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Sir Walter Ralegh - A Biography
by William Stebbing
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[Sidenote: Odium of Stukely.]

Ralegh's various persecutors were in the right to enjoy their victory betimes. They had not the opportunity for long. The country awoke at a bound to the injury which had been done it. On the miserable tools it first poured out its indignation. Long before the final catastrophe its anger had been gathering against Stukely. On August 20 Chamberlain wrote to Carleton that Sir Lewis Stukely was generally decried. After the execution no measure in execrations was observed. He was christened Sir Judas. Stories, probably fictitious, of the contempt with which he was visited, were greedily devoured. 'Every man in Court,' it was reported, 'declines Stukely's company as treacherous.' The High Admiral, who himself had battened on plunder from Ralegh, was rumoured to have threatened to cudgel the betrayer from his door. Stukely had been visiting Nottingham House on some duty connected with his office of Vice-Admiral of Devon. He complained to the King, who befriended him, of the affronts he received. The answer was said to have been: 'Were I disposed to hang every one that speaks ill of thee, there would not be trees enough in all my kingdom to hang them on.' According to another tale, reported by J. Pory to Carleton, the King replied to his protestation of the truth of his accusations: 'I have done amiss; Sir Walter's blood be upon thy head.' In vain he endeavoured to defend himself through the press. On August 10 he had printed a short Apology for his conduct as Ralegh's keeper. In it he took up the only practicable ground, that he had simply obeyed the orders of the Crown. After Ralegh's execution he was stung by the obloquy he had incurred into the publication of a formal indictment of the memory of the dead. On November 26 appeared a rhetorical document, which he had retained the Rev. Dr. Sharpe to help him in drawing up. It was entitled the 'Humble Petition and Information of Sir Lewis Stukely, touching his own behaviour in the charge committed to him for the bringing up of Sir Walter Ralegh, and the scandalous aspersions cast upon him for the same.' Fact and fiction are audaciously mingled in the narrative. As a specimen of its temper may be mentioned the statement that Ralegh in the Gate-house asked its keeper, Weekes, if any Romish priests were under his charge. The insinuation was that the Protestant hero would have liked an opportunity of reconciliation to the Church of Rome before his death.

[Sidenote: A Convicted Criminal.]

Such calumnies increased the popular wrath. The whole nation exulted in the tidings within a few months that their author was about to be indicted for the capital offence of clipping coin. Manourie was arrested at Plymouth on the same charge. He accused his friend, whose old confederate in clipping and sweating coin he had been. By way, it is to be feared, of embellishment of a tale of righteous retaliation, it was reported that Sir Lewis had been caught on Twelfth Night within the precincts of the Palace of Whitehall in the act of clipping the very gold pieces, the wages of his perfidy, paid to him on the previous New Year's eve. He was confined first in the Gate-house, and then in the Tower, in Ralegh's old cell, and in due course was tried. Fruitlessly he endeavoured to shift the crime on his son, who had absconded. A servant confessed his master had followed the practice for the past seven years. The evidence was overwhelming, and he was convicted. It was a 'just judgment of God,' men said, 'for Sir Walter Ralegh's blood.' James, Mr. Gardiner says, 'thought he owed something to his tool, and flung him a pardon.' According to the popular rumour it was a gift for a tangible consideration. He had to beggar himself to buy it. His office of Vice-Admiral of Devon was forfeited, and it was filled by Eliot. He slunk away first to his home at Afton, where all, gentle and poor, banned him, and thence to Lundy Isle. There, amid the ruins of Morisco's Castle, he died mad on August 29, 1620. His treason has conferred on his obscure name an infamous immortality. He was equally an enemy to himself and to King James, whom his accommodating perfidy tempted to perpetrate the final injustice. But it must be remembered that but for him Ralegh would have lingered for a few years more of weary life on foreign soil, and dropped into an unhonoured grave. To him English history is indebted for a heroic scene, and Ralegh for a glorious close to his splendid but checkered career. The mind shudders at the thought of the bathos into which a little remorse in that contemptible villain would have plunged his victim.

[Sidenote: Manourie's Defence.]

Public vengeance was not satisfied with the self-wrought retribution on Stukely. It ranged lower, and it ranged higher. It condescended to spurn the tool of a tool. Manourie, too, had to publish his apology. He called God to witness that Stukely had bribed him to lay traps for Ralegh, and to put into his mouth malcontent speeches. All the evil he told of his ally was believed. His professions that his own admitted baseness had been provoked by resentment of Ralegh's spontaneous abuse of the King were received with incredulity or unconcern. On the fact, Captain King's word in his Narrative in answer to Manourie was accepted in preference to the Frenchman's. The Narrative was not printed, but circulated extensively in manuscript. Though it is no longer discoverable, Oldys seems to have read it, and he has quoted passages in his life of Ralegh. 'Never,' in it asseverated King, 'in all the years I followed Sir Walter, heard I him name his Majesty but with reverence. I am sorry the assertion of that man should prevail so much against the dead.' He need not have feared that it had prevailed, or would prevail, with the nation. That scarcely spared a thought to Manourie, unless to curse him as a mercenary liar. But in the emotion stirred by Ralegh's death it was soon evident that the people had grown indifferent to the degree of its hero's personal loyalty, or the reverse. The flood of enthusiasm for him swept away the interest in his guilt or innocence in respect of particular charges. Public opinion hallowed him as saint and martyr, and put the Court and Government on their defence.

[Sidenote: The Royal Declaration.]

[Sidenote: Bacon's part in it.]

The vehemence and volume of national emotion at the abandonment of Ralegh to the spite of a faction were a surprise to the King and his advisers. They seemed unable to comprehend its character and direction. They believed, or pretended to believe, that a demand was being raised for a new trial of his offences. They could not, or would not, see that the only question was of the distribution of punishment among his persecutors. Something, however, manifestly had to be done, and at once. One purpose of Stukely's Petition had been to pave the way for a 'declaration from the State,' for which the Petitioner formally asked. The Committee of the Council had recommended in Coke's paper of October 18, and the King had approved, the issue of such a manifesto simultaneously with the despatch of Ralegh to the scaffold. Its preparation had been immediately taken in hand. The reason for the delay in publication is unknown. Probably the royal editor was extremely fastidious. Whatever the cause of the procrastination, at last, on November 27, the day after Stukely's Petition, an apology appeared with the authority of the Crown. James himself supplied part of the contents, 'additions,' wrote Bacon to Villiers, 'which were very material, and fit to proceed from his Majesty.' Naunton and Yelverton also assisted in the composition. The arrangement of arguments and, though marred by royal and other interpolations, the diction have been traced to the serviceable hand of the Lord Chancellor. Ralegh and Bacon had long been intimate with one another. They had never been enemies, or even rivals. In his History Ralegh had cited with applause Bacon's Advancement of Learning, and other works. He had testified that no man had taught the laws of history better, and with greater brevity, than that excellent learned gentleman. Bacon fully reciprocated the admiration. He snatched at opportunities for placing on record his delight in Sir Walter's pretty wit, and adventurous spirit. If it be an excuse for his share in the persecution of the man and his memory, he was animated by no personal antipathy. But his skill had been retained for those who were hounding Ralegh to death, as it had been retained for the destruction of his old patron Essex. He did not now let his conscience afflict itself at the thought that he was about to gloss an act, which a historian, not very friendly to the sufferer, has said 'can hardly be dignified with the title of a judicial murder.' Neither passion, pique, nor fear, inspired his pen. His function in official life, as he interpreted it, was to be the advocate of authority; his feeling for any but scientific truth was never acute; and he had positive pleasure in the employment of his intellectual dexterity, whatever the object. Acting on that system he did the best he could with the case put before him on the present occasion. His and its misfortune was that it was irretrievably bad. His instructions were that Ralegh had gained his pardon by a lie; that there was no Mine, and that he never supposed there was any; that he went to harry and plunder Spaniards, and for nothing else; when he found spoil was not to be had as easily as he had anticipated, he had determined to desert his men, and fly to the East Indies, or stay behind in Newfoundland. The King was supposed to have, with his wonted and infallible sagacity, made the discovery of Ralegh's knavery long since. That royal hypothesis of stark imposture, and no enthusiasm, was the clue which the Lords Commissioners, with Bacon at their head, had obsequiously borrowed to hale Ralegh to the scaffold. It was the strange sophism out of which Bacon again was set to compose a sedative for the popular emotion.

[Sidenote: His Majesty's Honour and Justice.]

[Sidenote: His Princely Judgment.]

He had to begin by apologizing for the King, both to the indignant nation and to the King's own injured sense of consistency. He had to try to extricate his master from the cruel dilemma, either of having been an accomplice in a scheme now denounced by himself as a pirate's conspiracy, or of having betrayed, out of cowardice and cupidity, a faithful servant to foreign vengeance. That is the meaning of the exordium of this pamphlet published in November by the King's Printers, Bonham Norton and John Bill: 'Although Kings be not bound to give account of their actions to any but God alone; yet such are his Majesty's proceedings, as he hath always been willing to bring them before sun and moon, and carefully to satisfy all his good people with his intentions and courses, giving as well to future times as to the present true and undisguised declarations of them; as judging, that for actions not well founded it is advantage to let them pass in uncertain reports, but for actions that are built upon sure and solid grounds, such as his Majesty's are, it belongeth to them to be published by open manifestos. Especially, his Majesty is willing to declare and manifest to the world his proceedings in a case of such a nature as this which followeth is; since it not only concerns his own people, but also a foreign prince and state abroad. Accordingly, therefore, for that which concerneth Sir Walter, late executed for treason—leaving the thoughts of his heart, and the protestations that he made at his death, to God that is the Searcher of all hearts, and the Judge of all truth—his Majesty hath thought fit to manifest unto the world how things appeared unto himself, and upon what proofs and evident matter, and the examination of the commanders that were employed with him in the voyage—and namely of those which Sir Walter Ralegh himself, by his own letter to Secretary Winwood, had commended for persons of worth and credit, and as most fit for greater employments—his Majesty's proceedings have been grounded; whereby it will evidently appear how agreeable they have been in all points to honour and justice. Sir Walter Ralegh having been condemned of high treason at his Majesty's entrance into this kingdom; and for the space of fourteen years, by his Majesty's princely clemency and mercy, not only spared from his execution, but permitted to live as in libera custodia in the Tower, and to enjoy his lands and living, till all was by law evicted from him upon another ground, and not by forfeiture—which notwithstanding his Majesty out of his abundant grace gave him a competent satisfaction for the same—at length he fell upon an enterprise of a golden mine in Guiana. This proposition of his was presented and recommended to his Majesty by Sir Ralph Winwood, then Secretary of State, as a matter not in the air or speculative, but real and of certainty; for that Sir Walter Ralegh had seen of the ore of the mine with his eyes, and tried the richness of it. It is true that his Majesty, in his own princely judgment, gave no belief unto it; as well for that his Majesty was verily persuaded that in nature there are no such mines of gold entire, as they described this to be; and if any such had been, it was not probable that the Spaniards, who were so industrious in the chase of treasure, would have neglected it so long; as also for that it proceeded from the person of Sir Walter Ralegh, invested with such circumstances both of his disposition and fortune. But nevertheless Sir Walter Ralegh had so enchanted the world with his confident asseveration of that which every man was willing to believe, as his Majesty's honour was in a manner engaged not to deny unto his people the adventure and hope of so great riches, to be sought and achieved at the charge of volunteers; especially, for that it stood with his Majesty's politic and magnanimous courses, in these his flourishing times of peace, to nourish and encourage noble and generous enterprises for plantations, discoveries, and opening of new trades.'

[Sidenote: An Apology for an Apology.]

The main and misleading principle in the minds of the authors could not but dislocate and discolour facts. Those were carefully culled which made for a given conclusion. Incompatible evidence was omitted altogether. The 'Declaration of the Demeanour and Carriage of Sir Walter Ralegh, as well in his Voyage as in and since his Return, and of the true motives and inducements which occasioned his Majesty to proceed in doing justice upon him, as hath been done,' is a shuffling excuse for a baseness. The mass of it is an accumulation of hearsay evidence. Its chief object was to depict Ralegh as a man whom nobody need regret; to sneer away his lustre and dignity. With this sordid view the trivial episode of the malingering scene at Salisbury is described with sickening minuteness. Few writers of authority have ventured to applaud the treatise. An exception is Mr. Spedding, who could not well let judgment pass against his idol without a word of defence for one of the worst blemishes in a pitiful official career. He shows here as elsewhere his admirable diligence in the collection of evidence; but he cannot be said to have shed any new light either on Ralegh's character, or on the part Bacon played in his slaughter, and in the endeavour to blacken his memory. For him both the King and the keeper of the King's conscience had no option but to put Ralegh to death. According to him the King's sanction of warlike preparations implied no understanding that it might be necessary to use them. According to him the commission to conduct an armed squadron and soldiery to a mine on the banks of the Orinoko conveyed no right to break a hostile Spanish blockade of the river. According to him, though in defiance of contemporary testimony, Ralegh alone employed violence; the San Thome garrison 'offered no provocation whatever, except an attitude of self-defence.' On these principles, while he laments the tardiness of its appearance, he necessarily considers the Declaration straightforward, honest, and convincing. National opinion judged differently. It treated the whole as a piece of special pleading. In fairness it must be granted that, had it been much more cogent, it would have had as little effect. Chamberlain had prophetically written to Carleton on November 21, while it was known to be in process of composition, that it 'will not be believed, unless it be well proved.'



CHAPTER XXXII.

CONTEMPORARY AND FINAL JUDGMENTS.

[Sidenote: Popular Indignation.]

[Sidenote: Its Durability.]

More judicious or less prejudiced observers than James and his confidants would have suspected earlier the rise of the popular tide of sympathy and indignation. Strangers had remarked the tendency before the execution. A Spanish Dominican friar in England on a secret political mission had, Chamberlain told Carleton in October, been labouring for Ralegh's life from dread of the ill-will towards Spain which his death would cause. Many Englishmen were much nimbler than official and officious courtiers in perceiving the blunder. A great lord in the Tower, who may be presumed to have been Northumberland, another correspondent of Carleton's told him, had observed that, if the Spanish match went on, Spain had better have given L100,000 than have had him killed; and if not, that England had better have given L100,000 than have killed him. Pory assured Carleton, writing on October 31, that Ralegh's death would do more harm to the faction that procured it than ever he did in his life. As soon as his head was off, the authorities had to be hard at work suppressing ballads which were being sung in the streets against his adversaries. The jeer of the London goldsmith, Wiemark, 'the constant Paul's-walker,' that he wished such a head as had just been severed from Ralegh's body had been on Master Secretary's shoulders, was but a sample of a storm of sarcasms upon the Government which ran through the town. The anger displayed by Naunton and Villiers a couple of years later at the appearance of so poor a satire as Captain Gainsford's Vox Spiritus, or Sir Walter Ralegh's Ghost, which was being circulated in manuscript, and their zeal in suppressing it, testify to the durability of the alarm excited in the Court. It was no momentary and evanescent impulse. Dean Tounson had written on November 9, of Ralegh's execution, that 'it left a great impression on the minds of those that beheld him; inasmuch that Sir Lewis Stukely and the Frenchman grow very odious. This was the news a week since; but now it is blown over, and he almost forgotten.' The good Dean underrated the solidity and reasonableness of English feeling. The nation might not care to linger over creatures like Stukely and Manourie, even to execrate them. Its grief for Ralegh was a lasting sentiment. A spectator of his death declared that his Christian and truthful manner on the scaffold made all believe that he was not guilty of treason nor of malpractices. So sudden a conversion of the kingdom to faith in his innocence and heroism would have been almost as irrational as the original acquiescence without proof in his criminality, had it been as abrupt as it seemed. It would have been as short-lived as Dean Tounson anticipated, if its growth had been as gourd-like. In fact the nation only at the instant ascertained the state of its mind. The mood itself had been in course of formation for years.

[Sidenote: Popular Forgetfulness.]

Ralegh, as we have seen, had been cordially detested in his day of ascendency. All a reign's odium naturally condenses itself upon a royal favourite. His elaborate courtesy did not produce the effect of affability. His lavishness was thought ostentation. His good nature, for he was good natured, had too much an air of condescension. The scorn of rivals or his superiors in rank he met with scorn. His exploits by land and sea, as impartial critics noted, heightened instead of pacifying malignity. Later exposure to settled Court dislike blunted the edge of popular enmity; it hardly turned it into kindness. The national attitude towards Ralegh, downtrodden and harassed, long showed curiosity more than affection. The kingdom wondered what he was doing, or would do. Formerly it had believed, with repugnance, in his ability to extricate himself from all difficulties, whether of war or of intrigue. It retained the same faith in the indomitable resources of the prisoner of the Tower, without much active sympathy, though without antipathy. He died; and the wonder, the observant admiration flamed into a fury of passionate regret. For six and thirty years Ralegh had been before its eyes, and in its thoughts, for good or evil. It could not imagine him not at its service; and he was irreparably gone. A reserve of force, upon which the nation unconsciously had depended in the event of any emergency, had been thrown away. A light in England had been extinguished. The people forgot how it had misconstrued and reviled him. It forgot how passively it had borne to see him worried by malicious rivals and upstart strangers. On the instant he became for it the representative of an era of national glory sacrificed to sordid machinations. The executioner's axe in Palace Yard scattered a film which had dimmed the sight of Englishmen for an entire generation. Death vindicated on Ralegh's own behalf its title to his panegyric: 'O eloquent, just, and mighty Death!'

[Sidenote: An Idol of the Constitutional Party.]

The nation persisted in grieving for him. The instruments of his destruction, courtiers and Ministers, it pursued with a storm of immediate hatred. Loyalty or awe of the Prerogative secured the Sovereign's person for the time from open reproaches. The country was willing to suppose that the King had been misled by evil counsellors, and had quickly repented of the iniquity. Spain, two years later, assisted Austria to dethrone the Elector Palatine and his Stuart wife. A story was invented that James, in anger at the news, exclaimed he would demand the Spanish general's head. A courtier, it was fabled, dared to question whether Philip would be as facile and obliging as James had been. 'Then I wish,' groaned James, 'that Ralegh's head were again on his shoulders.' Posterity has been less ready to make any excuse for James, even the excuse of a selfish contrition. His memory has paid with interest for his escape at first from his rightful share in the obloquy. His injustice as an individual weakened the national faith in royalty. The wrongs suffered from the State caused Ralegh to be regarded as a martyr to freedom, which he was not. The growing party of champions of constitutional liberties watched over and exalted his fame. Pym, in his note-book of Memorable Accidents, has entered under the year 1618: 'Sir Walter Ralegh had the favour to be beheaded at Westminster, where he died with great applause of the beholders, most constantly, most Christianly, most religiously.' Hampden could not bear that any fragments of his writing should be lost. Cromwell pored over his History. Milton printed his essays. Eliot at the date of the execution was twenty-eight. He had long been a friend, and still followed the fortunes, of Villiers. He did not belong yet to the popular party. So far was he from forgetting the spectacle in a week that, many years after, he recalled the whole in a glow of enthusiasm both for the King's victim and the Devon hero. He wrote in the Monarchy of Man, which he did not complete till 1631, that all history scarcely contained a parallel to the fortitude of 'our Ralegh'; that the placid courage of 'that great soul,' while it turned to sorrow the joy of the enemies who had come to witness his sufferings, filled all men else with emotion; 'leaving with them only this doubt, whether death were more acceptable to him, or he more welcome unto death.'

Something both of political and religious partisanship mixed with and exalted the zeal of Pym, Hampden, Eliot, Cromwell, and Milton for the foe of Jesuits and Bishops, the scapegoat of a Stuart's infatuation for Spain, the survivor of a Court which had believed in the present grandeur of England, and a future more splendid still. The feeling was wonderfully tenacious. Ralegh remained for the generation which witnessed his death, and for the next also, the patriot scourge of a still detested Spain. Gradually that especial ground of kindness for him subsided, along with the aversion on which it rested. English hatred of Spain has long been so obsolete a sentiment as to be virtually inconceivable. Not many care to thread the mazes of the plots he was alleged to have countenanced, or of those contrived against him. His acts have been relegated to a side channel of history. Yet for Englishmen his figure keeps its prominence and radiance. It is the more conspicuous for the poverty of the period in which a large and calamitous part of his career was spent. As the student plods along one of the dreariest wastes of the national annals, his name gleams across the tedious page. When from time to time he flits over the stage, the quagmire of Court intrigues and jobbing favouritism is illuminated with a sparkle of romance.

[Sidenote: Perplexities.]

[Sidenote: Failures and Inconsistencies.]

He is among the most dazzling personalities in English history, and the most enigmatical. Not an action ascribed to him, not a plan he is reputed to have conceived, not a date in his multifarious career, but is matter of controversy. In view of the state of the national records in the last century, it is scarcely strange that Gibbon himself should, after selecting him for a theme, have recoiled from the task of marshalling the chaos of his 'obscure' deeds, a 'fame confined to the narrow limits of our language and our island,' and 'a fund of materials not yet properly manufactured.' Posterity and his contemporaries have equally been unable to agree on his virtues and his vices, the nature of his motives, the spelling of his name, and the amount of his genius. No man was ever less reticent about himself; and his confessions and apologies deepen the confusion. He had a poet's inspiration; and his title to most of the verses ascribed to him is contested. He was one of the creators of modern English prose; and his disquisitions have for two centuries ceased to be read. He and Bacon are coupled by Dugald Stewart as eminent beyond their age for their emancipation from the fetters of the Schoolmen, their originality, and the enlargement of their scientific conceptions; and a single phrase, 'the fundamental laws of human knowledge,' is the only philosophical idea connected with him. His name is entered, rightly, in the first rank of discoverers, navigators, and planters, on account of two countries which he neither found nor permanently colonized. He was a great admiral, who commanded in chief on one expedition alone, and that miserably failed. He had in him the making of a great soldier, though his exploits are lost in the dreary darkness of intestine French and Irish savageries. He was a master of policy, and his loftiest office was that of Captain of the Guard. None could be kinder, or more chivalrously generous, and he practised with complacency in Munster treachery and cruelty which he abhorred in a Spaniard of Trinidad. He had the subtlest brain, and became the yokefellow of a Cobham. He thirsted after Court favour, and wealth, and died attainted and landless. He longed to scour the world for adventures, and spent a fourth part of his manhood in a gaol. He laid the foundation of a married life characterized by an unbroken tenor of romantic trust and devotion, by doing his wife the worst injury a woman can undergo. The star of his hopes was the future of his elder son, and the boy squandered his life on an idle skirmish. He courted admiration, and, till he was buried in prison or the grave, was the best hated man in the kingdom.

Had he been less vivacious and many-sided, he might have succeeded better, suffered less, and accomplished more. With qualities less shining he would have escaped the trammels of Court favouritism, and its stains. With powers less various he would have been content to be illustrious in one line. As a poet he might have rivalled instead of patronizing Spenser. In prose he might have surpassed the thoughtful majesty of Hooker. As an observer of nature he might have disputed the palm with Bacon. He must have been recognized as endowed with the specific gifts of a statesman or a general, if he had possessed none others as remarkable. But if less various he would have been less attractive. If he had shone without a cloud in any one direction, he would not have pervaded a period with the splendour of his nature, and become its type. More smoothness in his fortunes would have shorn them of their tragic picturesqueness. Failure itself was needed to colour all with the tints which surprise and captivate. He was not a martyr to forgive his persecutors. He was not a hero to endure in silence, and without an effort at escape. His character had many earthy streaks. His self-love was enormous. He could be shifty, wheedling, whining. His extraordinary and indomitable perseverance in the pursuit of ends was crossed with a strange restlessness and recklessness in the choice of means. His projects often ended in reverses and disappointments. Yet, with all the shortcomings, no figure, no life gathers up in itself more completely the whole spirit of an epoch; none more firmly enchains admiration for invincible individuality, or ends by winning a more personal tenderness and affection.



INDEX.

Abbot, George, Archbishop of Canterbury; previously Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, and of London, 293, 344, 356, 367, 372.

Acuna, Diego Palomeque de, 320, 321, 324.

AEmilius, 278.

Aguilar, Garcia de, 322.

Albert, Archduke, 156, 186, 224, 251.

Alexander the Great, 278.

Allen, Thomas, 295.

Alley, Captain Peter, 317, 322.

Amadas, Captain Philip, 43, 45.

Amazons, River of the, 270.

Anderson, Sir Edmund, Chief Justice, 209.

Andrewes, Lancelot, Bishop of Chichester, Ely, and Winchester, 336.

Anjou, Francis, Duke of, 32, 33.

Anne of Denmark, Queen, 237, 254, 260, 288-9, 294, 299, 339, 341, 345, 367-8.

Antiochus, King, 278.

Antiquaries, Society of, 273.

Antonio, Don, 67.

Apology, Ralegh's, 304, 321, 324, 336-8.

— Manourie's, 388.

— Stukely's, 386-7.

Apsley, or Appesley, Captain, 32.

— Sir Allen, 347-8, 358.

— Lady, ibid.

Arenberg, or Aremberg, Count of, 186-193, 200, 207, 211, 215, 217-8, 223, 226, 228.

Arias, Montanus, 275.

Ark Ralegh, 42, 82, 87.

Armada, Invincible, 65-67.

Artaxerxes, King, 277.

Arundel, Thomas Howard, Earl of, 305, 310, 324, 332, 375-9.

Ashley, Sir Anthony, 132, 381.

Ashton, Roger, 230.

Assapana, 320.

Aubrey, John, 8, 58, 100, 104, 164, 180-1, 192, 258, 273, 282-3, 300.

Avila, Pedro Melendez de, 43.

Ayton, Sir Robert, 79.

Azores, Truth of the Fight about the Isles of, 84, 269.

Babington, Anthony, 39.

Bacon, Francis, Lord Verulam, and Viscount St. Alban's, Lord Chancellor, 8, 17, 47, 155, 277, 302-4, 344, 359, 364, 366, 369, 389-93, 398.

— Sir Anthony, 69, 126.

Bainham, Sir Edward, 39.

Bancroft, Richard, Bishop of London, Archbishop of Canterbury, 193.

Barbary corsairs, 64, 315.

Barlow, Captain Arthur, 44.

Barry, David Fitzjames, Lord Barry, and Viscount Buttevant, 18, 314.

Bassaniere, Martin, 53.

Basset, Elizabeth, 300.

Bath, William Bourchier, Earl of, 34, 64.

Bathurst, Mr., 162.

Bayley, Captain, 315-6, 331-2, 357.

Beauchamp, Lord, 34.

Beaumont, Comte de, 182, 191, 194, 205, 227, 240.

— Comtesse de, 251.

Bedford, John Russell, Earl of, 4.

— Francis Russell, Earl of, 34.

— Bridget, Dowager Countess of, 262.

Beecher or Becher, William, 325.

Beeston, Sir Hugh, 371.

Belle, 308.

Belphoebe, 75.

Berreo, Antonio de, 109, 113, 119, 23, 320.

— Fernando de, 320.

Berry, Captain Leonard, 161.

Best, John, 108.

'Beyond the Line,' 315, 356.

Bibliography, Ralegh, 269.

Bilson, Thomas, Bishop of Worcester, and Winchester, 237.

Bingham, Sir Richard, 64.

Biron, Marshal Charles de Gontaut, Duc de, 156.

Bisseaux, de, 308.

Blackstone, Mr. Justice, Sir William, 285.

Blount, Charles, Lord Mountjoy, Earl of Devonshire, 69, 134, 209, 219, 221.

— Sir Christopher, husband of dowager Countess of Essex, 130, 137, 146, 149.

— Mr., 97, 98.

Bodleian Library, 131, 273.

Bolingbroke, Henry St. John, Viscount, 269.

Bothwell, Francis Stuart, Earl of, 152.

Boyle, Richard, Lord Boyle, and Earl of Cork, 162-3, 265, 314-5, 330, 369, 382.

Bravo, Isle of, 316.

Breviary of the History of England, 271-2.

Brewer, Professor Rev. John, 195.

Brooke, George, 186, 188, 192-3, 208, 229; execution, 236, 239.

Brooksby, 208.

Broughton, Rev. Hugh, 126.

Brown, Rawdon, 310.

Brushfield, Dr. T.N., 2, 31, 105, 269, 281.

Bullen, Mr. George, 80.

Burgh, or Brough, Sir John, 87, 96, 97.

Burhill, Rev. Robert, 273.

Burleigh, or Burghley, William Cecil, Lord, and Earl of Exeter, 14, 20, 30, 33, 37, 57, 63, 123, 167, 169, 215.

Burre, Walter, 275, 282.

Bye Plot, or Surprising Treason, 188-9, 211, 346.

Cabinet Council, 269, 280.

Caesar, Sir Julius, 255, 303, 344, 356, 361-2, 364.

Camden, William, 9, 66, 89, 109, 275, 296, 298, 333.

Carew, Sir Francis, 49, 183.

— Sir George, Earl of Totnes, 26, 30, 49, 70, 93, 94, 99, 126, 127, 131, 134, 148, 162, 254-5, 265, 299-301, 306, 314, 330, 332-3, 347, 350, 377.

— Lady, 351.

— Sir Henry, 143.

— Sir Nicholas, 88, 373.

— Sir Peter, 4.

— Sir Randolph, 375.

Carleton, Dudley, Lord Dorchester, 174, 228-30, 239, 262, 293.

Carlyle, Thomas, 283.

Carr, Robert, Viscount Rochester, and Earl of Somerset, 250, 252, 261-3, 292, 296-7, 347.

Case, John, 53.

Caulfield, Captain, 111, 118, 369.

Cavendish, Sir Charles, 63.

— Thomas, 45.

Caworako, 116.

Cecil, Colonel, 375.

— Elizabeth Brooke, Lady, 170.

— Sir Robert, Lord Cecil, and Earl of Salisbury, 30, 52, 91, 97-8, 103, 119, 123, 132, 148, 158, 169-80, 184, 187, 194, 196, 199, 204-5, 209, 214, 219, 221, 223, 227, 229, 232, 240, 242, 244-5, 255; death, 257-9, 266, 288-9, 292, 300, 346.

— Thomas, Earl of Exeter, 302.

— William, Earl of Salisbury, 152, 170. (For Sir William Cecil, Earl of Exeter, see Burleigh.)

Cedar wood, 170.

Ceyva, la, Isle of, 322.

Chamberlain, John, 229, 262, 280-1, 298, 305, 337, 386, 393-4.

Champernoun, C., 7, 9.

— Henry, 9.

— Katherine (Gilbert and Ralegh), 2, 3, 5.

— Sir Philip, 2.

Champion, Richard, 351.

Chapman, George, 121.

Charles I, 310, 381.

— II, 266, 382.

Charles Emmanuel I. See Savoy.

Charles, the Indian, 249.

Chester, Charles, 13.

Cheynes, the goldsmith, 244.

Christian IV, of Denmark, 293-4.

Christofero, 350.

Christopher's, St., 328.

Chudleigh, Captain, 311.

Churchyard, Thomas, 56.

Cities, Causes of the Magnificency of, 267.

Clarence, George Plantagenet, Duke of, 247.

Clarendon, Edward Hyde, Earl of, 145.

Clares, the, Earls of Gloucester, 1.

Clarke, Rev. Francis, 186, 208, 215, 236.

Clifford, Sir Coniers, 126-7.

Clyst Heath, battle of, 4.

Clyston, Sir John, 38.

Cobham, Henry Brooke, Lord, 147, 156, 167, 173, 175, 178, 180, 183-4, 186-93, 200-3, 207-8, 223-30, 236, 240, 244, 252, 254-5, 259, 295; death, 296, 300, 325, 346, 360, 384, 399.

Coke, Sir Edward, Chief Justice, 190, 209-20, 230, 260, 344, 359, 361, 389.

Coldwell, John, Bishop of Salisbury, 101, 102.

Coligny, Gaspard de, Admiral, 11.

Colin Clout, 71.

Collier, Payne, 42, 141.

Comestor, Peter, 272.

Compton, William, Lord, Earl of Northampton, 332, 375.

Concini, Concino, Marshal, 307.

Copley, Anthony, 186, 188, 193, 208.

'Cords twisted by Love,' 279.

Corney, Bolton, 274.

Corsini, Filippo, 51.

Cosmor, Captain, 321.

Cottington, Francis, Lord Cottington, 305, 332, 385-6.

Cotton, Henry, Bishop of Salisbury, 143, 163, 244.

— Sir Robert, 272.

Cottrell or Cotterell, Edward or William, 203, 248, 252, 339-40, 342.

Court Morals, 89.

Courtenay, Sir William, 34.

Coventry, Sir Thomas, Lord Keeper, Lord Coventry, 362.

Crab, 316.

Cromwell, Oliver, 279, 397.

— Richard, 279.

Crosse, Captain, 111.

Cumberland, George Clifford, Earl of, 50, 86, 97, 99, 184.

Cynthia, 73-6.

Daniel, Samuel, 271.

—, 257.

Darcy, Sir Edward, 104, 183, 210.

Dare, Eleanor, 47.

Darell, 2.

Darius, King, 278.

Davila, Francis, 333.

Davison, Francis, 80.

Davys, John, 50, 140.

Dayrell, Sir Richard, 209.

Dean, Peter, 248, 365-6.

'Death, eloquent, just, and mighty,' 396.

Declaration of 1618, 291, 303, 305, 311, 321, 323-4, 330, 361, 364, 389-393.

Dee, Dr. John, 104.

Demetrius, 277.

Desmond, Gerald Fitzjames Fitzgerald, 15th Earl of, 37.

— — 18th Earl of, 295.

— Katherine Fitzgerald, Dowager Countess of, 162.

— Morrice Fitzjohn of, 84.

Deuteronomy, 213.

Devereux, Lady Dorothy, Perrot, and Countess of Northumberland, 13, 61, 177.

Digby, John, Earl of Bristol, 164, 264, 307, 339, 381.

— Kenelm, 267.

Dimoke, Dulmar, 120.

D'Israeli, Isaac, 181, 274.

Dixon, Hepworth, 198.

Dover Harbour, 159.

Dowdall, Sir John, 95.

Drake, Sir Francis, 46, 67, 125.

— Joan, 2.

— Mr., 334.

— Robert, 2.

Drummond, William, of Hawthornden, 274, 301.

Dudley, Robert, claimant of Dukedom of Northumberland, 122.

Duelling, 57, 69, 84, 166-7.

Duke, Richard, 100-1.

Durham House, 104, 174, 182-3.

Dutiful Advice, 269.

Dyce, Rev. Alexander, 301.

Dyer, Edward, 61.

— the pilot, 216.

Echard, Archdeacon Lawrence, 186.

Edward IV, 211.

— V, 247.

Edwards, Edward, 26, 31, 259, 274.

Egerton, Sir Thomas, Lord Chancellor, Lord Ellesmere, and Viscount Brackley, 36, 106.

Eliot, John, 371, 375, 397.

Elizabeth, Princess, Electress Palatine, and Queen of Bohemia, 256, 279, 396.

— Queen, 24, 25, 44, 93, 94, 125, 147, 170; death, 180, 212, 270, 280, 343, 368.

Elstracke, Renold, 276.

Elways, Sir Gervase, 250.

Empire, Arts of, 267, 269.

Epaminondas, 277.

Erenetta, 321.

Erskine, Sir Thomas, Earl of Kellie, 181.

Esmond, Henry, 371.

Essex, Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of, 55, 60-3, 69, 82, 125, 127-8, 131, 133, 135-6, 138-9, 143-9; execution, 150, 160, 165, 182, 202, 209, 217, 328, 374, 378, 390.

— Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of, 237.

— Lettice Knollys, dowager Countess of Leicester, and of, 237, 361.

Eumenes, 299.

Evelyn, John, 55, 266.

Evesham, Captain John, 50.

Faerie Queene, 26, 72.

Faige, Captain, 307-8.

Fardell, 1, 6.

Faunt, Nicholas, 108.

Fayal, attack on, 136-7, 277.

Fayle, de la, 186.

Feather triumph, 146.

Febre, or Febure, Nicholas de, 266-7.

Felton, John, 263.

Ferne, Sir John, 311-2, 330, 363.

Finett, Robert, 300.

Fitton, Sir Edward, 38.

— Mary, 89.

Fitzgerald, Sir James, 17.

— Gerald Fitzjames, see Desmond.

— Katherine, see Desmond.

— Morrice Fitzjohn, see Desmond.

— John Fitzedmund, see Imokelly.

Fitzwilliam, Sir William, Lord Deputy, 56, 71, 95.

Fleet prison, 13, 246.

Florida, French in, 43.

Flory, Captain, 334.

Floyer, Captain John, 51.

Fortescue, Sir John, 99, 180.

Foster, Mr. Justice, Sir Michael, 214-5, 222.

Fourth party, 184.

Fowler, Sir Thomas, or John, 316.

Fox, Charles James, 277.

Foxe, John, Acts and Monuments, 5.

Francis, the cook, 316.

Fraser, Alexander, 267.

Frederick, Elector Palatine, and King of Bohemia, 255, 396.

Frobisher, Sir Martin, 87, 96.

Gainsford, Captain Thomas, 395.

Gardiner, Mr. S.R., 190, 225, 292, 318, 324, 332, 335, 337, 344, 352-5.

Gascoigne, George, 12, 30.

Gate-house, 367, 371-4, 387.

Gawdy, Mr. Justice, Sir Francis, 209, 214, 231, 363.

Genaboa, Pedro Sarmiento de, 50.

Genoa, plot against, 310-11.

Gibb, John, 239.

Gibbon, Edward, 102, 281, 309, 398.

Gifford, 118.

Gilbert, Adrian, 2, 164, 196, 265.

— Bartholomew, 48.

— Humphrey, 2, 11, 14, 15, 19, 42-3.

— John, 2, 5, 34, 64, 111, 123, 129.

— John, junior, 51, 141.

— Otho, 2.

— Ralph, 48.

Giles's, St., bowl, 375.

Giuseppe, San, or St. Joseph, 113, 323, 357.

Godolphin, Sir William, 241.

Godwin, George, 136.

Godwin, Thomas, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 102.

Gomera, Isle of, 316.

Gondomar, Count of, Diego Sarmiento de Acuna, 227, 304-5, 332-3, 338.

Goodier, Sir Henry, 34.

Goodman, Godfrey, Bishop of Gloucester, 195, 381.

Goodwin, Hugh, 117.

Gorges, Sir Arthur, 93, 134, 137, 139, 140, 156.

— Sir Ferdinando, 134, 149, 150, 166, 383.

Gorgues, Dominique de, 43.

Gosnold, Captain, 48.

Gosse, Mr. Edmund, 73-4.

Government, Seat of, 267.

Grados, Geronimo de, 321-2.

Granganimeo, 44, 46.

Gray's Inn Walks, 302.

Grenville, Sir Richard, 45-6, 64, 83-4, 334.

Greville, Fulke, Lord Brooke, 297.

Grey de Wilton, Arthur Grey, Lord, 17, 19, 20-22, 64.

— Thomas Grey, Lord, 186, 188, 200, 208, 233, 236, 240, 244, 249, 295.

— William Grey, Lord, 4.

Gualtero, the Indian, 117.

Guiana, 109-10, 288, 291, 317-25, 350-1.

Discovery of, 120, 269.

Guizot, Francois Pierre Guillaume, 283.

Gunpowder Plot, 251, 261.

Hakluyt, Richard, junior, 11, 15, 47, 50, 53, 84, 119, 161.

Hall, Joseph, Bishop of Norwich, 279.

— Captain, 319.

Hallam, Henry, 79, 183, 199, 204, 221, 225, 227, 277, 284-6, 292, 303.

Haman, 297.

Hamon's wife, 369.

Hampden, Mr. John, 269, 279, 371, 397.

— Sir John, 322.

Hannah, Archdeacon John, 73.

Harcourt, Captain Robert, 291.

Harington, Sir John, 90, 93, 156, 163, 171, 193, 205, 273, 293.

Harrington, James, 380.

Harriot, or Hariot, Thomas, 45, 49, 54, 221, 248, 273, 295.

Harris, Sir Christopher, 334.

Harry, the Indian, 317.

Hart, the boatswain, 339-41.

Harvey, Sir George, 201, 203, 249, 252.

— Mr. George, 203.

Harwood, Sir Edward, 345.

Hastings, Edward, 300, 332.

Hatton, Sir Christopher, 26, 38, 60.

Havanna, Spanish Cruelties in, 268.

Hawkins, Sir John, 97, 99, 125.

Hawles, Sir John, 180, 224.

Hawthorn, Rev. Mr., 248.

Hay, James, Viscount Doncaster, and Earl of Carlisle, 332, 375, 377.

Hayes Barton, 6, 70, 100-1.

Hayman, Samuel, 272.

Hele, Serjeant, 209, 210.

Heneage, Sir Thomas, 33, 60.

Hennessy, Sir John Pope, 70, 147, 162, 272.

Henry IV, of France, 144, 184, 240.

— VII, of England, 1, 211.

— VIII, 278, 280.

Henry, Prince of Wales, 255-7, 259-60, 263, 284, 294.

Herbert, Myles, or William, 300, 329.

— William, 340-1.

Hickes, Michael, 30, 208, 229.

Hilliard, Rev. William, 126.

History of the World, 255, 270-84, 297.

Hobbinol, 258.

Holinshed, Raphael, 3, 15, 45.

Hollander, trade and commerce with the, 267.

Hooker, John, 3, 15, 18, 35.

— Rev. Richard, 277.

Horsey, 152.

Hoskyns, Serjeant John, 273, 275.

Howard, Charles, Lord Howard of Effingham, and Earl of Nottingham, 30, 40, 58, 66, 84, 106, 125, 127, 144, 176, 204, 242, 277, 293, 331, 384, 386. — Charity White, Lady Howard of Effingham, 251.

— Lady Frances, Countess of Kildare, and Lady Cobham, 175, 216, 296.

— Lady Frances, Countess of Essex, and of Somerset, 237, 296-7, 361.

— Lord Henry, Earl of Northampton, 30, 169, 171-7, 182, 188, 196, 209, 252, 254, 286, 293, 372.

— Mr. Henry, 300.

— Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, 152, 214.

— Lord Thomas, Earl of Suffolk, 82, 84, 126-8, 134, 138-9, 146, 209, 221, 255, 293, 300, 346.

— Thomas, Viscount Bindon, 165.

Howell, James, 302-3.

— T.B., 202.

Hues, Robert, 273.

Hume, David, 120, 225.

Huntingdon, Henry Hastings, 3rd Earl of, 119.

— Henry Hastings, 5th Earl of, 299, 300.

Hutchinson, Mrs. Lucy, 247, 347-8.

Imokelly, Seneschal of, John Fitzedmund Fitzgerald, 18, 33.

Instructions to his Son, 268.

Isabella, Archduchess, the Infanta, 156, 226.

Isham, Sir John, 372, 374.

Islands Voyage, 134-140.

James I, 30, 55, 171-7, 185-6, 194, 205, 209, 223, 227, 233, 239, 243, 256, 261, 278, 279-81, 291-2, 297, 303-6, 317, 332-3, 338, 349, 352-355, 360, 368, 370, 379, 381, 386, 387-93, 396-7.

Janssen, Cornelius, 29.

Jarnac, battle of, 11.

Jehu, 277.

Jersey, 160, 182, 192, 201, 226, 382.

Jesuit and Recusant, Dialogue between, 268.

Jezebel, 277.

John, Dr., 248.

Jones, Rev. Samuel, 326.

Jonson, Ben, 31, 270, 274-5, 300-1, 371.

Kelloway, 152.

Keymer, John, 36, 268.

Keymis, or Keemis, Captain Lawrence, 54, 111, 118, 121, 123-4, 190-2, 196, 246, 252, 290, 311, 318-9, 322-5, 329, 350.

Killigrew, William, 95, 98, 210.

King's Printers, 391.

King, Captain Anthony Wells, 111.

— Captain Samuel, 319, 330, 333-6, 338-42, 388.

Kingsley, Canon Charles, 151, 204, 279, 328.

Knolles, Sir Thomas, 64.

Knyvett, or Knevett, Henry, 57.

— Sir Thomas, Lord Knyvett, 290.

Lake, Sir Thomas, 181.

Lancerota, isle of, 315, 357.

Lane, Ralph, 45-6, 49, 64.

La Renzi, 186, 188, 192, 226.

Latimer, Hugh, Bishop of Worcester, 247.

Laudonniere, 43.

Lawes, Henry, 381.

Lazanna, Juan de, 322.

Le Clerc, 338-40, 344-5.

Le Grand Captain, 334.

Leicester, Robert Dudley, Earl of, 14, 20, 23, 32, 56.

Leigh, Captain Charles, 291.

— Sir John, 329.

Leighton, Sir Thomas, 64.

Lennox, Esme Stuart, Duke of, 174-5, 255.

Leonard, the Indian, 291.

Leonello, the Venetian, 310-1.

Lingard, Rev. Dr. John, 113, 223, 225, 227.

Linschoten, Jan Huygen van, 83.

Lismore Castle and Manor, 70-1, 161-3.

Littlecote Hall, 209.

Littleton, John, 39.

Lloyd, David, 269.

Lorkin, Thomas, 378.

Lovelace, Captain Richard, 371.

Lowell, James Russell, 380.

Lundy Isle, 388.

Luttrell, Narcissus, 195.

Lyon's Inn, 12, 103.

McCarthy, Cormac, Lord of Muskerry, 158.

— Florence, 18, 295.

Mace, Captain Samuel, 47, 161.

Macworth, 17.

Madre de Dios, 96.

Magrath Miler, Bishop of Lismore and Waterford, and Archbishop of Cashel, 70, 126.

Mahomet, Life and Death of, 269.

Main Plot, 193, 211, 346, 357.

Malet, Mr. Justice, Sir Thomas, 258.

Manourie, 335-8, 362-3, 376, 383, 387-8.

Mansel, Sir Robert, 208.

Manteo, 44-6.

Mar, John Erskine, Earl of, 187, 229.

Marets, Comte de, 306-7.

Margaret's, St., 380-1.

Marie de Medici, 156, 306.

Maritimal Voyage, 257.

Markham, Sir Griffin, 184, 186, 188, 192, 200, 208, 236, 239-40, 244, 296.

Marriage, Spanish, 345.

Marrow of History, 282.

Martens, Veronio, 162.

Mary Stuart, 64, 182, 192.

Masham, Thomas, 161.

Matthew, Tobias, Bishop of Durham, and Archbishop of York, 101, 182.

— Sir Toby, 198, 229.

Mayerne, Sir Theodore, 260, 328.

'May-game Monarchs,' 278.

Meere, John, 164-5, 209, 242, 263, 315, 369.

Mermaid Tavern, 157.

Meyricke, Sir Guilly, 136-7.

Millais, Sir John E., 7.

Milton, John, 30, 269, 397.

Moate, Captain, 290, 318.

Model of a Ship, 257, 267.

Moile, Henry, 18.

Monarchy of Man, 397.

Moncontour, battle of, 10.

Monk, General George, Duke of Albemarle, 382.

Monmouth, James, Duke of, 9.

Monson, Sir William, 127, 129, 131, 136, 138.

Montagu, Chief Justice, Sir Henry, Earl of Manchester, 365-7.

Montague, James Grahame, Bishop of Winchester, 368.

Montgomerie, Comte de, 9.

Montmorency, Admiral de, 308.

Montrose, James Graham, Marquis of, 279.

Mooney, John, 103.

More, Sir George, 295.

Morequito, King, 115.

Morgan, Sir William, 20.

Morgues, Jacques, 53.

Myrtle Grove, 70, 272.

Napier, Macvey, 208, 270.

Narrative, Captain King's, 388.

Nassau, Lewis, Count of, 10.

Naunton, Sir Robert, 16, 22, 30, 35, 109, 328, 341, 343-4, 348-9, 351-2, 369, 389, 394-5.

Neville, Sir Henry, 156.

Newfoundland, 43, 161, 327, 329.

Ninias, 280.

Norreys, Sir Thomas, 30.

Norris, Sir John, 11, 64, 67.

North, Captain, 300.

Northumberland, John Dudley, Duke of, 104, 152.

— Henry Percy, 9th Earl of, 58, 173, 175-6, 182, 184, 223, 251, 273, 295, 329, 394. (For 10th Earl, see Percy.)

Novion, David de, 338-40, 344.

Oldys, William, 265, 268, 281, 301, 388.

Orange, William I, Prince of, 11, 33.

— Maurice, Prince of, 156, 300.

Oriel College, 7.

Orinoko River, 114.

Ormond, Thomas Butler, 10th Earl of, 19, 20, 33, 38.

Osborn, or Osborne, Francis, 230, 258, 280, 296, 368.

Osmund, Bishop of Salisbury, 101, 263.

Overbury, Sir Thomas, 219, 221, 250, 266, 292, 296, 328.

Palmer, 120.

Parham, Mr., 336.

— Sir Edward, 186, 208, 336, 377.

Parker, Captain Charles, 300, 322, 325, 357.

Parry, Sir Thomas, 188, 193-4, 199, 200, 224.

Parsons, Rev. Robert, 106.

Paulett, Sir Anthony, 34, 160.

'Paul's-walker, the constant,' 394.

Paunsford, 13.

Peirese, Nicholas Claude Fabri de, 333.

Peirson, John, 54.

Pelissier, General Aimable Jean Jacques, Duc de Malakhoff, 10.

Pembroke, Henry Herbert, Earl of, 69, 79.

— William Herbert, Earl of, 89, 237, 241, 296, 300, 305, 310, 381.

— Mary Sidney, dowager Countess of, 237.

Pennington, Captain, 311, 330, 364.

Percy, Algernon, Lord, 10th Earl of Northumberland, 375.

— Thomas, 251.

Perrot, Sir John, 15.

— Sir Thomas, 13.

— Lady Dorothy, see Devereux.

Petition, Humble, Sir Lewis Stukely's, 387, 389.

Pett, Phinehas, 257, 299.

Pewe, Hugh, gentleman, 40.

Peyton, Sir Edward, 30.

— Sir John, 194, 201.

— John, junior, 201.

Philip II, of Spain, 64, 186, 285.

— III, 357, 385-6.

Phillips, Serjeant, Sir Edward, Speaker, and Master of the Rolls, 209, 216, 242.

— Sir Robert, 263.

Piers, Captain, 20.

Piggot, Captain, 316.

Pilgrimage, The, 238-9.

Pinkerton, John, alias Robert Heron, 282-3.

Plague, 103, 207, 247-8.

Plumer, Thomas, 299.

Polwhele, Rev. Richard, 1, 100, 101.

Ponte, Isabel de, 2.

Pope, Alexander, 164, 278.

Popham, Chief Justice, Sir John, 209, 221, 260-1.

Portraits of Ralegh, 28-9.

Pory, J., 386, 394.

Potatoes, 49.

'Poverty an imprisonment of the mind,' 241.

Poyntz, 49.

Prerogative of Parliaments, 267, 269, 284-6, 292, 296.

Prest, Agnes, 5.

Preston, Sir Amias, 112, 119, 166, 289.

Primero, a game of, 143.

Prince, The, 267.

Princes, Premonition to, 268.

Puckering, Sir Thomas, 378.

Pullison, Lord Mayor, 34.

Putijma, 118, 124, 318.

Puttenham, George, 30, 77.

Pym, John, 207, 314, 397.

Pyne, Henry, 162, 314-5, 369.

Pyrrhus, 277.

Raleana, the, 115.

Ralegh, Adrian, 50.

— Sir Carew, 2, 31, 44, 86, 103, 157, 166, 242, 248.

— Mr. Carew, 30, 104, 163, 243, 248, 261, 264, 302, 305, 314, 327, 368, 381-3.

— George, 2.

— George, junior, 104, 249, 300, 318-9, 322-3.

— John, 2.

— Margaret, 2.

— Mary, 2.

— Philip, 30, 282, 381.

— Walter, Sir Walter's father, 2-5, 31.

— Walter, son, 29, 30, 165-6, 243, 248, 261-2, 300-1, 317; death, 321, 323.

— Walter, grandson, 381.

— Sir Walter; his birth, 6; birthplace, 6-7; boyhood, 7; at Oriel College, 7-9; chronological difficulties; serves with the Huguenots for six years, 9-11; in the War of the Netherlands, 11; a law student at Lyon's Inn and the Middle Temple, 12, 13; at Islington in 1577, 13; joins in Humphrey Gilbert's Norimbega expedition, 14-15; a Captain in Munster, 16; at the Smerwick massacre, 17; surprises Lord Barry's and Lord Roche's castles, 18-19; a Commissioner for Munster, 20; brings home despatches. 21. Advice to the Council on Irish affairs, wins the Queen's favour; 22-3; Thomas Fuller's story, 23-4; his relations to the Queen, 25-7; invidious versatility, 27; aspect, 28-9; spelling of his name, 30-31. Attendance on the Duc d'Anjou, 33; Warden of the Stannaries, and Captain of the Guard, 34-5; wine licenser, 36; controversy with University of Cambridge, 36-7; an Undertaker for Munster, 37-8; the Babington forfeiture, 39; extravagance and neediness of Elizabethan courtiers, 40. Forbidden to voyage with Humphrey Gilbert, 42; equips expedition to Virginia, 43-4; sends settlers, 45-8; imports tobacco and potatoes, 49; privateering, 50-2. A patron of literature, 53-5; deference to Earl of Leicester, 56-7; befriends Earl of Oxford, 57; 'damnably proud,' 58; passion for management, 59. Essex's jealousy, 61-2; sups at Lord Burleigh's with Lady Arabella Stuart, 63; council of war against the Armada, 64; the Armada, 65; 'a morris dance upon the waters'; danger of grappling, 66; expedition against Lisbon, 67; dispute with Colonel Roger Williams, 68. Reported loss of royal favour, 69; Lismore Castle and Myrtle Grove, 70; visit to Edmund Spenser, 71; the Faerie Queene, 72; Cynthia, and its date, 73-5; Ralegh's sonnet to Spenser, 76; his poetic gifts, 77; their limitations, 78; disputed authorship of poems, 79-80. Commissioned to intercept the Plate Fleet; replaced by Sir Richard Grenville, 82; narrative of Grenville's fight with the Spaniards, 84; invective against Spanish ambition and cruelty, 85; threatened duel with Lord Howard of Effingham, 84; equips an expedition to avenge the Revenge, 86; sails, and is superseded by Burgh and Frobisher, 87. Disgrace and imprisonment, 88; the alleged intrigue with Elizabeth Throckmorton, 89; difficulties in the charge, 90; balance of improbabilities, 91; extravagances to move the Queen's pity, 92-3; place of confinement, and his keeper, 94; discontent with Lord Deputy Fitzwilliam, 95; 'a fish with lame legs, and lamer lungs,' ibid.; capture of the Madre de Dios, 96; her riches; Robert Cecil and he sent to Plymouth to realize them, 97; joy of his servants and step-brother, 98; worth of the cargo, and the Queen's share, 99. His homes; negotiations for Hayes, 100-1; demise of Sherborne and its manors, 102; amusements and occupations, 103; Durham House, and other London residences, 104-5; House of Commons, 105-6; goes to sea; despotic Irish policy, 107. Court rumours concerning him, and fears; plans Guiana expedition, 108; Lady Ralegh's anxiety, 110; Whiddon's pioneering voyage, 111; Ralegh sails, ibid.; captures San Giuseppe, and Antonio de Berreo, 113; navigates the Orinoko, 114; an Indian centenarian, 115; native marvels, 116; gold, 117-8; return, 119; narrative of the expedition, 120; further explorations, 121-4. Preparations against Cadiz, 125-6; attack on the harbour, 127-9; on the town, 129; discontent at share of spoil, 130; comes to London, 131; received back into royal favour, 133; league with Cecil and Essex, 133-4; The Islands Voyage, 135; conquest of Fayal, 137; Essex's wrath, 138; disappointments, 139. 'The killing of a rebel,' 142; relations with Essex; friendly, 143-4; hostile, 145-50; interview with Gorges, 149; presence at execution of Essex, 150; warning to Cecil against relenting, 151-2; obscurities in the letter, 153-4. A mark for Oxford's sarcasms, 155; with Prince Maurice, Sully, and Biron, 156; at the Mermaid Tavern, 157; Member for Cornwall, 158; speech on monopolies, 159; Governor of Jersey, 160; improvements at Lismore Manor, 161; its sale, 162; Sherborne Castle, 163-4; disputes with Meere, 165; with Sir Amias Preston, 166-7. Cordiality of Cecil, 169-70; the rift, 171; relations with King James, 173-5; Henry Howard's hatred of the 'accursed duality,' or 'triplicity,' 175; Ralegh's amity with Cobham, 177. Elizabeth's death, and Ralegh's cold reception by James, 180-81; dismissal from Captaincy of the Guard, 181; ejectment from Durham House, 183; overtures of Sully, 184. The Bye and Main Plots, 186 et seq.; examined by Lords of the Council, 189; accused of complicity by Cobham, 191; inquiries by Waad, 192; attempt at suicide, 194; an apocryphal letter of farewell, 195-8; absurd statement by de Thou; Cobham's remorse and retractations, 201-3; a combination of enmities, 203-5. The indictment, 207; journey to Winchester; brutish mob fury, 208; the trial, 209-20; Coke's insults, 212; rules of evidence in treason prosecutions, 213-5; Cobham's renewed charge, 217; Ralegh's 'amazement,' 218; produces Cobham's letter to himself, 219; verdict of guilty, and judgment, 220; noble demeanour, 221. Legally innocent, 222-5; and morally, 225-8; general admiration, 229-30. The hero abased, 232; the explanation, 234-6; preparing for death; farewell to wife, 237; reprieved, 239-40. The legal penalties, 241; their mitigation, 243; vain prayers for freedom, 245; bodily ailments, 246-7; his Tower home and household, 247-9; petty tyranny of Waad, 249-50; suspected implication in Gunpowder Plot, 251; other imputed crimes, 252; favour of Queen Anne, 254; of Prince Henry, 255; the Savoy Marriages, 256; naval construction, 257; Cecil's death, 257; Prince Henry's, 260; loss of Sherborne, 260-4. Scientific, 265-7, and literary pursuits, 267-70; 'no slug,' 273; History of the World, 270; collaborators, 273-5; date of publication, 275; defects, 276; merits, 277-9; applause from all, 279; except the King, 280-81; cause of interruption of the work, 282-4; Prerogative of Parliaments, 284-6. Visions of Guiana gold mines, 287-92; the opportunity, 292-3; payments to Edward Villiers and William St. John, 294; enlargement, 295; fable of meeting with Robert Carr. Equipment of ships for Guiana, 299; commission with omissions, 301; Lord Keeper Bacon's view of the superfluity of a pardon; alleged avowal of designs upon the Plate Fleet, 303; Gondomar's protests, 304; James's deference to them, 305; the French envoy's visit to Ralegh's flagship, 307; further negotiations with France, 307-10; and with Savoy, 310-11. Departure of the fleet from Plymouth, 313; stay at Cork, and Boyle's hospitality, 314-5; panic at Lancerota, 315; secession of Captain Bayley; the Lady of Gomera, 316; sickness in the Fleet, ibid.; arrival in Guiana, and organisation of expedition to the mine; 317; Ralegh's ignorance of the position of San Thome, 318; his instructions, 319; despatch of Walter and George Ralegh, with Keymis, 320; at Puncto Gallo; hears of Walter's death in the San Thome skirmish, 323; angry reception and death of Keymis, 324-5; deserted by Whitney and Wollaston, 326; writes to Winwood and Lady Ralegh from St. Christopher's, 328-9; arrives at Kinsale from Newfoundland, 330. Meeting with Lady Ralegh at Plymouth, June 21, 331; Sir Lewis Stukely directed to arrest him and his ship, 334; escape planned, and abandoned, 334; journey, with Stukely and Manourie, 335; malingering at Salisbury; and composition of Apology, 336; Manourie's treachery, 338; interviews with French Agents, 338-9; flight, and return to the Tower, 341-2. Last interview with Stukely, 343; examined by the Privy Council, 344; Sir Thomas Wilson's endeavours to extort evidence from him, 346-52; Sir Allen's and Lady Apsley's kindness, 347-8; appeals to the King and Villiers, 349-51; dilemma of the Government, 355-7; recourse to the Main Plot, 357. A quasi-trial, 359-64; the decision, 364-5; execution granted by the King's Bench, 366-7; testamentary note, 369. At the Gate-house, 371; 'fearlessness, with reverence and conscience,' 372; farewell to his wife, 373; and to life, 374; on the scaffold, 375-8; on the block, 379. Burial, 380; popular wrath, and vengeance, 386-9. Durability of the national sympathy, 394-8; contradictions in character and career, 398-400.

Ralegh, Wimund, 1.

— Elizabeth Throckmorton, Lady, 30, 88-91, 104, 110, 119, 144, 151, 163, 169-70, 175-6, 237, 243, 248, 250-52, 254, 261-2, 288, 305, 311, 317, 329, 331, 334-6, 351-2, 358, 368-9, 373, 380-2, 384-5.

Ralegh's, Sir Walter, Ghost, 395.

Ralegh, City of, 46.

Ramsay, John, Viscount Haddington, and Earl of Holderness, 290, 314.

Reeks, of Ratcliff, 315, 331.

Register, Oxford, 8, 31.

— Stationers', 31, 275.

Registers, Middlesex, 13.

Rehoboam, 278.

Revenge, The, 83.

Reynerson, Albert, 51.

Rich, Sir Henry, Captain of the Guard, and, 1624, Earl of Holland, 375.

Richard the Second, 134.

Richelieu, Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal de, 306-7.

Rimenant, battle of, 11.

Roche, Maurice, Viscount Roche and Fermoy, 18.

— David, Viscount Roche and Fermoy, 314.

Roe, Sir Thomas, 299.

Ros, William Lennox Lascelles, Lord de, 248.

Ross, Alexander, 275, 281.

Royal Navy, and Sea Service, 257, 267.

Royal Society anticipated, 55.

Rushworth, John, 186, 385.

Russell, Sir William, 146, 148.

Rutland, Elizabeth Sidney, Countess of, 266.

Sackville, Sir Edward, 375.

St. John, Sir Oliver, Lord St. John, and Earl of Bolingbroke, 330.

— Sir William, 294, 302, 340-2.

St. Leger, Sir Warham, 20.

— Sir Warham, junior, 300, 318, 357, 364.

Samson's foxes, 211.

Sampson, the chemist, 266.

— Captain, 252.

Sancroft, William, Archbishop of Canterbury, 271.

Sanderson, William, 36, 242, 371.

— Sir William, 243, 371.

Sanderson's History, Observations upon, 230, 243, 280, 294, 302.

Sandys, William, Lord, 157.

Sassafras, 170.

Savage, Sir Arthur, 156, 174.

Savoy, Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of, 255-6, 310.

Savoy Marriage, 255-6, 267.

Scaramelli, 188, 194.

Scarnafissi, Count, 310-11.

Sceptic, the, 268.

Schomburgk, Sir Robert H., 119, 121, 307.

Scott, Sir Walter, 23.

Sebastian, King of Portugal, 142.

Selden, John, 371.

Semiramis, 280.

Seymour, Lord Henry, 160.

Sharpe, Rev. Dr., 387.

Sheffield, Edmund, Lord Sheffield, and Earl of Mulgrave, 375.

Shelbury, John, 242, 248.

Sherborne Castle, 88, 101-3, 163-7, 195. 243-4. 260-4, 335, 381-2.

Ships, Invention of, 257, 267.

Shirley, 137.

— John, 258, 273.

Shrewsbury, Countess of, 359.

Sidney, Algernon, 274, 284.

— Sir Philip, 57, 77.

— Sir Robert, 146, 156, 177.

Simier, 32.

Simon, Pedro, 321.

Sixtus Senensis, 275.

Skory, Sylvanus, 329.

Sloane, Sir Hans, 265.

Smerwick massacre, 17.

Smith, Captain, 319.

— Robert, 242.

— Thomas, 47.

— Widow, 112, 126.

Snagge, 167, 215.

Snedale, Hugh, 2.

— Margaret, 36, 243.

— Mary, 2.

Sommers, or Summers, Captain George, 112, 119.

Soul, The, 268.

Southampton, Henry Wriothesley, Earl of, 89, 143-4, 184, 192.

Southey, Robert, 55, 113.

Southwell, 127.

Sparrow, Francis, 117.

Spedding, James, 14, 304, 360-61, 364, 393.

Spence, Rev. Dr. Joseph, 278.

Spenser, Edmund, 17, 26, 71.

Stafford, Sir Edward, 89.

Standen, Sir Anthony, 132.

Stanhope, Sir John, 49, 209.

State, Maxims of, 267, 286.

Steele, Sir Richard, 269.

Stewart, Dugald, 398.

Stow, John, 146.

Stowell, Sir John, 38.

Strafford, Thomas Wentworth, Earl of, 382.

Strype, Rev. John, 66.

Stuart, Arabella (Grey), 63, 172-3, 207, 211, 216, 250, 295.

Stukely, John, 45.

— Sir Lewis, 30, 45, 150, 334-43, 362-3, 369, 377, 383-4, 386-9, 395.

— Thomas, 142.

Sully, Maximilien de Bethune, duc de, Baron de Rosny, 156, 184, 254, 295.

Sussex, Thomas Ratcliffe, Earl of, 23, 33.

Swale, M.P., 159.

Talbot, John, 248, 316.

— Mrs., 369.

Tarleton, Richard, 59.

Taxis, Juan de, 240.

Tempest, the Jesuit, 142.

Temple, Middle, 12, 103.

Tenures before the Conquest, 269.

Thome, San, or St. Thomas, 123, 290, 318, 320-23, 332, 350-51, 353-5, 357, 393.

Thomond, Donogh O'Brien, 4th Earl of, 330.

Thou, Jacques Auguste de, 199, 227.

Throckmorton, Sir Arthur, 91, 129, 131.

— Sir Nicholas, 88, 213.

Thynne, Captain, 82.

— Francis, 372.

Tichborne, Sir Benjamin, 157, 221, 239-40.

Tillage Act, 158.

Tissaphernes, 204.

Toparimaca, 115.

Topiowari, King, 115, 117, 123.

Torporley, 295.

Tounson, Robert, Dean of Westminster, and Bishop of Salisbury, 372-6, 378-9, 395.

Tower-hill, 248, 289.

Tower of London, 88, 246-7, 342-3, 387.

— Beauchamp-tower, 248.

— Bloody-tower, 194, 247, 249, 265, 297, 347.

— Brick-tower, 94, 348.

— Wardrobe-tower, 348.

— White-tower, 248.

Treason, law of, 213-4.

Trelawny, Mayor of Plymouth, 313.

Triangle Islands, 317.

Tubus Historicus, 282.

Tunstall, Cuthbert, Bishop of London, and of Durham, 104.

Turner, Dr. Peter, 230, 247-8, 363.

Tyringham, 345.

Tyrone, Hugh O'Neill, Earl of, 125.

Tyrwhit, Robert, 300.

Tytler, Patrick Fraser, 198.

Udal, Rev. John, 55.

Ulloa, Julian Sanchez de, 360, 364.

Vera, Domingo de, 110, 123.

Vere, Edward de, 17th Earl of Oxford, 57, 155.

— Henry de, 18th Earl, 375.

— Sir Francis, 126-8, 130-1, 134, 138.

Villiers, Sir George, Duke of Buckingham, 30, 263, 293-4, 328, 347, 350, 360, 367-8, 370, 395, 397.

— Sir Edward, 294, 302.

Virginia, 44, 48, 101, 288-9.

Vyne, the, 157.

Waad, or Wade, Sir William, 192-3, 199, 208-9, 217, 249-51, 255, 266.

Walsingham, Sir Francis, 11, 14, 19, 22, 37, 42, 45, 57.

— Lady, 144.

Walton, Izaak, 78.

Wanchese, 44-5.

War by Sea, Art of, 257, 284, 385.

War in General, 267.

War with Spain, 31.

Warburton, Mr. Justice, Sir Peter, 209.

Warner, William, 295.

Warwick, Lady Anne Russell, Countess of, 62.

Watson, Rev. William, 186, 193, 208, 215, 229, 236.

Watts, Sir John, 290.

Weekes, 387.

Welldon, or Weldon, Sir Anthony, 217, 255.

West Indies, Treatise of the, 270.

Westwood, 120.

Whiddon, Captain Jacob, 50, 111, 113.

White, Captain John, 46-7.

Whitelocke, Captain, 251.

Whitney, Aubrey's cousin, 249.

— Captain, 311, 319, 320, 322, 325, 327.

Whyte, Rowland, 133, 144, 146, 151.

Wiemark, 394.

Williams, Sir Roger, 64, 67.

Wilson, Sir Thomas, 304-5, 308, 311, 326, 341, 343, 346-52, 358, 365, 368-9, 383-5.

Winchester Castle, 209, 228.

Wingina, King, 44, 46.

Winstanley, William, 282.

Winter, Admiral, 17.

Winwood, Sir Ralph, 156, 205, 293, 304-11, 323-4; death, 328, 337, 391-2.

Witherhead, Thomas, Bishop of Lismore and Waterford, 95.

Wollaston, Captain, 311, 319-20, 322, 325, 327.

— Mr., 351.

Wolvesey Castle, 209.

Wood, Anthony a, 7, 54, 77, 89, 382.

Worcester, Edward Somerset, Earl of, 255, 344.

Wotton, Sir Henry, 23, 56, 138, 274, 382.

— Sir Edward, Lord Wotton, 209.

Yelverton, Sir Henry, Mr. Justice, 362, 366, 389.

— his commonplace book, 195.

Yeomen of the Guard, 34-5.

Zechelius, of Nuremberg, 266.

Zouch, Captain John, 21.

— Lord, 332.

Zucchero, Federigo, 6, 28.

THE END.

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