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Rugs: Oriental and Occidental, Antique & Modern - A Handbook for Ready Reference
by Rosa Belle Holt
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MASPERO, GASTON C. CHARLES: Dawn of Civilization.

Meyer's Handbook of Ornament.

MUMFORD, JOHN KIMBERLY: Oriental Rugs.

MUeNTZ, EUGENE: A Short History of Tapestry.

O'DAGREE, H. EUGENE: Les Symbols Antiques.

O'DONOVAN, EDMUND: The Merv Oasis.

PERROT, GEORGES AND CHIPIEZ, CHARLES: History of Art In Ancient Egypt.

PERROT, GEORGES AND CHIPIEZ, CHARLES: History of Art In Chaldaea and Assyria.

PETRIE, WILLIAM MATTHEWS FLINDERS: Decorative Art.

PETRIE, WILLIAM MATTHEWS FLINDERS: Ten Years' Digging In Egypt.

PHILLIPS, G.: British Manufactures and Industries.

RACINET, M. A.: L'Ornement Polychrome.

REBER, FRANZ VON: History of Ancient Art.

RECLUS, ELISIE: The Earth and Its Inhabitants.

Redgrave's Manual of Design.

RENOUF, P. LEPAGE: Religion of Ancient Egypt.

RIEGL, DR. ALOIS: Altorientalische Teppiche.

ROBINSON, VINCENT: Eastern Carpets.

RYAN, CHARLES: Egyptian Art.

SAYCE, ARCHIBALD HENRY, LL.D.: Babylonians and Assyrians.

Sculpture, Manual of. Paris.

SHARPE, SAMUEL: Mythology and Egyptian Christianity.

SHELLEY, G. E.: Birds of Egypt.

Smith's Greek and Roman Antiquities.

SMITH, MAJOR R. MURDOCK, R. E.: Persian Art.

Smith's Religion of the Semites.

Southesk's Origin of Pictish Symbolism.

Spon's Encyclopaedia of the Industrial Arts, Manufactures, And Raw Commercial Products. (edited by Charles G. W. Lock.)

STRICKLAND, AGNES: Lives of the Queens of England.

STUART, H. VILLIERS: Egypt After the War.

SYKES, ELLA C.: Through Persia on a Side Saddle.

Thompson's Paper on Beast and Bird in Ancient Symbolism. (Trans. Roy. Soc., Edinburgh.)

Twining's Symbols of Early Christian Art.

VAMBERY, ARMINIUS: History of Bokhara.

VAN DYKE, JOHN CHARLES: History of Painting.

WATSON, DR. FORBES: The Textile Manufactures and Costumes Of the People of India.

WEALE, JOHN: Quarterly Papers on Architecture.

WESTROFF, HODDER M., AND WAKE, CHARLES STANILAND: Ancient Symbol Worship.

Westwood's Illumination.

WHEELER, SAMUEL GREEN: Persia and the Persians.

WILKINSON, SIR J. GARDNER: The Ancient Egyptians.

WILLIAMS, S. WELLS: The Middle Kingdom.

WILSON, THE REV. SAMUEL GRAHAM, M. A.: Persian Life And Customs.

WINKLEMAN, JOHANN JOACHIM: History of Art Among The Greeks.

WYATT, M. DIGBY: Industrial Arts of the Nineteenth Century.

ZERFFI, G. C.: A Manual of the Historical Development of Art.



INDEX

A

Aaragh, value of rug trade, 56; spelling, 167, 170.

Abbas, Shah, 53; rugs woven during reign of, 62; see Shah Abbas design.

Abenakee rugs, 143, 144.

Acanthus forms employed by Morris, 139.

Adana, 71, 168, 170.

Adiaman, 168, 170.

Adiyemen, 168.

Afghan rugs, 96, 102.

Afghan-Turkestan, 95 (plate).

Afghanistan place-names, 165.

Afghanistan rugs, 95 (and plate), 96, 100.

Afium-Kara-hissar, 168, 170.

African place-names, 169.

Agra, 166, 170.

Agra rugs, 90.

Agrinion, 170.

Ahmedabad, 166, 170.

Aidin, 168, 170.

Ainos, their method of weaving, 24.

Aitsi-ken, 167, 170.

Akbar, Emperor, 87.

Akhissar rugs, 74, 80; meaning, 162; spelling, 168, 170.

Akshehr, 168, 170.

Albee, Mrs. Helen R., 143, 144.

Aleppo, 168, 170.

Alexander the Great, rug-weaving in time of, 53.

Alizarin (red coloring matter), 44.

Allahabad, 166, 170.

Allahabad rugs, 90.

Allen, J. Rowelly, 175.

Alleppi, 166, 170.

"Altorientalische Teppiche," Riegl, 177.

Altun, 168, 170.

Amabala, 170.

Ambala, 166.

American interests in India, 35; in Ouchak, 81; in Amritsar, 90.

American Journal of Archaeology, 175.

American rug-weaving, 24.

Ames, late Gov., rug owned by, 113.

Amritsar, 78 (plate), 166, 170.

Amritsar rugs, 90.

Anatolia, 74, 117, 168, 170.

Anatolian mats, 74.

Anatolian rugs, 74, 79, 122 (and plate).

"Ancient Egypt," Davis and Cobern, 175.

"Ancient Egyptians, The," Wilkinson, 178.

"Ancient Faiths," Inman, 176.

"Ancient Symbol Worship," Westroff and Wake, 178.

"Ancient Symbolism among the Chinese," Elkins, 176.

Anemone, symbolism of, 161.

Angora goat's hair, 30.

Angora province, 77.

Aniline dyes, 44, 46, 134.

Animal forms, not allowed by Mohammedan religion, 37; employed by Shiah sect and certain others, 38; in Jaipur rugs, 91; in Chinese rugs, 114; symbolism of, 156.

"Animal Symbolism in Ecclesiastical Architecture," Evans, 176.

"Appalachian America," 146.

Arabesque design, 43.

Arabian place-names, 168.

Arabian rug, 70 (plate).

Ardebal (District), 167, 170.

Ardebil rug in South Kensington Museum, 36, 154; spelling, 167, 170.

Armenia, 168.

Armenian Christian weavers, 71.

Arrian, quoted, 45.

Ashenhurst, Thomas R., 175.

Ashkabad, 98.

Asia Minor, 168.

Asiatic Turkey produces madder, 44.

Asium, 168, 170.

Asps, symbolism of, 158.

Ass, symbolism of, 159.

Association for the Education of Poor Women, Athens, 133.

Assyrian rug-weaving, 19, 88.

Astrabad, 103, 126, 167, 170.

Astrakan, 170.

Astrakhan, 168.

Athens rug industry, 133.

Auber, Abbe M. L., 175.

Aubusson rug manufactory, 142, 169, 170.

Austria, rug-weaving in, 142.

Austrian Imperial House, owner of hunting rug, 128.

Authorities consulted, 175-178.

Awnings and floor-coverings, ancient, 19.

Aylauts, nomadic weavers of Kara Dagh rugs, 63.

Azerbaijan province, 62, 69, 167, 170.

Azerbijan district, 58.

B

Babelon, Ernest, 175.

Babylon, fall of, 19.

Babylonian rug-weaving, 19; color symbolism, 47.

"Babylonians and Assyrians," Sayce, 177.

Bactrian tribes, rugs woven by, 60.

Bagdad, 162, 168, 170.

Bagh, 165, 170.

Baghdad, 168.

Bahadapur (District), 166, 170.

Bakhshis rugs, 58.

Baku, government of, 108; meaning of Baku, 162; spelling, 168, 170.

Balkh, 165, 170.

Ball, J. Dyer, 175.

Bangalore, 166, 170.

Banian or burr tree, symbolism of, 159.

Barbarike, 46.

Bardwan, 166, 170.

Bareilly, 166.

Bareli, 166.

Basilica of St. Sophia at Constantinople, 120.

Bat, symbolism of, 157, 161.

Bat with a ring in its claws, symbolism of, 158.

Batum, 168, 170.

Bayer, Professor F., 153.

Bayeta scarlet in Navajo rugs, 147.

"Beast and Bird in Ancient Symbolism," Thompson's paper on, 178.

Beauvais rug manufactory, 141, 169, 170.

Bee, symbolism of, 158.

Beetle, symbolism of, 158.

Behesne, 168, 170.

Beirut, 168, 170.

Belar, 165, 170.

Belgium, rug-weaving in, 142.

Bellary, 166, 170.

Beluch rug called "blue Bokhara," 97.

Beluchistan rugs, 97; meaning of Beluchistan, 162; place-names, 165.

Benares, 166, 170.

Beni-Hassan, rug-weavers seen in wall-paintings at, 16.

Berea College, Ky., rag rugs, 145.

Bergama, 168, 170.

Bergamo (Province), 168.

Bergamo rugs, 74.

Berbers, rugs woven by, 135.

Beshir rugs, 100.

Bethlehem tent cloth, 111.

Beypur, 166, 170.

Bhag, 165.

Bhagalpur, 166, 170.

Bhagulpore, 162.

Bhawulpore, rugs said to be woven at, 95.

Bibikabad, 167, 170.

Bibikabad rugs, 58.

"Bible Myths," Auber, 175.

Bijapur, 166, 171.

Bijar, 55, 56; spelling, 167, 171.

Bijar rugs, 58 (and plate), 67.

Birch, Dr. Samuel, quoted, 17.

Bird, symbolism of, 161.

"Birds of Egypt," Shelley, 177.

Birdwood, Sir George C., quoted, 23, 175.

Birjand, 167, 171.

Birjand rugs, 59.

Bishop, Mrs. Isabella Bird, quoted, 24, 125, 175.

Black, symbolism of, 47, 48; corrosiveness of dye, 63, 80.

Blackie, C., 175.

Blaine, Mrs. Emmons, rugs owned by, 34 (plate), 124 (plate).

Blossom, symbolism of, 158.

"Blue Bokhara" a misnomer, 97.

Blue, symbolism of, 47, 48.

Boar, symbolism of, 161.

Boat, symbolism of, 158.

Bode, Wilhelm, 156 (plate), 175.

Boglipoor, 166.

Bokhara, dyes from, 98; meaning of Bokhara, 162; spelling, 168, 171.

Bokhara rugs, no blue, 97; so-called and genuine, 98 (plate), 100, 103.

Bombay, 166, 171.

Bonnick's "Egyptian Belief and Modern Thought," 175.

Borders, 38-42.

Bosnia, 136.

Bosnian rugs, 136.

Boulak, Egypt, rug factory, 51.

"Bride's rug," 118.

"British Manufactures and Industries," Phillips, 177.

Broussa, 74, 168; see Brusa.

Brummer, Martin, 175.

Brusa, 74, 111, 168, 171.

Brussels, power looms in, 24; rug-production, 142.

Buckingham, Miss, rug owned by, 120 (plate).

Buckthorns, certain species produce dyes, 45.

Buddhist Sceptre, symbolism of, 157.

Budge, E. A. Wallis, 175.

Bujnurd, 167, 171.

Bulgarian rugs, 137.

Bull, symbolism of, 158.

Burley, Clarence, rug owned by, 106 (plate).

Burnham, Mrs. L. G., rug owned by, frontispiece plate.

Burujird rugs, 59; spelling, 167, 171.

Bushire, 167, 171.

Butterfly, symbolism of, 158, 159, 161.

Buyers' selection for Western market, 33, 38.

Byzantine influence on rug-weaving, 19.

C

Cabistan rugs, see Kabistan rugs.

Cabool, 165.

Cabul, 165.

Caesar first saw Cleopatra wrapped in rug, 18.

Caesarea, 71, 168, 169.

Caesarean rugs, 75, 125.

Cairo, rug emporium, 52, 169, 171.

Calcutta, 166, 171.

Camel's hair, 30, 31, 98.

Canton, 165, 171.

Carding, 31.

Carpaccio Vittore, painting by, 20 (plate).

Carpets, catalogue term for rugs, 16.

"Carpets," Dresser, 176.

Cartouche, symbolism of, 158.

Cassaba rugs, 75, 83.

Caucasian rugs, modern, characteristic designs of, 39, 41, 42; descriptions, 105-108; place-names, 168.

Cawnpur, 91, 166, 171.

Center Lovell, Maine, 145.

Central Asia, rugs, 98; place-names, 168.

"Century Atlas," 175.

"Century Dictionary," 175.

Chal, 169.

"Chambers's Encyclopaedia," 175.

Chanda, 166, 171.

Charikar, 165, 171.

Chehel Sitoon, Palace of, Ispahan, 95.

Chemical dyes, 46.

Chevalier, Charles, 176.

Chichi rugs, 108.

Chinese dye, green, 45.

Chinese fret design, 43, 101, 102, 114 (plate).

Chinese influence seen in design of Ispahan rugs, 63; of Kashgar rugs, 101; of Samarkand rugs, 102 (and plate).

Chinese pictures copied in Persian hunting rugs, 124 (plate), 128.

Chinese place-names, 165.

Chinese rugs, 41, 113-115 (and plate facing 114); of silk, 124.

Chinese silk industry, 123; silk rugs, 124.

Chinese symbolism of colors, 47, 48; of various designs, 157.

Chintz designs in silk rugs, 125.

Chipiez, Charles, 177.

Christian weavers of Turkish rugs, 71.

Circassian rug-weavers, 71.

Circle design, 43, 161.

Circular rugs, 115.

Claremont, English home of Lord Clive, 89.

Clarke, Sir C. Purdon, 175.

Cleopatra borne before Caesar in a rug, 18.

Chi-lin (a kind of doe), symbolism of, 157.

Climatic influences on rug-weaving, 32, 71; on odors of rugs, 90.

Clive, Lord, 89.

Cloud bands, 41, 63, 157.

Coat of arms of Persia, 160.

Coat of arms of Turkey, 160.

Cobern, ——, 175.

Coccus cacti, insect which produces cochineal, 44.

Cochineal, 44.

Cock and hen on an artificial rock-work, symbolism of, 157.

Colbert, fostered rug industry in France, 141.

Colors, sensed by weavers, 21; Persians' intuition for, 37; obtained by aniline and vegetable dyes, 44; importance to Orientals, 47; Persian choice of, 47; symbolism of, 47, 48; in modern Turkish rugs, 77; in Kurdish rugs, 79.

Comb design, 43.

Conchylium, ancient name of Phoenician purple, 18.

Cone, pine, symbolism of, 159; fir, 161.

Constable's "Hand Atlas of India," 175.

Constantinople, rug market, 71-73, 82; silk-weaving introduced into, 123; spelling, 169.

Cossac (Kazak), 107, 108 (plate).

Cotton, 30, 76.

Cotton rugs, Indian, 23, 88, 91; Japanese, 116.

Coula, 169.

Coverlets woven in "Appalachian America," 145.

Coxon Herbert, 175.

Crane, symbolism of, 157.

Crescent, symbolism of, 158, 160.

Crete girl weavers, 132.

Crimson, 18, 47.

Crocodile, symbolism of, 158.

Crooked Turkish rugs, 24.

Cross designs, 43.

Crow, symbolism of, 157.

Curson, Hon. George N., 175.

Customs administration in Persia, 55.

Cypress tree design in Jaipur rugs, 91; symbolism of, 161; see 120 (plate) and 124 (plate).

D

Daghestan, 168, 171.

Daghestan rugs, 41, 105, 106 (and plate), 108.

Damascus, 112.

Daraksh, 59.

Date woven into rugs, 67, 154, 155.

Davis, ——, 175.

Davis, Mr. Will J., rugs owned by, 30, 68.

"Dawn of Civilization," Maspero, 177.

Deccan, rugs from the, 23; meaning of Deccan, 162; spelling, 166, 171.

"Decorative Art," Petrie, 177.

Deer, symbolism of, 157.

Definition of rug, 15.

Dekkan-peninsula, 166.

Delays caused by superstitious weavers, 29.

Delhi, 91, 166, 171.

Delhi Court, 87.

Demirdji rugs, 75; spelling, 169, 171.

Denny, M. B., 175.

Derbent rugs, 105, 126 (plate); meaning of Derbent, 162; spelling, 168, 171.

Descending eagle, symbolism of, 160.

"Descriptions des Arts et Metiers," 139.

Design, of Persian rugs, 17; Oriental designs adapted from Nature, 19; Egypto-Chaldean designs in modern rugs, 19; furnished by Western art schools, 25; hereditary, 37; manner of teaching to pupils, 37; of Persian rugs, 37; selected by buyer, 38; Occidental, copied by native weavers, 38; made from talims, or working drawings, 38, 39; proportioned to size of rug, 39; units described, 39-43; determines district where woven, 55; of modern Persian product, 57; Shah Abbas, 59; Herati border, 59, 61, 64, 69; Guli Hinnai, 60; Tree of Life, 17, 65; use of old patterns, 69; introduced by Persian weavers into India, 87; Hindoo, 88; floral, in Indian rugs, 88; Persian, in Jaipur rugs, 91; in Lahore rugs, 91; in Warangul rugs, 93; in Japanese rugs, 116; of silk rugs, 125; of Morris rugs, 139; of Navajo rugs, 148; symbolical, 156-162.

"Design in Textile Fabrics," Ashenhurst, 175.

Designers, Indian, 32 (plate).

Dewsbury, power looms in, 24.

Dhurrie, Indian, 91, 94.

Diarbekir, 169, 171.

"Dictionary of Place Names," Blackie, 175.

Dining-rooms, Goerevan rugs popular for, 61.

"Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh," Layard, 176.

Djushaghan rugs, characteristic palmette of, 39; description, 59.

Dog, symbolism of, 161.

Dove, symbolism of, 158.

Dowry, girls weave rugs for, 26, 132.

Dragon, symbolism of, 157.

Dragon and Phoenix, symbolism of, 157.

Dragon with five claws on each of its four feet, symbolism of, 157.

Dresser, Charles, 176.

Duck, symbolism of, 157.

Dunlap, Mrs. Robert, rug owned by, 117 (plate).

Dupont, French weaver, 141.

Durability of fine Persian rugs, 54; of Kurdish rugs, 79.

Durham, power looms in, 24.

Durrie, see Dhurrie, Indian.

Duties, Persian system of collecting, 55; on rugs, 56.

Dyes, 18, 44-46, 98, 139, 147.

E

Eagle, symbolism of, 158, 160.

Eagle, descending, symbolism of, 160.

Eagle, flying, symbolism of, 160.

Eagle, standing, symbolism of, 160.

"Early Christian Symbolism," Allen, 175.

Earnings of weavers, 27, 28, 82.

"Earth and Its Inhabitants, The," Reclus, 177.

East Turkestan place-names, 165.

"Eastern Carpets," Robinson, 177.

Edwards, Amelia, 176.

Egg, symbolism of, 158.

"Egypt after the War," Stuart, 178.

"Egypt: Three Essays on the History, Art, and Religion," Brummer, 175.

"Egyptian Art," Ryan, 177.

"Egyptian Belief and Modern Thought," Bonnick, 175.

Egyptian wall-paintings of weavers, 16, 17; ancient rug-weaving, 18, 22; symbolic colors, 47; substitution of woven rugs for skins, 51; modern rugs, 51; factory, 51; imported rugs, 52; symbols, 158, 159.

Egypto-Chaldean designs in modern rugs, 19.

Eleanora introduced tapestries into England, 138.

Elephant, symbolism of, 161.

El-Hosn, 169, 171.

Elkins, Joseph, D.D., 176.

Ellore, 160, 171.

Ellore, rugs, 91.

Ely, Talfourd, 176.

"Emblems of Saints," Fusenbeth, 176.

Emmaus's "Life of Ancient Egypt," 176.

"Encyclopaedia of the Industrial Arts, Manufactures, and Raw Commercial Products," Spon's, 177.

English interests in India, 35; in Amritsar, 90.

English rugs, 138-140 (and plate).

English rug-weaving centres, 24.

Enzeli, 167, 171.

Erivan, 168, 171.

Ersari Goklan tribe, 98.

Ersari tribe of upper Oxus, 101.

Erzerum, 169, 171.

Europe, introduction of rug-weaving into, 20; use of rugs at fetes, 20; imports looms into Turkey, 24; demand for rugs since 1850, 54; factories to supply trade with, 57; interest in Ouchak industry, 81.

Evans, E. P., 176.

Evergreens, symbolism of, 161.

Experts can determine where rug was made, 55.

Export trade (Persian) in rugs, 55, 56.

Eye of Osiris, symbolism of, 158.

F

Faber, George Stanley, 176.

Factories, rug-weaving, 26, 38, 51, 56, 57, 69, 70, 90, 119.

Fakeh, 169, 171.

Fars, designs peculiar to, 37; modern rug-weaving district, 55; value of rug trade, 56; rugs exported from, 68; meaning of Fars, 162; spelling, 167, 171.

Farsistan (Province), 167.

Feather of an ostrich, symbolism of, 158.

Feathers of rare birds, symbolism of, 158.

Felt rugs, 126, 127.

Felts, Chinese, 114.

Feraghan, 167, 171.

Feraghan rugs, characteristic designs of, 40, 42, 43; description, 59; plate, 62.

Ferghana (Province), 168.

Fergusson, James, 176.

Fetes, rugs used as decorations during, 20.

Fez, 134.

Fir cone, symbolism of, 161.

Fire-worshippers of Yezd, 70.

Flat stitch, in Soumak and Khilim rugs, 34, 117.

Flax, 30.

Flemish weavers, 138.

Floor-coverings and awnings, ancient, 19.

Floral designs in Indian rugs, 88; in Jaipur rugs, 91.

Fly, symbolism of, 161.

Flying eagle, symbolism of, 160.

"Folk Lore of China, The," Denny, 175.

France, rug-weaving introduced by Saracens, 20; silk industry in, 123; place-names, 169.

French rugs, 141, 142.

Fringe on rugs intended for hanging, 99.

Frog, symbolism of, 158.

Fu-Chan, 171.

Fu-Chau, 162, 165.

Fusenbeth, F. C., D.D., 176.

Fylfot design, 42, 148, 159.

G

Gask, 167.

Gauls, red favorite color of, 48.

Gaezne, 165.

Gemerik, 169, 171.

Genghis Khan, 100.

Genghis rugs, 100.

Geometrical designs replace floral in India, 88.

Germantown yarn used in Navajo rugs, 147.

Germany, rug-weaving in, 142.

Ghain, 167.

Ghayn, 167.

Ghazni, 165, 171.

Ghilan, silk trade in, 124; spelling, 167, 171.

Ghileem rugs, see Khilim rugs.

Ghiordes, 169, 171.

Ghiordes knotting, 34, 35.

Ghiordes panel in Meles prayer rug, 80.

Ghiordes rugs, 41, 74 (plate), 75, 78, 122.

Ghiordium, 75.

Gilan, 163, 167.

Goa, 166, 171.

Goats replace sheep in rocky regions, 72; raised by Turkomans, 98.

Gobelins manufactory, 141.

"Goddess of silkworms," 123.

Gold warp used for antique Persian rugs, 53; in state rugs of India, 89; in Polish rugs, 119; in Chinese silk rugs, 124.

Goodyear, William H., 176.

Goose, symbolism of, 157.

Gorakhpur, 166, 171.

Gordis, 169.

Gordus, 169.

Goerevan rugs, 60.

Gorukpore, 166.

Gourd, symbolism of, 157.

"Grammar of Ornament, The," Jones, 176.

"Grammar of the Lotus, The," Goodyear, 176.

Grant, Mrs. Frederick D., rug owned by, 90.

Graves, custom of hanging rugs over, 20.

Great Britain, power looms in, 24, 25; rug manufacture in, 138.

Great Rug in the Palace of Chehel Sitoon, Ispahan, 95.

Greece, rug-weaving in, 19; swastika design in rugs of, 43; saffron favorite color in, 48; silk-weaving in, 123; ancient and modern rugs of, 132, 133; place-names, 170.

"Greek and Roman Antiquities," Smith, 177.

Greek Christian weavers, 71; in Hereke, 76.

Green dyes, how produced, 45; symbolism of, 47, 48; used though forbidden by law, 81.

Guendje rugs, 100, 101.

Guli Hinnai design, 43, 60.

Gulistan, 163, 165, 171.

Gundava, 165, 171.

Guerdiz, 169.

H

Haidamoor, 169, 171.

Haidamur rugs, 111, 112.

Haidarabad rugs, 91.

Haiderabad, 163, 166, 171.

Hair, lock of, woven in Kis Khilims, 118.

Hakkam, 169, 171.

Halifax, power looms in, 24.

Hamadam, 171.

Hamadan, 55, 56, 58, 59, 167.

Hamadan rugs, 60 (plate), 61.

"Hand Atlas of India," Constable, 175.

Hand looms, 22.

"Handbook of Ornament," Meyer, 177.

Hang-chau, 165, 171.

Hangings, rugs used as, 16, 55.

Hare, symbolism of, 161.

Havermeyer, late H. O., rug owned by estate of, 114 (plate).

Hawk, symbolism of, 158.

Hay, Mr., owner of Theban rug, 17.

Hayzoor, 169, 172.

Heart, symbolism of, 161.

Hedin, Sven, 176.

Hemp, 30, 81.

Herat, 59, 61, 87,95, 163, 165, 172.

Herat design in Great Rug, 95.

Herat rugs, 40, 42, 61.

Herati border, 40, 59, 61, 64, 69, 117.

Hereke, 169.

Hereke rugs, 76.

Herez, 58, 60, 167, 172.

Herez rugs, 62.

Hindoo designs, 88; religious abstinence from sheep flesh, 88.

Hippopotamus, symbolism of, 161.

Hissan, 172.

Hissar, 168, 169, 172.

"History of Ancient Art," Luebke, 176.

"History of Ancient Art," Reber, 177.

"History of Art among the Greeks," Winkleman, 178.

"History of Art in Ancient Egypt," Perrot and Chipiez, 177.

"History of Art in Chaldea and Assyria," Perrot and Chipiez, 177.

"History of Bokhara," Vambery, 178.

"History of Painting," Van Dyke, 178.

"History of Persia," Malcom, 176.

Hog, symbolism of, 161.

Holland, rug-weaving in, 142.

Holt, George Hubbard, rugs owned by, 95 (plate), 122 (plate).

Holy Land, rugs of the, 111, 112.

Homs, 169, 172.

Hooked rugs, New England, 143, 144.

Hossu, 169.

Hounds, symbolism of, 160.

Hulme, F. Edward, 176.

Human figure introduced into design, 67.

Hunting rugs, Persian, 124 (plate), 128.

Hyderabad, 166.

I

Ibis, symbolism of, 158.

"Iconographic Encyclopaedia of the Arts and Sciences," 176.

"Illumination," Westwood, 178.

Import duties to United States on rugs, 56.

"In the Forbidden Land," Landor, 176.

India, looms used in, 23, 82 (plate); weavers, 26; superstitions among weavers, 29; wool from, 30; rugs woven of pashim, 30; rugs of various knottings, 35; firms having factories in, 35; Occidental designs introduced into, 38; use of talims in, 39; raises madder, 44; symbolism of colors, 48; of designs, 159; place-names, 166.

Indian designers, 32 (plate).

"Indian Industries," James, 176.

Indian rugs, 78 (plate), 87-94; see under India.

Indicum, see Indigo.

Indigo, 45-47.

Indigofera tinctoria, Indian indigo plant, 46.

"Industrial Arts of India, The," Birdwood, 175.

"Industrial Arts of the Nineteenth Century," Wyatt, 178.

Industrial Museum at Berlin, rug in collection of, 154.

Inman, Thomas, M.D., 176.

Inscriptions on rugs, 70, 124 (plate), 153-155.

Irak, 167.

Irak-Ajemi province, 64, 69, 167, 172.

Iran (Persia), 62.

Islamabad, 163.

Ispahan, 55, 95, 121, 163, 167, 172.

Ispahan rugs, 62.

Istalif, 165, 172.

Italy, rug-weaving introduced by Saracens, 20; silk culture in, 123.

J

Jabalpur, 166, 172.

Jails, rugs woven in, 78 (plate), 88, 90.

Jaipur, 166, 172.

Jaipur rugs, 91.

Jalal-ud-Din Mahomed, 87.

Jalandhar, 166, 172.

James, A. G. F. Eliot, 176.

Jammu, 166, 172.

Jamu, 166.

Japanese looms, 24; rugs, 116; symbols, 160; place-names, 167.

Jelalabad, 165, 172.

Jerusalem, 163, 169, 172.

Jewish legend of invention of spinning and weaving, 16.

Jeypore, 166.

Jhalawan (District), 165, 172.

Jodhpur, 166.

Jones, Owen, 176.

Joohpur, 172.

Journal of the Society of Arts, 176.

"Journeys in Persia and Kurdistan," Bishop, 175.

Jubbulpore, 166.

Jubbulpur, 166.

Jug, symbolism of, 161.

Jullinder, 166.

Jute, 30, 116.

K

Kabistan rugs, 106.

Kabul, 95, 165, 172.

Kabul sheep, 30.

Kain, 167, 172.

Kairouan, 169, 172.

Kairuan, 135.

Kaisarieh, 169, 172.

Kandahar, 163, 165, 172.

Karabacek, Dr. Joseph, 176.

Karabagh province, 63; meaning of Karabagh, 163; spelling, 168, 172.

Karabagh rugs, 106.

Kara Dagh rugs, 63; meaning of Kara Dagh, 163; spelling, 167.

Kara-Geuz rugs, 77.

Karahissar, 169, 172.

Karajah Dagh, 71.

Karaman rugs, 77; spelling, 169, 172.

Karamanian rugs, 117.

Karashar, 165, 172.

Kars, 168, 172.

Kashan, 125, 167, 172.

Kashgar, 165, 172.

Kashgar rugs, 101, 103.

Kashmir, capital of, 93; spelling, 166, 172.

Kashmir shawls and rugs, 89, 108.

Kashmir wool, 30.

Kazak rugs, 106, 107, 108 (plate).

Kazan, 168, 172.

Kchatchli rugs, see Khalatch rugs.

Kelat, 163, 165, 172.

Kelim rugs, see Khilim rugs.

Kerkuk, 169, 172.

Kermanshah rugs, 63; spelling, 167, 172.

Kermanshahan, 167.

Kermes, red dye, 45.

Khalatch rugs, 101.

Khalatch tribe, 101.

Khilim rugs, 34, 117 (and plate), 118.

Khiva, 103, 168, 172.

Khiva rugs, 100, 102.

Khokand, 168.

Khonsar, 167, 172.

Khora-mabad, 167, 172.

Khorasan (Province), 167.

Khorassan province, 55, 56, 64, 95; meaning of Khorassan, 163; spelling, 167, 172.

Khorassan rugs, 40, 42, 56 (plate), 64, 66.

Khorsabad, 169, 172.

Khotan silk rugs, 124; felt rugs, 126.

Khozdar, 165, 172.

Khuzistan, 167, 172.

Khyrpur, 166, 172.

Kiang-su, 165, 172.

Kidderminster, power looms in, 24.

Kilim rugs, see Khilim rugs.

Kioto, 167, 172.

Kirman, modern rug-weaving district, 55; value of rug trade, 56; spelling, 167, 172.

Kirman rugs, 64, 120 (plate).

Kirmanshah rugs, 41.

Kir-Shehr rugs, 77; spelling, 169, 172.

Kis Khilims, 117.

Knight, Richard Payne, 176.

Knot and flower design, symbolism of, 159.

Knots and knotting, 23, 32, 34-36, 93.

Kohat, 166, 172.

Kokand, 168, 172.

Konieh rugs, 78; spelling, 169, 172.

Kotah, 166, 172.

Koula, 169.

Kuba, 106, 168, 172.

Kucha, 165, 172.

Kuchan, 167.

Kulah rugs, 78, 80, 122; spelling, 169, 172.

Kurdish rug design represented in ancient Nineveh, 17.

Kurdish rugs, wool used in, 65; woven by girls and women, 78; durability and colors, 79; mihrab in, 117.

Kurdistan, modern rug-weaving district, 55; nomadic tribes of Western, 87; spelling 167, 168, 172.

Kurdistan rugs, characteristic designs of 40; value of trade in, 56; descriptions, 65, 78.

Kurds, nomadic tribes, 65, 71.

Kushmore, 166, 172.

Kutahia rugs, 79; spelling, 169, 172.

Kutai, 169.

Kutayah, 169.

Kwatah, 163, 165.

L

Ladik rugs, 79; spelling, 169, 173.

Lahore, 166, 173.

Landor, A. Henry Savage, 176.

Laodicea, 79, 122.

Lar, 167, 173.

Largest rug woven, 95.

Laristan province, 66, 167, 173.

Laristan rugs, 66.

Layard, Austen Henry, 176.

Lenormant, Francois, 176.

Leopards, symbolism of, 160.

Lessing, Julius, 176.

"Life in Ancient Egypt," Emmaus, 176.

Lily, symbolism of, 161.

Linen, 30.

Lion, symbolism of, 157, 160.

"Lives of the Queens of England," Strickland, 178.

Lizard, symbolism of, 158.

Lobanow-Rostowsky, Prince Alexis, rug owned by, 36.

Lock, Charles G. W., 177.

Looms, 22-24 (and plate), 82 (plate), 111, 147.

Lotus design, 43, 158.

Lourdes, French weaver, 141.

Louvre, Palais du, rugs woven in, 141.

Luebke, Wilhelm, 176.

Lucknow, 91, 166, 173.

Luristan (Province), 167, 173.

M

Maciet, M.J., Paris, rug owned by, 128.

Madder, 44.

Madras, 166.

Madras rugs, 92.

Magpie, symbolism of, 157.

Makran, 167, 173.

Malabar (District), 166, 173.

Malair, 56.

Malcom, Sir John, 176.

Mandalay, 166.

"Manual of Archaeology," Ely, 176.

"Manual of Design," Redgrave, 177.

"Manual of Egyptian Archaeology," Maspero, 176.

"Manual of Oriental Antiquities," Babelon, 175.

"Manual of Sculpture," 177.

"Manual of the Ancient History of the East," Lenormant and Chevalier, 176.

"Manual of the Historical Development of Art, A," Zerffi, 178.

Manufacturers of rugs, 35.

Marash, 169, 173.

Maresh, 169.

Marvin, Charles, 176.

Maspero, Gaston C. Charles, 176, 177.

Mastung, 165, 173.

Masulipatam rugs,92; spelling, 166,173.

Materials used in rug-weaving, 30.

Mazandaran, 167, 173.

McCormick, Mrs. Cyrus H., rug owned by, 108 (plate).

Meandrian motif in Chinese rugs, 114.

Mecca rug, 68; meaning of Mecca, 163; spelling, 169, 173.

Medallion design, 43.

Medina, 169, 173.

Mehran, 167, 173.

Mekran (District), 167.

Melasso, 169.

Meles rugs, 80, 122.

Melhaz, see Meles rugs.

Mersherski, established Polish rug factory, 119.

Merut, 166, 173.

Merv, 117.

"Merv Oasis, The," O'Donovan, 177.

"Merv, the Queen of the World," Marvin, 176.

Meshed, 163.

Meshhed, 64, 167, 173.

Meshhed rugs, 56 (plate), 64, 66.

Mesopotamia, monuments show ancient rug-weavers, 16; spelling, 168.

Meyer's "Handbook of Ornament," 177.

"Middle Kingdom, The," Williams, 178.

Mihrab in prayer rug, 120.

Milassa, 80, 169, 173.

Mina Khani design, 43.

Mir, 67.

Mir-Saraband rugs, 66, 67.

Mirzapore, 163.

Mirzapur rugs, 92; spelling, 166, 173.

Misratah, 169, 173.

Mohair from Angora goat, 30, 72.

Mohair rugs, 72, 77, 80.

Mohammedan religion does not allow use of animal forms, 37; used by Shiah sect and others, 38; green sacred color, 48, 81; white emblem of mourning, 48; introduction of rug-weaving into India, 87.

Moodj mats, 92.

Moorish rugs, 134.

Moors introduced rug-weaving into the West, 141; indirectly taught weaving of Navajo blankets, 147.

Moradabod, 166.

Morocco rugs, see Moorish rugs.

Morris rug, 139.

Morris, William, 138-140.

Moslems, see under Mohammedan.

Mosques, location of, 120.

Mosul rugs, 80; spelling, 169, 173.

Moussul, 169.

Mujur, 173.

Multan rugs, 92, 93; spelling, 166,173.

Mumford, John Kimberly, 177.

"Mummy Badge, The," Budge, 175.

Muentz, Eugene, 177.

Murex, source of Phoenician purple, 18, 45.

Murshidabad, 166, 173.

Muskabad rugs, 66, 70.

Mylasso, 169.

Mysore, 166, 173.

Mysore rugs, 93.

"Mythology and Egyptian Christianity," Sharpe, 177.

N

Naamah, legendary inventor of spinning, 16.

Nagpur, 166, 173.

Names of rugs, 94.

Natural forms in rug designs, 19, 21, 37, 65.

Navajo Indian Reservation, 146.

Navajo rugs, swastika design in, 43; description of, 146-149 (and plate).

Navajo women's costume, 148.

New England hooked or rag rugs, 143, 144.

Nile Key, symbolism of, 158.

"Nineveh and Babylon," Layard, 176.

"Nineveh and its Remains," Layard, 176.

Nineveh marbles, 17; fall of, 19.

Ning-po, 163, 165, 173.

Niris, Lake, 66.

Niris rugs, 66.

Niriz, 167, 173.

Nishapur, 167, 173.

Nomadic weavers, 26; design peculiar to, 41.

North Arcot (District), 166, 173.

O

Octagon design, 43.

O'Dagree, H. Eugene, 177.

O'Donovan, Edmund, 177.

Odor of rugs, 95, 96.

Old man leaning on staff, symbolism of, 157.

Olive, symbolism of, 161.

Onteora rugs, 144.

Oorfa, 169.

Orange, symbolism of, 48.

"Oriental Carpets," Clarke, 175.

"Oriental Carpets," Coxon, 175.

"Oriental Carpets," Lessing, 176.

"Oriental Rugs," Mumford, 177.

Oriental symbols, 156-162.

"Origin of Pagan Idolatry," Faber, 176.

"Origin of Pictish Symbolism," Southesk, 177.

Ormarah, 165, 173.

"Ornement Polychrome, L'," Racinet, 177.

Ouchak, 81, 169, 173.

Ouchak rugs, 78, 81.

Oushak, 169.

Oustri-Nan rugs, 66; spelling, 167,173.

Outlines of black and white, 47.

Owephissa, 170, 173.

Owl, symbolism of, 157, 161.

Ox, symbolism of, 161.

P

Palestine rugs, 111.

Palm leaf designs, 41.

Palm tree, symbolism of, 159.

Palmer, Mrs. Potter, rug owned by, 90.

Palmette, forms of, 39, 40.

Papyrus, importance to Egyptians, 51; symbolism of, 159.

Pashim (goat's wool), 30, 93.

Patna, 166, 173.

Patna rugs, 93.

Patriarchs' graves, rugs hung over, 20.

Patterns, small, used by Demirdji weavers, 75.

Paul's Tent Cloth, 72.

Peach, symbolism of, 157.

Peacock, symbolism of, 160, 161.

Peacock Throne at Teheran, 124.

Pearls interwoven in silk rug, 124.

Pequaket, N. H., 143.

Pergamo, 168.

Pergamos, 74.

Perrot, Georges, 177.

"Persia and the Persian Question," Curson, 175.

"Persia and the Persians," Wheeler, 178.

Persia, significance of white in, 48; antiquity of rug-making in, 53; civilization of, 53; rugs principal source of income, 54; use of rugs in, 54; export and import trade and value of rug industry, 55, 56; home consumption of part of product, 54, 56; manufacturing firms, 56, 57; official name, Iran, 62; silk trade with China, 123; place-names, 167.

"Persian Art," Smith, 177.

Persian berries, 44, 45.

Persian coat of arms, 160.

Persian designs in India, 87, 88; in Jaipur rugs, 91; in Lahore rugs, 91; in Warangul rugs, 93; once used in Japan, 116.

Persian Empire, its conquest by Saracens, 19.

Persian knotting, 34-36.

"Persian Life and Customs," Wilson, 178.

Persian rugs, Tree of Life design on, 17; value of, 28; excellence of design and coloring, 37; animal designs, 37, 38; designs and borders in good antiques, 38; characteristic designs, 40-43; choice of colors, 47; use of, in Persia, 54; small ones not exported, 54; durability of fine specimens, 54; used as hangings, 55; districts where woven, 55; experts can tell where woven, 55; value of trade in, 55, 56; export and import duties on, 56; manufactured for Western markets, 56, 57; descriptions of characteristic weaves, 58-70; preferred to Indian, 87; silk rugs, 124 (plate), 125; hunting rugs, 128; antique rug, 156 (plate); symbols, 160.

Persian weavers taken to India, 87.

Persian wool, 30.

"Persische Nadelmalerei, Die," Karabacek, 176.

Peshawar sheep, 30; meaning of Peshawar, 163; spelling, 166, 173.

Petrie, William Matthews Flinders. 177.

"Pharaohs, Fellahs, and Explorers," Third Lecture, Edwards, 176.

Philadelphia, power looms in, 24; rug-production of, 143.

Phillips, G., 177.

Phoenician art, 18.

Phoenician purple, 18.

Phoenix, symbolism of, 157, 160, 162.

Pig, symbolism of, 162.

Pine cone, symbolism of, 169.

Pine trees, symbolism of, 160.

Pirot, Servia, 136.

Place-names associated with rugs, meanings of, 162, 163; various spellings of, 164-174.

Pliny, quoted, 45.

Plutarch, quoted, 45.

Polish rugs, 119.

Pomegranate design, 41, 159.

Poona, 166, 173.

Pooneh, 166.

Power looms, 22, 24.

Prayer rugs, Ghiordes, 75; Ghiordes and Kulah, 78; Ladik, 79; modern and antique compared, 80; Beluchistan, 97; Karamanian and Kurdish, 117; description, 120-122.

Puckered edges of Sinna rugs, 69.

Pueblo Indians taught rug-weaving by Spaniards, 147.

Punjab, capital of the, 91.

Purple, see Phoenician and Tyrian purple; symbolism of, 47; favorite color of Romans, 48.

Purpurin (red coloring-matter), 44.

Pushmina rugs, 93.

Q

Qourdes, 169.

Quaritch, Bernhard, 139.

"Quarterly Papers on Architecture," Weale, 178.

Quetta, 165, 173.

R

Rabat, 134.

Rachova, 170, 173.

Racinet, M. A., 177.

Rag rugs, New England, 143, 144.

Raipur, 166.

Ralph, Julian, 88, 89.

Ram, symbolism of, 162.

Rampur, 166, 173.

Rangpur, 166, 173.

Rawar, 167.

Reber, Franz von, 177.

Reciprocal trefoil design, 42, 67.

Reclus, Elisie, 177.

Red, symbolism of, 47, 48.

Redgrave's "Manual of Design," 177.

Reed, symbolism of, 162.

"Religion of Ancient Egypt," Renouf, 177.

"Religion of the Semites," Smith, 177.

Renouf, P. LePage, 177.

Resht, 125, 167, 173.

Restoration of old dyeing, 46.

Rhamnus chlorophorus, 45.

Rhamnus utilis, 45.

Rhinoceros, symbolism of, 162.

Rhodian lily design, 79.

Riegl, Dr. Alois, 177.

Robinson, Vincent, 177.

Rochdale, power looms in, 24.

Romans, dyes prized by, 45; purple favorite color of, 48.

Rose color, symbolism of, 47.

Rosette, symbolism of, 159.

Rothschild, Baron Adolphe, rug owned by, 128.

Rothschild, Baron Nathaniel, rug owned by, 153.

Roubaix, 169.

Roumanian rugs, 137.

Royalty, yellow symbol of, in China, 47.

Rubia, dye-yielding genus, 44.

Rubia tinctorum, 44.

Rugs, utility of, 15; origin of need for, 15; weaving of, began, 15; definition of name, 15; identical with carpets, 16; represented in Egyptian wall-paintings, 16, 17; on Nineveh marbles, 17; Egyptian, 18; Assyrians used, as awnings and floor-coverings, 19; rug-weaving in Egypt, Chaldea, Assyria, Asia Minor, and Greece, 19; introduced into Europe, 20; hung over graves, 20; used in Europe during fetes, 20; increasing use of, 21, 26; value by square foot, 28; sometimes woven underground, 29; pashim rugs from India, 30; of camel's hair, 31; knotting in Persian, 32; product of cold districts in demand, 32; selected for Western market, 33; famous rugs in collections, 33; industry encouraged in India, 35; designs in Persian, 37, 38; designs in modern Oriental, 38; proportion between size and design, 39; replace skins in Egypt, 51; modern Egyptian, 51; imported into Egypt, 52; Cairo emporium for sale of, 52; antique Persian, 53; Shah Abbas's encouragement of rug-weaving, 53; value of Shah Abbas rugs, 53; decline and growth of industry in Persia, 54; use of, in Persia, 54; durability of, 54; district where woven determined by design and fabric, 55, 88; value of trade to Persia, 55, 56; export and import duties upon, 56; firms prosecute trade in, 56, 57; quality and design of modern Persian, 57; characteristics of Persian, 58-70; value in Orient, 70; characteristics of Turkish, 71-83; use of, in Turkey, 72; in Constantinople market, 72, 73; characteristics of Indian, 87-94; less expensive than Persian, 88; Indian gold-embroidered state rugs, 89; Lord Clive's rug, 89; rugs have replaced shawls in Kashmir, 89; rugs of Afghanistan, 95, 96; of Beluchistan, 97; Turkoman rugs, 98-104; Caucasian rugs, 105-108; rugs of Holy Land, 111, 112; of China, 113-115; of Japan, 116; Khilim, 117, 118; Polish, 119; prayer, 120-122; silk, 123-125; felt, 126, 127; hunting, Persian, 128; Greek, 132, 133; Moorish and Spanish, 134, 135; Bosnian, Servian, Roumanian, and Bulgarian, 136, 137; English, 138-140; French, 141, 142; United States, 143-149; inscriptions on, 153-155; Oriental symbols on, 156-162; meanings of place-names associated with, 162, 163.

Running hook design, 41.

Russian Empire, place-names, 168.

Rustan Khan, 165, 173.

Ryan, Charles, 177.

S

S-form design, 43.

Sabatos rugs, 144, 145.

Saddlebags, rug-woven, 60.

Saffron, 44, 48.

Safieta, 169.

Safita, 174.

Sail of a vessel, symbolism of, 159.

St. Clement, legendary discoverer of felt, 126, 127.

Sakai, 167, 174.

Samarkand rugs, 102 (and plate), 125; meaning of Samarkand, 163; spelling, 168, 174.

Saraband rugs, 42, 59, 66.

Saracens, their conquest and influence, 19; origin of name, 20; introduced tapestries to France, 141.

Sarakhs rugs, 58 (and plate), 67; spelling, 174.

Sarawan, 67, 165, 174.

Sarik tribe, 98.

Saruk rugs, 67.

Savalan rugs, 68, 70.

Savas, 169.

Savonnerie, La, rug factory, 141.

Sayce, Archibald Henry, LL.D., 177.

Scarabaeus, symbolism of, 159.

Scarlet, symbolism of, 47.

Schwarzenberg, Prince, Vienna, rug owned by, 134.

Scorpion, symbolism of, 162.

Scotland, power looms in, 25.

Scroll design, 43.

"Sculpture, Manual of," 177.

Sedentary weavers, 26, 27.

Se-Ling-She, legendary discoverer of silk-weaving, 123.

Serampur, 166, 174.

Serapi rugs, 69.

Serebend rugs, 66.

Serinuggar, 166.

Serpent, symbolism of, 159, 162.

Serrated leaf design, 43.

Servian rugs, 136.

Shah Abbas design, 43, 59.

Shang-hai, 163, 165, 174.

Shan-tung, 165, 174.

Sharjah, 169, 174.

Sharkah, 169.

Sharpe, Samuel, 177.

Sharrokhs on the Attrek, 87.

Shawls, Kashmir, 89, 108.

Shearing, Indian methods of, 147.

Sheep, not raised in rocky regions, 72; not eaten by Hindoos, 88.

Shelley, G. E., 177.

Shemakha rugs, 108; spelling, 168,174.

Shepherds use felt rugs, 126.

Shiah sect of Moslems employ animal designs, 38

Shikarpur, 166, 174.

Shiraz, 66, 68, 167, 174.

Shiraz rugs, 41, 68 (and plate).

Shirvan, 117, 168, 169, 174.

Shirvan, rugs, 41, 107, 108.

Shirwan, 167, 174.

Shoes removed in house by Persians, 55.

"Short History of Tapestry, A," Muentz, 177.

Show-window demonstrations by Oriental weavers, 21.

Shrouds, rugs used as, 135.

Shusha, 174.

Shushu, 168.

Shuster, ancient capital of Persia, 53, 55; spelling, 167, 174.

Sicily, rug-weaving introduced by Saracens, 20; silk-weaving in, 123.

Silk for rug-weaving, 30; introduced into antique Kirman rugs, 65; silk rugs of Brusa, 74; silk Polish rugs, 119; use of, discovered in China, 123; use of, outside of China, 123; description and prices of silk rugs, 124 (and plate), 125; silk added to wool rugs, 124.

Silver woven in Polish rugs, 119.

Sindh rugs, 93.

Sinna, 117, 167, 174.

Sinna Khilims, 117.

Sinna knotting, 34, 35.

Sinna rugs, characteristic border of, 40; description, 69; plate, 34.

Sirab rugs, 69; spelling, 167, 174.

Sivas rugs, 82; spelling, 174.

Skins sewed into rugs, 115.

Smith, Byron L., rug owned by, 62 (plate).

Smith, Ralph Oliver, rug owned by, 98 (plate).

Smith, Major R. Murdock, R. E., 177.

Smith's "Greek and Roman Antiquities," 177.

Smith's "Religion of the Semites," 177.

Smyrna, madder raised near, 44; trade with, 77, 82; spelling, 169, 174.

Smyrna rugs, 72, 82, 134.

Sohar, 169, 174.

Solar disk with serpents, symbolism of, 159.

Sonmeani, 165, 174.

Soumak rugs, manner of knotting, 34, 35; characteristic design of, 41; description of, 108; see plate, page 30.

Southesk's "Origin of Pictish Symbolism," 177.

Spade design, 42.

Spain, rug-weaving in, 20, 134; silk-weaving in, 123.

Spaniards taught weaving and sheep-raising to American Indians, 147.

Sparta, 169.

Sparta rugs, 83.

Spear, symbolism of, 162.

Spelling of place-names, 164-174.

Sphinx, symbolism of, 159.

Spider, symbolism of, 162.

Spinning, legends of invention of, 16.

Spon, ——, 177.

Squirrel, symbolism of, 162.

Srinagar rugs, 93; meaning of Srinagar, 163; spelling, 166, 174.

Staff in the hands of the gods, symbolism of, 159.

Stamboul, 73.

Standing eagle, symbolism of, 160.

Star designs, 43, 162.

Stark tree form in Turkoman rugs, 101, 102.

Stitches in Persian rugs, see Knots.

Stockholm Palace, rug in, 128.

Stork, symbolism of, 157, 160.

Strickland, Agnes, 178.

Stuart, H. Villiers, 178.

Subdued colors, preference given to, 21, 47.

Su-chau, 165, 174.

Sultanabad, 55, 56, 59, 69, 125; spelling, 167, 174.

Sultanabad rugs, 69, 70.

Sultan's factories and schools, 76.

Sumac, 44.

Sun, symbolism of, 159, 160.

Superstitions among weavers, 29.

Surat, 166, 174.

Susiana, Ancient (Province), 167.

Swastika design, 42, 148, 162.

Switzerland, rug-weaving in, 142.

Sword, symbolism of, 160.

Sykes, Ella C., 178.

"Symbolican Language of Ancient Art and Mythology, The," Knight, 176.

"Symbolism in Christian Art," Hulme, 176.

"Symbols Antiques, Les," O'Dagree, 177.

Symbols, Navajo, 148; Oriental, 156; Chinese, 157; Egyptian, 158, 159; Indian, 159; Japanese, 160; Persian, 160; Turkish, 160; miscellaneous, 161, 162.

"Symbols of Early Christian Art," Twining, 178.

Syria, 168.

Syrian Christian weavers, 71.

Syrian rugs, 111.

T

Tabor, Mrs. Sydney Richmond, rug owned by, 56 (plate).

Tabriez, 168.

Tabriz, 63, 163, 168, 174.

Tabriz rugs, 70 and frontispiece (plate).

Tajura, 169, 174.

Talim, or working drawing of rug design, 39.

Tanjore, 166, 174.

Tapestries synonymous with rugs, 16; introduced into England, 138; introduced into France by Saracens, 141.

Tarantula design, 43.

Tawarek tribe, 135.

Tchechen rugs, 108.

Teheran rug market, 70, 125; meaning of Teheran, 163; spelling, 168, 174.

Tekke tribe, 98, 103.

Tekke-Turkoman rugs, 98 (plate), 103.

"Ten Years' Digging in Egypt," Petrie, 177.

"Textile Manufactures and Costumes of the People of India, The," Watson, 178.

Theban fresco represents rug-weavers, 17.

Thibetan goat's hair, 30.

"Things Chinese," Ball, 175.

Thompson, ——, 178.

"Through Asia," Hedin, 176.

"Through Persia on a Side Saddle," Sykes, 178.

Tient-sing, 165, 174.

Tokio, 167, 174.

Tortoise, symbolism of, 157, 160.

Tourcoing, 169, 174.

Tourists, Cairo rug-market for, 52.

Tournay, 169, 174.

Trade in Ghiordes rugs, 75.

Transcaucasia, 71, 105, 168.

Trebizond, 169, 174.

"Tree and Serpent Worship," Fergusson, 176.

Tree of Health design, symbolism of, 160.

Tree of Life design on Persian rugs, 17, 65; on Kashgar rugs, 101; on Ghiordes rugs, 122; symbolism of, 157, 160. See frontispiece plate and 124 (plate).

Triangle design, 43.

Tribute paid in insects for dye purposes, 45.

Tripoli, 169, 174.

Tsi-nan,165, 174.

Tsing-chau, 165, 174.

Tsing-ning, 165, 174.

Tsun-hua rugs, 115.

Tuareg rugs, 135.

Tuareg tribe, 135.

Tunis rugs, 135, 169.

Turfani wool, 30.

Turkey in Asia, place-names, 168.

Turkey in Europe, Khilims woven in, 117.

Turkish coat of arms, 160.

Turkish knotting, 34, 35.

Turkish Kurdistan, Khilim rugs woven in, 117.

Turkish loom and weavers, 24 (plate).

Turkish rug factories, 24.

Turkish rugs, 24, 71-83; of silk, 125.

Turkish symbolism, of green, 48; of crescent and star, 160.

Turkish wool, 30.

Turkoman rugs, 95, 98-104, 125.

Turmeric, 44.

Turtle, symbolism of, 162.

Twining, ——, 178.

Tyrian purple (see Phoenician purple), 45, 47.

Tzitzi rugs, 108.

U

Umballa, 166.

"Unbeaten tracks in Japan," Bishop, 175.

United States, Oriental weavers in, 21; power looms in, 24; import duties, 56; Persian rugs to supply trade of, 57; Sultanabad rugs imported into, 70; law against importation of jail-made goods, 90; rug-weaving in, 143-149.

Urfa, 71, 169, 174.

Ushak, 169.

V

Value of square foot of best Persian rug, 28; of rug trade to Persia, 55, 56; of Persian rugs in the Orient, 70; of silk rugs, 125.

Vambery, Arminius, 178.

Van Dyke, John Charles, 178.

Vegetable dyes, 44, 46, 139.

Vegetable fibre in Mirzapur rugs, 92.

Verulam, Earl of, rug owned by, 138 (plate).

Vienna, rug-weaving at, 136.

Violet in old rugs, 80.

Viper, symbolism of, 159.

Volk, Mrs. Douglas, 145.

"Vorderasiatische Knuepfteppiche," Bode, 175.

W

Wake, Charles Staniland, 178.

Warangal, 166, 174.

Warangul rugs, 93.

Washing to subdue colors, 77; to overcome odor, 95.

Watson, Dr. Forbes, 178.

Weale, John, 178.

Weavers, skilled Oriental, 20; correct color sense of, 20; demonstrating their craft in United States, 21; women and girls, 26; men and boys, 26; sedentary, 26, 27; nomadic, 26; men naturally unsuited, 27; profits of, 27, 28, 82; time consumed, 28; wages and advance payment, 28; fare, 29; work underground, 29; superstitions, 29; skill of, 32, 33; use of dyes by, 44; Egyptian, 51; women of all classes, 55; Persian, in employ of factories, 57; use small patterns, 75; Indian, 88; Japanese, 116; Greek, 132; Flemish, 138; Navajo, 148.

Weaving, legends of invention of, 16; in ancient Egypt, 22; method of Oriental, 22; in India, 23.

Westroff, Hodder M., 178.

Westwood,——, 178.

Wheel, symbolism of, 159, 162.

Wheeler, Mrs. A. D., rug owned by, 126 (plate).

Wheeler, Samuel Green, 178.

White, symbolism of, 47, 48; use of cotton for, 76.

Wilkinson, Sir J. Gardner, quoted, 17, 178.

William of Germany, Emperor, his rug collection, 77.

Williams, S. Wells, 178.

Wilson, Rev. Samuel Graham, M.A., 178.

Wilton, power looms in, 24.

Wings, symbolism of, 162.

Winkleman, Johann Joachim, 178.

Wolf, symbolism of, 162.

Wool, preparation of, 27, 30, 32; where produced, 30; handling, 32; quality, 32; not produced in India, 88.

Worcester, power looms in, 24.

Worsted used in rug-weaving, 23.

Writers, ancient, allude to rugs, 18.

Wyatt, M. Digby, 178.

X

Xanthin (yellow coloring matter), 44.

Y

Y-form design, 43.

Yak's hair, 30.

Yangi-hissar, 165.

Yapraks (Ouchak rugs), 81, 83.

Yarkand, 165, 174.

Yarkand rugs, 103.

Yellow-dyes, how produced, 44, 45; symbolism of, 47; used by Turkomans, 98.

Yezd rugs, 70; felt rugs, 126; meaning of Yezd, 163; spelling, 168, 174.

Yomud rugs, 100, 103, 104.

Yomud tribe, 98, 103.

Young stags, symbolism of, 157.

Yuruk rugs, 83.

Yuruk tribe, 117.

Z

Zarand, 168, 174.

Zeli, 169.

Zerffi, G.C., 178.

Zerni, 165, 174.

Zigzag design, 43, 159.

Zileh, 169, 174.

Zilleh, 169.

THE END

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