Socialism - A Summary and Interpretation of Socialist Principles
by John Spargo
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Third: The manner of the acquisition must be determined by the people at the time, and not fixed by us in advance, according to some abstract principle. If the people decide to take any particular individual or corporate property without compensation, that will be done. And they will have great historic precedents for their action. The Socialists of Europe could point to the manner in which many of the feudal estates and rights were confiscated, while American Socialists could point to the manner in which, without indemnity or compensation, chattel slavery was abolished.

So much is said merely by way of explanation, first, that the manner of acquiring private and corporate property and making it social property is not to be decided in advance, and secondly, that there are historic precedents for confiscation. On the other hand, there is no good reason why compensation should not be paid for such properties. You start! You have been more shocked than if I had said we should seize the properties and cut the throats of the proprietors! Be assured: I am not forgetting my promise to be frank with you, nor am I expressing my personal opinion merely when I say that there is nothing in the theory of modern Socialism which precludes the possibility of compensation. There is no Socialist of repute and authority in the world, so far as my knowledge goes, who makes a contrary claim. I should regard it as unworthy to lay down as the Socialist position views which were my own, and which were not shared by the great body of Socialist thinkers throughout the world. It is not less nor more than the truth that all the leading Socialists of the world agree that compensation could be paid without doing violence to a single Socialist principle, and most of them favor it.[200]

Once more I shall appeal to the authority of Marx. Engels wrote in 1894: "We do not at all consider the indemnification of the proprietors as an impossibility, whatever may be the circumstances. How many times has not Karl Marx expressed to me the opinion that if we could buy up the whole crowd it would really be the cheapest way of relieving ourselves of them."[201] Not only Marx, then, in the most intimate of his discussions with Engels, his bosom friend, but Engels himself, in almost his last days, refused to admit the impossibility of paying indemnity for properties socialized, "whatever may be the circumstances."

Now, as to the difficulties—especially as to the widow's savings. The socialization of non-productive wealth is not contemplated by any Socialist, no matter whether it consist of the widow's savings in a stocking or the treasures in the safe deposit vaults of the rich. Mere wealth, whether in money or precious gems and jewels, need not trouble us. Non-productive wealth is outside of our calculation. In the next place, as I have attempted to make clear, the petty business, the individual store, the small workshop, and the farm operated by its owner, would not, necessarily, nor probably, be disturbed. We have to consider only the great agencies of exploitation, industries operated by many producers of surplus-value for the benefit of the few. Let us, for example, take a conspicuous industrial organization, the so-called Steel Trust. Suppose the Socialists to be in power: there is a popular demand for the socialization of the steel industry. The government decides to take over the plant of the Steel Trust and all its affairs, and the support of the vast majority of the people is assured. First a valuation takes place, and then bonds, government bonds, are issued. Unlike what happens too often at the present time, the price fixed is not greatly in excess of the value the people acquire—one of the means by which the capitalists fasten their clutches on the popular throat. The Socialist spirit enters into the business. Bonds are issued to all the shareholders in strict proportion to their holdings, and so the poor widow, concerning whose interests critics of Socialism are so solicitous, gets bonds for her share. She is therefore even more secure than before, since it is no longer possible for unscrupulous individuals to plunder her by nefarious stock transactions.

So far, good and well. But, you may rightly say, this will not eliminate the unearned incomes. The heavy stockholders will simply become rich bondholders. Temporarily, that is true. But when that has been accomplished in a few of the more important industries, they will find it difficult to invest their surplus incomes profitably. There will also be a surplus to the state over and above the amounts annually paid in redemption of the bonds. Finally, it will be possible to adopt measures for eliminating the unearned incomes entirely by means of taxation, such as the progressive income tax, property and inheritance taxes. Taxation is, of course, a form of confiscation, but it is a form which has become familiar, which is perfectly legal, and which enables the confiscatory process to be stretched out over a long enough period to make it comparatively easy, to reduce the hardship to a minimum. By means of a progressive income tax, a bond tax, and an inheritance tax, it would be possible to eliminate the unearned incomes of a class of bondholders from society within a reasonable period, without inflicting injury or hardship upon any human being.

I do not, let me again warn you, set this plan before you as one which Socialism depends upon, which must be adopted. I do not say that the Socialist parties of the world are pledged to this method, for they are not. The subject is not mentioned in any of our programmes, so far as I recall them at this moment. We are silent upon the subject, not because we fear to discuss it, but because we realize that the matter will be decided when the question is reached, and that each case will be decided upon its merits. Still, it is but fair to express my belief that it is to the interest of the workers, no less than of the rest of society, that the change to a Socialist state be made as easy and peaceable as possible. Socialists, being human beings and not monsters, naturally desire that the transition to Socialism shall be made with as little friction and pain as possible. Left to their own choice, I am confident that those upon whom the task of effecting the change falls will not choose the way of violence, if the way of peace is left open to them.

Within the limits of this opportunity, I have tried to be as frank as I am to myself in those constant self-questionings which are inseparable from the work of the serious propagandist and honest teacher. Further I cannot go. If I have not been able to tell definitely how the change will be wrought, I have at least been able, I hope, to show that it may be brought about peaceably and without bloodshed. If this has given any one a new view of Socialism—opened, as it were, a doorway through which you can get a glimpse of the City Beautiful, and the way leading to its gates—then my reward is infinitely precious.


[197] From the stenographic report of an address given to some students of Socialism in New York, October, 1907.

[198] Cf. Jaures, Studies in Socialism, page 44.

[199] Quoted by Jaures, Studies in Socialism, page 93.

[200] The reader is referred to Kautsky's books, Das Erfurter Program and The Social Revolution, and to Vandervelde's admirable work, Collectivism, for confirmation of this statement.

[201] Quoted by Vandervelde, Collectivism, page 155.


(Titles in Italics)


Abbe Lancellotti, quoted, 27-28.

Abuses of Injunctions, The, 196 n.

A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, 93, 202, 206, 212, 245 n.

Adams, Mr. Brooks, 156.

Adler, G., 64 n.

AFRICA: American investments in, 118; cannibalism in, 78; Moors in, 95; slavery in, 26.

Agriculture, concentration in, 121, 131-137.

Aix-la-Chapelle, conference of sovereigns at, 49.

A Lecture on Human Happiness, 206.

A Letter to Lord John Russell, 206.

"Alfred" (Samuel Kydd), quoted, 23.

Alliance de la Democratie Socialiste, the, 69 n.

Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers, the, 195.

Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants, the, 197.

AMERICA: class divisions and struggles in, 163-169, 176-178, 182-184, 192-197; concentration of wealth in, 124-150; discovery of, 94-97; first cotton from, used in England, 30-31; foreign capital invested in, 118; Socialism in, 4, 167. See also UNITED STATES.

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 146.

American Farmer, The, 136 n., 168 n., 306 n.

American Federationist, The, 13 n.

American Federation of Labor, 183.

American Railway Union, the, 194.

American Revolution, the, 79.

A Modest Inquiry into the Nature and Necessity of a Paper Currency, 245.

ANARCHISM: Socialism and, 2; weak where Socialism is strong, 181.

Anaximander, 232.

Ancient Society, or Researches in the Lines of Human Progress, 97 n., 102 n.

An Inquiry concerning Political Justice, 204.

An Inquiry into the Principles of the Distribution of Wealth, 204.

Anstey, Mr., satire on Socialist regime, 281.

Anthracite coal strike, 1903, 174.

Arena, The, 196 n.

A Report on Labor Disturbances in the State of Colorado, etc., 174 n.

Argyles, relation of Mrs. Marx to the, 66.

Aristotle, 81.

Arkwright, English inventor, 19.

ASIA: American capital invested in, 118; savages in Central, 95; supposed origin of feudalism in, 106.

Atheism, Marx and, 69, 70 n.

Athens, 104.

A Treatise on Taxes and Constitutions, 244 n.

Aus dem literarischen Nachlass von Karl Marx, Friederich Engels, und Ferdinand Lassalle, 64 n.

Australia, American capital invested in, 118.

Austrian Labor Almanac, The, 66 n.

"Austrian" school of economists, the, 257.

Aveling, Edward, 93 n., 210 n.; Eleanor Marx, 210 n., 212.


Bachofen, 101.

Baden, concentration of wealth in, 140-142.

Bakeshops, concentration of ownership of, 124.

Bakunin, Michael, 66, 69 n., 88.

Bantu tribes of Africa, 102.

Bax, E. Belfort, 61 n., 67 n., 93 n.

Beaulieu, Leroy, 141.

Beer, M., 87 n.

Bellamy, Edward, 9.

Bernstein, Edward, 139, 203, 204 n.

Bigelow, Melville, 156 n.

Bismarck, Marx and, 92.

"Blacklisting," 173.

Blanc, Louis, 12.

Bolte, letter from Marx to, 88 n.

Bookstaver, Justice, 196.

Bootblacks, 127.

Bray, John Francis, 203, 207.

Briefe und Auszuege aus Briefen von Joh. Phil. Becker, etc., 120.

Brisbane, Albert, 55.

British Museum, Marx and the, 209, 210, 213.

Brook Farm, 53.

Brooks, George, 69 n.

Buffalo Express strike, 196.


Cabet, Etienne, 54, 57-60, 231.

California, cost of growing wheat in, 131.

Call, Henry Laurens, 146.

Campanella, 9.

Cannibalism, 78, 102, 103.

Capital: dedication of, 208; English character of, 213-214; Liebknecht on, 209; quoted, 28, 29, 87, 93 n., 115, 206, 228 n., 239, 274, 275; relation of to Socialism, 119.

CAPITAL: nature of, 236; Socialists advocate abolition of, 237.

Capitalist and Laborer (Spargo), 259 n., 284 n.

Capitalist income, the source of, 266 et seq.

Carlyle, Thomas, quoted, 217, 302.

Cartwright, English inventor, 20.

Casalis, African missionary, quoted, 77.

Case for the Factory Acts, The, 310.

Centralization and the Law: Scientific Legal Education, 156 n.

Chansons Revolutionaire, 325.

Charles Darwin and Karl Marx, A Comparison, 93 n.

Chartism and Chartists, 53, 67, 203.

Chase, Salmon P., 45.

Chicago, trial of E. V. Debs at, 194.

Child Labor, 21-26, 31, 39.

Children, feeding of school, 321.

China, Socialism in, 71.

CHRISTIANITY: embraced by Heinrich Marx, 63-65; Marx and, 68-70; Roman Empire and, 89; Robert Owen and, 51.

Christianity and the Social Crisis, 86 n.

Cigar stores, concentration of ownership of, 124.

Civil War, the, 85.

Claims of Labour and Capital Conciliated, The, 204.

Clansmen, The, 158.

Clarion, The, 7 n.

Class consciousness, 151, 165; President Roosevelt on, 151, 180; Robert Owen and, 48-49; Weitling and, 56.

CLASS DIVISIONS: of capitalism, 157 et seq.; of feudalism, 156; of slavery, 155; of the United States, 163 et seq.; ultimate end of, by Socialism, 200.

Class environment, influence of, on beliefs, etc., 171-175.

Class struggle theory, the, 155 et seq.

Cleveland, President, 194.

Clodd, Edward, quoted, 76, 82 n.

Coal Mine Workers, The, 160 n.

Coeur d'Alene, 183, 192.

Coleridge, Robert Owen and, 31.

Collectivism, 306 n.

Cologne assizes, Marx tried at, 208.

Colorado, labor troubles in, 174, 192.

Columbus and the discovery of America, 94-97.

Coming Slavery, The, 6, 282.

Commercial crisis in England, 1815, 39-41.

COMMODITY: definition of a, 236, 239-241; labor power as a, 263 et seq.; money as a, 255-256; sunshine called a, 241 n.; value of a, determined by labor, 243-254.

Common Sense of Socialism, The, (Spargo), 168.

Communism, political, 13, 14, 15, 54, 55; primitive, 97, 101-102.

Communist League, the, 60, 61.

Communist Manifesto, The: birth-cry of modern Socialism, 53; joint authorship of, 62, 73-74; publication of, 62; quoted, 71, 72, 73, 153-154; summary of, by Engels, 72; taxation of land values advocated in, 268 n.

Compensation, Socialism and, see CONFISCATION.

Competition, 98-101, 114, 115, 148, 149.

Comrade, The, 10 n., 68 n.

Concentration of capital and wealth, the, 115 et seq.

Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844, The, 67, 74.

Confiscation of property, Socialism and, 331, 333-337.

Constitution, the, and Socialism, 329-330.

Consumer, exploitation of the, 189.

Cooke-Taylor, R. W., 23 n., 24.

Cooeperation, among animals, 98, 99; Owen and, 45; under Socialism, 299, 300, 305.

Corn-Law Rhymes, The, 1.

Cossa, Luigi, quoted, 215.

Cotton manufacture in England, 29 et seq.; Engels and, 67.

Credit functions in Socialist regime, 300-302.

Crimean War, the, 36-38, 232.

Cripple Creek, 174 n., 183.

Criticism of the Gotha Programme, 205, 224.

Crompton, English inventor, 19.

Cromwellian Commonwealth, the, 114.


Dale, David, 24.

Dante, Marx and, 68.

DARWIN, CHARLES: appreciation of his work by Marx, 93; compared to Marx, 73, 93; letter from, to Marx, 93; on the struggle for existence, 98; quoted, 98.

Das Erfurter Program, 279 n., 305 n., 315 n.

Das junge Deutschland in der Schweiz, 70 n.

Davenay, M., letter from Herbert Spencer to, 6.

Debs, E. V., 193, 194.

DEMOCRACY: application of principles of, to industry in Socialist regime, 287, 302-305; only approximately attainable, 288-289; Socialism and, 287-290, 302-305, 329-330.

Descent of Man, The, 98.

Deville, Gabriel, quoted, 237.

Diary of Mrs. Marx quoted, 211-212.

Die Agrarfrage, 168 n., 297 n., 306 n.

Die Bauernfrage in Frankreich und Deutschland, 306.

Die Grundlagen der Karl Marx'schen Kritik der bestehenden Volkswirthschaft, 64.

Die Neue Zeit, 64 n.

Die Voraussetzungen des Socializmus, 139.

Directive ability, 228 n., 273-275.

Direct legislation, 289, 329-330.

Directory of Directors, The, 117.

Disclosures about the Communists' Process, 61.

Drinkwater, partner of Robert Owen, 29-31.


Eastern Question, The, 210 n., 212 n.

Economic Foundations of Society, The, 87 n.

Economic Interpretation of History, The (Rogers), 94 n., 95 n.

Economic Interpretation of History, The (Seligman), 81 n., 82 n., 83 n., 85 n., 91 n.

Economic Journal, The, 198 n.

Economics of Socialism, The, 38 n., 257 n.

Economic Writings of Sir William Petty, The, 215 n.

Edison, 227.

Effects of Civilization on the People of the European States, The, 203.

Eighteenth Brumaire, The, 90.

Elements of Political Economy (Nicholson), 241 n.

Elliott, Ebenezer, quoted, 1.

Ely, Professor R. T., 46, 115, 132, 140; quoted, 79, 138, 148.

Emerson, R. W., on Robert Owen, 50-52.

ENGELS, FRIEDERICH: birth and early training, 66-67; collaboration with Marx in authorship of Manifesto, 62; first meeting with Marx, 67; friendship with O'Connor and Owen, 67; his Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844, 67; joins International Alliance with Marx, 61; life in England, 67; linguistic abilities, 67; journalistic work, 67; poem on, 74; quoted, 17, 54, 73-74, 91, 105, 120, 153-154, 186, 306 n., 334-335; share in authorship of Manifesto, 73; views upon confiscation of capitalist property, 335.

England, industrial revolution in, 19 et seq.; Social Democratic Federation of, 283-284; trade unions in, 45, 197-199.

Ensor, R. C. K., 283, 306 n.

Equality, Socialists and, 2, 312, 316.

Eskimos, the, 102.

Essai sur la repartition des richesses et sur la tendance a une moindre inegalite des conditions, 141 n.

Essay on Robert Owen, 50 n.

Essays on the Formation of Human Character, 34.

Ethics and the Materialistic Conception of History, 171 n.

Europe, growth of Socialism in, 4.

Everet's wool-dressing machine, 27.


Fabian Tracts, The, 124 n., 144 n.

Factory System and the Factory Acts, The, 24.

Family, see Marriage.

Farmers, class interests of, 164, 166-169.

Farms, mortgages and ownership of, 133-134; number of, in United States, 133; permanence of small, 134; under Socialism, 128 n.

Ferdinand and Isabella, 95.

Ferdinand Lassalle as a Social Reformer, 204 n.

Ferri, Enrico, 78, 93 n.

Feudalism, duration of, 107; nature of, 108-110; origin of, 106-107; theory of, 108.

Feuerbach, Ludwig, 89.

Feuerbach, the Roots of the Socialist Philosophy, 86 n., 89 n.

Figaro, The, 6.

"Final Utility" theory of value, the, 257.

Fourier, Charles, 32, 46, 48, 50, 54, 231.

Foxwell, Professor, 206, 207 n.; quoted, 206.

France, concentration of wealth in, 141.

Franklin, Benjamin, 244, 245, 307; estimate of, by Marx, 245 n.; his views upon value, 245; quoted, 245.

Freeman, Justice, 195.

"Free Soil" movement, the, 57.

Freiligrath, F., 208.

French and German Socialism, 46 n.


Garrison, W. Lloyd, 85.

Garwood, John, poem by, quoted, 35.

Gentz, M., 49.

George, Henry, 268 n.

German Socialists in America, F. Engels on, 120.

GERMANY: Anarchism weak in, 181; ribbon loom invented in, 27; Socialism in, 167; use of loom in, forbidden, 28.

Geschichte der deutschen Sozialdemokratie, 64 n.

Ghent, W. J., 32, 83, 124, 171 n., 178; quoted, 175.

Gibbins, H. de B., quoted, 21, 22, 26.

Giddings, Professor F. H., quoted, 310.

Giffen, Sir Robert, 143.

Gildersleeve, Justice, 196.

Glasgow, conference of manufacturers in, 39.

God's England or the Devil's? 69 n.

Godwin, William, 203, 204.

Gompers, Samuel, quoted, 13 n.

Gossen, 257 n.

Gotha Programme of German Socialist Party, 205, 224, 229.

Gray, John, 203, 206.

Green, J. Richard, 79.

Growth of Monopoly in English Industry, The, 124 n.

Guaranties of Harmony and Freedom, The, 55.

Guide to the Study of Political Economy, 215.


Hall, Charles, 203.

Hall, Professor Thomas C., 89 n.

Hamburg, loom publicly burned in, 28.

Hanna, Marcus A., 183.

Hargreaves, English inventor, 19.

Harrington, 82.

Hazelton and Homestead, 183.

Heath, Frederic, 55 n.

Hebrews, religious conceptions of the, 86.

Heine, Heinrich, 66.

Herr Vogt, 61.

Hillquit, Morris, 46 n., 228 n.; quoted, 55-57.

History and Criticism of the Labor Theory of Value, 205 n.

History of Socialism, 46 n.

History of Socialism in the United States, 46 n., 55 n.

History of the Factory System, 23.

Hobbes, 261.

Hodgskin, Thomas, 203, 207.

Hull, Henry, 215 n.

Huxley, Professor, 77, 98.

Hyndman, H. M., 38 n., 257 n.


Ibsen, 15.

Icaria, 59.

Idaho, class struggle in, 183, 192.

Immigration, 127 n.

Individualism, Socialism and, 280.

Industrial History of England, The, 21 n., 22 n., 26 n.

Industrial revolution in England, the, 19 et seq.

Ingalls, Senator John J., 148.

Initiative and Referendum, the, 289, 329-330.

Injunctions in labor disputes, 193 et seq.

International Alliance, the, 61.

International Cigarmakers' Union, 195.

International Socialist Review, The, 11, 88 n., 224 n.

International Typographical Union, 196.

Iron Law of Wages, the, 262-265.

Isaiah, quoted, 9.


Jaures, Jean, 306 n., 327 n., 328 n.

Jesus Christ and the Social Question, 69 n.

Jevons, Professor W. S., 257 n.

Jones, Lloyd, biographer of Owen, 19.

Jones, Owen's first partner, 29.

Justice (London), 61 n., 67 n.


Karl Marx: Biographical Memoirs, 17 n., 64 n., 66 n., 93 n., 209 n., 212 n.

Karl Marx's Nationaloekonomische Irrlehren, 92 n.

Karl Marx on Sectarianism and Dogmatism, 88 n.

Kautsky, Karl, 66 n., 171 n., 297 n., 305 n., 306 n., 324 n.; quoted, 128, 168.

Kipling, Rudyard, quoted, 96.

Kirkup, Thomas, 46 n.

Kropotkin, Peter, 99, 100, 285, 286 n.

Kydd, Samuel ("Alfred"), 23 n.


Labor, defined by Mallock, 228-229; by Marx, 228.

Labor Defended against the Claims of Capital, 206.

Labor History of the Cripple Creek District, 174 n.

Labor Notes, 314.

Labor-power, a commodity, 263 et seq.; determines value, 243-254.

Labour and Capital; a Letter to a Labour Friend, 284 n.

Labour's Wrongs and Labour's Remedy, 207.

La Conquete du pain, 286 n.

Lafargue, Paul, 128 n., 297 n.

Lamarck, 72.

La Misere de la Philosophie, 201, 203 n.

Land, ownership of, under Socialism, 297; under tribal communism, 72, 97.

La Philosophie de la Misere, 201.

Lassalle, Ferdinand, 64 n., 204 n., 225, 262-263, 264, 265.

Lauderdale, Lord, 49, 257.

Lectures on the Nature and Use of Money, 206.

Lee, Algernon, quoted, 172, 275.

Leibnitz, 64, 77; quoted, 76.

Leslie, John ("J. L."), quoted, 74 n.

L'Etat Socialiste, 315.

Liebknecht, W., 64 n., 66 n., 212 n.; quoted, 17, 93, 209, 327-328.

Life of Francis Place, 207 n.

Life of Robert Owen (anonymous), 30 n.

Lincoln, Abraham, 43-44.

Lloyd, W. F., 257 n.

Locke, 64.

Lockwood, George Browning, 39 n., 41 n.

London, Jack, 182 n.

Lothrop, Harriet E., 224 n.

Lovejoy, 85.

Lubbock, Sir John, 101.

Luddites, the, 26, 36.

Luther, Martin, 80, 88.

Lyell, 77.


Macdonald, J. R., 225.

Machinery, introduction of, 19, 20, 26-29.

Machinists' Union sued, 198.

McMaster, 79.

Macrosty, H. W., 124.

Maine, Sir Henry, 101.

Mallock, W. H., 119, 221, 222, 223, 224, 226, 227, 228, 230, 274, 275.

Malthus, 98.

Marr, Wilhelm, 70 n.

Marriage, Socialism and, 292-293.

MARX, KARL: birth and early life, 63-65; Capital written in London, 209; collaborates with Engels, 62, 73; conversion to Socialism, 68-70; correspondent for New York Tribune, 210; death, 213; domestic felicity, 212-213; edits Rhenish Gazette, 65, 67; expelled from different countries, 209; finds refuge in England, 209; first meeting with F. Engels, 67; his attacks upon Proudhon, 201-202; his obligations to the Ricardians, 203; his surplus value theory, 203, 205, 206, 266-270; in German revolution of 1848, 208; Jewish ancestry, 63-64; marriage, 65-66; mastery of art of definition, 217; misrepresentation by Mallock of his views, 221-230; opposes Bakunin, 69-70; parents' religious beliefs, 64-65; poverty, 210-212; quoted, 27, 28, 29, 61, 86, 87, 89, 90, 93, 115, 191, 202, 217, 236, 239, 245 n., 263, 274, 275, 327, 334-335; related to Argyles through marriage, 66; scientific methods of, 231-234; spiritual nature of, 68-70; starts New Rhenish Gazette, 208; views on confiscation of capitalist property, 334-335; views on Social Revolution, 326-327.

Mass and Class, 83 n., 171 n., 175 n., 178 n.

Massey, Gerald, quoted, 52 n.

Mayo-Smith, Richmond, 142, 143.

Mazzini, G., 60.

Mehring, Franz, 64 n., 224 n.

Menger, Dr. Anton, 203, 205, 206 n., 207 n.

Message to Congress, 177.

Methodism, 89.

Middle Ages, the, 107.

Mill, John Stuart, 216, 217, 227, 242.

Mitchell, John, 183; quoted, 193.

Modern Socialism (Ensor), 306 n.

Modern Socialism (Spargo), 259 n.

Money, as a commodity, 255-256; various articles used as, 255.

Money, Chiozza, M.P., 144.

Monopoly, 115, 116, 149, 258, 259.

More, Sir Thomas, 9, 58, 59.

Morgan, J. P., 179.

Morgan, Lewis H., 97, 101, 102 n.

Morris, William, quoted, 2, 20.

Mutual Aid a Factor of Evolution, 99 n., 100 n.


Napoleon, 114, 250.

National Association of Manufacturers, the, 183.

National Civic Federation, the, 183, 222 n.

Natural and Artificial Right of Property Contrasted, The, 206-207.

"New Christianity" of Saint-Simon, the, 68.

New Harmony, 43, 44, 45, 51.

New Harmony Communities, The, 39 n., 41 n.

New Lanark, 31-34, 41, 50.

New Moral World, The, 11.

Newton, Sir Isaac, 152.

Newton, Wales, 45.

New York Sun, the, 196.

Nicholson, Professor J. S., 241 n.

Northern Star, The, 67.

Norway, 2.

Notes on Feuerbach, 86 n.


Oceana, 82.

Organized Labor, 183 n.

Origin of Species, The, 72.

Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State, The, 105.

Our Benevolent Feudalism, 124.

OWEN, ROBERT: advises Cabet, 60; as cotton manufacturer, 29-34; at Aix-la-Chapelle, 49; Autobiography of, 24 n.; becomes Socialist, 41; begins agitation for factory legislation, 31; biography of, 19; dying words of, 50; Emerson's view of, 50-52; Engels' estimate of, 17; establishes infant schools, 32; first to use word "Socialism," 11; founder of cooeperative movement, 45; his failure, 45; improves spinning machinery, 30; Liebknecht on, 17; Lincoln and, 43-44; New Harmony, 43-45; New Lanark, 31-34; presides over first Trade Union Congress, 45; proposes establishment of communistic villages, 41; quoted, 24, 25, 34, 35, 37-38, 39-41; scepticism of, 18; speech to manufacturers, 39-41; views on crisis of 1815, 37; views of Fourier's ideas, 50.

Owen, Robert Dale, letter of, to Lincoln, 44.

Owenism, synonymous with Socialism, 11.


Peabody, Professor, 69 n.

Peel, Sir Robert, 31.

Petty, Sir William, 214, 215, 242, 244; quoted, 215, 216, 243-244.

Pioneers of Evolution from Thales to Huxley, 76 n., 82 n.

Place, Francis, 207.

Plato, 9.

Podmore, Frank, 19 n.

Political Economy (Senior), 214 n.

Poverty of Philosophy, The, 201 n.

Present Distribution of Wealth in the United States, The, 144 n.

Price, an approximation of value, 254 et seq.

Prices and Wages, 189.

Principles of Economics (Seligman), 259 n.

Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, 246 n., 249 n., 262 n.

Principles of Sociology, The, 286 n., 313-314 n.

Private property, origin of, 97, 102-103; transformation to social, 331-337; under the Socialist regime, 128, 296-300, 316-317.

Protestant Reformation, the, 80, 114.

Proudhon, P. J., 66, 201, 202.

Pullman Strike, the, 193-194.


Quarterly Journal of Economics, The, 15.

Quelch, II., 201 n.


Rappites, the, 45.

Rastall, Benjamin McKie, 174 n.

Rauschenbusch, Professor, 86.

Referendum, the, 289, 329-330.

Reformateurs Modernes, 11.

Remarks and Facts relative to the American Paper Currency, 245 n.

Reminiscences of Karl Marx, 68 n.

Rent of Ability, the, 273-275.

Report of the Royal Commission on Labour, 70 n.

Republic, The, 12.

Republican Party, the, 2, 312 n.

Revisionism, 132.

Revolution and Counter-Revolution, 210, 212 n.

Revolution in Mind and Practice, The, 49 n.

Revolution of 1848, 208.

Revue Politique et Parliamentaire, 128, 297 n.

Reybaud, L., 11.

Ricardians, the, 202-208, 229, 242.

Ricardo, David, 205, 214, 215, 216, 217, 227, 242, 245, 246, 247, 248, 250; quoted, 245-246, 262.

Riches and Poverty, 144.

Right to the Whole Produce of Labour, The, 205 n., 206 n., 207 n.

Riley, W. Harrison, 68 n.

Rockefeller, John D., 179.

Rogers, Thorold, 83, 84, 94 n., 95 n.

Roosevelt, President, 151, 180, 312 n.; quoted, 177.

Ruge, Arnold, 66.

Russell, Lord John, 206.


Sadler, Michael, 26 n.

Saint-Simon, 7, 9, 12, 46, 48, 231, 232.

Salt, H. S., 26 n.

San Francisco, disaster in, 158-159.

Sanial, Lucien, 129, 145.

Saxony, concentration of wealth in, 143.

Scarcity values, 249-250.

Schiller, quoted, 85.

Seabury, Judge, 196 n.

Seligman, Professor E. R. A., 81 n., 82, 83, 84, 85 n., 91, 259.

Senior, Nassau, 214.

Shall the Unions go into Politics? 184 n.

Simons, A. M., 136, 168 n., 306 n.

Slonimski, Ludwig, 92 n.

Smith, Adam, 160, 206, 214, 215, 227, 242, 247; quoted, 161-162, 244.

Smith, Professor J. Allen, 289 n.

Smith, Professor Goldwin, 284.

Social Democracy Red Book, 55 n.

Social Meaning of Modern Religious Movements in England, The, 89 n.

SOCIALISM: and assassination, 1, 3; cooeperation under, 299, 300, 305; credit functions under, 300-302; definition of the word, 9; democracy essential to, 287-289; education under, 318-320; first use of the word, 10-11; freedom in religious, scientific, and philosophical matters under, 291-292; freedom of the individual under, 284-287; in Europe, 4; in Germany, 4, 167, 181; in United States, 4, 167; inheritance of wealth under, 316-317; justice under, 318; labor and its reward under, 311-316; monopolies and, 115, 128, 148-150, 332-333; not opposed to individualism, 280 et seq.; private property and industry under, 295-300, 335; realization of, 323 et seq.; relation of the sexes under, 293; religion and, 291-292, 319; religious training of children and, 319-320; scientific character of, 231-234; Utopian and scientific compared, 42; wages under, 313-315; wealth under, 316-317, 335; women's suffrage and, 288, 329.

Socialism (Macdonald), 225 n.

Socialism (Mallock), 221 n.

Socialism and Social Democracy, 10 n.

Socialism Inevitable, 130, 131.

Socialism Utopian and Scientific, 35 n., 47 n., 48.

Socialist Party organizations among farmers, 167.

Social Revolution, the, 324-328.

Social Revolution, The, 128 n., 306 n., 315 n., 334 n.

Sombart, Professor Werner, 132.

Some Neglected British Economists, 257 n.

Songs of Freedom, 26 n.

Sorge, F. A., 120.

Spahr, Charles B., 144.

Spargo, John, 10, 168.

Spencer, Herbert, 6, 8, 282, 313-314 n.; quoted, 7, 286.

Spirit of American Government, The, 289 n.

Standard Oil group, the, 117.

Statistics and Economics, 142-143.

Stone, N. I., 245 n.

Studies in Socialism, 306 n., 327 n., 328 n.

Studies in the Evolution of Industrial Society, 79 n., 115 n., 138 n., 140 n., 148.

Sun, New York, the, 196.

SURPLUS VALUE: early uses of the term, 205, 206; the theory developed by Marx, 206, 266; the theory explained, 266-270; various theories of, 271-275.

Symonds, J. Addington, 322 n.


"Taff Vale law," 197-199.

Taxation as a means of achieving Socialism, 336-337.

Taxation of land values, 268 n.

Tendencies to socialization within existing state, 279, 330-331.

Texas, Cabet advised to experiment in, 60.

The People's Marx, 237 n.

The Social System, a Treatise on the Principles of Exchange, 206.

Thompson, William, 203, 204, 205.

Tolstoy, 15, 222.



Unionism, principles of labor, 184 et seq.

United Mine Workers' Union, the, 159-160.

UNITED STATES: classes in, 164-169, 176-179; concentration of wealth and capital in, 124-150; farms and farm mortgages in, 133-134; millionaires in, 146-148; Socialism in, 4, 167; strikes in, 182.

United States Steel Corporation, 138.


VALUE: and price, 254-259; early labor theory of, 242-252; Marxian theory of, 250-254; other theories of, 259.

Value, Price, and Profit, 263 n.

Vandervelde, Emile, 306 n., 315 n., 334 n., 335 n.

Vasco de Gama, 96.

Veblen, Professor Thorstein, quoted, 15.

Volkstribun, the, 57.


Wallace, Alfred Russell, 77, 81.

Wallas, G., 207.

War of the Classes, The, 182 n.

Warne, Frank Julian, 160 n.

Watt, James, 20, 227.

Wealth, defined, 217-221; inheritance of, under Socialism, 316-317, 335.

Wealth of Nations, The, 160, 162 n., 206 n., 213, 244 n., 249 n.

Webb, Mrs. Sidney, 310.

Weitling, Wilhelm, 14, 54, 55, 56, 57.

Whitaker, Dr. A. C., 205 n.

Wilshire, Gaylord, 130 n., 131 n.

Wolf, Wilhelm, 208.

Worker, The, 172, 275.

World as it is, and as it might be, The, 55.

Wright, Carroll D., 174 n.

Writings and Speeches of John J. Ingalls, 148 n.


Youmans, Professor, 77.


Zola, Emile, 15.


The Bitter Cry of the Children


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