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Scouting For Girls, Official Handbook of the Girl Scouts
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Arrangements for the ceremony should be planned so that during the presentation of guests, the Court of Awards, the Eaglet's troop and the Color Guard form a hollow square, with the Captain at her post three paces in front of the Troop, the Lieutenant at her post "center and rear" of the Troop. The ceremony should be rehearsed wherever possible, so that all action and form shall be as smart as possible.

1. The Court of Awards enters and takes its place at right angles to the assembled guests.

2. The Captain enters, takes post, and gives all commands.

3. The Color Guard (bearer of the American flag, bearer of the Troop flag, and two guards) followed by Troop to which the Eaglet belongs, enter and march two paces in front of the Court of Awards. The lieutenant is at the left of the leading file. The Troop marches in single file, by twos or in Squad formation according to the number, and the space available.

When the Troop is very large, or the space restricted, the Eaglet's Patrol may take the place of the Troop. As the Colors pass, the Court of Awards should rise, stand at attention, and if Scouts, salute.

4. When the Color Guard at the head of the column has passed the Court of Awards, the command "Column left, MARCH!" is given. When the last file has completed the movement, the following commands are given:

(1) "Scouts, HALT!"

(2) "Left, FACE," or

"Squads, left, MARCH, Squads, HALT," according to the formation of the column.

(3) "Right, DRESS, FRONT!"

5. At the command "Left, FACE," or "Squads, left, MARCH, Squads HALT," the Color Guard makes a left turn, marches forward until on a line with the Court of Awards, again makes a left turn, immediately halts and grounds flags.

6. When the Troop and Color Guard are in position, the Captain gives the command "Patrol Leader and Eaglet, forward, MARCH!" The Patrol Leader escorts the Eaglet to the Captain, salutes the Captain and returns to her position in line.

7. The Chairman of the Court of Awards comes forward, the Captain faces her, salutes, and presents the Eaglet to her.

8. The Chairman after reading the list of Merit Badges which the Scout has earned in order to receive the Golden Eaglet, pins the medal on to the Eaglet's blouse, over the middle of the right pocket. The Eaglet salutes.

If desired this is the opportunity for the Official presenting the badge to say a few words.

9. After the presentation, the Eaglet turns, and facing her Captain and Troop, stands at attention as the Colors are raised, the Scout flag dipped, and the Troop salutes. The Eaglet returns the salute and then marches to her position in line.

10. The Captain gives the command "Color Guard forward, MARCH." The Color Guard marches in front of the Captain and Troop who salute as the Colors pass, make a right turn two paces in front of the Court of Honor and march out.

11. After the Colors have left the "square" the Lieutenant takes her position at the left of the leading file.

The Captain gives the commands:

"Right, FACE, MARCH!" or "Squads right, MARCH!"

"Column left, MARCH!"

and the Troop marches out. The Captain turns, salutes the Court of Awards and passes out.

O—LIEUT. 0000 0000 Troop— 0000 0000 O—Capt. c xx Color c xx Court of Guard c xx Awards c xx ———— ———— ———— Guests

Where there is no Local Council or Court of Awards, Captains are asked to communicate with the National Headquarters concerning the ceremony of presentation of the Golden Eaglet.

ALTERNATE FORMS FOR SCOUT CEREMONIES

In the case of troops for which this formal procedure is not practical, and for the better assistance of Captains and Councils who feel the need of a more definite formulation of the Scout principles on these occasions, the following ceremonies are suggested. They are designed to meet the necessity for expressing at each stage of the Scout's progress, recognition of her achievement up to that point and appreciation of her future responsibilities.

1. Tenderfoot Enrollment

1. The Troop being assembled in any desired formation, the Captain calls forward those who have passed the test.

Captain: "Scout ——, do you think you know what it means to be loyal to God and your Country, to help other people at all times, and to obey the Scout Laws?"

Scout: "I think I do, and I will try my best not to fail in any of them."

This is repeated to each Tenderfoot.

Captain: "Are you ready to make your Promise with your Troop?"

New Scouts (together): "Yes."

Captain: "Scouts of Troop ——, repeat your promise."

All salute and repeat the Promise.

Captain: "I trust you on your honor to keep this Promise."

(Here, when practicable, investiture of hat, neckerchief, etc., takes place.)

Captain then pins on Tenderfoot pin While attaching it, she says:

Captain: "This pin makes you a Girl Scout. It is yours, so long as you are worthy of it."

Captain dismisses recently enrolled Scouts to their Troop position.

(Here the Captain may add, if she wishes, anything in her judgment applicable to the Troop as a whole, or to the new Scouts individually.)

2. Conferring Second Class Badges

The Troop being assembled in any desired formation, the Captain calls forward those who have passed the test.

Captain: "Scout ——, you have learned what is necessary for a Second Class Scout to know. Do you think you can apply your knowledge, if the occasion should arise?"

Scout: "I think so, and I will always try to Be Prepared."

Captain: "Scouts (reciting the candidates' names in order), do you think that the discipline and training you have gone through have made you more capable of doing your duty to God and to your Country, of helping other people at all times and of obeying the Scout Laws, than you were as a Tenderfoot?"

Scouts (together): "Yes."

Captain (pinning on each badge, and speaking to each Scout as she does so): "You are now a Second Class Scout, which means that though you have learned much, you have still much to learn."

Captain dismisses Second Class Scouts to their Troop position.

(Here the Captain may address the Troop at her discretion.)

3. Conferring First Class Badge

The Troop being assembled in any desired formation, the Captain calls forward those who have passed the test and presents them to the presiding Official.

Captain: "Commissioner ——, these Scouts of —— Troop have passed their First Class Tests. I recommend them to you for First Class badges."

Official (to each Scout separately, the Captain giving her the name): "Scout ——, you have passed the final Scout test. You should thoroughly understand by now the meaning of duty to God and Country, the privilege of helpfulness to others, and the seriousness of the Scout Laws. Are you sure that you do."

Scout: "I am. And I realize that I must help other Scouts to see these things as I see them."

Official: "Scouts —— (reading the candidates' names in order), it has taken a great deal of thought and time and energy on the part of a great many people to enable you to wear this badge. Are you prepared to pay this back in generous service, when and where you can?"

Scouts (together): "Yes."

Official (pinning on each badge and speaking to each Scout as she does so): "You are now a First Class Scout. Remember that the world will judge us by you."

Official (to Captain): "I congratulate you, Captain ——, Troop ——, and the members of the Council, on these First Class Scouts, and I trust that the Town of —— will have every reason to be proud of them and to feel that it can depend upon them as especially good citizens and loyal Americans."

Captain acknowledges this in suitable manner and dismisses First Class Scouts to Troop position.

(Here the Official may address the audience at discretion.)

4. Conferring Merit Badges

The Troop being assembled in any desired formation, the Captain calls forward those who have passed the test and presents them to the presiding Official. (Note—The Merit Badges may be conferred by a member or members of the Council, if desired.)

Captain: "Members of the Girl Scout Council of ——, these Scouts have passed the various tests for their Merit Badges, and I recommend them to you for decoration accordingly."

Official: "Scouts (reading the list), you have fairly won the right to wear these badges we are about to present to you, and we are glad to do so. We take this opportunity of reminding you, however, that all good Scouts understand that they are far from having completely mastered the subjects represented by these badges. The symbols which you wear on your sleeve mean that you have an intelligent interest in the subjects you have chosen, understand the principles of them, and can give reasonable, practical proof of this. Do you realize that the Girl Scout Organization credits you with a good foundation and trusts to you to continue to build upon it intelligently?"

Scouts (together): "Yes."

Official (pinning on badges and speaking to each girl separately): "We congratulate you on your perseverance and wish you all success in your work."

(Note—When more than one badge is to be presented to a Scout, they may be attached, for the ceremony, to a piece of ribbon and put on with one motion.)

Captain dismisses Scouts to Troop position.

(Here the official may address the audience at discretion.)

This ceremony being distinctly less formal and intimate than the regular class awards, Scout songs and cheers are in order.

5. Golden Eaglet Ceremony

The Troop being assembled in any desired formation, the Captain presents the Golden Eaglet to the Official who is to make the award.

Captain: "Commissioner ——, Scout ——, of Troop ——, of ——, has not only passed the twenty-one Merit Badge Tests required for the honor of the Golden Eaglet, but is, in the judgment of her Troop, fully worthy of it. We therefore recommend her to you for the decoration."

Official: "What badges does Scout —— offer?"

Captain reads the list Badges earned by the Candidate.

Official: "Troop ——, do you agree that Scout —— has fairly won this decoration and that you are willing to have her represent you to your National Organization as your Golden Eaglet?"

Troop (together): "Yes."

Official: "Members of the Council, do you agree that Scout —— has fairly won this decoration and that you are willing to have her represent you to your community as your Golden Eaglet?"

Council (rising if seated): "Yes."

Official: "Scout ——, you have won the highest honor in the gift of the Girl Scouts."

"If the Scout life meant nothing more to you than a reasonable understanding of certain subjects, there would now be nothing more for the Girl Scouts to teach you; but I am sure that your training has not failed in this respect, and that you understand now, even better than the average Girl Scout, that your great principles of duty to God and Country, helpfulness to others, and obedience to the Scout Laws, are lessons that no Scout can fully learn as long as she lives. Do you agree to this?"

Golden Eaglet: "I agree to it thoroughly."

Official (pinning on badge): "I have the honor of naming you a Golden Eaglet, and in the name of the Girl Scouts I congratulate you heartily on your fine achievement."

Scout salutes or shakes the hand of the Official, as desired, and returns to her troop position.

(Here the Official may address the audience at discretion).

The accompanying diagram of suggested relative positions in Scout ceremonies lends itself equally to a small room, theatre, hall or open field. Whether the Scouts form a troop or even one patrol; whether they make use of strict military formation or informal grouping; whether the visiting Scout dignitaries are many or limited to one member of the local Council, the Scout bodies face each other, and the guest or guests of honor, equally with the general audience, can observe the Troop and the candidates easily from the side.

All Troops who are familiar with military drill can take their usual positions in their usual manner and observe all details of color guard, salutes, etc., to any desired extent. Troops and Captains not familiar with such procedure, by accustoming themselves to this general grouping, will always be able to present a dignified appearance.

Note: These suggestions for the various ceremonials assume that the regular opening of the Scout meetings has already taken place; therefore nothing is given but the actual matter of the presentations, etc. In the case of the Tenderfoot, Second Class and First Class awards, the ceremonies constitute the special business of the meeting, and opening and closing should proceed as usual. They are distinctly Scout business and are not, in general, offered to the public.

The awarding of Merit Badges might with advantage be connected with any local civic ceremony where interest in young people may be created; and in the case of the Golden Eaglet award it is distinctly desirable thus to connect it. Any visiting dignitary, national or state, may with propriety be asked to officiate; and where different organizations are taking their various parts in a public function, it will not always be possible to claim the time nor the space for the regular Scout opening ceremonies, nor would this necessarily be advisable. It is, therefore, well to be provided with a form like the preceding, where a small delegation from the Troop, the Captain and a Councillor could, if necessary, represent the essential units of the organization among a number of other societies; and the words of the ceremony would explain the occasion sufficiently without much concerted action, and may be inserted at the proper place, preceded and followed by any Troop or local customs preferred.



6. How to Conduct a Scout Meeting

1. One long whistle blast: Silence, listen for orders.

2. Three short whistle blasts: "Fall In," or "Assemble," three paces in front of Captain, Squad formation.

5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 * Captain Lieutenant *

3. "Right Dress," "Front."

4. Inspection. Captain inspects for posture, and for personal appearance which should be neat and clean in every particular, and uniform, which should be correct as to style, length, placing of insignia, etc. All necessary corrections should be made in a low tone of voice to the individual Scout.

5. "Color Bearer, Forward—Center" "March." The Color Bearer, appointed to carry flag, upon receiving order to "March", takes one step backward, executes "Right Face," marches out of rank, executes "Left Face," marches to point on line with flag, executes "Right Face," marches to within two steps of flag and comes to "Halt." She salutes flag, takes staff in both hands, wheels right, and marches to position three paces in front of, and facing troop. The captain and Lieutenant have moved to position at right angles to, and at right of troop. If a color Guard is used instead of Color Bearer, two Scouts act as guards, their position being on either side of bearer. They leave ranks together, form in line at right of troop, march shoulder to shoulder and always wheel to the right, the Color Bearer being the pivot and giving all orders to Guard. After Bearer has taken flag and turns, the Guards salute, take one step forward, about-face, and all march to position in front of troop. The Color Guard never takes part in the repeating of the Promise, Laws, Pledge of Allegiance or singing of Star Spangled Banner.

6. "Scouts, the flag of your country, Pledge Allegiance." The Pledge of Allegiance should be followed by one verse of the Star Spangled Banner.

7. "The Scout Promise," "Salute."

8. "The Scout Laws, Repeat."

9. "Color Bearer, Post-March." The Color Bearer, turning always to right, returns flag to its post, places it in position, salutes, and returns to place, entering ranks from rear of line. The Color Guard, wheels right, marches to post, Guards stand at attention while the Bearer places flag, salutes, and about-faces. The Guards step forward, about-face, and the Color Guard wheels and returns to ranks.

10. "Fall Out."

11. Business Meeting.

12. Scout activities, including work for tests and badges, singing games and discussion of Scout principles.

13. Closing Exercises.

Closing Exercises

1. "Fall In."

2. America, or Battle Hymn of the Republic.

3. "Dismissed." Scouts salute Captain.

The form for opening and closing exercises suggested above takes only 20 minutes and is a practical method of ensuring uniformity when groups from different troops come together. Troops may use more elaborate forms, depending upon the amount of time which the girls wish to spend upon this type of work. For instance:

(a) In a troop composed of many patrols each Corporal forms her patrol and reports to the Lieutenant, who in turn reports to the Captain, "The company is formed," etc.

(b) In dismissing, troops with a bugler may play "Taps" or may sing the same to words locally composed.

(c) In some troops Corporals give commands. This is good because it emphasizes the patrol system.

But the form outlined is given as the minimum requirement, and troops using it need never feel at a loss in large rallies, for every ceremony necessary to express the Scout spirit with dignity is there.

No additions made locally should change the essential order of these exercises, all additions which are made being merely amplifications of it in detail, which may not be possible nor desirable in every community.

Business Meeting

The meeting opens with the Chairman, Secretary and Treasurer in place, with the Secretary at the right and the Treasurer at the left of the Chairman. The idea is to have every Scout in the troop learn to be the Chairman so that any and all could act in the capacity of a Business Chairman at any kind of meeting.

The meeting is called to order by the Chairman. "Will the meeting please come to order?"

The Chairman asks the Secretary to call the roll. "Will the Secretary call the roll? And will the Treasurer collect the dues?"

The Chairman calls for the Secretary's report. "Will the Secretary read the minutes of the last meeting?"

The Chairman calls for corrections of the minutes. "Are there any corrections?"

If there are none she says: "If not, the minutes stand approved."

If there are corrections the Chairman calls for further corrections, "Are there further corrections, etc. If not, the minutes stand approved as corrected."

Form of Secretary's report: "The regular meeting of Pansy Troop No. 5, held at the club house, on April 4th, was called to order at 3 o'clock. In the absence of the Chairman, Scout —— took the chair. The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved, dues collected amounted to ——. After —— was discussed and voted upon, the meeting adjourned."

The Chairman calls for the Treasurer's report. "Will the Treasurer give her report?"

Form of Treasurer's report:

Balance on hand Jan. 1, 1919 $2.50 Members' dues $1.00 Fines .30 1.30 ——- Total $3.80 Disbursements— Janitor $1.00 $1.00 Balance on hand 2.80 ——- Total $3.80

The Chairman calls for corrections as before.

Then the Chairman calls for a discussion of old business, that is, anything discussed at previous meetings, that has been left undone or left to be decided at a later date. Any member of the meeting may bring up this old business, or the Chairman may start the discussion. "The business before the meeting is ——. What is your pleasure in regard to this," or "Will anyone make a motion?"

The member who wishes to make the motion says: "Madam Chairman, I move that—"

Another member who agrees to this says: "I second the motion."

If the motion is not seconded at once, the Chairman says: "Will anyone second the motion?"

After the motion has been moved and seconded the Chairman immediately states the question as, "It has been moved and seconded that the troop have a Rally on May 2. Are you ready for the question?" or "The question is now open for discussion." If no one rises, the Chairman proceeds to put the question. "All those in favor say aye, opposed no."

Then the Chairman says, "The motion is carried," or "The motion is not carried," as the case may be.

After the old business has been attended to, the Chairman calls for new business, saying, "Is there any new business to be discussed?"

The Chairman then dismisses the meeting by calling for a motion for adjournment.

Adjournment: "Will some one move that the meeting be adjourned?"

If this is moved and seconded it is not necessary to put it to a vote.

The Chairman says: "The meeting is adjourned."



SECTION VII

GIRL SCOUT CLASS TESTS

1. Tenderfoot Test

Before enrolling as a Tenderfoot a girl must be ten years old and have attended at least four meetings, covering at least one month in time. In addition to the material covered by the test, the Captain must have thoroughly explained to her the meaning of the Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag, the Scout Promise and the Scout Laws, and be sure of her general understanding of them as well as of her ability to respect them. This test is given by the Troop Captain.

Tenderfoot Test

1. What are the Scout Promise and the Scout Laws?

Head

Give them as printed in Handbook.

2. Demonstrate the Scout Salute. When do Scouts use the Salute?

3. What are the Scout Slogan and the Scout Motto?

4. How is the respect due the American Flag expressed? Give the Pledge of Allegiance.

5. What are the words of the first and last stanza of The Star-Spangled Banner?

6. What is the full name of the President of the United States?

What is the full name of the Governor of your State?

What is the full name of the highest city, town or village official where you live?

Hands

7. Make or draw an American Flag, using correct proportions.

8. Tie the Reef, Bowline, Clove-hitch and Sheep-shank knots according to instructions given in Handbook, and tell use of each.

Whip the end of a piece of rope. Indicate and define the three parts of a rope.

Helpfulness

9. Present record that you have saved or earned enough money to buy some part of the Scout uniform or insignia.

Recommended: Practice Setting-up Exercises, Scout positions and Tenderfoot Drill as shown in Handbook.

II. Second Class Test

While it is not necessary to devote any specified length of time to the training for this test, it is well to remember that if too long a time is taken, either because of lack of interest on the part of the Troop, or too inflexible standards on the part of the Captain, the possibility of winning Merit Badges is delayed and the feeling of steady progress is likely to be lost. The girls should be urged to keep together as a body, and reminded that regular attendance and team-work will be fairer to all. Quick learners can spend their extra time on private or group preparation for their Merit Badges, for which they become eligible as soon as they have passed the test, but not before.

This test may be given by the Troop Captain, or at her request by another Captain or competent authority, such as a registered nurse for bedmaking, health officer for First Aid, fire chief for fire prevention, and so forth.

Second Class Scout Test

Head

1. What is the history of the American Flag, and for what does it stand?

2. Describe six animals, six birds, six trees and six flowers.

3. What are the sixteen points of the compass? Show how to use a compass.

4. How may fire be prevented, and what should a Scout do in case of fire?

5. Send and receive the alphabet of the General Service or Semaphore Code.

6. Demonstrate ability to observe quickly and accurately by describing the contents of a room or a shop window, or a table with a number of objects upon it, after looking a short time, (not more than ten seconds); or describe a passer-by so that another person could identify him; or prove ability to make a quick rough report on the appearance and landmarks of a stretch of country, not to exceed one-quarter of a mile and to be covered in not more than five minutes. Report should include such things as ground surface, buildings in sight, trees, animals, etc.

(Note: This territory must have been gone over by person administering the test. The test is not to be confused with the First Class requirement for map making. It may be made the object of a hike, and tested in groups or singly. Artificial hazards may be arranged.)

Hands

7. Lay and light a fire in a stove, using not more than two matches, or light a gas range, top burner, oven and boiler, without having the gas blow or smoke. Lay and light a fire in the open, using no artificial tinder, such as paper or excelsior, and not more than two matches.

8. Cook so that it may be eaten, seasoning properly, one simple dish, such as cereal, vegetables, meat, fish or eggs in any other form than boiled.

9. Set a table correctly for a meal of two courses.

10. Make ordinary and hospital bed, and show how to air them.

11. Present samples of seaming, hemming, darning, and either knitting or crocheting, and press out a Scout uniform, as sample of ironing.

Health

12. Demonstrate the way to stop bleeding, remove speck from eye, treat ivy poisoning, bandage a sprained ankle, remove a splinter.

13. What do you consider the main points to remember about Health?

(Note: This is based on a knowledge of the section in the Handbook on Personal Health. It is suggested that a good way to demonstrate practically a knowledge of the main points is to keep for a month the Daily Health Record. This will incidentally complete one-third of the requirement for Health Winner's Badge.)

14. What are your height and weight, and how do they compare with the standard?

Helpfulness

15. Present to Captain or Council the proof of satisfactory service to Troop, Church or Community.

16. Earn or save enough money for some part of personal or troop equipment.

Recommended: Practice Setting-up Exercises and Second Class Drill.

III. First Class Test

Work on this test should not be hurried. It is purposely made more thorough and more difficult, because it is designed for the older and longer trained Scout. The work for the Merit Badges, which all Scouts enjoy, should not be considered as interfering with this period, as such work is also the preparation for a possible Golden Eaglet degree. As a general rule, girls under fifteen are not likely to make thoroughly trained First Class Scouts, nor is the community likely to take their technical ability in the important subjects very seriously. The First Class Scout is the ideal Scout, of whom the organization has every right to feel proud; and ability to grasp a subject quickly and memorize details is not so important as practical efficiency, reliability and demonstrated usefulness to the Troop and the community. While the standard must not be set so high as to discourage the average girl, impatience to get through in any given time should not be encouraged, as this is not important.

First Class Scout Test

Head

1. Draw a simple map of territory seen on hike or about camping place, according to directions in Handbook, using at least ten conventional map signs. Area covered must equal a quarter square mile, and if territory along road is used it should be at least 2 miles long.

2. Demonstrate ability to judge correctly height, weight, number and distance, according to directions in Handbook.

3. Demonstrate ability to find any of the four cardinal points of the compass, using the sun or stars as guide.

4. Send and receive messages in the General Service or the Semaphore Code at the rate of sixteen and thirty letters a minute respectively.

5. Present the following Badges:

Home Nurse

First Aide Homemaker

and any two of the following:

Child Nurse Health Winner Laundress Cook Needlewoman Gardener

Health

6. Take an overnight hike carrying all necessary equipment and rations; or

Take a group of younger girls on a day time hike, planning the whole trip, including where and how to get the food, assigning to each girl her part in responsibility, directing transportation and occupation, and so forth; or

Be one of four to construct a practical lean-to; or

Demonstrate skating backwards, the outer edge, and stopping suddenly; or

Run on skis; or

Show your acquaintance from personal observation of the habits of four animals or four birds.

7. Be able to swim fifty yards, or in case of inaccessibility to water, be able to shin up ten feet of rope, or in case of physical disability, earn any merit badge selected that involves out-of-door activity.

Helpfulness

8. Present a Tenderfoot trained by candidate.

9. Present to Captain or Council some definite proof of service to the community.

10. Earn or save one dollar and start a savings account in bank or Postal Savings, or buy Thrift Stamps.

Recommended: Practice Setting-up Exercises. Practice First Class Drill.

[Illustration: AMERICA THE BEAUTIFUL

KATHARINE LEE BATES

Music by WILL C. MACFARLANE, Municipal Organist, Portland, Maine

Maestoso

1. O beautiful for spacious skies, For amber waves of grain, For purple mountain majesties Above the fruited plain! America! America! God shed His grace on thee. And crown thy good with brotherhood. From sea to shining sea! America! America! God shed His grace on thee!

2. O beautiful for pilgrim feet, Whose stern, impassion'd stress A thoroughfare for freedom beat Across the wilderness! America! America! God mend thine ev'ry flaw. Confirm thy soul in self-control, Thy liberty in law! America! America! God shed His grace on thee!

3. O beautiful for heroes proved, In liberating strife. Who more than self their country loved. And mercy more than life! America! America! May God thy gold refine, Till all success be nobleness, And ev'ry gain divine! America! America! God shed His grace on thee!

4. O beautiful for patriot dream That sees beyond the years Thine alabaster cities gleam Undimm'd by human tears! America! America! God shed His grace on thee. And crown thy good with brotherhood. From sea to shining sea! America! America! God shed His grace on thee!

Copyright, 1913, by WILL C. MACFARLANE]

FOOTNOTE:

[1] By permission of the author.



SECTION VIII

WHAT A GIRL SCOUT SHOULD KNOW ABOUT THE FLAG

We take the star from Heaven, the red from our mother country, separating it by white stripes, thus showing we have separated from her, and the white stripes shall go down to posterity representing liberty.George Washington.

The American flag is the symbol of the one-ness of the nation: when a Girl Scout salutes the flag, therefore, she salutes the whole country. The American Flag is known as "Old Glory," "Stars and Stripes," "Star-Spangled Banner," and "The Red, White and Blue."

The American flag today consists of red and white stripes, with the blue field, sometimes known as the Union in the upper left-hand corner, with forty-eight white stars. The thirteen stripes stand for the thirteen original States—New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. The stars stand for the States now in the Union.

The colors of the flag are red, representing valor; white, representing hope, purity and truth; blue, representing loyalty, sincerity and justice. The five-pointed star, which is used, tradition says, at Betsy Ross' suggestion, is the sign of infinity.

History of the American Flag

We think of ourselves as a young country, but we have one of the oldest written Constitutions under which a Nation operates, and our flag is one of the oldest in existence.

When our forefathers came from Europe to settle in this country, which is now the United States, they brought with them the flags of their home countries, and planted them on the new territory in symbol of taking possession of it in the name of their liege kings and lands. Gradually the colonies came to belong to England, and the Union Jack became the flag of all, with the thirteen colonies represented by thirteen stripes and the Union Jack in the corner. This flag was known as the Grand Union or Cambridge Flag, and was displayed when Washington first took command of the army at Cambridge. It was raised on December 3, 1775, on the Alfred, flagship of the new little American Navy, by the senior Lieutenant of the ship, John Paul Jones, who later defended it gallantly in many battles at sea.

On July 4, 1776, the Declaration of Independence was signed in Philadelphia and the United Colonies dissolved all ties that bound them to England and became an independent nation—the United States. It was immediately necessary to adopt a new flag, as the new nation would not use the Union Jack. Tradition says that in the latter part of May, 1776, George Washington, Robert Morris and Colonel Ross called on Betsy Ross in Philadelphia to make the first flag, which they designed. They kept the thirteen stripes of the Colonial flag, but replaced the Union Jack by a blue field bearing thirteen stars, arranged in a circle.

The birthday of the flag was June 14, 1777, when Congress passed this resolution: Resolved: That the flag of the thirteen United States be thirteen stripes; alternate red and white; that the union be thirteen stars, white on a blue field, representing a constellation.

The first American unfurling the Stars and Stripes over a warship was John Paul Jones when he took command of the Ranger in June, 1777. Tradition says that this flag was made for John Paul Jones by the young ladies of Portsmouth Harbor, and that it was made for him from their own and their mothers' gowns. It was this flag, in February, 1778, that had the honor of receiving from France the first official salute accorded by a foreign nation to the Stars and Stripes.

It was first carried into battle at the Battle of Brandywine in September, 1777, when Lafayette fought with the Colonists and was wounded. This was the famous flag made out of a soldier's white shirt, a woman's red petticoat, and an officer's blue cloak. A famous flag now in the National Museum in Washington is the Flag of fifteen stars and stripes, which floated over Fort McHenry—near Baltimore—in the War of 1812, and which Francis Scott Key (imprisoned on a British ship) saw "by the dawn's early light" after watching through the night "the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air" as proof that the fort had not fallen to the enemy. The next day he wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner."

It is said that peace has its victories as well as war, and Scouts will want to know that our flag flew from the first vessel ever propelled by steam—Robert Fulton's Clermont.

It was carried by Wilbur Wright on his first successful airplane flight in France.

It was the flag planted at the North Pole by Robert Peary.

It was the National emblem painted upon the first airplane to make the transatlantic flight, May, 1919.

At first, when states came into the Union, a new stripe and a new star were added to the flag, but it was soon evident that the added stripes would make it very unwieldly. So on April 4, 1818, Congress passed this act to establish the flag of the United States:

"Sec. 1. Be it enacted ... That from and after the 4th of July next, the flag of the United States be thirteen horizontal stripes, alternate red and white; that the union have twenty stars, white on a blue field.

"Sec. 2. Be it further enacted, that, on admission of every new State into the Union, one star be added to the union of the flag; and that such addition shall take effect on the 4th day of July succeeding such admission."

In 1917 after the United States entered the World War, the Stars and Stripes were placed with the flags of the Allies in the great English Cathedral of St. Paul's in London, and on April 20, 1917, the flag was hoisted beside the English flag over the House of Parliament as a symbol that the two great English-speaking nations of the world had joined hands in the cause of human brotherhood.

RESPECT DUE THE FLAG

1. The flag should be raised at sunrise and lowered at sunset. It should not be displayed on stormy days or left out over night, except during war. Although there is no authoritative ruling which compels civilians to lower the flag at sundown, good taste should impel them to follow the traditions of the Army and Navy in this sundown ceremonial. Primarily, the flag is raised to be seen and secondarily, the flag is something to be guarded, treasured, and so tradition holds it shall not be menaced by the darkness. To leave the flag out at night, unattended, is proof of shiftlessness, or at least carelessness.

2. At retreat, sunset, civilian spectators should stand at attention. Girl Scouts, if in uniform, may give their salute.

When the national colors are passing on parade or in review, Scouts should, if walking, halt, and if sitting, rise and stand at attention. When the flag is stationary it is not saluted.

An old, torn, or soiled flag should not be thrown away, but should be destroyed, preferably by burning.

The law specifically forbids the use of and the representation of the flag in any manner or in any connection with merchandise for sale.

When the "Star-Spangled Banner" is played or sung, stand and remain standing in silence until it is finished.

The flag should, on being retired, never be allowed to touch the ground.

Regulations for Flying the Flag

1. The flag should not be raised before sunrise, nor be allowed to remain up after sunset.

2. In placing the flag at half mast, it should be raised first to full mast, and then lowered to the half mast position, from which it should again be raised to full mast before lowering.

3. The flag should never be draped.

4. When the flag is hung against a wall, the blue field should be in the upper left corner if the stripes are horizontal; in the upper right corners if the stripes are vertical.

5. In the case of flags hung across the street it is necessary to hang them by the points of the compass instead of right or left, because the right or left naturally varies according to whether the spectator is going up or down the street. When the flag is hung across a north and south street, the blue fields should be toward the east, the rising sun, when across an east and west street, the field should be toward the north.

6. The flags of two or more nations displayed together should always be hung at the same level, and should be on separate staffs or halyards.

7. In the United States, when the American flag is carried with one other flag, it should be at the right. When it is carried with two other flags, it should be in the middle.

8. When the American flag is hung against a wall with other flags, it is placed at the spectator's right, if it is one of two; and in the middle, if it is one of three.

9. The flag at half mast is a sign of mourning.

10. The flag flown upside down is a signal of distress.

11. On Memorial Day, May 30, the flag is flown at half mast during the morning, and is raised at noon to full mast for the rest of the day.

Patriotic Songs for Girl Scouts

"The Star-Spangled Banner"

Oh, say, can you see, by the dawn's early light, What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming, Whose broad stripes and bright stars, through the perilous fight, O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming! And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air, Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there; Oh! say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave, O'er the land of the free, and the home of the brave?

On that shore dimly seen through the mists of the deep, Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes. What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep, As it fitfully blows, now conceals, now discloses? Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam, In full glory reflected now shines on the stream; 'Tis the star-spangled banner; Oh, long may it wave, O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!

O! thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand Between their loved homes and the war's desolation Blessed with victory and peace, may the heav'n-rescued land Praise the power that hath made and preserved us a nation. Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just, And this be our motto—"In God is our trust"; And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

Francis Scott Key, 1814.

The Star Spangled Banner was written in 1814 by Francis Scott Key at the time of the bombardment of Fort McHenry, near Baltimore, by the British. Key had been sent to the British squadron to negotiate the release of an American prisoner-of-war, and was detained there by the British during the engagement for fear he might reveal their plans. The bombardment lasted all through the night. In his joy the following morning at seeing the American flag still flying over Fort McHenry, Key wrote the first stanza of the Star Spangled Banner on the back of an old letter, which he drew from his pocket. He finished the poem later in the day after he had been allowed to land. The poem was first printed as a handbill enclosed in a fancy border; but one of Key's friends, Judge Nicholson, of Baltimore, saw that the tune of Anacreon in Heaven, an old English drinking song, fitted the words, and the two were quickly united with astonishing success. The old flag which prompted the poem is still in existence; it was made by Mrs. Mary Pickersgill.

"America"

My country, 'tis of thee, Sweet land of liberty, Of thee I sing; Land where my fathers died, Land of the Pilgrims' pride, From every mountain side Let freedom ring.

My native country, thee, Land of the noble free, Thy name I love; I love thy rocks and rills, Thy woods and templed hills; My heart with rapture thrills Like that above.

Let music swell the breeze, And ring from all the trees Sweet freedom's song; Let mortal tongues awake, Let all that breathe partake, Let rocks their silence break, The sound prolong!

Our father's God, to Thee, Author of liberty, To Thee we sing: Long may our land be bright With freedom's holy light; Protect us by Thy might, Great God, our King.

—Samuel F. Smith, 1832.

"America" was written in 1832 by Samuel Francis Smith, a graduate of Harvard, at that time studying for the ministry at Andover, Mass. The circumstances attending the writing of this hymn are told by the author in the following letter:

Newton Centre, Mass., June 5, 1887.

Mr. J. H. Johnson:

Dear Sir: The hymn "America" was not written with reference to any special occasion. A friend (Mr. Lowell Mason) put into my hands a quantity of music books in the German language early in the year 1832—because, as he said, I could read them and he couldn't—with the request that I would translate any of the hymns and songs which struck my fancy, or, neglecting the German words, with hymns or songs of my own, adapted to the tunes, so that he could use the music. On a dismal day in February, turning over the leaves of one of these music books, I fell in with the tune, which pleased me—and observing at a glance that the words were patriotic, without attempting to imitate them, or even read them throughout, I was moved at once to write a song adapted to the music—and "America" is the result. I had no thought of writing a national hymn, and was surprised when it came to be widely used. I gave it to Mr. Mason soon after it was written, and have since learned that he greatly admired it. It was first publicly used at a Sabbath school celebration of Independence in Park Street Church, Boston, on the 4th of July, 1832.

Respectfully, S. F. SMITH.

The tune of "America," which Samuel Smith took from a German song book, was originally a French air. This French air was borrowed in 1739 by an Englishman, Henry Carey, who recast it for the British national anthem, "God Save the King." Switzerland, Prussia and other German States, and the United States have used the music for their national hymns.

Letter and facts from The Encyclopedia Americana.

"Battle Hymn of the Republic"

Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord: He is trampling out the vintage where the grapes of wrath are stored; He hath loosed the fateful lightning of His terrible swift sword; His truth is marching on.

I have seen Him in the watch-fires of a hundred circling camps; They have builded Him an altar in the evening dews and damps; I can read his righteous sentence by the dim and flaring lamps: His day is marching on.

I have read a fiery gospel writ in burnish'd rows of steel: "As you deal with my contemners, so with you my grace shall deal; Let the Hero, born of woman, crush the serpent with his heel, Since God is marching on."

He has sounded forth the trumpet that shall never call retreat; He is sifting out the hearts of men before His judgment-seat: Oh, be swift my soul, to answer Him, be jubilant my feet! Our God is marching on.

In the beauty of the lilies Christ was born across the sea, With a glory in His bosom that transfigures you and me; As He died to make men holy, let us die to make them free, While God is marching on.

—Julia Ward Howe.

How to Make an American Flag

The exact proportions of the American Flag have been fixed by executive order; that is to say, by order of the President, as have other features, such as the arrangement and position of the stars. The exact size of the flag is variable, though the army has several regulation sizes. The cut given below shows the dimensions of one of the regulation army flags. The proportions fixed by executive order on May 26, 1916, are as follows:

If the width of the flag be taken as the basis and called 1, then

The length will be 1.9,

Each stripe will be 1/13 of 1,

The blue field will be .76 long and 7/13 of 1 wide.

Other features of the officially designed flag are as follows: The top and bottom stripes are red. Each State is represented by a five-pointed star, one of whose points shall be directed toward the top of the flag.

Beginning with the upper left-hand corner and reading from left to right the stars indicate the States in order of their ratification of the Constitution and their admission to the Union. Find your State's star in the following list, and remember its number and line.

First Row 1—Delaware 2—Pennsylvania 3—New Jersey 4—Georgia 5—Connecticut 6—Massachusetts 7—Maryland 8—South Carolina

Second Row 9—New Hampshire 10—Virginia 11—New York 12—North Carolina 13—Rhode Island 14—Vermont 15—Kentucky 16—Tennessee

Third Row 17—Ohio 18—Louisiana 19—Indiana 20—Mississippi 21—Illinois 22—Alabama 23—Maine 24—Missouri

Fourth Row 25—Arkansas 26—Michigan 27—Florida 28—Texas 29—Iowa 30—Wisconsin 31—California 32—Minnesota

Fifth Row 33—Oregon 34—Kansas 35—West Virginia 36—Nevada 37—Nebraska 38—Colorado 39—North Dakota 40—South Dakota

Sixth Row 41—Montana 42—Washington 43—Idaho 44—Wyoming 45—Utah 46—Oklahoma 47—New Mexico 48—Arizona



AN EASY WAY TO DRAW THE FLAG

The sketch shows the steps in getting a flag drawn according to national requirements.

1. Draw the outline of your flag, making for convenience, the width equal an even 10 units (such as eighths or quarters or half, etc.) so that the length can be made 19 units.

2. Get the 13 stripes outlined as follows: a) Take your ruler and find a place marking 13 units, such as 3-1/4 inches, or 6-1/2 or even 9-3/4 inches. b) Then draw the 2 lines A B and A' B'; marking off the 13 points on each. It does not matter where the lines are drawn so long as they extend between the top and bottom of the rectangle. c) Through these points draw lightly, the lines for the stripes, covering the whole flag.

3. Before making the final lines, block in the union in the upper left hand corner, making its length equal to 7.6 of the original units used for the whole flag. The width of the union is seven stripes.

4. Place the stars as follows: The lines marking the stripes may be used to mark the 6 lines of stars. The eight stars to a line may be determined by dividing the length of the union into nine parts and dropping eight perpendiculars through the six lines already there. In the sketch the line, D F and D' F' are guide lines to make the new parallel lines. These are made just as in the case of A B and A' B' only containing nine units and extending between the two sides of the union.

5. The stars are made at the intersection of the lines. It is not necessary to put in more than one or two, to show the shape and direction of points.

6. The stripes may be colored, or if indicated by cross hatching, make the cross hatches vertical (I I I I I) which is the symbol for red.

Band Leader O BAND National O President Nat'l Field Capt.-> O O O <- National Director Vice-President - NAT'L COUNCIL - State O Com'sioner State Field Capt.->O O O<-State Director State Deputy Commissioner - STATE COUNCIL - Local O Com'sioner Local Field Captain->O O O<-Local Deputy Com'sioner Local Director - LOCAL COUNCIL - Troop O Capt. O Lieut. SCOUTS SCOUTS Color Guard Color Guard O O O O Council Flag American Flag O Lieut. SCOUTS SCOUTS



- BAND -

Color Guard->O O O<-Color Guard American Flag

Officer O in Charge

O Captain O Lieut. - SCOUTS - - SCOUTS - O Captain O Lieut. - SCOUTS - - SCOUTS -

O Captain O Lieut. - SCOUTS - - SCOUTS -



PARADE FORMATION FOR GIRL SCOUTS

The accompanying Cut 1 indicates a suggested formation for patriotic, Civic or Girl Scout parades when Scout officials take part in the parade. It should be noted that the Scouts are represented by a column of four ranks, the Color Guard marching in the center of the column. Should a larger number of Scouts participate in the parade, the Color Guard must be changed to a position in the center of the longer column.

Cut 2 indicates a more simple form of parade which has been found of service and effectiveness. In this formation the Color Guard follows the band or Scout buglers. The local director or her representative marches directly behind the Color Guard and is followed by the Scouts in column formation, each double rank commanded by a captain, who marches three paces in front of the front rank, and a lieutenant, who marches at the extreme left of the double rank one step ahead of the front rank. Front and rear ranks march forty inches apart.

It is not usually possible, nor is it necessarily advisable, to use one troop in forming a double rank. The important thing is to have in each line the number of Scouts designated by the person in charge of the parade. This number, determined by the width of the street and the number marching, will be either four, eight, twelve or sixteen. If girls of the same height march together, the shorter preceding the taller, the appearance of the column will be more uniform and pleasing.

When Scout troop flags are used, they are carried in the column at the extreme right.



SECTION IX

GIRL SCOUT DRILL

Although the simple exercises in opening and closing a meeting are the only formal work necessary for Scouts, the Scout Drill outlined in this Handbook is added for Captains as a suggestion for handling one or more Patrols in the club room, or on the street, in an orderly dignified manner.

Where the Troop and Captain are interested in this form of activity, it adds a great variety to the Scout meetings, and its value in giving an erect carriage, alert habit of obedience, and ability to think and act quickly are undoubted.

In case of rallies and parades it is practically the only way of handling large bodies of Scouts from different localities.

Every order and formation here recommended is taken from the United States Infantry Drill Regulations, and it is now possible for Captains in all localities to secure the assistance of some returned soldier glad to give a half hour occasionally to drilling the Scouts.

The simple formations selected have been divided into Tenderfoot, Second Class and First Class groups entirely for the convenience of the Captain; none of the work is too difficult for a Second Class Scout and there is nothing to prevent a Tenderfoot from taking all of it, if the troop should be particularly interested in drilling.

Commands are divided into two classes:

(a) The preparatory, to tell the Scout what to do, and

(b) The command of execution, to tell how to do it.

Tenderfoot Drill Schedule

"FALL IN"

At this command each Scout immediately takes her position in the Patrol to which she belongs (the captain having already assigned to each Scout her exact place), and without further order assumes the position of "Attention" three paces in front of Captain.

The position of Attention is: body and head erect, head, shoulders and pelvis in same plane, eyes front, arms hanging easily at the sides, feet parallel and about four inches apart; perfect silence to be maintained.

Patrol formation, two ranks (rows) of four Scouts each, forty inches between front and rear ranks. The patrol corresponds to the military unit of the squad.

Other patrols will fall in on the left of patrol No. 1 and on a line with it, in their numerical order. When assembled a troop of four patrols will be in the position indicated by the following diagram, and facing the captain.

5678 5678 5678 5678 1234 1234 1234 1234 Lieut. Capt.

If the Captain prefers, and where there are only a few Scouts to be handled, they may be drawn up in a single rank facing the Captain. In either position they are now ready for the preliminaries of military drill.

1. Right (or left) Dress. 2. Front.

At the command "Dress" whether to right or left, all Scouts place the left hand on the hip. Each Scout, except the base file, Scout on right or left end from whom the other take their alignment, when on or near the new line, executes "Eyes Right!" and taking steps of two or three inches, places herself so that her right arm rests lightly against the arm of the Scout on her right, and so that her eyes and shoulders are in line with those of the Scout on her right; the rear rank Scouts cover in file. The instructor verifies the alignment of both ranks from the right flank and orders up or back such Scouts as may be in rear or in advance of the line: only the Scouts designated move.[2]

At the command "Front," given when the ranks are aligned, each Scout turns her head and eyes to the front and drops the hand at her side.

To march the patrol or troop in column of twos, the preliminary commands would be as just given: 1. Fall in. 2. Right Dress. 3. Front.

The troop is then drawn up facing the Captain in two ranks as described. The Captain then commands:

1. Right (or left) Face (According to the direction in which the column is to proceed.)

2. Forward. 3. March.

At the command "March," each Scout steps off smartly with the left foot.

Facings

To the flank: "Right (or left) Face."

Raise slightly the left heel and the right toe; face to the right, turning on the right heel, assisted by a slight pressure on the ball of the left foot; place the left foot by the side of the right. "Left Face" is executed on the left heel in the corresponding manner. Right (or left) Half Face is executed similarly, facing forty-five degrees.

To the rear: About Face.

Carry the toe of the right foot about half a foot length to the rear and slightly to the left of the left heel without changing the position of the left foot; face to the rear, turning to the right on the left heel and right toe; place the right heel by the side of the left.

Eyes Right or Left

1. Eyes Right (or left). 2. Front.

At the command "Right," turn the head to the right oblique, eyes fixed on the line of Scouts in, or supposed to be in, the same rank. At the command "Front" turn the head and eyes to the front.

The Rests

Being at halt, the commands for the different rests are as follows:

FALL OUT, REST, AT EASE and 1 PARADE, 2 REST.

At the command Fall Out, the Scouts may leave the ranks, but are required to remain in the immediate vicinity. They resume their former places, at attention at the command "Fall In."

At the command "Rest" each Scout keeps one foot in place, but is not required to keep silence or immobility.

At the command "At Ease" each Scout keeps one foot in place and is required to keep silence but not immobility.

1 Parade, 2 Rest.

Carry the right foot six inches straight to the rear, left knee slightly bent; clasp the hands, without constraint, in front of the center of the body, fingers joined, right hand uppermost, left thumb clasped by the thumb and forefinger of the right hand; preserve silence and steadiness of position.

To resume the attention: 1 Squad (or Company) 2 Attention.

Steps and Marchings

All steps and marchings executed from the halt, except right step, begin with the left foot.

The length of the full step in "Quick Time" for a Scout is twenty inches, measured from heel to heel, and the cadence is at the rate of one hundred twenty steps per minute.

The length of the full step in "Double Time," for a Scout, is about twenty-four inches; the cadence is at the rate of one hundred eighty steps per minute.

The instructor, when necessary, indicates the cadence of the step by calling "One, Two, Three, Four," or "Left, Right, Left, Right," the instant the left and right foot, respectively, should be planted.

All steps and marchings and movements involving march are executed in "Quick Time" unless the squad (or company) be marching in "Double Time."

Quick Time

Being at a halt, to march forward in quick time: 1 Forward, 2 March.

At the command "Forward," shift the weight of the body to the right leg, left knee straight.

At the command "March" move the left foot smartly straight forward twenty inches from the right, sole near the ground, and plant it without shock; next, in like manner, advance the right foot and plant it as above; continue the march. The arms swing naturally.

Being at a halt, or in march in quick time, to march in double time; 1 Double time, 2 March.

If at a halt, at the first command shift the weight of the body to the right leg. At the command "March" raise the forearms, fingers closed to a horizontal position along the waist line; take up an easy run with the step and cadence of double time, allowing a natural swinging motion to the arms.

If marching in quick time, at the command "March," given as either foot strikes the ground, take one step in quick time, and then step off in double time.

To resume the quick time: 1 Quick Time, 2 March.

At the command March, given as either foot strikes the ground, advance and plant the other foot in double time; resume the quick time, dropping the hands by the sides.

To Mark Time

Being in march: 1 Mark Time, 2 March.

At the command March, given as either foot strikes the ground, advance and plant the other foot; bring up the foot in rear and continue the cadence by alternately raising each foot about two inches and planting it on line with the other.

Being at a halt, at the command March, raise and plant the feet as described above.

The Half Step

1 Half Step, 2 March.

Take steps of ten inches in quicktime, twelve inches in double time. Forward, Half Step, Halt and Mark Time may be executed one from the other in quick or double time.

To resume the full step from half step or mark time: Forward March.

Side Step

Being at halt or mark time: 1 Right (or left) Step, 2 March. Carry and plant the right foot twelve inches to the right; bring the left foot beside it and continue the movement in the cadence of quick time.

The side step is used for short distances only and is not executed in double time.

Back Step

Being at a halt or mark time: 1 Backward, 2 March. Take steps of twelve inches straight to the rear. The back step is used for short distances only and is not executed in double time.

To Halt

To arrest the march in quick or double time: 1 Squad (or if the full troop is drilling Company), 2 Halt.

At the command Halt, given as either foot strikes the ground, plant the other foot as in marching; raise and place the first foot by the side of the other. If in double time, drop the hands by the sides.

To March by the Flank

Being in march: 1 By the Right (or left) Flank, 2 March.

At the command March, given as the right foot strikes the ground, advance and plant the left foot, then face to the right in marching and step off in the new direction with the right foot.

To March to the Rear

Being in march: 1 To the Rear, 2 March.

At the command March, given as the right foot strikes the ground, advance and plant the left foot; turn to the right about on the balls of both feet and immediately step off with the left foot.

If marching in double time, turn to the right about, taking four steps in place, keeping the cadence, and then step off with the left foot.

Change Step

Being in march: 1 Change Step, 2 March.

At the command March, given as the right foot strikes the ground, advance and plant the left foot; plant the toe of the right foot near the heel of the left and step off with the left foot.

The change on the right foot is similarly executed, the command March being given as the left foot strikes the ground.

SECOND CLASS DRILL

Fall In. (Described in Tenderfoot Drill.)

Count Off.

At this command all except the right file execute Eyes Right, and beginning on the right, the Scouts in each rank count One, Two, Three, Four; each turns her head and eyes to the front as she counts.



Alignments

1 Right (or Left) Dress, 2 Front. (Described in Tenderfoot Drill.)

To preserve the alignment when marching; Guide Right (or left). The Scouts preserve their intervals from the side of the guide, yielding to pressure on that side and resisting pressure from the opposite direction; they recover intervals, if lost, by gradually opening out or closing in; they recover alignment by slightly lengthening or shortening the step; the rear rank Scouts cover their file leaders at forty inches.

To Take Distance

(Formation for signalling or for setting-up exercises.)

Being in line at a halt having counted off: 1 Take Distance at four paces, 2 March; 3 Squad (or company), Halt.

At the command March, each Scout in succession starting at four paces apart and beginning with No. 1 of the front rank, followed by 2, 3, 4 and 1, 2, 3, 4 of the rear rank, marches straight forward until the order Squad, Halt is given. The command Halt is given when all have their distances.

(Word to instructors: Where the floor space is limited it is advisable to have the Scouts take the half step in executing this formation or move at two paces.)

If more than one squad is in line, each squad executes the movement as above simultaneously.

Being at distances, to assemble the squad (or company):

1 Assemble, 2 March.

At the command March, No. 1 of the front rank stands fast; the other members move forward to their proper places in the line.

The Oblique March

For the instruction of the recruits, the squad being in column or correctly aligned, the instructor causes the Scouts to face half right and half left, points out to them their relative positions, and explains that these are to be maintained in the oblique march.

1 Right (or Left) Oblique, 2 March.

At the command March, each Scout steps off in a direction forty-five degrees to the right of her original front. She preserves her relative position, keeping her shoulders parallel to those of the guide, and so regulates her steps that the ranks remain parallel to their original front.

At the command Halt the Scouts face to the front.

To resume the original directions: 1 Forward, 2 March.

The Scouts half face to the left in marching and then move straight to the front.

To Turn on Moving Pivot

Begin in line: 1 Right (or left) Turn, 2 March.

(This applies to the single squad; if the whole troop is drilling and is in column of squads, or twos, the command would be: 1 Column Right (or left), 2 March.)

The movement is executed by each rank successively and on the same ground. At the second command, the pivot Scout of the front rank faces to the right in marching and takes the half step; the other Scouts of the rank oblique to the right until opposite their places in line, then execute a second right oblique and take the half step on arriving abreast of the pivot Scout. All glance toward the marching flank while at half step and take the full step without command as the last Scout arrives on the line.

Right (or left) Half Turn is executed in a similar manner. The pivot Scout makes a half change of direction to the right and the other Scouts make quarter changes in obliquing.

To Turn on a Fixed Pivot

Being in line, to turn and march: 1 Squad Right (or left), 2 March.

At the second command, the right flank Scout in the front rank faces to the right in marching and marks time; the other front rank Scouts oblique to the right, place themselves abreast of the pivot, and mark time. In the rear rank the third Scout from the right, followed in column by the second and first, moves straight to the front until in the rear of her front rank Scout, when all face to the right in marching and mark time; the other number of the rear rank moves straight to the front four paces and places herself abreast of the Scout on her right. Scouts on the new line glance toward the marching flank while marking time and, as the last Scout arrives on the line, both ranks execute Forward March without further command.

Being in line to turn and halt: 1 Squad Right (or left), 2 March, 3 Squad, 4 Halt.

The third command is given immediately after the second. The turn is executed as prescribed in the preceding paragraph except that all Scouts, on arriving on the new line mark time until the fourth command is given, when all halt. The fourth command should be given as the last Scout arrives on the line.

Being in line to turn about and march: 1 Squad Right (or left) About, 2 March.

At the second command the front rank twice executes Squad Right initiating the second Squad Right when the Scout on the marching flank has arrived abreast of the rank. In the rear rank the third Scout from the right, followed by the second and first in column, moves straight to the front until on the prolongation of the line to be occupied by the rear rank; changes direction to the right; moves in the new direction until in the rear of her front rank Scout, when all face to the right in marching, mark time, and glance toward the marching flank. The fourth Scout marches on the left of the third to her new position; as she arrives on the line, both ranks execute Forward March without command.

FIRST CLASS DRILL

On Right (or left) Into Line.

Being in columns of squads, to form line on right or left; 1 On Right (or left) Into Line, 2 March, 3 Company, 4 Halt, 5 Front.

At the first command the leader of the leading unit commands: Right Turn. The leaders of the other units command: Forward, if at a halt. At the second command the leading unit turns to the right on moving pivot. The command Halt is given when the leading unit has advanced the desired distance in the new direction; it halts; its leader then commands: Right Dress.

The units in the rear continue to march straight to the front; each, when opposite its place on the line, executes Right Turn at the command of its leader; each is halted on the line at the command of its leader, who then commands: Right Dress. All dress on the first unit on the line.

If executed in double time, the leading squad marches in double time until halted.

Front Into Line.

Being in columns of squads, to form line to the front; Right (or left) Front Into Line, 2 March, 3 Company, 4 Halt, 5 Front.

At the first command the leaders of the units in the rear of the leading one command: Right Oblique. If at a halt, the leader of the leading unit commands: Forward. At the second command the leading unit moves straight forward: the rear units oblique as indicated. The command Halt is given when the leading unit has advanced the desired distance; it halts; its leader then commands: Left Dress. Each of the rear units, when opposite its place in line, resumes the original direction at the command of its leader; each is halted on the line at the command of its leader, who then commands: Left Dress. All dress on the first unit in line.

To Diminish the Front of a Column of Squads

Being in column of squads: 1 Right (or left) By Twos, 2 March. At the command March, all files except the two right files of the leading squad execute In Place Halt; the two right files of the leading squad oblique to the right when disengaged and follow the right files at the shortest practicable distance. The remaining squads follow successively in like manner.

Being in columns of twos: (1) Right (or left) By File, 2 March. At the command March, all files execute In Place Halt, except the right file of the leading two oblique successively to the right when disengaged and each follows the file on its right at the shortest practicable distance. The remaining twos follow successively in like manner.

Being in column of files of twos, to form column of squads; or being in column of files, to form column of twos: 1 Squads (Twos) Right (or left) Front Into Line, 2 March.

At the command March, the leading file or files halt. The remainder of the squad, or two, obliques to the right and halts on line with the leading file or files. The remaining squads or twos close up and successively form in the rear of the first in like manner.

The movement described in this paragraph will be ordered Right or Left, so as to restore the files to their normal relative positions in the two or squad.

FOOTNOTE:

[2] All ranks count off beginning with right end: 1, 2, 3, 4.



SECTION X

SIGNALLING FOR SCOUTS

A. GENERAL SERVICE CODE

The General Service Code, given herewith, also called the Continental Code and the International Morse Code, is used by the Army and Navy, and for cabling and wireless telegraphy. It is used for visual signalling by hand, flag, Ardois lights, torches, heliograph, lanterns, etc., and for sound signalling with buzzer, whistle, etc.

The American Morse Code is used for commercial purposes only, and differs from the International Morse in a few particulars. A Scout need not concern herself with it because it would only be used by the Scout who eventually becomes a telegrapher, and for this purpose the Western Union Company offers the necessary training.

Wig Wag Signalling

GENERAL SERVICE CODE

The flag used for this signalling is square with a smaller square of another color in the center. It may be either white with the smaller square red, or red with the smaller square white. A good size for Scout use is 24 inches square with a center 9 inches square, on a pole 42 inches long and one-half inch in diameter.

There are but three motions with the flag and all start from, and are completed by, return to position, which means the flag held perpendicularly and at rest directly in front of the signaller.

Signaller should stand erect, well balanced on the arches of the feet. The butt of the flag stick is held lightly in the right hand; the left hand steadies and directs the flag at a distance from six to twelve inches above the right on the stick. The length of the stick will determine the position of the left hand; the longer the stick the further apart must the hands be placed in order to obtain the best balance.



DOT: To make the dot, swing the flag down to the right until the stick reaches the horizontal and bring it back to Position.

DASH: To make the dash, swing the flag to the left until it reaches the horizontal and bring it back to Position.

INTERVAL: The third position is made by swinging the flag down directly in front and returning to Position.

In order to keep the flag from "fouling" when making these motions, make a sort of figure 8 with the point of the stick. A slight turn of the wrist accomplishes this result and becomes very easy after a little practice. Beginners should master the three motions of the flag, exaggerating the figure 8 motion before they attempt to make letters. It is also best to learn the code before attempting to wig wag it, so that the mind will be free to concentrate upon the technique or correct managing of the flag.

THE GENERAL SERVICE CODE

(The International Morse or Continental)

Uses: Commercial wireless, submarine cables, Army and Navy. Methods: flags by day, torches, lanterns, flashlight, searchlight, by night; whistle, drum, bugle, tapping.

A .- B -... C -.-. D -.. E . F ..-. G —. H .... I .. J .—- K -.- L .-.. M — N -. O —- P .—. Q —.- R .-. S ... T - U ..- V ...- W .— X -..- Y -.— Z —.. 1 .—— 2 ..—- 3 ...— 4 ....- 5 ..... 6 -.... 7 —... 8 —-.. 9 ——. 0 ——-

Period .. .. .. Comma .-.-.- Quotation Marks .-..-. Colon —-... Semicolon -.-.-. Interrogation ..—..

A convenient form for learning the letters is as follows:

DOTS

E . I .. S ... H ....

DASHES

T - M — O —-

OPPOSITES

A .- -. N B -... ...- V D -.. ..- U G —. .— W F ..-. .-.. L Y -.—- —-.- Q

SANDWICH LETTERS

K -.- P .—. X -..- R .-.

LETTERS WITH NO OPPOSITES

Z —.. C -.-. J .—-

Make no pause between dots and dashes in making a letter, but make a continuous swing from right to left, or left to right. A pause at Position indicates the completion of a letter.

One Interval (Front) indicates the completion of a word.

Two Intervals indicate the completion of a sentence.

Three Intervals indicate the completion of a message.

Do not try for speed. In all signalling, accuracy is the important thing, for unless the letters are accurately made they cannot be easily read, and the message will have to be repeated. Fall into a regular easy rhythm in sending. Speed comes with practice.

Signalling with a Flash Light: Use a short flash for the dot and a long steady flash for the dash. Pause the length of three dots between letters, and the length of five dots between words. A still longer pause marks the end of a sentence.

Signalling by Whistle: Use a short blast for the dot, and a long steady blast for the dash. Indicate the end of a letter, a word, and a sentence by the same pauses as explained in Flash Light Signalling.

Signalling with a Lantern: The motions used in signalling with a lantern are somewhat like those of the wig wag flag. For Position hold the lantern directly in front of the body; for the dot swing it to the right and back to Position; for the dash swing it to the left and back to Position; and for Interval move it down and up in a vertical line directly in front. A stationary light should be placed on the ground before the feet as a point of reference for the various motions.

B. SEMAPHORE SIGNALLING

SEMAPHORE CODE

The semaphore is a machine with two arms which may be moved into various positions to make letters. The semaphore code shown in the accompanying picture may also be employed by a person using two flags. It is the quickest method of flag signalling but is available for comparatively short distances, seldom over a mile, unless extra large flags are employed or there is some extraordinary condition of background or atmosphere.

The semaphore code is not adapted to as many uses as is the general service code, but for quick signalling over comparatively short distances, it is preferable in every way.

The regulation flag is 18 inches square, either divided diagonally into two triangles of white and red, or square of white with small square of red in the center, or red with small square of white. These flags are fastened on poles 24 inches long and 1/2 inch in diameter.

The flags must be carefully held so that the sticks make, as it were, a continuation of the arm bone; a bent wrist will cause the flags to make an entirely different angle, and consequently a different letter from the one intended.

Swing the arms smoothly and without hesitation from one letter to another. Hold each letter long enough to make it clear to the person receiving it. Every word begins and ends with "intervals," the hands crossed downward in front of the body, arms nearly straight, right hand always over the left.

Indicate the end of a sentence by one "chip-chop" made by holding both flags to the right, horizontally, and moving them up and down several times; not altogether, but one flag going down as the other comes up, making the "chopping" motion.



Note: The extended arm should always make a straight line with the flag staff.

From the very beginning practice reading as well as sending. It is harder to do and requires more practice. Instructors should always face the class in giving a lesson; in this way the pupil learns to read at the same time as she is learning to make the letters. This principle applies to all visual signalling.

Whistle Signals

1. One blast, "Attention"; "Assemble" (if scattered).

2. Two short blasts, "All right."

3. Four short blasts, calls "Patrol Leaders come here."

4. Alternate long and short blasts, "Mess Call."

Hand Signals

These signals are advisable when handling a troop in a street where the voice cannot be readily heard, or in marching the troop into some church, theatre, or other building where a spoken command is undesirable.

Forward, March:

Carry the hand to the shoulder; straighten and hold the arm horizontally, thrusting it in the direction of the march. (This signal is also used to execute quick time from double time.)

Halt:

Carry the hand to the shoulder; thrust hand upward and hold the arm vertically.

Double Time, March:

Carry the hand to the shoulder, rapidly thrust the hand upward the full extent of the arm several times.

Squads Right, March:

Raise the arm laterally until horizontal; carry it to a vertical position above the head and swing it several times between the vertical and horizontal positions.

Squads Left, March:

Raise the arm laterally until horizontal; carry it downward to the side and swing it several times between the downward and horizontal positions.

Change Direction or Column Right (Left) March:

The hand on the side toward which the change of direction is to be made is carried across the body to the opposite shoulder, forearm horizontal; then swing in a horizontal plane, arm extended, pointing in the new direction.

Assemble:

Raise the arm vertically to its full extent and describe horizontal circles.

THE GIRL SCOUT SALUTE.

How To Salute. To salute, a Girl Scout raises the right hand to her hat in line with the right temple, the first three fingers extended, and the little finger held down by the thumb. This salute is the sign of the Girl Scouts. The three extended fingers, like the Trefoil, represent the three parts of the Promise.

When To Salute. When Scouts meet for the first time during the day, whether comrades or strangers, of whatever rank, they should salute each other.

If in uniform a Girl Scout stands at attention and salutes the flag when it is hoisted or lowered, and as it passes her in parade. If not in uniform, she stands at attention, but does not salute.

When in uniform and in ranks in public demonstration, a Girl Scout stands at attention and salutes when the Star Spangled Banner is played. But she does not salute when she herself is singing.

In ordinary gatherings when the anthem is played, a Girl Scout stands at attention but does not salute.

When Girl Scouts are on parade or marching in troop or patrol formation, only the officers salute, at the same time giving the command, "Eyes right," or "Eyes left," as the case may be, at which every Scout turns her eyes sharply in the direction ordered till the officer commands, "Eyes front."

When repeating the Promise, a Girl Scout stands at salute.

When in uniform a Girl Scout should salute her officers when speaking to them, or when being spoken to by them.

If in uniform, a Girl Scout should return the salute of a Boy Scout. She does not salute the police or military officers unless they salute her first.

Girl Scouts may salute each other whether they are in uniform or not.

Pledge of Allegiance. "I pledge allegiance to the flag and to the republic for which it stands; one nation indivisible, with liberty and justice for all."

Girl Scouts should stand at attention, bring the hand to the full salute at the first word of the pledge, and at the word "flag" extend the arm, fingers still in the salute position, palm up, pointing to the flag.

Parades. Girl Scouts may take part in patriotic parades with the permission of the Local Council or Commissioner or of the Captain where there is no Local Council.



SECTION XI

THE SCOUT AIDE

Introduction.

The six following subjects, Home Economics, Child Care, First Aid, Home Nursing, Public Health, and Personal Health are grouped together, and for proficiency in all of them a special badge called "Scout Aide" is awarded.

This badge will probably be regarded by the outside world as the most important decoration the Girl Scouts can win, and all Scouts who will try for it should realize that those who wear it will represent the organization in a very special sense and will be eager to prove their practical knowledge and ability in the important subjects it stands for.

No young child could pretend to represent ALL this medal stands for. Any grown girl or woman should be proud to own it.

Practical knowledge of Personal Health, Public Health and Child Care will add to the efficiency and happiness of this nation, and the women of today have a better chance to control these things than ever before.

Home Nursing and First Aid will save lives for the nation in the two great emergencies of illness and accident.

Household Economics, the great general business and profession of women, if it is raised to the level of the other great businesses and professions, and managed quickly, efficiently and economically, will cease to be regarded as drudgery and take its real place among the arts and sciences.

When the girls of today have learned to do this, the women of tomorrow will be spared the criticism of waste and extravagance that our nation has had to bear. If Girl Scouts make good as far as this medal is concerned and become real "Scout Aides" the Scout reputation is secure.



1. THE HOME MAKER

BY SARAH LOUISE ARNOLD

Formerly Dean of Simmons College

The Keeper of the House. Every Girl Scout knows that good homes make a country great and good; so every woman wants to understand home-making. Of course that means "keeping" a house; and of course that means that Girl Scouts should try for the Housekeeper Merit Badge, the "Home Maker."

Now "making a home" doesn't mean just having it, owning it and holding its key. It means making it a good place to live in, or helping to make it so. This sounds like the House that Jack built; but all this belongs to the making of a home.

Planning Your House. When you plan a house of your own you must think what it needs most. You would choose, first of all, to have abundant air, fresh and clean; a dry spot where dampness will not stay; sunshine at some time of day in every room of the house, which you can have if your house faces southeast; and you must be able to get a good supply of pure water. You will want to make your house warm in the winter and cool in the summer, so you will look out for windows, doors and porches.

Think what must be done in a house: eating, sleeping, working, resting, by the whole family. How many rooms must you have? Draw a plan of some house in your neighborhood that seems good to live in. Make up your mind what you like best in that house.

Furnishings. Then houses must be furnished with the things that the family needs. The furniture will be for use. You must ask every piece what it is good for. What will you do with it? Could you get along without it? Some things you would use constantly, others once in a while. Which would you get first if you were planning carefully? How much would it cost to furnish the house for which you have drawn the plans: to furnish the kitchen, the living room, the bedrooms? Make a list of the furniture needed (not just wanted) for each room with the cost of each piece.

It is worth while for you to go to look at furniture in stores and to think about buying it. Then you will discover that a piece of furniture that looks well in the store might not look at all well in your house, for furniture must "suit" the house and the room into which it goes. It must "fit," we say. No other furniture will do. So the Girl Scout will make up her mind what will fit her house; and of course this means also what will fit the family purse. For the keeper of the house must not let into her house one single thing that she cannot afford to buy. She will take pride in that.

So when you make a list of furniture—with its price—make sure that everything you choose, suits, or fits, your house.

The Cellar. Most houses are built over cellars, for purposes of sanitation, heating and water supply, as well as for storage.

The Girl Scout who lives in the country probably knows all about cellars for they are much needed there. The city girl may live in an apartment and may never think of a cellar.

Look at the cellars of two or three houses. How are they built? Did you plan for one in your house?

The cellar should be well ventilated, having light as well as air. Its windows should be screened; the floor should be dry and if possible made of cement; the walls should be whitewashed. Ashes should be kept in a galvanized iron barrel, to prevent fire.

A cellar should be a clean place, corners and all.

The Kitchen. The kitchen is a work-shop; it should be sunny and airy.

Look out for windows to let in the fresh air and sunshine. And while you are thinking of windows, be sure that they can open at the top and bottom to let sweetness in, and drive bad odors out.

Your kitchen should hold things that are necessary, and nothing else. It should be easy to keep clean, having painted walls, and the floor should be of hard pine or else covered with linoleum. When a Girl Scout takes care of the kitchen she is in honor bound to keep all the corners clean and to leave no dust nor crumbs of food anywhere about. She will take great pains to keep flies out of the kitchen and so will have her windows screened.

A good kitchen is provided with a sink and if possible with running water; and it must have a good stove, with a place for keeping wood or coal if either is used.

The Kitchen Floor. The floor of the kitchen should be made of hard wood. Maple or hard pine will make a good floor. A hard-wood floor can be dressed with shellac or with oil. The wood absorbs this dressing so that water will not soak in. A floor which has been shellacked should be wiped with warm water. Not much water will be needed. The oiled floor can be wiped and dried, then oiled lightly from time to time.

Linoleum or oilcloth may be used to cover an old floor. If the floor is rough it should be made even by planing before the linoleum is put down, and the cracks should be filled. If you can't get linoleum you can paint your floor with a hard floor paint. Be sure to get a paint that dries hard. The linoleum should be frequently washed with warm water and soap and then rinsed carefully before it is dried.

The Kitchen Stove. The chief business of the kitchen stove is to provide heat for cooking. It must hold a fire, and so must be made of something which will not burn. Stoves are usually made of iron. Fire will not burn without air, so a place must be arranged to let air into the stove, and just enough to make the fire burn clearly and furnish the right amount of heat. That is what the front dampers or slides are for. The fuel, wood or coal, is held in the fire-box. The heated air makes the top of the stove hot for frying, broiling or boiling, and the oven hot for baking.

The smoke and gases from the fire must not come out into the room to blind our eyes or suffocate us; the chimney is built to take care of the smoke and gases, and there must be a way for them to get into the chimney; the stove pipe is for this. But the game you have to play with your stove is to let the smoke and gases run up chimney, but to save all the heat you can for the work to be done. So your stove is supplied with dampers. When the fire is new, and there is much smoke or gas, you open the damper into the stovepipe, and in the stovepipe. Try to get a picture of the way the heated air goes from the fire-box up into the chimney. We call this direct draft. Of course a great deal of heat runs away through the chimney, and so your fuel is wasted. Now if you want to save heat, and particularly if you want to bake, and must have a hot oven, you will close the oven damper that has made the short easy way into the stovepipe. Then the heated air must find another way to get to the chimney, and it has to go around the oven to do this. While the hot air is finding its way around the oven, it heats it, ready for your baking. We call this the "indirect draft." Look over your kitchen stove and see how this happens. Take off the covers, open every door, and examine every part.

Stoves must be carefully managed. The fires must burn readily and the cooking must be done with the least possible amount of wood or coal. This means a clean stove, free from ashes and with a clear draft. Wood or coal will burn freely in the air. They will stop burning if there is no draft.

Learn to manage your draft. Remember that stoves are made with a damper, in order to control the current of hot air. If the oven damper is closed this heated air must pass over and around the oven before it gets to the chimney and so heat the oven. If it is open the hot air can immediately escape up the chimney.

When starting the fire leave the damper open. As soon as it is burning well, close it so that the oven will be heated. Your stove should also have a damper in the pipe, to save the heat which would otherwise run up the chimney. If there is none, have one put in. There are also dampers or slides in front of the stove to control the amount of air going in.

The housekeeper must learn how to manage her stove; she must get acquainted with it, for every stove has its own way. Draw a picture or plan of the stove that you know best. See if you can tell plainly how to build a fire in your stove. If you use natural gas or a kerosene stove tell how that should be managed.

Gas and Oil Stoves. Cooking may be done on an iron stove with either coal or wood as fuel, or the stove may be planned for burning gas or kerosene. The coal fire must be fed several times a day with coal and the ashes must be removed to keep the fire burning clearly. Wood burns out quickly and must be replaced often. Both wood and coal stoves mean almost constant care for the housekeeper.

Gas gives less trouble. It comes in pipes from outside the house. This means that somebody else—the gas company—provides the supply. You turn on the gas when you want to use it and turn it off, if you are wise and thoughtful, the moment it is not needed. The gas company measures the amount of gas that you use by its meter, and you pay for every bit that you burn or waste. The important thing, then, is to use as little gas as possible in order to pay for as little as possible. You would rather pay twenty-five cents for a thrift stamp, than for gas that had burned simply because you had forgotten to turn it off. Be sure that gas is turned completely off at all places and never have a low light burning, as the flame may be blown out and the unburned gas escape. This would be dangerous and might even kill persons in the house.

The kerosene stove may be used instead of a gas stove in houses which are not piped for a gas supply. If wicks are used they must be carefully trimmed, so that they will be clean and even. A kerosene stove needs frequent cleaning. It should be kept free from dust and from drippings of oil.

The Fireless Cooker

When a Girl Scout gets to thinking about all the work to be done in a kitchen she will ask some very important questions. How much work is to be done? How long does it take to do it? Can time be saved by doing it in a better way? How can I save labor? Save time? Save money?

The Girl Scout will find the answers one at a time, if she does her own work. And if you do your own work you will at once call for a fireless cooker. The name sounds impossible, for you have always cooked with a stove, and, of course, a fire. How can you cook without a fire?

The women of Norway taught us how. When they went out to work in the fields or on the farm they took the hot kettle of soup off the stove and hid it away in a hay box. The hay kept the heat in the kettle instead of letting it escape; so the soup kept on cooking, and when the women came home from their work in the fields there it was, all steaming hot and ready for dinner.

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