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Sartor Resartus, and On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic in History
by Thomas Carlyle
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Cromwell's third Parliament split on the same rock as his second. Ever the constitutional Formula: How came you there? Show us some Notary parchment! Blind pedants:—"Why, surely the same power which makes you a Parliament, that, and something more, made me a Protector!" If my Protectorship is nothing, what in the name of wonder is your Parliamenteership, a reflex and creation of that?—

Parliaments having failed, there remained nothing but the way of Despotism. Military Dictators, each with his district, to coerce the Royalists and other gainsayers, to govern them, if not by act of Parliament, then by the sword. Formula shall not carry it, while the Reality is here! I will go on, protecting oppressed Protestants abroad, appointing just judges, wise managers, at home, cherishing true Gospel ministers; doing the best I can to make England a Christian England, greater than old Rome, the Queen of Protestant Christianity; I, since you will not help me; I while God leaves me life!—Why did he not give it up; retire into obscurity again, since the Law would not acknowledge him? cry several. That is where they mistake. For him there was no giving of it up! Prime Ministers have governed countries, Pitt, Pombal, Choiseul; and their word was a law while it held: but this Prime Minister was one that could not get resigned. Let him once resign, Charles Stuart and the Cavaliers waited to kill him; to kill the Cause and him. Once embarked, there is no retreat, no return. This Prime Minister could retire nowhither except into his tomb.

One is sorry for Cromwell in his old days. His complaint is incessant of the heavy burden Providence has laid on him. Heavy; which he must bear till death. Old Colonel Hutchinson, as his wife relates it, Hutchinson, his old battle-mate, coming to see him on some indispensable business, much against his will,—Cromwell 'follows him to the door,' in a most fraternal, domestic, conciliatory style; begs that he would be reconciled to him, his old brother in arms; says how much it grieves him to be misunderstood, deserted by true fellow-soldiers, dear to him from of old: the rigorous Hutchinson, cased in his republican formula, sullenly goes his way.—And the man's head now white; his strong arm growing weary with its long work! I think always too of his poor Mother, now very old, living in that Palace of his; a right brave woman: as indeed they lived all an honest God-fearing Household there: if she heard a shot go off, she thought it was her son killed. He had to come to her at least once a day, that she might see with her own eyes that he was yet living. The poor old Mother!——What had this man gained; what had he gained? He had a life of sore strife and toil, to his last day. Fame, ambition, place in History? His dead body was hung in chains; his 'place in History,'—place in History forsooth!—has been a place of ignominy, accusation, blackness and disgrace; and here, this day, who knows if it is not rash in me to be among the first that ever ventured to pronounce him not a knave and a liar, but a genuinely honest man! Peace to him. Did he not, in spite of all, accomplish much for us? We walk smoothly over his great rough heroic life; step-over his body sunk in the ditch there. We need not spurn it, as we step on it!—Let the Hero rest. It was not to men's judgment that he appealed; nor have men judged him very well.

* * * * *

Precisely a century and a year after this of Puritanism had got itself hushed-up into decent composure, and its results made smooth in 1688, there broke-out a far deeper explosion, much more difficult to hush-up, known to all mortals, and like to be long known, by the name of French Revolution. It is properly the third and final act of Protestantism; the explosive confused return of Mankind to Reality and Fact, now that they were perishing of Semblance and Sham. We call our English Puritanism the second act: "Well then, the Bible is true; let us go by the Bible!" "In Church," said Luther; "In Church and State," said Cromwell, "let us go by what actually is God's Truth." Men have to return to reality; they cannot live on semblance. The French Revolution, or third act, we may well call the final one; for lower than that savage Sansculottism men cannot go. They stand there on the nakedest haggard Fact, undeniable in all seasons and circumstances; and may and must begin again confidently to build-up from that. The French explosion, like the English one, got its King,—who had no Notary parchment to show for himself. We have still to glance for a moment at Napoleon, our second modern King.

Napoleon does by no means seem to me so great a man as Cromwell. His enormous victories which reached over all Europe, while Cromwell abode mainly in our little England, are but as the high stilts on which the man is seen standing; the stature of the man is not altered thereby. I find in him no such sincerity as In Cromwell; only a far inferior sort. No silent walking, through long years, with the Awful Unnamable of this Universe; 'walking with God,' as he called it; and faith and strength in that alone: latent thought and valour, content to lie latent, then burst out as in blaze of Heaven's lightning! Napoleon lived in an age when God was no longer believed; the meaning of all Silence, Latency, was thought to be Nonentity: he had to begin not out of the Puritan Bible, but out of poor Sceptical Encyclopedies. This was the length the man carried it. Meritorious to get so far. His compact, prompt, everyway articulate character is in itself perhaps small, compared with our great chaotic inarticulate Cromwell's. Instead of 'dumb Prophet struggling to speak,' we have a portentous mixture of the Quack withal! Hume's notion of the Fanatic-Hypocrite, with such truth as it has, will apply much better to Napoleon than it did to Cromwell, to Mahomet or the like,—where indeed taken strictly it has hardly any truth at all. An element of blamable ambition shows itself, from the first, in this man; gets the victory over him at last, and involves him and his work in ruin.

'False as a bulletin' became a proverb in Napoleon's time. He makes what excuse he could for it: that it was necessary to mislead the enemy, to keep up his own men's courage, and so forth. On the whole, there are no excuses. A man in no case has liberty to tell lies. It had been, in the long-run, better for Napoleon too if he had not told any. In fact, if a man have any purpose reaching beyond the hour and day, meant to be found extant next day, what good can it ever be to promulgate lies? The lies are found-out; ruinous penalty is exacted for them. No man will believe the liar next time even when he speaks truth, when it is of the last importance that he be believed. The old cry of wolf!—A Lie is no-thing; you cannot of nothing make something; you make nothing at last, and lose your labour into the bargain.

Yet Napoleon had a sincerity; we are to distinguish between what is superficial and what is fundamental in insincerity. Across these outer manoeuvrings and quackeries of his, which were many and most blamable, let us discern withal that the man had a certain instinctive ineradicable feeling for reality; and did base himself upon fact, so long as he had any basis. He has an instinct of Nature better than his culture was. His savans, Bourrienne tells us, in that voyage to Egypt were one evening busily occupied arguing that there could be no God. They had proved it, to their satisfaction, by all manner of logic. Napoleon looking up into the stars, answers, "Very ingenious, Messieurs: but who made all that?" The Atheistic logic runs-off from him like water; the great Fact stares him in the face: "Who made all that?" So too in Practice: he, as every man that can be great, or have victory in this world, sees, through all entanglements, the practical heart of the matter; drives straight towards that. When the steward of his Tuileries Palace was exhibiting the new upholstery, with praises, and demonstration how glorious it was, and how cheap withal, Napoleon, making little answer, asked for a pair of scissors, clipt one of the gold tassels from a window-curtain, put it in his pocket, and walked on. Some days afterwards, he produced it at the right moment, to the horror of his upholstery functionary; it was not gold but tinsel! In Saint Helena, it is notable how he still, to his last days, insists on the practical, the real. "Why talk and complain; above all, why quarrel with one another? There is no result in it; it comes to nothing that one can do. Say nothing, if one can do nothing!" He speaks often so, to his poor discontented followers; he is like a piece of silent strength in the middle of their morbid querulousness there.

And accordingly was there not what we can call a faith in him, genuine so far as it went? That this new enormous Democracy asserting itself here in the French Revolution is an insuppressible Fact, which the whole world, with its old forces and institutions cannot put down; this was a true insight of his, and took his conscience and enthusiasm along with it,—a faith. And did he not interpret the dim purport of it well? 'La carriere ouverte aux talens, The implements to him who can handle them:' this actually is the truth, and even the whole truth; it includes whatever the French Revolution, or any Revolution, could mean. Napoleon, in his first period, was a true Democrat. And yet by the nature of him, fostered too by his military trade, he knew that Democracy, if it were a true thing at all could not be an anarchy: the man had a heart-hatred for anarchy. On that Twentieth of June (1792), Bourrienne and he sat in a coffee-house, as the mob rolled by: Napoleon expresses the deepest contempt for persons in authority that they do not restrain this rabble. On the Tenth of August he wonders why there is no man to command these poor Swiss; they would conquer if there were. Such a faith in Democracy, yet hatred of Anarchy, it is that carries Napoleon through all his great work. Through his brilliant Italian Campaigns, onwards to the Peace of Leoben, one would say, his inspiration is: 'Triumph to the French Revolution; assertion of it against these Austrian Simulacra that pretend to call it a Simulacrum!' Withal, however, he feels, and has a right to feel, how necessary a strong Authority is; how the Revolution cannot prosper or last without such. To bridle-in that great devouring, self-devouring French Revolution; to tame it, so that its intrinsic purpose can be made good, that it may become organic, and be able to live among other organisms and formed things, not as a wasting destruction alone: is not this still what he partly aimed at, as the true purport of his life; nay what he actually managed to do? Through Wagrams, Austerlitzes; triumph after triumph,—he triumphed so far. There was an eye to see in this man, a soul to dare and do. He rose naturally to be the King. All men saw that he was such. The common soldiers used to say on the march: "These babbling Avocats, up at Paris; all talk and no work! What wonder it runs all wrong? We shall have to go and put our Petit Caporal there!" They went, and put him there; they and France at large. Chief-consulship, Emperorship, victory over Europe;—till the poor Lieutenant of La Fere, not unnaturally, might seem to himself the greatest of all men that had been in the world for some ages.

But at this point, I think, the fatal charlatan-element got the upper hand. He apostatised from his old Faith in Facts: took to believing in Semblances; strove to connect himself with Austrian Dynasties, Popedoms, with the old false Feudalities which he once saw clearly to be false;—considered that he would found "his Dynasty" and so forth; that the enormous French Revolution meant only that! The man was 'given-up to strong delusion, that he should believe a lie;' a fearful but most sure thing. He did not know true from false now when he looked at them,—the fearfulest penalty a man pays for yielding to untruth of heart. Self and false ambition had now become his god: self-deception once yielded to, all other deceptions follow naturally more and more. What a paltry patch-work of theatrical paper-mantles, tinsel and mummery, had this man wrapt his own great reality in, thinking to make it more real thereby! His hollow Pope's-Concordat, pretending to be a re-establishment of Catholicism, felt by himself to be the method of extirpating it, "la vaccine de la religion:" his ceremonial Coronations, consecrations by the old Italian Chimera in Notre-Dame,—"wanting nothing to complete the pomp of it," as Augereau said, "nothing but the half-million of men who had died to put an end to all that"! Cromwell's Inauguration was by the Sword and Bible; what we must call a genuinely true one. Sword and Bible were borne before him, without any chimera: were not these the real emblems of Puritanism; its true decoration and insignia? It had used them both in a very real manner, and pretended to stand by them now! But this poor Napoleon mistook: he believed too much in the Dupeability of men; saw no fact deeper in men than Hunger and this! He was mistaken. Like a man that should build upon cloud; his house and he fall down in confused wreck, and depart out of the world.

Alas, in all of us this charlatan-element exists; and might be developed, were the temptation strong enough. 'Lead us not into temptation'! But it is fatal, I say, that it be developed. The thing into which it enters as a cognisable ingredient is doomed to be altogether transitory; and, however huge it may look, is in itself small. Napoleon's working, accordingly, what was it with all the noise it made? A flash as of gunpowder wide-spread; a blazing-up as of dry heath. For an hour the whole Universe seems wrapt in smoke and flame; but only for an hour. It goes out: the Universe with its old mountains and streams, its stars above and kind soil beneath, is still there.

The Duke of Weimar told his friends always, To be of courage; this Napoleonism was unjust, a falsehood, and could not last. It is true doctrine. The heavier this Napoleon trampled on the world, holding it tyrannously down, the fiercer would the world's recoil against him be, one day. Injustice pays itself with frightful compound-interest. I am not sure but he had better have lost his best park of artillery, or had his best regiment drowned in the sea, than shot that poor German Bookseller, Palm! It was a palpable tyrannous murderous injustice, which no man, let him paint an inch thick, could make-out to be other. It burnt deep into the hearts of men, it and the like of it; suppressed fire flashed in the eyes of men, as they thought of it,—waiting their day! Which day came: Germany rose round him.—What Napoleon did will in the long-run amount to what he did justly; what Nature with her laws will sanction. To what of reality was in him; to that and nothing more. The rest was all smoke and waste. La carriere ouverte aux talens: that great true Message, which has yet to articulate and fulfil itself everywhere, he left in a most inarticulate state. He was a great ebauche, a rude-draught never completed; as indeed what great man is other? Left in too rude a state, alas!

His notions of the world, as he expresses them there at St. Helena, are almost tragical to consider. He seems to feel the most unaffected surprise that it has all gone so; that he is flung-out on the rock here, and the World is still moving on its axis. France is great, and all-great; and at bottom, he is France. England itself, he says, is by Nature only an appendage of France; "another Isle of Oleron to France." So it was by Nature, by Napoleon-Nature; and yet look how in fact,—HERE AM I! He cannot understand it: inconceivable that the reality has not corresponded to his program of it; that France was not all-great, that he was not France. 'Strong delusion,' that he should believe the thing to be which is not! The compact, clear-seeing, decisive Italian nature of him, strong, genuine, which he once had, has enveloped itself, half-dissolved itself, in a turbid atmosphere of French fanfaronade. The world was not disposed to be trodden-down underfoot; to be bound into masses, and built together, as he liked, for a pedestal to France and him: the world had quite other purposes in view! Napoleon's astonishment is extreme. But alas, what help now? He had gone that way of his; and Nature also had gone her way. Having once parted with Reality, he tumbles helpless in Vacuity; no rescue for him. He had to sink there, mournfully as man seldom did; and break his great heart, and die,—this poor Napoleon: a great implement too soon wasted, till it was useless: our last Great Man!

* * * * *

Our last, in a double sense. For here finally these wide roamings of ours through so many times and places, in search and study of Heroes, are to terminate. I am sorry for it: there was pleasure for me in this business, if also much pain. It is a great subject, and a most grave and wide one, this which, not to be too grave about it, I have named Hero-worship. It enters deeply, as I think, into the secret of Mankind's ways and vitalest interests in this world, and is well worth explaining at present. With six months, instead of six days, we might have done better. I promised to break-ground on it; I know not whether I have even managed to do that. I have had to tear it up in the rudest manner in order to get into it at all. Often enough, with these abrupt utterances thrown-out isolated, unexplained, has your tolerance been put to the trial. Tolerance, patient candour, all-hoping favour and kindness, which I will not speak of at present. The accomplished and distinguished, the beautiful, the wise, something of what is best in England, have listened patiently to my rude words. With many feelings, I heartily thank you all; and say, Good be with you all!



INDEX

ABDALLAH, father of Mahomet, 286

Abelard, theology of, 389

Abu Thaleb, uncle of Mahomet, 286, 387, 294

Action the true end of Man, 119, 121

Actual, the, the true Ideal, 148, 149

Adamitism, 43

Afflictions, merciful, 145

Agincourt, Shakspeare's battle of, 341

Alexis, Luther's friend, his sudden death, 359

Ali, young, Mahomet's kinsman and convert, 293

Allegory, the sportful shadow of earnest faith, 243, 267

Ambition, Fate's appendage of, 78; foolish charge of, 447; laudable ambition, 449

Apprenticeships, 92

Aprons, use and significance of, 31

Arabia and the Arabs, 282, 310

Art, all true Works of, symbolic, 163

BALDER, the white Sungod, 255, 271

Baphometic Fire-baptism, 128

Barebone's Parliament, 456

Battle-field, a, 131

Battle, Life-, our, 65; with Folly and Sin, 94, 97

Being, the boundless Phantasmagoria of, 39

Belief and Opinion, 146, 147

Belief, the true god-announcing miracle, 292, 311, 375, 401; war of, 430. See Religion, Scepticism.

Benthamism, 309, 400

Bible of Universal History, 134, 146

Biography, meaning and uses of, 56; significance of biographic facts, 152

Blumine, 104; her environment, 105; character and relation to Teufelsdroeckh, 106; blissful bonds rent asunder, 109; on her way to England, 116

Bolivar's Cavalry-uniform, 37

Books, miraculous influence of, 130, 149, 388, 392; our modern University, Church and Parliament, 390

Boswell, his reverence for Johnson, 410

Banyan's Pilgrim's Progress, 244

Burns, Gilbert, 417

Burns, Robert, his birth, and humble heroic parents, 415; rustic dialect of, 416; the most gifted British soul of his century, 417; his resemblance to Mirabeau, 418; his sincerity, 419; his visit to Edinburgh, 420; Lion-hunters the ruin and death of, 421

CAABAH, the, with its Black Stone and Sacred Well, 284, 285

Canopus, the worship of, 247

Charles I. fatally incapable of being dealt with, 439

Childhood, happy season of, 68; early influences and sports, 69

China, literary governors of, 397

Christian Faith, a good Mother's simple version of the, 75; Temple of the, now in ruins, 145; Passive-half of, 147

Christian Love, 143, 145

Church. See Books.

Church-Clothes, 161; living and dead Churches, 162; the modern Church, and its Newspaper-Pulpits, 189

Circumstances, influence of, 71

Clergy, the, with their surplices and cassock-aprons girt-on, 32, 158

Clothes, not a spontaneous growth of the human animal, but an artificial device, 2; analogy between the Costumes of the body and the Customs of the spirit, 25; Decoration the first purpose of Clothes, 28; what Clothes have done for us, and what they threaten to do, 30, 43; fantastic garbs of the Middle Ages, 34; a simple costume, 35; tangible and mystic influences of Clothes, 36, 45; animal and human Clothing contrasted, 41; a Court-Ceremonial minus Clothes, 45; necessity for Clothes, 47; transparent Clothes, 49; all Emblematic things are Clothes, 54, 203; Genesis of the modern Clothes-Philosopher, 61; Character and conditions needed, 153, 156; George Fox's suit of Leather, 159; Church-Clothes, 161; Old-Clothes, 179; practical inferences, 203

Codification, 50

Combination, value of, 101, 221

Commons, British House of, 31

Concealment. See Secrecy.

Constitution, our invaluable British, 187

Conversion, 149

Courtesy, due to all men, 179

Courtier, a luckless, 36

Cromwell, 430; his hypochondria, 437, 442; early marriage and conversion, 437; an industrious farmer, 438; his victories and participation in the King's death, 439; practicalness of, 440; his Ironsides, 440; his speeches, 444, 459; his 'ambition' and such-like, 446; a 'Fanatic,' but gradually became a 'Hypocrite,' 452; his dismissal of the Rump Parliament, 456; Protectorship and Parliamentary Futilities, 457; his last days, and closing sorrows, 460

Custom the greatest of Weavers, 194

DANDY, mystic significance of the, 204; dandy worship, 206; sacred books, 208; articles of faith, 209; a dandy household, 213; tragically undermined by growing Drudgery, 214

Dante and his Book, 318; biography in his Book, and Portrait, 319; his birth, education and early career, 319, 320; his love for Beatrice Portinari, 320; unhappy marriage, 320; banishment, 321; uncourtier-like ways of, 321; his Divina Commedia genuinely a song, 322; the Unseen World, as figured in the Christianity of the Middle Ages, 329; the 'uses' of Dante, 332

David, the Hebrew King, 281

Death, nourishment even in, 81, 127

Della Scala, the court of, 321

Devil, internecine war with the, 9, 90, 128, 139; cannot now so much as believe in him, 127

Dilettantes and Pedants, 52; patrons of Literature, 96

Diodorus Siculus, 284

Diogenes, 159

Divine Right of Kings, 424

Doubt can only be removed by Action, 147. See Unbelief.

Drudgery contrasted with Dandyism, 210; 'Communion of Drudges,' and what may come of it, 214

Duelling, a picture of, 136

Duty, no longer a divine Messenger and Guide, but a false earthly Fantasm, 122, 123; infinite nature of, 147, 309; definition of, 267, 298; sceptical spiritual paralysis, 398

EDDA, the Scandinavian, 253

Editor's first acquaintance with Teufelsdroeckh and his Philosophy of Clothes, 4; efforts to make known his discovery to British readers, 7; admitted into the Teufelsdroeckh watch-tower, 14, 25; first feels the pressure of his task, 37; his bulky Weissnichtwo Packet, 55; strenuous efforts to evolve some historic order out of such interminable documentary confusion, 59; partial success, 67, 76, 117; mysterious hints, 152, 177; astonishment and hesitation, 163; congratulations, 201; farewell, 219

Education, influence of early, 71; insignificant portion depending on Schools, 77; educational Architects, 79; the inspired Thinker, 171

Eighteenth Century, the sceptical, 398, 404, 433

Eisleben, the birthplace of Luther, 358

Eliot, 433, 434

Elizabethan Era, the, 334

Emblems, all visible things, 54

Emigration, 173

Eternity, looking through Time, 15, 55, 168

Evil, Origin of, 143

Eyes and Spectacles, 51

FACTS, engraved Hierograms, for which the fewest have the key, 153

Faith, the one thing needful, 122

Fantasy, the true Heaven-gate or Hell-gate of man, 109, 165

Fashionable Novels, 208

Fatherhood, 65

Faults, his, not the criterion of any man 281

Feebleness, the true misery, 124

Fichte's theory of literary men, 385

Fire, and vital fire, 53, 129; miraculous nature of, 254

Force, universal presence of, 53

Forms, necessity for, 431

Fortunatus' Wishing-hat, 195, 197

Fox's, George, heavenward aspirations and earthly independence, 159

Fraser's Magazine, 6, 227

Frederick the Great, symbolic glimpse of, 61

Friendship, now obsolete, 89; an incredible tradition, 125, 174; how it were possible, 161, 221

Frost. See Fire.

Futteral and his Wife, 61

Future, organic filaments of the, 183

GENIUS, the world's treatment of, 94

German speculative thought, 2, 9, 20, 24, 41; historical researches, 26, 56

Gerund-grinding, 80

Ghost, an authentic, 198

Giotto, his portrait of Dante, 319

God, the unslumbering, omnipresent, eternal, 40; God's presence manifested to our eyes and hearts, 49; an absentee God, 122

Goethe's inspired melody, 190; 'characters,' 337; notablest of literary men, 386

Good, growth and propagation of, 75

Graphic, secret of being, 325

Gray's misconception of Norse lore, 270

Great Men, 134. See Man.

Grimm the German Antiquary, and Odin, 260

Gullibility, blessings of, 84

Gunpowder, use of, 29, 136

HABIT, how, makes dullards of us all, 42

Hagar, the Well of, 284, 285

Half-men, 139

Hampden, 433, 434

Happiness, the whim of, 144

Hegira, the, 295

Heroes, Universal History of the united biographies of, 139, 266; how 'little critics' account for great men, 250; all Heroes fundamentally of the same stuff, 265, 277, 312, 346, 383, 418; Intellect the primary outfit, 338; Heroism possible to all, 358, 375; no man a hero to a valet-soul, 411, 433, 441

Hero-worship, the corner-stone of all Society, 189; the tap-root of all Religion, 248-252, 277; perennial in man, 252, 317, 357, 428

Heuschrecke and his biographic documents, 7; his loose, zigzag, thin-visaged character, 18; unaccustomed eloquence, and interminable documentary superfluities, 56; bewildered darkness, 223

History, all-inweaving tissue of, 15; by what strange chances do we live in, 36; a perpetual Revelation, 134, 148, 190

Homer's Iliad, 169

Hope, this world emphatically the place of, 122; false shadows of, 140

Horse, his own tailor, 41

Hutchinson and Cromwell, 433, 460

ICELAND, the home of Norse Poets, 253

Ideal, the, exists only in the Actual, 148, 149

Idolatry, 351; criminal only when insincere, 353

Igdrasil, the Life-Tree, 257, 334

Imagination. See Fantasy.

Immortality, a glimpse of, 196

Imposture, statistics of, 84

Independence, foolish parade of, 175, 188

Indifference, centre of, 128

Infant intuitions and acquirements, 68; genius and dulness, 71

Inspiration, perennial, 147, 157, 190

Intellect, the summary of man's gifts, 338, 397

Invention, 29, 120

Invisible, the, Nature the visible Garment of, 41; invisible bonds, binding all Men together, 45; the Visible and Invisible, 49, 164

Irish, the, Poor-Slave, 213

Islam, 291

Isolation, 81

JESUS OF NAZARETH, our divinest Symbol, 168, 171

Job, the Book of, 284

Johnson's difficulties, poverty, hypochondria, 405, 406; rude self-help; stands genuinely by the old formulas, 406; his noble unconscious sincerity, 408; twofold Gospel, of Prudence and hatred of Cant, 409; his Dictionary, 410; the brave old Samuel, 411, 450

Joetuns, 254, 272

Julius the Second, Pope, 361

KADIJAH, the good, Mahomet's first Wife, 288, 292

King, our true, chosen for us in Heaven, 187; the, a summary of all the various figures of Heroism, 424; indispensable in all movements of men, 453

Kingdom, a man's, 91

Know thyself, and what thou canst work at, 124

Knox's influence on Scotland, 374; the bravest of all Scotchmen, 376; his unassuming career, 377; is sent to the French Galleys, 377; his colloquies with Queen Mary, 378; vein of drollery, 380; a brother to high and to low, 380; his death, 381

Koran, the, 298

Koreish, the, Keepers of the Caabah, 293, 294, 354

Kranach's portrait of Luther, 372

LABOUR, sacredness of, 171

Ladrones Islands, what the natives of, thought regarding Fire, 254

Lamaism, Grand, 242

Land-owning, trade of, 96

Language, the Garment of Thought, 54; dead vocables, 80

Laughter, significance of, 24

Leo X., the elegant Pagan Pope, 363

Liberty and Equality, 357, 428

Lieschen, 17

Life, Human, picture of, 14, 115, 129, 141; life-purpose, 101; speculative mystery of, 125, 181, 198; the most important transaction in, 128; nothingness of; 138, 139

Light the beginning of all Creation, 148

Literary Men, 383; in China, 397

Literature, chaotic condition of, 387; not our heaviest evil, 398

Logic-mortar and wordy Air-Castles, 40; underground workshop of Logic, 50, 166

Louis XV., ungodly age of, 123

Love, what we emphatically name, 102; pyrotechnic phenomena of, 103, 166; not altogether a delirium, 109; how possible, in its highest form, 145, 161, 221

Ludicrous, feeling and instances of the, 36, 136

Luther's birth and parentage, 358; hardship and rigorous necessity; death of his friend Alexis, 359; becomes a monk; his religious despair; finds a Bible, 360; his deliverance from darkness; at Rome, 361; Tetzel, 362; burns the Pope's Bull, 363, 364; at the Diet of Worms, 364; King of the Reformation, 368; 'Duke Georges for nine days running,' 370; his little daughter's deathbed; his solitary Patmos, 371; his Portrait, 372

MAGNA CHARTA, 203

Mahomet's birth, boyhood, and youth, 286; marries Kadijah, 288; quiet, unambitious life, 288; divine commission, 290; the good Kadijah believes him, 292; Seid, his slave, 293; his Cousin Ali, 293; his offences and sore struggles, 293; flight from Mecca; being driven to take the sword, he uses it, 295; the Koran, 298; a veritable Hero, 305; Seid's death, 306; freedom from cant, 306; the infinite nature of duty, 309

Malthus's over-population panic, 170

Man, by nature naked, 2, 42, 46; essentially a tool-using animal, 30; the true Shekinah, 49; a divine Emblem, 54, 165, 167, 180, 199; two men alone honourable, 171. See Thinking Man.

Mary, Queen, and Knox, 378

Mayflower, sailing of the, 373

Mecca, its rise, 285; Mahomet's flight from, 294, 295

Metaphors, the stuff of Language, 54

Metaphysics inexpressibly unproductive, 40, 51

Middle Ages, represented by Dante and Shakspeare, 329, 333

Milton, 124

Mirabeau, his ambition, 450

Miracles, significance of, 191, 197

Monmouth Street, and its 'Ou' clo'' Angels of Doom, 181

Montrose, the Hero-Cavalier, 453, 454

Mother's, a, religious influence, 75

Motive-Millwrights, 166

Mountain scenery, 115

Musical, all deep things, 317

Mystery, all-pervading domain of, 51

NAKEDNESS and hypocritical Clothing, 42, 47; a naked Court-Ceremonial, 45; a naked Duke addressing a naked House of Lords, 46

Names, significance and influence of, 65, 195

Napoleon and his Political Evangel, 135; compared with Cromwell, 461; a portentous mixture of Quack and Hero, 462; his instinct for the practical, 463; his democratic faith 463; his hatred of Anarchy, 464; apostatised from his old faith in Facts, and took to believing in Semblances, 464, 465; this Napoleonism was unjust, and could not last, 466

Nature, the God-written Apocalypse of,39, 49; not an Aggregate but a Whole, 52, 116, 185, 193; Nature alone antique, 79; sympathy with, 115, 135; the 'Living Garment of God,' 142; Laws of Nature, 192; all one great Miracle, 245, 302, 371; a righteous umpire, 296

Necessity, brightened into Duty, 74

Newspaper Editors, 33; our Mendicant Friars, 189, 190

Nothingness of life, 138, 139

Nottingham bargemen, 255, 256

Novalis, on Man, 248; on Belief, 292; on Shakspeare, 339

OBEDIENCE, the lesson of, 74, 75

Odin, the first Norse 'man of genius,' 258; historic rumours and guesses, 259; how he came to be deified, 261; invented 'runes,' 263; Hero, Prophet, God, 264

Olaf, King, and Thor, 275

Original man the sincere man, 280, 356

Orpheus, 197

Over-population, 170

Own, conservation of a man's, 151

PAGANISM, Scandinavian, 241; not mere Allegory, 243; Nature-worship, 245, 266; Hero-worship, 248; creed of our fathers, 253, 272, 274; Impersonation of the visible workings of Nature, 254; contrasted with Greek Paganism, 256; the first Norse Thinker, 258; main practical Belief; indispensable to be brave, 267; hearty, homely, rugged Mythology, 270; Balder and Thor, 271; Consecration of Valour, 276

Paradise and Fig-leaves, 27; prospective Paradises, 102, 110

Parliaments superseded by Books, 392; Cromwell's Parliaments, 454

Passivity and Activity, 74, 121

Past, the, inextricably linked with the Present, 129; forever extant, 196; the whole, the possession of the Present, 277

Paupers, what to do with, 173

Peace-Era, the much-predicted, 133

Peasant Saint, the, 172

Pelham, and the Whole Duty of Dandies, 209

Perseverance, law of, 178

Person, mystery of a, 48, 101, 103, 179

Philosophies, Cause-and-Effect, 26

Phoenix Death-birth, 178, 183, 201

Pitt, Mr., his reply when asked for help to Burns, 396

Plato, the child-man of, 245

Poet, the, and Prophet, 313, 332, 342

Poetry and Prose, distinction of, 315, 323

Popery, 367

Poverty, advantages of, 334

Priest, the true, a kind of Prophet, 346

Printing, consequences of, 392

Private judgment, 354

Progress of the Species, 349

Property, 150

Prose. See Poetry.

Proselytising, 6, 221

Protestantism, the root of Modern European History, 364; not dead yet, 367; its living fruit, 373, 425

Purgatory, noble Catholic conception of, 328

Puritanism, founded by Knox, 373; true beginning of America, 373; the one epoch of Scotland, 374; Theocracy, 381; Puritanism in England, 430, 432, 453

Pym, 433, 434

QUACKERY originates nothing, 242, 279; age of, 403; Quacks and Dupes, 441

RADICALISM, Speculative, 10, 20, 47, 188

Ragnaroek, 275

Raleigh's, Sir Walter, fine mantle, 36

Ramadhan, the month of, 290

Raphael, the best of Portrait-Painters, 326

Reformer, the true, 347

Religion, dead letter and living spirit of, 87; weaving new vestures, 162, 207; a man's, the chief fact with regard to him, 240; based on Hero-worship, 248; propagating by the sword, 295; cannot succeed by being 'easy,' 304

Reverence, early growth of, 75; indispensability of, 188

Revolution, 423; the French, 423, 461

Richter, 24, 369

Right and Wrong, 309, 329

Rousseau, not a strong man, 411; his Portrait; egoism, 412; his passionate appeals, 413; his books, like himself, unhealthy; the Evangelist of the French Revolution, 414

Runes, 263, 264, 388

SABEANS, the worship of, 247, 283

Saemund, an early Christian priest, 253, 254

St. Clement Danes, Church of, 407

Saints, living Communion of, 185, 190

Sarcasm, the panoply of, 99

Sartor Resartus, genesis of, 7; its purpose, 201

Saturn or Chronos, 98

Savage, the aboriginal, 28

Scarecrow, significance of the, 46

Sceptical goose-cackle, 51

Scepticism, a spiritual paralysis, 398-405, 433

Schlegel, August Wilhelm, 341

School education, insignificance of, 78, 80; tin-kettle terrors and incitements, 78; need of Soul-Architects, 80

Science, the Torch of, 1; the Scientific Head, 51

Scotland awakened into life by Knox, 374

Secrecy, benignant efficacies of, 164

Secret, the open, 313

Seid, Mahomet's slave and friend, 293, 306

Self-activity, 20

Self-annihilation, 141

Shakspeare and the Elizabethan Era, 334; his all-sufficing intellect, 335, 338; his Characters, 337; his Dramas, a part of Nature herself, 340; his joyful tranquillity, and overflowing love of laughter, 340; his hearty Patriotism, 342; glimpses of the world that was in him, 342; a heaven-sent Light-Bringer, 343; a King of Saxondom, 345

Shame, divine, mysterious growth of, 30; the soil of all Virtue, 165

Shekinah, Man the true, 247

Silence, 135; the element in which all great things fashion themselves, 164; the great empires of, 333, 449

Simon's, Saint-, aphorism of the golden age, 178; a false application, 223

Sincerity, better than gracefulness, 267; the first characteristic of heroism and originality, 280, 289, 356, 358, 384

Smoke, advantage of consuming one's, 114

Snorro, his description of Odin, 260, 264, 268

Society founded upon Cloth, 38, 45, 47; how Society becomes possible, 162; social Death and New-Birth, 163, 178, 183, 201; as good as extinct, 174

Solitude. See Silence.

Sorrow-pangs of Self-deliverance, 115, 120, 121; divine depths of Sorrow, 143; Worship of Sorrow, 146

Southey, and Literature, 396

Space and Time, the Dream-Canvas upon which Life is imaged, 40, 49, 192, 195

Spartan wisdom, 172

Speculative intuition, 38. See German.

Speech, great, but not greatest, 164

Sphinx-riddle, the Universe a, 97

Star worship, 247, 283

Stealing, 151, 172

Stupidity, blessings of, 123

Style, varieties of, 54

Suicide, 126

Summary, 231

Sunset, 70, 116

Swallows, migrations and co-operative instincts of, 72

Swineherd, the, 70

Symbols, 163; wondrous agency of, 164; extrinsic and intrinsic, 167; superannuated, 169, 175

TABUC, the War of, 306

Tailors, symbolic significance of, 217

Temptations in the wilderness, 138

Testimonies of Authors, 227

Tetzel, the Monk, 362, 363

Teufelsdroeckh's Philosophy of Clothes, 4; he proposes a toast, 10; his personal aspect, and silent deep-seated Sansculottism, 11; thawed into speech, 13; memorable watch-tower utterances, 14; alone with the Stars, 16; extremely miscellaneous environment, 17; plainness of speech, 21; universal learning, and multiplex literary style, 22; ambiguous-looking morality, 23; one instance of laughter, 24; almost total want of arrangement, 25; feeling of the ludicrous, 36; speculative Radicalism, 47; a singular Character, 58; Genesis properly an Exodus, 62; unprecedented Name, 65; infantine experience, 66; Pedagogy, 76; an almost Hindoo Passivity, 76; schoolboy jostling, 79; heterogeneous University Life, 83; fever-paroxysms of Doubt, 87; first practical knowledge of the English, 88; getting under way, 90; ill success, 94; glimpse of high life, 96; casts himself on the Universe, 101; reverent feeling towards Women, 102; frantically in love, 104; first interview with Blumine, 106; inspired moments, 108; short of practical kitchen-stuff, 111; ideal bliss and actual catastrophe, 112; sorrows and peripatetic stoicism, 113; a parting glimpse of his Beloved on her way to England, 116; how he overran the whole earth, 118; Doubt darkened unto Unbelief, 122; love of Truth, 124; a feeble unit, amidst a threatening Infinitude, 125; Baphometic Fire-baptism, 128; placid indifference, 129; a Hyperborean intruder, 136; Nothingness of life, 138; Temptations in the wilderness, 138; dawning of a better day, 141; the Ideal in the Actual, 148; finds his true Calling, 149; his Biography a symbolic Adumbration, significant to those who can decipher it, 152; a wonder-lover, seeker and worker, 156; in Monmouth Street among the Hebrews, 181; concluding hints, 219; his public History not yet done, perhaps the better part only beginning, 223

Theocracy, a, striven for by all true Reformers, 382, 451

Thinking Man, a, the worst enemy of the Prince of Darkness, 91, 150; true Thought can never die, 185

Thor, and his adventures, 255, 271-274; his last appearance, 275

Thought, miraculous influence of, 258, 266, 393; musical Thought, 316

Thunder. See Thor.

Time, the great mystery of, 246

Time-Spirit, life-battle with the, 65, 98; Time, the universal wonder-hider, 197

Titles of Honour, 186

Tolerance, true and false, 368, 379

Tools, influence of, 30; the Pen, most miraculous of tools, 150

Trial by Jury, Burke's opinion of, 422

Turenne, 312

UNBELIEF, era of, 86, 112; Doubt darkening into, 121; escape from, 139

Universities, 83, 389

Utgard, Thor's expedition to, 273, 274

Utilitarianism, 121, 176

VALKYRS, the, 267, 268

Valour, the basis of all virtue, 268, 271; Norse consecration of, 276; Christian Valour, 351

Vates, the, 313, 314, 317

View-hunting and diseased Self-consciousness, 117

Voltaire, 146; the Parisian Divinity, 189; Voltaire-worship, 251, 252

WAR, 131

Wisdom, 50

Wish, the Norse god, 255; enlarged into a heaven by Mahomet, 310

Woman's influence, 102

Wonder the basis of Worship, 50; region of, 51

Words, slavery to, 40; Word-mongering and Motive-grinding, 123

Workshop of Life, 149. See Labour.

Worms, Luther at, 364

Worship, transcendent wonder, 247. See Hero-worship.

YOUNG Men and Maidens, 97

ZEMZEM, the sacred Well, 284



THE END

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