb steals away St. George, the son of Lord Albert of Coventry, soon after his birth.

591. GEORGOS, from the Greek [Greek: georgos], an earth tiller, farmer. Spenser borrows the story in this stanza from that of Tages, son of Earth, who was similarly found and brought up. Ovid's Metamorphoses, xv, 553.

QUESTIONS AND TOPICS

(Canto X)

1. Observe that stanza i contains the moral of Canto IX. 2. What was Una's purpose in bringing the Knight to the House of Holiness? 3. Why should Faith and Hope be represented as betrothed virgins, and Charity a matron? 4. Who were Zeal, Reverence, Obedience, Patience, and Mercy, with the symbolism of each? 5. Who was the door-keeper? Explain the allegory. 6. Find and explain the biblical allusions in this Canto, which shows the influence of the Bible to a remarkable extent. 7. In what was the Knight instructed by Faith (xix seq.)? 8. Compare the mood of the Knight in xxi with that in Canto IX, li. 9. How did the two situations affect Una? 10. Note the teachings in xxiii (prayer), xxiv (absolution), and xxv (mortification of the flesh). 11. Observe that Faith teaches the Knight his relations to God; Charity, those to his fellow-men. 12. Explain the lyric note in l. 378. 13. Give an account of the knight's visit to the Hill of Contemplation. Explain the allegory. 14. Find a stanza complimentary to Queen Elizabeth. 16. What prophecy was made of the Knight?

CANTO XI

I. The Plot: The Redcross Knight reaches the Brazen Tower in which Una's parents, the King and Queen of Eden, are besieged by the Dragon. The monster is described. The first day's fight is described, in which the Knight is borne through the air in the Dragon's claws, wounds him under the wing with his lance, but is scorched by the flames from the monster's mouth. The Knight is healed by a bath in the Well of Life. On the second day the Knight gives the Dragon several sword-wounds, but is stung by the monster's tail and forced to retreat by the flames. That night he is refreshed and healed by the balm from the Tree of Life. On the third day he slays the Dragon by a thrust into his vitals.

II. The Allegory: 1. Mankind has been deprived of Eden by Sin or Satan (Dragon). The Christian overcomes the devil by means of the whole armor of God (shield of faith, helmet of salvation, sword of the Spirit, etc.). The soul is strengthened by the ordinances of religion: baptism, regeneration, etc.

2. There is a hint of the long and desperate struggle between Reformed England (St. George) and the Church of Rome, in which the power of the Pope and the King of Spain was broken in England, the Netherlands, and other parts of Europe. Some may see a remoter allusion to the delivery of Ireland from the same tyranny.

13. BE AT YOUR KEEPING WELL, be well on your guard.

iii. This stanza is not found in the edition of 1590.

30. AND SEEMD UNEATH, etc., and seemed to shake the steadfast ground (so that it became) unstable. Church and Nares take uneath to mean "beneath" or "underneath"; Kitchin conjectures "almost."

31. THAT DREADFUL DRAGON, symbolical of Satan. Spenser here imitates the combat between St. George and the Dragon in the Seven Champions of Christendom, i.

32. This description of the dragon watching the tower from the sunny hillside is justly admired for its picturesqueness, power, and suggestiveness. The language is extremely simple, but the effect is awe-inspiring. It has been compared with Turner's great painting of the Dragon of the Hesperides.

42. O THOU SACRED MUSE, Clio, the Muse of History, whom Spenser calls the daughter of Phoebus (Apollo) and Mnemosyne (Memory).

56. TILL I OF WARRES, etc. Spenser is here supposed to refer to his plan to continue the Faerie Queene and treat of the wars of the English with Philip II ("Paynim King") and the Spanish ("Sarazin").

61. LET DOWNE THAT HAUGHTIE STRING, etc., cease that high-pitched strain and sing a second (or tenor) to my (lower) tune.

120. AS TWO BROAD BEACONS. Kitchin thinks this passage is a reminiscence of the beacon-fires of July 29, 1588, which signaled the arrival of the Armada off the Cornish coast.

158. HER FLITTING PARTS, her shifting parts; referring to the instability of the air.

161. LOW STOUPING, swooping low (to the ground); a term in falconry.

167. HAGARD HAUKE, a wild, untamed falcon.

168. ABOVE HIS HABLE MIGHT, beyond the strength of which he is capable.

172. HE SO DISSEIZED, etc., i.e. the dragon being thus dispossessed of his rough grip. The construction is nominative absolute.

185. AND GREEDY GULFE DOES GAPE, etc., i.e. the greedy waters gape as if they would devour the land.

187. THE BLUSTRING BRETHREN, the winds.

228. HIS WIDE DEVOURING OVEN, the furnace of his maw, or belly.

235. THAT GREAT CHAMPION, Hercules. The charmed garment steeped in the blood of the Centaur Nessus, whom Hercules had slain, was given him by his wife Dejanira in order to win back his love. Instead of acting as a philter, the poison-robe burned the flesh from his body. Ovid's Metamorphoses, ix, 105.

xxviii. Observe the correspondence between the adjectives in l. 244 and the nouns in l. 245. The sense is: "He was so faint," etc.

261. THE WELL OF LIFE. This incident is borrowed from Bevis of Hampton. The allegory is based on John, iv, 14, and Revelation, xxii, 1.

267. SILO, the healing Pool of Siloam, John, ix, 7. Jordan, by bathing in which Naaman was healed of leprosy, II Kings, v, 10.

268. BATH, in Somersetshire, a town famous from the earliest times for its medicinal baths. SPAU, a town in Belgium noted for its healthful waters, now a generic name for German watering-places.

269. CEPHISE, the river Cephissus in Boeotia whose waters possessed the power of bleaching the fleece of sheep. Cf. Isaiah, i, 18. HEBRUS, a river in Thrace, here mentioned because it awaked to music the head and lyre of the dead Orpheus, as he floated down its stream. Ovid's Metamorphoses, xi, 50.

295. TO MOVE, moving. This is a French idiom.

300. AS EAGLE FRESH OUT OF THE OCEAN WAVE, etc. There was an ancient belief, that once in ten years the eagle would soar into the empyrean, and plunging thence into the sea, would molt his plumage and renew his youth with a fresh supply of feathers.

312. HIS BRIGHT DEAW-BURNING BLADE, his bright blade flashing with the "holy water dew" in which it had been hardened (l. 317).

322. NE MOLTEN METTALL IN HIS BLOOD EMBREW, i.e. nor sword bathe itself in his (the dragon's) blood.

335. WITH SHARPE INTENDED STING, with sharp, outstretched sting.

366. THE GRIPED GAGE, the pledge (shield) seized (by the dragon).

386. MISSED NOT HIS MINISHT MIGHT, felt not the loss of its diminished strength; i.e. though cut off, the paw still held to the shield.

xliv. In comparing the fire-spewing dragon to a volcano, Spenser follows Vergil's Aeneid, iii, 571, and Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered, iv, 8.

406. A GOODLY TREE. Cf. Genesis, ii, 9, and Revelation, xxii, 2.

409. OVER ALL WERE RED, everywhere were spoken of.

414. Cf. Genesis, iii, 2. Adam and Eve were expelled from the garden lest they should eat and live forever.

434. DEADLY MADE, a creature of death, i.e. hell-born.

469. An imitation of an incident in the Seven Champions in which a winged serpent attempts to swallow St. George; i, 1.

477. AND BACK RETYRD, and as it was withdrawn. A Gallicism.

490. WHICH SHE MISDEEM'D, in which she was mistaken. Una feared that the dragon was not dead.

QUESTIONS AND TOPICS

(Canto XI)

1. Describe the three days' fight between the Knight and the Dragon. 2. What advantages does each gain? 3. Study the Dragon as a type of the conventional monster of romance, contrasting his brutal nature with the intellectuality and strategy of the Knight. 4. Study the battle as an allegory of the victory of mind over matter, of virtue over vice, of Protestantism over Romanism. 5. By what devices does Spenser obtain the effects of terror? Mystery and terror are prime elements in romance. 6. Find examples of another romantic characteristic, exaggeration. 7. Do you think that in his use of hyperbole and impossibilities Spenser shows that he was deficient in a sense of humor? 8. Observe the lyric note in iii and liv. 9. How does the poet impress the reader with the size of the Dragon? 10. Which Muse does he invoke? 11. Spenser's poetry is richly sensuous: find passages in which he appeals to the sense of sight (iv, viii, xiv), of sound (iv, ix), of touch (x, xi, vii), of smell (xiii), of taste (xiii), of pain (xxxvii, xxvi, xxii), of motion (x, xv, xviii). 12. Where do you find an allegory of baptism? Of regeneration? Of the resurrection of Christ (the three days)? 13. Analyze the descriptions of the coming of darkness and of dawn.

CANTO XII

I. The Plot: The death of the dragon is announced by the watchman on the tower of the city, and Una's parents, the King and Queen, accompanied by a great throng, come forth rejoicing at their deliverance. The Knight and Una are conducted with great honors into the palace. On the eve of their betrothal, Archimago suddenly appears as Duessa's messenger and claims the Knight. Their wicked attempt is frustrated, and the pair are happily betrothed. After a long time spent in Una's society, the Knight sets out to engage in the further service of the Faerie Queene.

II. The Allegory: Holiness, by conquering the devil, frees the whole human race from the tyranny of sin. It is embarrassed by the unexpected appearance of the consequences of its past sins, but makes a manly confession. In spite of hypocritical intrigues (Archimago) and false slanders (Duessa), Holiness is united to Truth, thus forming a perfect character. The champion of the church militant responds cheerfully to the calls of duty and honor.

2. Reformed England, having destroyed the brutal power of Rome, is firmly united to the truth in spite of the intrigues of the Pope to win it back to allegiance. It then goes forth against the King of Spain in obedience to the command of Queen Elizabeth.

3. VERE THE MAINE SHETE, shift the mainsail, BEARE UP WITH THE LAND, direct the ship toward land.

25. OUT OF HOND, at once.

43. OF TALL YOUNG MEN. An allusion to Queen Elizabeth's Pensioners, a band of the tallest and handsomest young men, of the best families and fortunes, that could be found (Warton). ALL HABLE ARMES TO SOWND, all proper to wield armes.

57. TO THE MAYDENS, to the accompaniment of the maidens' timbrels.

71. IN HER SELF-RESEMBLANCE WELL BESEENE, looking well in her resemblance to her proper self, i.e. a king's daughter.

73. THE RASKALL MANY, the crowd of common people.

116. OF GREAT NAME, of great celebrity, i.e. value.

117. FITTING PURPOSE FRAME, held fitting conversation.

xiv. Kitchin and Percival think this whole passage a clever compliment to the parsimony of the Queen's court.

161. THAT PROUD PAYNIM KING, probably a reference to Philip of Spain.

168. NOR DOEN UNDO, nor undo what has been done.

173. IN SORT AS, even as.

205. ALL WERE SHE, although she had been. IN PLACE, in various places.

313. BAIT. In Spenser's time bear-baiting was a favorite pastime of the people and received royal patronage.

328. THE HOUSLING FIRE, the sacramental fire. Spenser seems here to have in mind, not the Christian housel or Eucharist, but the Roman marriage rites with their symbolic fire and water.

347. TRINALL TRIPLICITIES, the threefold three orders of the celestial hierarchy according to the scholastic theologians. They were as follows: (1) Seraphim, Cherubim, Thrones; (2) Dominations, Virtues, Powers; (3) Princedoms, Archangels, and Angels. Cf. Dante's Paradiso, xxviii, Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered, xviii, 96, and Milton's Paradise Lost, v, 748.

375. HER TACKLES SPENT, her worn-out rigging.

QUESTIONS AND TOPICS

(Canto XII)

1. Contrast the tone of this canto with the preceding two. 2. When does Spenser drop into a lighter, humorous vein? 3. Find allusions to sixteenth century customs, e.g. that of sitting on rush-strewn floors. 4. How was the Redcross Knight received by the King? 5. Compare Una's costume with that described in the first canto. Why this change? 6. What hint of the significance of her name in xxi? 7. What is the effect of Archimago's appearance? (For dramatic surprise.) 8. What is the effect of Duessa's letter? (Suspense of fear.) 9. Observe the confusion of Christian and Pagan rites in this canto. 10. Where does Spenser make happy use of maritime figures? 11. Explain the allegory of this canto.

* * * * *

GLOSSARY

[The numbers refer to cantos and stanzas.]

A

Abide, v, 17, to attend on. About, i, 11, out of. Acquite, viii, 1, release, set free. Addrest, ii, 11, armed, equipped; x, 11, directed. Advise, i, 33, consider. Advizement, iv, 12, counsel, advice. Afflicted, Int. 4, humble. Affray, iii, 12, terror, alarm; v, 30, to startle. Affronted, viii, 13, opposed. Afore, x, 49, ahead, in front of. Agraste, x, 18, favor, show grace. Albe, v, 45, although. All, x, 47; xii, 23, although. Almner, x, 38, almoner, distributer of alms. Als, ix, 18, also, quite so. Amate, ix, 45, dismay, dishearten. Amis, iv, 18, linen head-dress. Amoves, iv, 45; viii, 21; ix, 18, moves. Andvile, xi, 42, anvil. Apply, x, 46, attend to, add. Aread, viii, 31, 33; ix, 6, 23; x, 51, 64, tell, explain; xii, 28, advise; ared, x, 17; explained; areeds, Int. 1, urges. Arise, vi, 32, depart, rise out of. Armorie, i, 27, armor. Arras, iv, 6; viii, 35, tapestry. Aslake, iii, 36, appease, abate the fury of. Assay, ii, 13, approved quality, value; vii, 27, trial; viii, 8, assault; ii, 24; iv, 8; viii, 2; xi, 32, try, assail, attempt. Assoiled, x, 52, absolved. Astond, ii, 31; vi, 9; ix, 35, astounded, amazed. Attach, xii, 35, seize, arrest. Attaine, ii, 8, reach, fall in with. Attaint, vii, 34, obscure, discolor. Avale, i, 21, fall, sink. Avise, v, 40; viii, 15, perceive.

B

Baite, i, 32, feed, refresh. Bale, i, 16; viii, 4, disaster, destruction; ix, 16, 29, trouble, grief. Banes, xii, 36, banns of marriage. Battailous, v, 2, warlike, ready for battle. Battrie, ix, 11, assault. Bauldrick, vii, 29, a leather girdle for the sword or bugle, worn pendant across the shoulder and breast. Bayes, vii, 3, bathes. Beades, i, 30, prayers. Beadmen, x, 36, men devoted to prayer for the soul of the founder of the charitable institution in which they lived. Become, x, 16, gone to; became, x, 66, suited. Bed, ix, 41, bid. Bedight, xii, 21, adorned. Beguyld, xi, 25, foiled. Beheast, iv, 18, command. Behight, x, 64, name, declare; x, 50, intrusted, delivered; xi, 38, behot, promised. Beseemed, viii, 32, suited, was becoming. Beseene, xii, 5, (good) looking, or (well) dressed. Bestedd, i, 24, situated, badly off. Bet, iii, 19, beat; bett, vi, 5. Betake, xii, 25, intrust to, hand over to. Bethrall, viii, 28, imprison, take captive. Bever, vii, 31, the lower and movable part of the helmet. Bewaile, vi, 1, cause, bring about. Use either forced, or an error (Nares). Bidding, i, 30, praying. Bilive, or blive, v, 32, quickly. Blame, ii, 18, hurt, injury, or blameworthiness. Blaze, xi, 7, proclaim. Blent, vi, 42, stained. Blesse, v, 6; viii, 22, brandish; vii, 12; ix, 28, protect, deliver; pp. blest. Blubbred, vi, 9, disfigured or swollen with weeping. Blunt, x, 47, dim (of eyesight). Bond, i, 3, bound. Booteth, iii, 20, 40, profits, avails. Bootlesse, v, 33, without avail. Bost, iii, 24, vain glory. Boughtes, i, 15; xi, 11, folds, coils. Bound, x, 67, lead. Bouzingcan, iv, 22, drinking vessel. Bowrs, viii, 41, muscles. Bras, x, 40, money, cf. Lat. aes. Brast, v, 31; viii, 4; ix, 21, burst. Brave, x, 42, fair, beautiful. Brawned, viii, 41; brawny, muscular. Breares, x, 35, briars. Brent, ix, 10; xi, 28, burnt. Brode, iv, 16, abroad. Brond, iv, 33; viii, 21, firebrand. Buffe, ii, 17; xi, 24, blow. Bugle, viii, 3, wild ox. Buxome, xi, 37, pliant, yielding. Bylive, ix, 4, quickly.

C

Call, viii, 46, cap, headdress. Can, iv, 46, an auxiliary verb with preterite meaning; ix, 5, can=gan, began (Halliwell). Canon, vii, 37, a smooth, round bit (for horses). Carefull, v, 52, etc., full of care, anxious, sorrowful. Careless, i, 41; ii, 45, free from care. Carke, i, 44, care, sorrow, anxiety. Carle, ix, 54, churl. Cast, x, 2; xi, 28, resolve, plan. Caytive, v, 45, captive; v, 11; viii, 32; ix, 11, base, mean. Chaufe, vii, 21, chafe, warm by rubbing; iii, 33, 43, vex, heat. Chaw, iv, 30, jaw. Chear, ii, 27, 42, face. Chearen, x, 2, regain cheerfulness, refresh (himself). Cleare, x, 28, clean. Cleene, ix, 4, clear, pure, bright. Compare, iv, 28, collect. Compel, i, 5, call to aid. Conceit, conception or design. Constraint, ii, 8, anguish; vii, 34, binding charms. Corage, ii, 35, heart. Corse, iii, 42; iv, 22, etc., body. Couch, ii, 15, lay (a lance in rest), level, adjust; couched xi, 9, laid in place (of armor plates). Couched, vii, 31, lying down with head up, ready to spring. Counterfesaunce, viii, 49, fraud, imposture. Court, vii, 38, courteous attention. Crime, x, 28, sin; xi, 46, cause. Cruddy, v, 29, clotted. Crudled, vii, 6; ix, 52, curdled, congealed (with cold). Cure, v, 44, charge.

D

Daint, x, 2, dainty, delicate. Dalliaunce, ii, 14, trifling, light talk. Dame, xii, 20, wife. Damnify, xi, 52, injure. Darrayne, iv, 40; vii, 11, prepare (for battle). Deare, vii, 48, hurt, injury. Deaw-burning, xi, 35, bright with dew. Debonaire, ii, 23, gracious, courteous. Defeasaunce, xii, 12, defeat. Defray, v, 42, appease. Deitye, iii, 21, immortality. Derth, ii, 27, dearness, high value. Deryn'd, iii, 2, diverted, drawn away. Despight, ii, 6, resentment; iv, 35, 41, etc., malice, spite, contempt; vii, 49; xi, 17, injury. Despoile, x, 17, strip. Devise, xii, 17, plan. Diamond, ix, 19, adamant, steel. Dight, vii, 8; iv, 14, etc., arrange, dress, adorn. Disaventrous, vii, 48, ix, 11, unfortunate. Discipline, vi, 31, teaching. Discolourd, vii, 32, variegated. Discourse, xii, 14, description; xii, 15, to narrate. Disease, xi, 38, render uneasy. Dishonesty, ii, 23, unchastity. Dispence, iii, 30, pay for. Dispiteous, ii, 15, cruel. Disple, x, 27, discipline. Disseized, xi, 20, dispossessed. Dissolute, vii, 51, weak, unstrung. Distayned, xi, 23, defiled. Dites, viii, 18, raises (a club). Diverse, i, 44, distracting. Divide, v, 17, play (variations). Documents, x, 19, doctrines. Donne, x, 33, to do. Doom, ix, 38, judgment. Doted, viii, 34, foolish. Doubt, vi, 1, fear. Doughty, xi, 52; xii, 6, strong, brave. Dragonets, xii, 10, little dragons. Dreed, or dred, Int. 4; vi, 2, object of reverence. Drere, viii, 40, sorrow. Drery, v, 30, gloomy; vi, 45, dripping with blood. Dreriment, ii, 44; xi, 32, sorrow, gloom. Drest, ix, 54, prepared, arranged. Drift, viii, 22, impetus. Droome, ix, 41, drum. Drousy-hed, ii, 7, drowsiness. Dry-dropsie, iv, 23 (meaning doubtful). (1) Dropsy causing thirst (Warton). (2) A misprint for dire dropsie (Upton). (3) A misprint for hydropsie (Collier). Dye, ii, 36, chance, fortune (lit. a small cube used for gaming).

E

Earne, i, 3; vi, 25; ix, 18, yearn, long for. Edifyde, i, 34, built. Eeke, v, 42, increase. Eft, ix, 25, again. Eftsoones, x, 24, etc., forthwith. Eke, iii, 21, also. Eld, x, 8, old age. Embalme, v, 17, anoint, pour balm into. Embaye, ix, 13; x, 27, bathe. Embost, iii, 24, encased; ix, 29, fatigued. Embosse, xi, 20, plunge. Embowed, ix, 19, rounded. Emboyled, xi, 28, agitated, troubled. Embrew, xi, 36, imbrue, drench. Empassioned, iii, 2, moved to pity. Empeach, viii, 34, hinder. Emperse, xi, 53, pierce. Emprize, ix, 1, undertaking, adventure. Enchace, xii, 23, set off in fitting terms. Endew, iv, 51, endow. Enfouldred, xi, 40, shot forth (like a thunderbolt). Engrave, x, 42, bury, entomb. Enhaunst, i, 17; v, 47, raised. Enlargen, viii, 37, deliver. Ensample, ix, 12, witness. Ensue, iv, 34, pursue; ix, 44, persecute. Entirely, xi, 32, with all the heart. Entraile, i, 16, fold, twist. Envie, ill will, hatred. Equall, vi, 26, side by side. Errant, iv, 38; x, 10, wandering (in quest of adventure). Esloyne, iv, 20, retire. Essoyne, iv, 20, excuse, exemption. Eugh, i, 9, yew. Ewghen, xi, 19, made of yew. Excheat, v, 25, gain; lit. property forfeited to the lord of a fief. Extirpe, x, 25, uproot. Eyas, xi, 34, young untrained hawk, unfledged falcon. Eyne, eien, eyen, ii, 27, etc., eyes.

F

Fact, iv, 34; ix, 37, feat, evil deed. Fall, ix, 2, befall. Fare, i, 11, etc., go, travel. Fatal, ix, 7, ordained by fate. Fattie, i, 21, fertilizing. Fayne, iv, 10, gladly; vi, 12, glad. Faytor, iv, 47; xii, 35, deceiver, villain, sham. Fearefull, i, 13, alarmed. Feature, viii, 49, form. Fee, x, 43, payment. Felly, v, 34, fiercely. Fere, x, 4, husband; lit. companion. Fillet, iii, 4, snood. Fit, ii, 18, death agony; iv, 34, struggle, passion; xi, 7, musical strain. Flaggy, xi, 10, yielding, hanging loose. Flit, iv, 5, crumble away. Foile, iv, 4, leaf of metal. Foltring, vii, 24, stammering. Fond, ix, 39, foolish. Fone, ii, 23, foes. Food, viii, 9, feud. Foolhappie, vi, 1, happy as a fool, "fortunate rather than provident" (Nares). Fordonne, v, 41; etc., undone, ruined, wounded to death. Foreby, vi, 39, near. Forespent, ix, 43, wasted, squandered. Foretaught, vii, 18, either (1) untaught, mistaught, or (2) taught before, hence, perhaps, despised (Warren). Forlore, viii, 29; x, 21, forlorn, forsaken. Forray, xii, 3, ravage, prey upon. Forsake, xi, 24, avoid. Forwandring, vi, 34, weary with wandering, or utterly astray. Forwarned, ii, 18, warded off. Forwasted, i, 5; xi, 1, ravaged, utterly wasted. Forwearied, i, 32, etc., tterly weary. Forworne, vi, 35, much worn. Fraight, xii, 35, fraught, freighted. Frame, viii, 30, support, steady. Francklin, x, 6, freeman, freeholder. Fray, i, 38, to frighten; ii, 14, an affray. Freak, iii, 1; iv, 50, whim, caprice. Frounce, iv, 14, curl, plait, friz (the hair). Fruitfull-headed, viii, 20, many-headed. Fry, xii, 7, crowd, swarm. Funerall, ii, 20, death. Fyne, iv, 21, thin; v, 28, fine.

G

Gage, xi, 41, pledge, the thing contended for. Game, xii, 8, sport. Gan, ii, 2, began, often used as auxiliary verb, "did." Gate, i, 13, way; viii, 12, manner. Geaunt, vii, 12, giant. Gent, ix, 6, 27, gentle, gracious, fair. German, v, 10, 13, brother. Gest, x, 15, adventure, exploit. Ghost, ii, 19, spirit. Gin, v, 35, engine, instrument (of torture). Gins, see gan. Girlond, ii, 30, garland. Giust, i, 1, tilt, joust. Glitterand, iv, 16; vii, 29, glittering. Gnarre, v, 34, gnarl, snarl, growl. Gobbet, i, 20; xi, 13, lump, piece. Gorge, i, 19, etc., throat. Gossip, xii, 11, neighbor, crony. Government, ix, 10, self-control. Graile, vii, 6, gravel. Graine, vii, 1, dye, fast color. Gree, v, 16, favor, good will, satisfaction. Greedy, viii, 29, eager. Gren, vi, 11, grin. Griesie, ix, 35, horrible. Griesly, ix, 21, grisly, hideous. Griple, iv, 31, greedy, grasping. Groome, servant. Grosse, xi, 20, fast, heavy. Grudging, ii, 19, groaning. Gryfon, v, 8, griffin (a fabulous animal half lion, half eagle). Guerdon, iii, 40, reward. Guise, vi, 25; xii, 14, guize, mode (of life).

H

Hable, xi, 19, able, skillful. Hagard, xi, 19, wild, untrained. Hanging, ii, 16, doubtful. Hardiment, ix, 2; i, 14, boldness. Harrow, x, 40, despoil. Haught, vi, 29, haughty. Heare, v, 23, pass for being so unlucky, in such evil case (Kitchin). Heast, vii, 18, command. Heben, Int. 3; vii, 37, of ebony wood. Heft, xi, 39, raised on high. Henge, xi, 21, orbit; lit, hinge. Hew, i, 46, etc., form, countenance; iii, 11, color. Hight, ix, 14; x, 55, called, was called; intrusted. Hond, out of, xii, 3, at once. Horrid, vi, 25; vii, 31, rough, bristling. Hot, xi, 29, was called; see hight. Housling, xii, 37, sacramental. Hove, ii, 37, rose, stood on end. Humour, i, 36, moisture. Hurtle, iv, 16, 40; viii, 17, rush, clash together. Hurtlesse, vi, 31, harmless, gentle. Husher, iv, 13, usher.

I

Imbrew, vii, 47, imbrue, drench. Impe, Int. 3; ix, 6, etc., child, scion. Impeach, viii, 34, hinder. Imperceable, xi, 17, that cannot be pierced. Imply, vi, 6; xi, 23, infold. Importune, xi, 53, violent. Improvided, xii, 34, unforeseen. In, i, 33, inn, lodging. Incontinent, ix, 19, at once. Infected, x, 25, ingrained. Infest, xi, 6, make fierce or hostile. Influence, viii, 42, power of the stars. Intended, xi, 38, armed, stretched out. Intendiment, xii, 31, attention. Intent, i, 43; ix, 27, aim, purpose. Invent, vi, 15, discover.

J

Jealous, suspicious. Jolly, i, 1; ii, 11, fine, handsome. Jott, x, 26, speck, small piece. Journall, xi, 31, daily. Joy, vi, 17, to be cheerful. Joyaunce, iv, 37, gladness, merriment.

K

Keepe, i, 40, heed, care. Keeping, xi, 2, care, guard. Kend, xii, 1, known. Kest, xi, 31, cast. Kindly, iii, 28, etc., natural, according to nature. Kirtle, iv, 31, coat, tunic. Knee, ix, 34, projection (of rocks). Knife, vi, 38, sword.

L

Lad, i, 4, led. Launch, iii, 42; iv, 46, pierce. Lay-stall, v, 53, rubbish heap, dunghill. Lazar, iv, 3, leper. Leach, v, 17, 44; x, 23, surgeon, physician. Learne, vi, 25, teach. Leasing, vi, 48, falsehood, lying. Leke, v, 35, leaky. Leman, i, 6; vii, 14, lover, sweetheart, mistress. Let, viii, 13, hindrance. Lever, ix, 32, rather. Libbard, vi, 25, leopard. Liefe, iii, 28; ix, 17, dear one, darling. Lilled, v, 34, lolled. Lin, i, 24; v, 35, cease. List, ii, 22; vii, 35; x, 20; xi, 10, desired, pleased. Lively, ii, 24; vii, 20, living. Loft, i, 41, (doubtful) air, sky, or roof. Long, iv, 48, belong. Lore, i, 5, knowledge. Lorne, iv, 2, lost. Loute, i, 30; x, 44, bow, stoop. Lowre, ii, 22, frown, darken. Lumpish, i, 43, dull, heavy. Lustlesse, iv, 20, feeble, listless. Lynd, xi, 10, lined.

M

Mace, iv, 44, club. Make, vii, 7, 15, mate, companion. Mall, vii, 51, wooden hammer, or club. Many, xii, 9, troop, crowd. Mart, Int. 3, mass. Mated, ix, 12, overcome, confounded. Maw, i, 20, stomach. Maynly, vii, 12, violently. Mell, i, 30, meddle. Menage, vii, 37, manage. Ment, i, 5, joined, mingled. Mew, v, 20, prison, lit. cage for hawks. Mirksome, v, 28, dark, murky. Miscreant, v, 13; ix, 49, infidel, vile fellow. Misdeeming, ii, 3, misleading; iv, 2, misjudging. Misfeigning, iii, 40, pretending wrongfully. Misformed, i, 55; viii, 16, ill formed, or formed for evil. Misseeming, ix, 23; viii, 42, unseemly; vii, 50, deceit. Mister, ix, 23, sort of, manner of. Misweening, iv, 1, wrong thinking, wrong belief. Moe, mo, v, 50, etc., more. Mortality, x, 1, state of being mortal. Mortall, i, 15, deadly. Mote, iii, 29, etc., may, might. Mought, i, 42, might. Muchell, iv, 46; vi, 20, much, great.

N

Nathemore, viii, 13; ix, 25, none the more. Nephewes, v, 22, grandchildren, descendants. Ni'll, ix, 15, will not. Nosethrill, xi, 22, nostril. Note, xii, 17, know not. N'ould, vi, 17, would not. Noyance, i, 23, annoyance. Noye, x, 24; xi, 45, hurt, harm. Noyes, Noyce, vi, 8, noise. Noyous, v, 45; xi, 50, harmful, unpleasant.

O

Offend, xii, 1, injure. Offspring, vi, 30, ancestors. Origane, ii, 40, wild marjoram. Ought, iv, 39, owned, possessed. Outrage, xi, 40, insult, abuse. Overcraw, ix, 50, insult, crow over. Oversight, vi, 1, want of prudence. Owch, ii, 13; x, 31, jewel or socket in which a jewel was set.

P

Paine, xii, 34, labor, treacherous skill; ii, 39, effort; iv, 15, take pains. Paire, vii, 41, impair, injure. Paled, v, 5, fenced off, inclosed with a pale. Palfrey, i, 4; iii, 40, a lady's saddle horse, here Una's ass. Paramour, i, 9, lover (not in a bad sense). Parbreake, i, 20, vomit. Pardale, vi, 26, leopard. Parted, iii, 22, departed. Pas, iv, 11, surpass; xi, 15, step, pace. Passing, x, 24, surpassing. Passion, ii, 26, 32, deep feeling, lit. suffering. Passionate, xii, 16, express feelingly. Payne, vi, 21, pains, labor. Paynim, iv, 41; vi, 38; xi, 7, pagan, heathen. Peece, x, 59, something constructed (Cleopolis). Penne, xi, 10, feather, quill. Perceable, i, 7, that can be pierced. Perdie, perdy, vi, 42, French par Dieu, a common oath. Pere, viii, 7; xii, 17, noble, prince. Persaunt, x, 47, piercing. Pight, ii, 42, etc., pitched, fixed, placed. Pine, ix, 35, wasting away; viii, 40, pined, wasted away through torment. Plate, vi, 43; vii, 2, solid armor, as distinguished from the coat of mail, or light chain armor. Pleasaunce, ii, 30, courtesies; iv, 38; vii, 4, delight, conversational pleasure. Point, (1) ix, 41, appoint; (2) ii, 12, not a whit; (3) i, 16; ii, 12, (armed) at all points. Pollicie, iv, 12, statecraft, cunning. Portesse, iv, 19, breviary, small prayer-book. Posterne, v, 52, small private gate behind. Pouldred, vii, 12, powdered. Pounces, xi, 19, a hawk's claws. Poynant, vii, 19, sharp, piercing. Poyse, xi, 54, weight, force. Practicke, xii, 34, deceitful. Prancke, iv, 14, display gaudily. Praunce, vii, 11, strut proudly. Pray, ix, 30, ravage. Preace, iii, 3, crowd, throng. Presently, immediately. Price, ix, 37, pay the price of, atone for. Pricking, i, 1; iii, 33, riding, usually rapidly, i.e. spurring. Priefe, viii, 43, trial; ix, 17, proof; x, 24, proved excellence. Prime, ii, 40; etc., springtime. Privity, ix, 5, privacy. Prowesse, vii, 42, bravery. Prowest, iv, 41; v, 14, bravest. Puissance, i, 3, etc., power. Purchas, iii, 16, lit. acquisition, cant term for theft, or robbery (Nares). Purfled, ii, 13, embroidered on the edge. Purposes, ii, 30, conversation. Purveyance, xii, 13, provision.

Q

Quaile, ix, 49, subdue, overpower. Quayd, viii, 14, subdued. Quell, xi, 24, disconcert, daunt. Quight, viii, 10, repay. Quit, quitt, vi, 6, 10, to free. Quite, viii, 26, 27; x, 37, repay, return. Quited, i, 30, return a salute. Quoth, i, 12, etc., said.

R

Raft, i, 24, struck away (from reave). Ragged, xii, 23, rough, rugged. Raile, vi, 43, flow. Ramping, iii, 5, etc., leaping, bounding, erect; ramp, v, 28. Rapt, iv, 9, carried away. Rare, ii, 32, thin-voiced. Raskall, vii, 35; xii, 9, vulgar, base. Raught, vi, 20, etc., reached. Ravine, v, 8, prey. Raw, x, 2, unpracticed, out of training. Read, i, 13; x, 17, advise. Reave, iii, 36; xi, 41, snatch away, rob. Recoyle, x, 17, retreat. Recreaunt, iv, 41, base, cowardly. Recure, v, 44, etc., refresh. Red, vii, 46, etc., declared. Redoubted, iv, 40, terrible. Redound, vi, 30; iii, 8, overflow. Redresse, v, 30, restore, revive, reunite. Reed, i, 21, notice, perceive. Reele, v, 35, roll. Reft, ix, 31; x, 65, snatched away. Refte, vi, 39; xii, 39, bereft. Renverst, iv, 41, turned upside down. Repaire, vi, 30, return home. Repining, ii, 17, failing (Percival), angry (Upton). Repriefe, ix, 29, reproof. Retrate, i, 13, retreat. Reverse, ix, 48, bring back. Revoke, vi, 28, call back. Ridde, i, 36, remove, dispatch. Rife, iv, 35; ix, 52, much, exceedingly. Riotise, iv, 20, riot. Rode, xii, 42, anchorage, harbor. Rove, Int. 3, shoot (an arrow with an elevation, not point blank). Round, vi, 7, dance. Rowel, vii, 37, ring of a bit. Ruffin, iv, 34, rough, disordered. Rusty, v, 32, rust-colored, bloodstained, filthy. Ruth, v, 9, pity, sorrow.

S

Sacred, viii, 35, accursed—of ashes used impiously to receive the blood of the slain (Upton). Sad, i, 2; v, 20; x, 7; xii, 5, grave, mournful; iii, 10, firm, steady; i, 36, heavy. Sallow, i, 9, a kind of willow. Salvage, iii, 5; vi, 11, etc., wild, woodland (adj.). Sam, x, 57, together, same. Say, iv, 31, serge cloth for cloaks (Halliwell). Scath, iv, 35; xii, 34, hurt, mischief. Scor'd, i, 2, carved. Scowre, ii, 20, run fast. Scryne, Int. 2, chest, or case for keeping books, etc. Sead, x, 51, seed, posterity. Sease, xi, 38, fasten; seised, xii, 17, gained, taken possession of. Seel, vii, 23, lit. sew up the eyes (of hawks), deprive of sight. Seely, silly, vi, 10; i, 30; ii, 21, simple, innocent. Seemly, ii, 30, polite. Scene, v, 16, proved, tested. Semblaunt, ii, 12, appearance. Sent, i, 43, perception, sense. Shadow, represent typically. Shamefast, x, 15, shy, modest. Shaume, xii, 13, a wind musical instrument. Shend, i, 53, shame. Shew, iii, 10, sign, track. Shroud, i, 6, 8, shelter. Single, vi, 12, weak; viii, 12, mere. Sith, vii, 22, etc., since; sitheng, iv, 51. Sits, i, 30, becomes, suits. Slight, vii, 30, device; viii, 23, skill. Snubbe, viii, 7, knob, snag. Solemnize, x, 4, rite, solemnizing. Sooth, iii, 29, truth. Souce, v, 8, beat. Soust, iii, 31, drenched. Sowne, i, 41, sound. Sperst, i, 39; iv, 48, dispersed. Spill, iii, 43, destroy. Stadle, vi, 14, staff. Stanneries, stannaries, tin mines or tin works. Starke, i, 44. stiff. Sted, stedd, viii, 17, etc., place. Sterne, i, 18; xi, 28, tail. Stew, xi, 44, warm place. Stole, i, 4, 45; xii, 22, long robe. Stound, vii, 12, stunned; vii, 25; viii, 12, 25, 38, moment. Stowre, ii, 7, etc., distress, peril battle. Stye, xi, 25, ascend, rise up. Subject, xi, 19, lying beneath. Sure, ix, 19, secure. Swarved, x, 14, swerved. Swelt, vii, 6, burned. Swinge, xi, 26, singe. Swowne, i, 41, heavy sleep; ix, 52, swoon; swound, v, 19.

T

Table, ix, 49, picture. Tackles, xii, 42, rigging. Talaunts, xi, 41, talons. Teade, xii, 37, torch. Teene, ix, 34; xii, 18, grief, trouble, hurt. Then, x, 10, than. Thewes, ix, 3; x, 4, manners. Tho, i, 18, etc., then. Thorough, i, 32; x, 1, through. Thrall, ii, 22; vii, 44; viii, 1, subject; v, 45, 51; viii, 32, 37, prisoner; vi, 6, one in distress. Three-square, vi, 41, triangular. Thrill, iii, 42; x, 19; xi, 20, pierce. Thrist, vi, 38, thirst. Throw, x, 41, throe, pang. Tide, ii, 29, time (duration). Timely, i, 21; iv, 4, keeping time. Tire, iv, 35, train, rank, company; viii, 40; x, 31, headdress, attire. Told, iv, 27, counted. Tort, xii, 4, wrong. Touch, iii, 2, touchstone. Toy, vi, 28, sport. Trace, viii, 31, walk. Traine, trayne, i, 18; viii, 17; xi, 37, tail; iii, 24; vi, 3, etc., deceit, wiles. Transmew, vii, 35, transmute. Treachour, iv, 41; ix, 32, traitor. Treen, ii, 39; vii, 26, tree-like, of trees. Trenchand, i, 17; xi, 24, sharp, trenchant. Trinall, xii, 39, threefold. Truncked, viii, 10, truncated, with the limbs cut off. Trusse, xi, 19, to secure a firm hold on. Turnament, v, 1, tournament, combat of knights in the lists. Tway, vii, 27, two, twain. Twyfold, v, 28, twofold. Twyne, vi, 14, twist. Tyne, ix, 15, anxiety, pain.

U

Unacquainted, v, 21, unaccustomed. Unbid, ix, 54, unprayed for. Uncouth, i, 15; xi, 20, strange. Undight, iii, 4, unfastened. Uneath, ix, 38, etc., with difficulty. Unkindly, i, 26, unnatural. Unlich, v, 28, unlike. Untill, xi, 41, unto. Unty, xi, 41, loosen. Unwary, xii, 25, unexpected. Unweeting, ii, 45, etc., unaware, not knowing.

V

Venery, vi, 22, hunting. Vere, xii, 1, veer, change the direction of. Vew, vi, 25, aspect, appearance. Vild, ix, 46, vile. Vine-prop, i, 8, supporting the vine. Visour, vii, 1, visor, the part of the helmet which protected the eyes.

W

Wade, i, 12, walk, go, pass. Wage, iv, 39, reward, pledge. Wanton, ii, 13, 14, wild, unrestrained. Ware, vii, 1, wary. Warray, v, 48, wage war against. Wastfull, i, 32, etc., barren, wild. Wastnes, iii, 3, desert, wilderness. Wax, iv, 34, grow. Wayne, iv, 9, chariot. Wayting, x, 36, watching. Weare, i, 31, spend, pass. Weedes, Int. 1; ii, 21, clothes, x, 28, armor. Weene, i, 10; iii, 41, intend; x, 58, think. Weet, iii, 6, 11, to know; to weete, iii, 17, etc., to wit. Welke, i, 23, fade, grow dim. Welkin, iv, 9, sky. Well, ii, 43, well-being, health; i, 26, etc., quite, very; vii, 4, bubble up. Wex, xi, 1, grow; woxen, iv, 34. Whally, iv, 34, streaked (Warren). Whenas, ii, 32, etc., as soon as. Whereas, vi, 40, where. Whot, x, 26, hot. Whyleare, ix, 28, erewhile. Whylome, iv, 15, etc., formerly. Wight, ix, 23, 32, person, creature. Wimple, xii, 22, veil, lit. covering for the neck; wimpled, i, 4, folded, provided with a wimple. Wist, v, 27 knew. Wonne, vi, 39, fought; wonne, vi, 39, dwell. Wood, iv, 34; v, 20, mad, furious. Worshippe, i, 3, honor, respect. Wot, i, 13; wote, ii, 18; ix, 31, know. Woxen, see wax. Wreakes, viii, 43; xii, 16, anger, acts of vengeance. Wreck, xi, 21, destruction, mischief. Wrizled, viii, 47, wrinkled (Warren). Wyde, i, 34, distant.

Y

Yborne, vii, 10, born. Ycladd, i, 1; yclad, i, 7, 29; ii, 2; ycled, iv, 38, clad. Ydle, v, 8, airy, purposeless. Ydrad, i, 2, dreaded. Yede, xi, 5, go. Yfere, ix, 1, together. Ygoe, ii, 18, ago. Ylike, iv, 27, alike. Ymp, see impe. Yod, see yede. Younglings, x, 57, young of any animal. Youthly, vi, 34, youthful. Ypight, ix, 33, pitched, placed. Yrkesome, ii, 6, weary; iii, 4, painful. Yts, vii, 39, it is.

THE END

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