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Rugs: Oriental and Occidental, Antique & Modern - A Handbook for Ready Reference
by Rosa Belle Holt
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Sivas rugs are always woven of wool, and almost every hamlet carries on the industry of weaving in the homes. There are no factories, the young girls and women doing the work here, as in other parts of Turkey. Sivas rugs are in most cases small, measuring about eight by four feet; but lately larger and more attractive rugs are being made. Even the poorest families have fine rugs, and regard them as valuable property, to be sold only under the pressure of great extremity. The weavers are so frugal in their manner of living that their daily earning of fourteen to nineteen cents is sufficient to supply their wants.



Smyrna, next to Constantinople, is the most important commercial centre in the East. It is the open door to mysterious Asia, and within its boundaries are found representatives of every race and religious belief of that little-known continent, the land of mystics, nomads, and fanatics. It is a mistake to imagine that the so-called Smyrna rugs are made in that city. As a matter of fact, no rugs are manufactured there. It is the export depot for goods from the interior, and dealers have allowed the name to be used merely for convenience, for commercial purposes. A student of rugs can readily understand that throughout the vast territory which concentrates its commerce in Smyrna there are a score or more of valuable manufactures which could never be known under one descriptive name.

Sparta rugs are made in a village bearing that name situated in the interior not far from Smyrna. They are very heavy, firm, and in different colors. Some of those recently made are especially fine. Attention is being paid to harmonious coloring as well as to quality and texture. A splendid specimen is in the home of the leading merchant of Smyrna. It is in the softest shades of rose and blue, with a lustrous sheen. The texture is as fine as velvet, and the medallion in the centre is most gracefully designed. Many rugs are sold under the name of Cassaba, which are really woven at Sparta.

Yaprak (see Ouchak) rugs.

Yuruk rugs are so called from a band of nomads who dwell among the mountains of Anatolia. They have large flocks of sheep, and weave rugs of strong, hardy texture. The colors are very good, the field often of brown, ornamented with large, bold designs.



III

RUG-WEAVING IN INDIA, AFGHANISTAN, BELUCHISTAN, CENTRAL ASIA, AND THE CAUSCASUS REGION

INDIAN RUGS

The manufacture of rugs was introduced into India by the Mohammedans at their first invasion in the beginning of the eleventh century. Persian rugs, however, were always preferred to those made in India, and princes and nobles of the Delhi Court, when it was in its greatest splendor, sought the fabrics woven in Herat, or by the Sharrokhs on the Attrek, or the nomad tribes of Western Kurdistan. These were purchased only by the princes and their wealthy followers. A few specimens of these rugs still remain in India, and are now and then reproduced with more or less accuracy.

In the sixteenth century, however, the Emperor Akbar, or more properly Jalal-ud-Din Mahomed, sent for Persian weavers to make the exquisite fabrics for which Persia was then so famous. At first these weavers continued to weave according to the designs employed in their own land; but it is not surprising that as time went on, and the natives of India learned the art of weaving from the Persians, Hindoo ideas should have found expression, in Southern India especially. Thus geometrical designs were substituted for floral, although even now the designs of some Indian rugs revive memories of Persian teachers in the careful arrangement of flowers and leaves. The designs of Indian rugs were frequently named after the original owners, in which cases the weavers generally lived and worked in the houses of their employers. At the present time the manufacture of many Indian rugs is carried on largely in jails, where the old Persian designs are generally used.

In Indian rugs, as in those of other countries, there are certain distinct characteristics that stamp them as coming from particular districts, and in India alone are to be detected the few Assyrian types still in existence. Genuine old India rugs are works of art, but they are rarely seen.

The religion of the Hindoo does not permit of his tasting the flesh of sheep; and as India is not a wool-producing country, except in the northern part, cotton is often substituted. For this reason, and because the time consumed for weaving is less, Indian rugs are generally less expensive than Persian.

Mr. Julian Ralph, in an interesting account of his visit to the home of a prince in India, published in one of our magazines, writes of the splendid rugs shown him by his host: "They were state rugs, and one was green with a border of gold that must have weighed twenty pounds or more. The other was red with a similar border, so stiff and cumbrous that it did not seem made to walk upon. However, the prince sent for his stiff-soled heavy-heeled ceremonial shoes which were quite as richly crusted with gold, and walked about on the rugs, crushing the gold embroidery in a ruthless way." When Mr. Ralph spoke of the damage, he said, "It is of no consequence, these borders have to be renewed very frequently."

An Indian rug of great beauty was taken to England from India by Lord Clive, who ordered the architect of his magnificent palace—Claremont—then in process of building, to design a room especially for it. Such special care for the proper display of this work of art may be exceptional, but it shows true appreciative power on the part of Clive.

From the time of the decadence of the industry of weaving fine shawls, which was so long a feature of Kashmir, the wool of which they were woven was gradually transferred to the rug industry, and the weavers turned their attention from the shawls to the rugs, on which they displayed the same patience and skill.

CHARACTERISTICS OF CERTAIN INDIAN RUGS

Agra sends out very satisfactory rugs. These are mostly of great weight and thickness. Many of the best are woven in the jail. The finest specimen that I have seen belongs to Mrs. Potter Palmer, of Chicago, and is a duplicate of one owned by Mrs. Frederick D. Grant. The rug is of enormous size and weight, and the tree design is arranged in shades of exquisite blue upon a field of delicate fawn color. The border, in the same coloring, gives the most perfect harmony to the entire rug. Many more Agra rugs would be imported, but there is now a United States law prohibiting the importation of goods made in jail.

Allahabad rugs are similar to those of Agra, but the latter are as a rule preferable.

Amritsar gives employment to over twenty thousand men and boys, and supplies the market with some of the finest of modern Indian rugs. Leading English and American firms have factories located there, and for that reason rugs brought into the Occident from Amritsar are reliable. They are firm in texture, and have fast colors. The manufacturers realize the importance of these attributes in a rug, and their own responsibility in the matter.

The Dhurrie (Durrie) is a strong, well-made rug of cotton, often in stripes of blue, brown, or gray, with narrow yellow and red lines. Some Dhurries end in a fringe, and are square. In India they are largely used by the foreign population, and in the United States they are especially appropriate for summer time. They are made chiefly at Agra, Cawnpur, Delhi, Lucknow, and in the vicinity of Bombay.

Ellore rugs belong to the inexpensive class, but the designs and colors are pleasing. As they are made chiefly of fibre mixed with wool, they are not durable.

Formerly Haidarabad sent out rugs famous for their beauty, with designs in the forms of medallions, filled with flat floral ornaments and woven with wool pile on a cotton foundation. But the modern Haidarabad by no means compares with the antique.

Jaipur rugs are generally made in the schools of art. They contain many Persian designs representing animals and the cypress tree. The borders are floral, and the field is generally ivory, red, or blue.

Lahore, the British capital of the Punjab, has rugs woven in both wool and cotton, and the work is done mostly in jails. The designs are Persian, and the texture embraces from forty to one hundred knots to the square inch.

Madras rugs are chiefly made in large quantities for commercial and export purposes.

Masulipatam rugs were once noted for their beauty, but now many of them are poor in design and workmanship.

Mirzapur rugs are sometimes wrongly sold for Turkish, which they somewhat resemble. The antiques are very durable, but this cannot be said of all the modern ones, the vegetable fibre that is used in part in the construction of them not being durable. Few are exported to the United States. The colors are often black, orange, or grayish-white.

Moodj is the name given to a coarse, hardy mat, suitable for the veranda. It is made of buffalo grass, which grows six to twelve feet high in India. This is harvested, the fibre extracted by pounding, and then it is twisted into rope or yarn. Afterward it is dyed.

Multan rugs have large geometrical figures in octagons, medallions, and circles. These rugs are very lasting. Their general coloring is dark red and blue. Sometimes a really beautiful modern Multan is discovered. Occasionally an emerald green or a yellow alternates with the usual reds and blues, and again we see a white ground with blue designs. The modern ones are not largely imported into America. The antique Multan is very fine, but scarce.

Mysore rugs are cheap and not interesting.

Patna rugs are usually in blue and white; in quality they resemble the modern Multan.

Pushmina rugs have their name from the manufacturers, who thus designate rugs that are woven of pashim.

Sindh rugs are the cheapest and least durable of all Indian rugs, and on this account not many are imported into the Western market. The colors are green and orange.

Srinagar, the capital city of Kashmir, makes very beautiful rugs from the finest wool. This is soft and silky, and as natural dyes are employed, the Srinagar rugs, as well as many other rugs from the northern portion of India, are highly valued. Antique rugs of this character are attractive in soft tones of rose and yellow.

Warangul rugs. At Warangul, in the eastern part of the Deccan, modern rugs have been woven for the past sixty years. The designs are chiefly Persian, with a strong Indian influence. To show the beauty and delicacy of some of the old rugs, I may mention that one was made at Warangul, in the sixteenth century, which contained 3,500,000 knots on its entire surface, or 400 knots to the square inch, and the designs were so complicated that a change of needle was required for every knot.

Leading importers now give names to designate the different qualities of India rugs, and therefore the name borne by a rug does not necessarily indicate the district in which it was woven. For example the Dhurrie rug is woven in several districts of the northern provinces.

[Illustration: AFGHANISTAN RUG

SIZE, 9.5 x 7.6

This rug has a remarkably soft yet firm texture. The rough beauty and the fine coloring are very attractive. The field is a rich shade of red verging toward the hue of a blood orange, and again gleaming with far deeper shades. The large octagons are defined by a very narrow dark brown line. Two sides of these octagons are in a deep, sapphire blue, while the remaining two sides are of an orange cast. The octagon sections are all ornamented, the small red diamonds at the edges being separated by dark green lines. The lattice-work design in the squares of the border of the rug are decorated with green and ivory, the latter in the hook design. The centres of all the octagons are of the orange shade, and one only is crossed through the centre, the markings being knots of green. Large diamond forms, barred with sapphire blue and rich green, are between the octagons on the field. Occasionally a small geometrical figure in either blue or green, with pale yellow or ivory, is seen, and a wide red webbing with heavy dark brown lines across it extends at some length beyond the border. The rug was woven in that northern region of Afghanistan known as Afghan-Turkestan.

OWNED BY MR. GEORGE HUBBARD HOLT, CHICAGO.]

AFGHANISTAN RUGS

Afghanistan rugs are generally large and nearly square. They are coarser than the Turkoman rugs, but resemble them in color and design. The Afghans, however, are more striking, the octagon designs being larger and bolder. At Kabul, the capital city of Afghanistan, and in other cities rugs are found which are made by the nomad tribes on the frontier. The same tribes weave also the cotton and silk rugs said to be woven at Bhawulpore, India. The Great Rug in the Palace of Chehel Sitoon (forty pillars) at Ispahan, Persia, is said to be the largest ever woven, and to measure about sixty feet long by thirty feet wide. This rug was made in the sixteenth century, and is of Herat design and manufacture. Owing to political disturbances, weavers from Herat have settled in the province of Khorassan, Persia, since 1838, and prefer to call that their home.

Some rugs have a strong odor, which is especially noticeable in those of Afghanistan. The reason for the presence of the odor is that the animal's hair has not been properly washed. Nothing but a thorough cleansing on the back as well as on the surface, with soap and hot water seems to be effective in carrying it away, although certain atmospheric changes affect it. A damp, wet day brings out the odor strongly. Fortunately this disturbing element is not in all Afghan rugs. There is a great deal of force and strength exhibited in these rugs, and a richness most attractive in the finest specimens. A color plate in this volume, with its accompanying description, explains the typical Afghanistan rug.

BELUCHISTAN RUGS

Beluchistan rugs bear the marks of nomadic workmanship. They show that they are woven by tribes who combine strength and skill. The designs are generally geometric, and bold in effect. The rugs have rich dull tones of blue, red, and often with markings of white or ivory on a foundation of dark brown, in fact so dark sometimes as to give the appearance of black. This is accounted for partly by the great abundance of goat's hair and camel's hair woven into it, which is sometimes dyed even darker than the natural color. There is a fine lustre in this rug, and it is one of the hardiest and most durable of all the Oriental rugs. The wool used is soft and the pile left rather long, which accounts in part for the rug being so thick and heavy. Occasionally we find a beautiful old prayer rug in brown tones, and with corner areas in fine dull reds and a wonderful deep rich blue.

Some of the finest specimens are occasionally sold as blue Bokharas; and people who imagine that they have purchased one of the latter are likely to find themselves the possessors of a good Beluch, for there is no such thing as a blue Bokhara.

CENTRAL ASIA

TURKOMAN RUGS

Turkoman rugs are woven by nomad tribes living in Central Asia. The tribes are known as the Ersari Goklan, Sarik, Tekke, and Yomud, and most of these rugs have some points in common, although they vary a good deal in detail. Generally speaking, the Turkoman takes the greatest care to have his work perfectly done. In order to give fixity to the color the dyer steeps the wool in a mordant of alum and water. The dye is almost invariably brought from Bokhara. At Ashkabad the Turkomans dye the wool themselves when it is intended to be yellow, but when any other shade is desired it is sent to the city to be dyed. Camel's hair is largely used in the rug-weaving of Central Asia. The camel itself is carefully washed, and the soft hair growing next its skin is used for fine rugs. The goats of this vast region also receive the same watchful attention as the camel; the soft, silky fleece is accounted precious, and is used for the finest Turkoman rugs. The natives use their rugs not only for the floors of their tents, but as portieres, thereby dividing the tent into sections. This is one of the reasons for the heavy fringe one so frequently sees on the ends. It permits of hanging, and is very strong, as is the case with the Turkoman rugs themselves, no matter how fine the texture.



CHARACTERISTICS OF CERTAIN TURKOMAN RUGS

Beshir rugs resemble in certain aspects the rugs of Afghanistan. The texture is similar, and the same rich blues and reds are seen; a red webbing at the ends extends at some length, and has dark lines crossing it. The rug is longer than the Afghanistan. The field differs. There is an Arabic effect in the design, and yet with a reminder of the Yomud in the general aspect. But the hook, which plays so important a part in the Yomud, is missing.

Bokhara rugs which are made in the city and Khanate of that name, are not the so-called Bokhara rugs of the Western world. The genuine Bokhara rugs are of good size, with large patterns, and are very strong and forceful in character. They are sold in the Occident under the name of Khiva or Afghanistan.

Genghis (often called Guendje) rugs are woven by a tribe of Turkomans who live the life of nomads. They are named after Genghis Khan, the great Mogul conqueror who invaded Central Asia in the year 1218. The rugs are woven of brown wool, or strong goat's hair, and have rather a long pile. The designs are mostly geometric, although the palm leaf and vine are often seen.

Guendje (see Genghis) rugs.

Kashgar rugs are made in Eastern Turkestan. They are quite coarse, with designs of a Chinese character in strong coloring. Yellows and a sort of lead-white are much used in these rugs; again, blues and ivory-white are seen, while reds, pinks, greens, and a deep orange are common. The Chinese fret, the dragon, and fishes are among the designs employed. The Tree of Life is of frequent occurrence, but is a crude representation.

Khalatch rugs are woven by a division of the Ersari tribe of the upper Oxus, bearing the name Khalatch. They are included under the one greater head of Turkomans. The rugs are recognized by the single stripes of bands that divide the field both vertically and horizontally. These bands are ornamented with single motifs, and are generally considered to be the earliest decoration of woven fabrics. Besides the bands, stars, crosses, forms of the hook, and small prayer niches,—one at the top and one at the bottom, but each facing in the same direction,—are seen. Often a stark tree effect is noticed. In the trade these Turkoman rugs are commonly called Kchatchli (pronounced Hatchli—Bokhara).

Khiva rugs are woven by Turkomans inhabiting Central Asia. The firmness, durability, and bold grandeur of these rugs render them very pleasing. The field is of one of the splendid reds so much favored by this great race. Arranged over the field are large forms of the lozenge. Frequently these large forms contain smaller lozenges, which are very decorative. Often a part of the larger lozenge forms are indented at both top and bottom. There is generally a stark tree form between the lozenges, in a peacock blue color. Much ivory is used throughout the field and border, in heavy lines of demarcation. These rugs are sold under the name of Afghan in the Western market. Well-toned shades of red, blue, tan, ivory, and an occasional green are the usual colors. Sometimes a Khiva has a long panel centre, with a prayer niche. In many fine specimens the lustre is an added attraction.

Samarkand rugs are a product of Central Asia. They show distinctly Chinese characteristics. Sometimes the field is covered with round medallions, from one to five in number, holding odd figures. The Chinese fret is common in the design, and sometimes a large crude flower arrangement is noticed. Reds, magenta, green, blues, a soft fawn, white, and much yellow, especially in the border, are the usual colors. Soft and rich, these rugs have a distinctive character, and are attractive. Their texture, however, is quite thin, and they are not very durable for the floor, but attractive on the wall or divan.



Tekke-Turkoman rugs are sold in the Occident under the name of Bokharas. The design has little variety, and generally the rugs are among the easiest to distinguish. The design is usually octagon, in white or ivory tones with blue and orange, and occasionally green, upon a field of rich deep red, or rose. Brown and black, with white, are also used in the lines of demarcation or in the border. Sometimes the smaller designs are very decorative. Occasionally in the past this tribe, which is considered the most savage of all the Turkomans, has woven a rug with a diamond figure in place of the octagon, but this is not typical. Also instead of the usual red field a wonderful mahogany shade is seen with a rare green in place of the usual blue of the octagon. In the borders one often finds the eight-pointed star. The Tekke tribe use their rugs as portieres, for divan covers, and for floor coverings. Rich in coloring, fine, yet durable, these rugs are greatly prized.

Yarkand rugs are very similar to Kashgar rugs, having the same general characteristics.

Yomud rugs are woven by the tribe bearing that name, whose territory seems to include both Astrabad and Khiva. The rugs woven by this tribe are in rich tones of deep red or plum, sometimes mahogany in tone. The design most frequently seen is the diamond, surrounded by the hook. The weaving is very satisfactory, and the coloring in brownish-reds is particularly good. In some odd and rare pieces among the Yomud Turkomans, blue figures conspicuously, as does green also. The border in these rugs is sometimes in stripes, sometimes in a sort of crudely drawn vine.

CAUCASIAN RUGS

Caucasus is a general government belonging to Russia, and including Transcaucasia. The designs of the many rugs woven in this section of country are all parts of a system, and each design bears certain marks whereby its class may be identified.

Daghestan rugs are made in fine wools, and the mosaic designs are generally beautifully and skilfully done. The figures are nearly always geometrical, and in the form of diamonds, long octagons, lozenges, hooks, and small crosses. The colors of the best Daghestans are so well selected, that although there is no shading there is seldom anything aggressive or startling in the effect. Blues, reds, yellows, ivory, and other hues are chiefly used. The rug has a short, close pile, and although the texture is rather thin, the rug is very durable.

Derbent rugs, though woven at Derbent, the chief city of the province of Daghestan, differ somewhat from the Daghestans proper, being much softer and thicker. They are also more loosely woven, and have a longer pile. The designs are geometrical, several star devices often occupying the field; and here again we see the hook, which is a feature of the entire Daghestan province. There is a good lustre in the Derbent rugs, and the coloring is often quiet and inconspicuous in dark blue, red, yellow, and ivory. Sometimes a soft pink is noticed.

Kabistan (Cabistan) rugs are woven at Kuba. They resemble the Daghestans to such an extent that they are often sold under that name. They have, however, more variety of design, although, as in the Daghestans, the diamond is generally a prominent feature, and often three large and many small diamonds are seen. The texture is firm, and the pile cut very close. Soft reds, greens, a delicate fawn, and browns are the usual colors. The borders may be in stripes, or with crude animal or bird devices. The antique Kabistan is very beautiful. Its texture is like velvet. Often one, and sometimes two borders contain the small single pink which is a most decorative floral ornament. The reds, light greens, ivory, and plum colors are arranged artistically, and quaint animal forms are often seen.

Karabagh rugs have characteristics of the other Caucasian rugs, but are more crude in coloring. Red is the chief color used. The rugs are coarse and quite crude in effect. The old-time rugs were vastly superior in workmanship.

[Illustration: DAGHESTAN RUG

SIZE, 7 x 3.5

This rug has a fine texture and is straighter than most Daghestans. It is an antique, but its colors are as fast and clear as when it was first woven. It has been cleaned again and again, but nothing seems to dim its hues. The field of light blue is thickly studded with large and small geometrical figures in reds, yellows, and white. Some of the forms are in the lozenge design, with colors in red and yellow, the reds containing fine shadings of blue. Again square forms are seen, many holding the same colors, ornamented with contrasting but harmonious hues. In the centre are two geometrical figures of considerable size, one in yellow, and one in red. Each of these has yellow and white in its centre. On either side are still larger forms in yellow and blue. The border is geometrical, the hook design in a bracket being in evidence, and outside of this is a narrower stripe in red, white, black, and yellow. The many markings add greatly to the beauty of this interesting Daghestan.

REPRODUCED BY COURTESY OF MR. CLARENCE BURLEY, CHICAGO.]

Kazak rugs are woven by a nomad tribe dwelling among the Caucasus Mountains. There is a certain strength and vigor about the Kazak rugs that seem to be in harmony with the tribe that weaves them. The word Kazak is a corruption of Cossack; and the durability of these rugs, as well as a certain boldness of effect in their designs and colors, corresponds with the hardihood of the people who weave them. The rugs are thick and soft; their colors are blues, soft reds, and greens. Often the field is a deep rose or a green, sometimes with one or more geometrical figures and several medallions, or with the palm-leaf design in rather large size throughout. When the palm leaf is used, it is generally decorated with a smaller leaf of a different hue. Many varieties of small designs are also seen, including circles, diamonds, squares, and the tau cross, which is almost always present. Some of the antique Kazaks are very fine.

Shirvan rugs are attractive from their quiet, agreeable tints, and fine, even texture. They are made in large quantities, and readily sold. The best are of white wool, but the inferior ones may hold cotton or goat's hair. Often blues and whites are the colors employed, with markings of red or yellow. Sometimes there are stripes in the border, one wide stripe followed by a series of narrow ones. The hook is a frequent design, and may be found in the field, incasing some geometrical figure. Sometimes a conventionalized floral design is observed in the border.

Soumak rugs ought really to be called Shemakha, for that is the name of the town in the government of Baku from which they are exported. But the contraction of the word into Soumak is now universal. Erroneously too, these rugs are known as "Kashmir," for the sole reason that they are woven with a flat stitch and the loose ends left hanging at the back, just as they are in the old Kashmir shawls. The designs bear a resemblance to those of the Daghestans, and the hook is omnipresent. The best are durable, and sometimes a rarely beautiful Soumak is discovered, distinguished from the ordinary specimens by its soft hues and fine texture. One that I have in mind is of a rich blue field, with geometrical figures in terra cotta shades, and a rare bit of green in the way of ornamentation; the field of another is rose, and the geometrical forms are in deep blues, old blues, and ivory.

Tchechen (Chichi or Tzitzi) rugs are made by the Chichi nomads living among the mountains of Daghestan. The rugs have a strong resemblance to the Shirvans, and are often sold under that name. They are of about the same color and quality, but are wider. In the border there are frequently geometrical designs arranged between two or more stripes, and the tau cross is sometimes seen.



IV

MISCELLANEOUS ORIENTAL RUGS

RUGS OF THE HOLY LAND

No rugs of importance are woven in Palestine. In several villages a coarse cloth is made which is waterproof because of its firm texture. It is used for cloaks or abas, and these are worn by all the men of the land. In Bethlehem is made the coarse cloth which is used as tent covering. This is produced from the sombre hair of the Palestine goat.

All Syrian rugs are made of pure wool, a home product of an average quality. Looms operated by machinery are unknown. The rugs are made in a primitive fashion by the peasant women and girls, who work at the looms in their own homes when not engaged in field labor or domestic duties. They also do the washing, dyeing, and spinning of the wool. The introduction of rug-weaving into Syria took place about the beginning of the nineteenth century, when a number of families emigrated from Brusa to villages of Syria, where they taught their art. For many years excellent rugs were woven, Haidamur especially taking the lead in superiority of quality, design, and durability. Unfortunately, the original designs and blending of colors introduced from Turkey have entirely disappeared, and only inferior rugs are now made throughout the country. The chief colors in the modern Haidamur rugs are red and black, or sometimes crimson and black, with black or dark brown figures at each end. At Damascus a few rugs are woven, but not of any great value or distinctive beauty.

CHINESE RUGS

The Chinese rugs of antiquity are remarkable, and worthy of the closest inspection. Their texture, designs, and symbolism show the greatest patience and thought. Antique wool rugs woven in China are very scarce, and because of this, and for their historical interest as well as their uniqueness and attractiveness, they bring large prices. In fact, they are almost unprocurable. A large and very fine specimen of this kind of rug is in the home of the late Governor Ames of Boston. It measures nineteen by twenty-one feet. The colors are yellow and white, and these are arranged in odd designs over the entire rug. A member of the family owning it writes: "This rug is said to have originally been in the Emperor's Palace in China. As every emperor is obliged to have the palace newly furnished when he succeeds to the throne, owing to some superstition connected with the retaining of any of the former Emperor's possessions, everything is removed and destroyed. Fortunately this rug escaped destruction." A fine example of an antique Chinese rug is represented in one of the illustrations of this book.

The modern Chinese rugs are vastly different from those of antiquity. There is, however, much of interest attached to them. They are sought because of their antique designs, their harmonious coloring, and their durability. The monstrous and fantastic forms that distinguished the antique are not so frequently met with in the modern production. The predominating colors in a modern Chinese rug are yellow, blue, white, and fawn, and these are arranged very effectively. The designs are quaint and odd. A border distinctly separated from the field is almost invariably seen. A most important geometrical motif observed in Chinese rugs is the Meandrian, especially the continuous and that derived from the hooked cross. The hooked cross we find with rounded arms, generally in connection with a cloud band. The rosette from the vegetable motifs is very frequent, especially in borders; also the branch and the continuous creeper. Bats, butterflies, storks, and the goose are in many borders. The lion—symbol of a happy omen—is often represented in those rugs designed especially for wedding ceremonies.

[Illustration: ANTIQUE CHINESE WOOL RUG

SIZE, 7.10 x 5.2

The modern Chinese wool rugs are not at all like this antique specimen, which was woven in Shantung about the year 1750. The material is wool, the pile is very thick and soft, and the texture, though loosely woven, is lasting. A large circular form in the centre of the field is richly decorated in a fine blue, yellow, and white floral design. Ivory is also seen in the markings, but no other colors are used except light yellow and a deep blue. The field is of a rare apricot hue, very unusual and beautiful. The border holds a Chinese fret design, the symbol of long life. This is in a rich deep blue, and the out-most part of it is in a dark shade of blue. The separate sprays of flowers on this rug represent the tea flower, which the Chinese use for decorative purposes, and the larger sprays hold the imperial flower.

OWNED BY THE ESTATE OF THE LATE MR. H. O. HAVERMEYER, NEW YORK.]

In the northern part of China rugs are decorated with colored threads in crude imitation of figures; they are woven in sections, and then sewed together. Camel's hair of a coarse quality is used extensively by the Chinese for their rugs, and the laboring class use felts in their houses. These are cheap and durable, and are placed on the tiled floors so common in the colder parts of China. The skins of the doe, deer, and fox are much used in China as rugs. These skins are sewed together in sections, according to various designs, and resemble mosaic work.

There are more circular rugs found in China than in any other country, and some are exported. But they are seldom called for in this country, and clerks in the large establishments which import them express surprise when inquiries are made for them. The warp of the ordinary Chinese rug is mostly of cotton, and the woof and pile are of wool or camel's hair.

Tsun-hua rugs are made of silk and camel's hair in the province of Chi-Li.

JAPANESE RUGS

In olden times woven rugs were not known in Japan. The wealthy classes of Japan covered their floors with grass, over which they spread the skins of animals. The poorer classes had not even skins, but only reeds or straw. About four hundred years ago silk and wool rugs were introduced into Japan from Persia, China, and India. For a time the Japanese imitated these rugs, but later the industry ceased. Since the opening up of the country, however, rug-weaving has prospered, and the introduction of fine cotton yarns of uniform quality has increased greatly the growth of all textile industries. The modern Japanese rugs are made of cotton or jute, and are used extensively in the United States in summer homes. In the towns which produce these rugs little children may be seen busily engaged in weaving, their small fingers being very deft at this work. The chief colors employed by the Japanese in their rug-weaving are blue, white, and sometimes a beautiful pink. In weaving, designing, and coloring, as in everything else the natives do, their exactness of finish and thoroughness in detail are noticeable. The Persian designs which were once reproduced in Japan are now supplanted by designs purely Japanese. The dragon is a favorite design in some of the older rugs.



KHILIM RUGS

WRITTEN ALSO GHILEEM, KELIM, KILIM

The largest number of Khilims are woven in Turkish Kurdistan, although many are made in the adjoining territory, and at Sinna and Shirvan. They are also woven by the nomads of Anatolia and Merv, and Turkey in Europe now produces many Khilims, especially in the vicinity of Servia.

Khilims are made in different sizes, and are alike on both sides, with a smooth surface. Perhaps the Khilims most familiar to us are those which are long and narrow. But there are also smaller sizes, the smallest of all being called mats. All are without nap, and are woven with the flat stitch by the means of shuttles.

Karamanian is another name given to this decorative piece of tapestry. The Karamanian is woven in the tents of the nomad Yuruks and other Turkoman tribes. Occasionally this weave and the Kurdish have a mihrab at one end, showing it to be a prayer rug. The Sinna Khilims have a Herati design, and colors of green, yellow, and rose are frequent. The webbing at the end often contains a narrow stripe.

A bit of romantic sentiment is woven into the Kis Khilims, as those made by the Turks in Anatolia are often called. It is asserted that the word means "Bride's rug," and that the name is derived from the fact that these rugs are woven by young girls, each of whom endeavors to finish her rug in time to win a husband. A lock of hair is often found in the Kis Khilim, said to have been woven in by the girl who made it.

In Oriental countries the Khilim is used as a floor covering, and also as a curtain to divide the dwelling portion of the tent from that in which the cattle are sheltered from the storm. It is also used by the natives on their journeys, and for general wear on the floors.

In the United States this fabric is exceedingly popular as a hanging, and for the cover of a divan it is equally effective, whether used in the home or in the studio.

POLISH RUGS

There are few of the so-called Polish rugs in existence, and these are priceless and cannot be bought. They are mostly seven feet long by four wide. The name takes its origin from the fact that a Pole (by name Mersherski), after travelling in Persia and India, established a rug factory in Warsaw.

Polish rugs are of silk, with gold and silver thread interwoven. Their texture is looser than that of the usual Oriental rug, and for this reason they cannot stand hard wear; but they are exceedingly handsome with their gold lustre and silky sheen. In these rugs a number of warp threads are crossed by the metal threads and overspread, so that the lines or ribs are brought out more prominently. This in part accounts for the softness and looseness of the texture.

Some time ago Dr. Wilhelm Bode, the eminent German scholar and authority on antique Oriental rugs, decided that these unusual rugs were of Persian origin, because of their general style and design. Since then Mr. R. Martin has proved this by documentary evidence.

PRAYER RUGS

The prayer rug is so distinctly sui generis that it requires a little explanation. It is to be found wherever dwell the followers of Mohammed, and the design usually includes a representation of a mosque, or place of public worship, showing the mihrab, which is the niche in the wall of the mosque, so located that when the worshipper prostrates himself before it he will be prostrating himself toward Mecca.[A]

[Footnote A: Some prayer rugs have a representation of the hands of Mohammed, and on them the suppliant places his own as he throws himself prostrate. In the corners of some of these rugs pulpits are represented, and occasionally trees.]

The Mohammedan, if he build a mosque, locates it so that its axis extends in the direction of Mecca; in such buildings the mihrab is not necessary, as the natural position of the worshipper places him so that his face is toward the sacred city. Where Christian buildings, such as the great Basilica of St. Sophia at Constantinople have been appropriated for Moslem worship, the niche or mihrab may be located well toward one corner of the building.

[Illustration: OLD KIRMAN PRAYER RUG

SIZE, 6 x 4.1

This beautiful and rare rug has an ivory field thickly studded with small floral designs woven most carefully. The knots are very closely tied, and the texture is soft and fine as velvet. A cypress tree occupies the centre of the field, and above its base on either side appears the head of a bird. Below there are two peacocks, in gorgeous plumage. The upper parts of the bodies of the peacocks seem actually to glisten like cloth-of-gold; silk threads appear in the tail feathers. At the top of the rug rests a bird of brilliant plumage, and on either side a bird evidently in the act of flying. The border of this fine rug is in stripes, the widest of a golden hue, with turquoise blue, light green, and soft reds in delicate tracery. The corner areas are deep and very minutely woven, corresponding perfectly with the field. Toward the centre of the corner areas and extending upward, is the mihrab, proclaiming for what purpose this rug was woven.

OWNED BY MISS BUCKINGHAM, CHICAGO.]

The prayer rug was evidently invented for the purpose of providing the worshippers with one absolutely clean place on which to offer prayers. It is not lawful for a Moslem to pray on any place not perfectly clean, and unless each one has his own special rug he is not certain that the spot has not been polluted. With regard to the purity of the place of prayer Mohammedans are especially careful when making their pilgrimages, the rugs which they take with them having been preserved from pollution by being rolled up until the journey is begun, or until the hour of prayer arrives. It does not matter to these followers of Mohammed how unclean a rug that is on the floor may be, because over it they place the prayer rug when their devotions begin.

About two hundred years ago small embroidered rugs were largely made in Persia, chiefly at Ispahan. These were prayer rugs, and on each of them, near one end, was a small embroidered mark to show where the bit of sacred earth from Mecca was to be placed. In obedience to a law in the Koran that the head must be bowed to the ground in prayer, this was touched by the forehead when the prostrations were made, and so the letter of the law was carried out. The custom still prevails. The Persian women who make the finest prayer rugs seldom weave any other kind of rug. But the encroachments of civilization and commerce have changed the original purpose of the prayer rug. Once it was sacred, and the masterpieces of workmanship in the products of Asia Minor were devotional in character. Upon these rugs many a soul prostrated himself before Allah in reverence; but now in the further interior only is the prayer rug made for aught but commerce.

As a class the modern Anatolian prayer rugs are quite inferior, being woven irregularly, and without regard to details or finishing; yet there are among them some fine specimens of Anatolian weaving. The famous prayer rugs of Asia Minor (Anatolian) made at Ghiordes, Kulah, Laodicea, and Meles are described in preceding pages. They are the joy of the collector and the artist. The antique Ghiordes rugs are really fine in colors, generally with much pale green, red, or blue. The design most frequently seen is the Tree of Life. One special kind is distinguished by a yellow vine on a dark blue field.

[Illustration: OLD ANATOLIAN PRAYER RUG

SIZE, 6 x 3.8

A deep, soft pile, firmness of texture, and superb coloring, characterize this rug. The lower section of the field is of cherry-red; the upper portion is a lighter shade of red, but blending perfectly, and forming by its shape at the top the niche which is characteristic of the prayer rug. This extends into the wonderful moss green of the upper section. The two tones (which appear exaggerated in the black and white plate) suggest the thought of a passing shadow upon a mossy bed. The red and green of the field are separated by heavy serrated lines of ivory, which unite at the top, leading up to and enclosing a small red lozenge, terminating beyond this in the hook design. It is in the centre of the lozenge that the Moslem places the stone or bit of earth when at prayer. Other hook designs and various geometrical forms are arranged upon the field. The wide stripe of the border is of a fine yellow, rich and lustrous, decorated in blue, green, and maroon devices. The outer border is in brown, and it is interesting to observe the series of nomad tents represented, each one worked in white wool, the entrances to the tents, however, being in reds, blues, or yellows. Alternating with each little dwelling are figures worked in red, blue, or green. This interesting rug is a product of Caesarea.

OWNED BY MR. GEORGE HUBBARD HOLT, CHICAGO.]

SILK RUGS

Long before other countries learned the art of cultivating silkworms, China was at work weaving fabrics of silk. Chinese historians claim that the origin of reeling silk and putting it to use was discovered by a woman,—Se-Ling-She, wife of Hwang-te, third Emperor of China,—and for that reason she has always been regarded by them as the "goddess of silkworms," The date of this discovery is about 2640 B. C. For about two thousand years the Chinese kept secret their methods of reeling and weaving silk, but finally Japan, Persia, and India learned the art, Persia having for many centuries transported raw silk between China and the West. Very slowly grew the process of silk-weaving. Greece, Spain, and Sicily by degrees attained the knowledge. In A. D. 550 it was introduced into Constantinople, and in 1148 silk manufacture was carried into Italy, and the cultivation of mulberry trees was enforced by law. The industry soon spread into the south of France, where it rapidly advanced.

At the present day enormous quantities of silk are produced in various parts of the world. The principal countries are China, Japan, India, Southern Europe, and some parts of Persia and Asia Minor. During the Middle Ages and down to the seventeenth century, the province of Ghilan in Persia produced very fine silk and in large quantities. In all the countries and districts just mentioned, magnificent silk rugs have been woven for many centuries.

The silk rug when at its best is unsurpassed in beauty; it is distinguished by its richness, exquisite coloring, and rare sheen. But silk rugs require the most luxurious surroundings: nothing looks so out of place as one of these costly fabrics of the loom in a poor setting. They are more suitable for decorative purposes and museums than for service; they should be used as hangings, not for floor coverings. An exquisite silk rug interwoven with pearls is hung before the famous Peacock Throne of the Shah at Teheran, Persia.

The most magnificent silk rugs have been woven in China, and these are interesting from every point of view, especially as regards history, color, and texture. The silk rugs of Khotan are remarkable for their beauty and fineness; on important occasions of state and ceremony the Chinese place them upon the table. Silk carpets of special beauty worked with gold threads are made in Pekin for the Imperial Palace, although many of this kind found at the Court are said to be of Central Asiatic origin.

In making silk rugs, the greatest care is necessary in the shading. Sometimes the shading of woollen rugs is made more effective by the addition of silk.

[Illustration: PERSIAN SILK RUG

SIZE, 5.8 x 4.12

This remarkable rug in some lights suggests the heart of a forest. Some of its sections indicate Chinese inspiration, and recall, too, the famous Hunting Rugs. The field is in an unusual shade of reddish bronze, with a strong metallic lustre. In certain lights the surface looks like a mass of gleaming gold. In the centre stands the Tree of Life, its branches rich with foliage, among which birds of bright plumage seem to flutter. At the base of the tree two wild animals are depicted, apparently in search of prey. In the corner area at the top of the rug two serpents are attacking young birds in a nest, which is guarded by an agitated parent bird. On either side at the base of the rug is a cypress tree. Across the top is an inscription in Arabic.

OWNED BY MRS. EMMONS BLAINE, CHICAGO.]

As the demand for silk rugs is comparatively small, they are seldom woven on speculation. When made to order in Persia, they cost from ten dollars to fifteen dollars per square foot; thus the usual price of a silk rug of Persian make is from two hundred dollars up to thousands of dollars. Those made in Turkey can be bought much cheaper.

The Turkoman silk rugs are generally twice the size of the usual sheep's wool or camel's hair rugs. They are very fine, and often two hundred dollars is paid for a rug of this kind eight feet square.

Rugs made of raw silk are exported from Samarkand, and silk rugs of old Persian designs are copied and woven at Caesarea. Some weavers of the modern silk rug, however, do not have recourse to established designs; they give play to their imagination, as do the weavers of wool rugs. Other weavers copy chiefly designs from chintz, and still others work from designs introduced from Europe.

Mrs. Bishop tells us that silk produced at Resht is brought to Kashan to be spun and dyed. Then it is sent to Sultanabad to be woven into rugs. It is next returned to Resht to have the pile cut by the sharp instruments used for cutting the velvet pile. After the rugs are finished, they are sent to Teheran to be sold.



FELT RUGS

In the Orient a large and heavy rug is made of felt. This is used extensively by the natives, but is too heavy to export. Even the shepherds of the Kotan-Daria and of the Keriya-Daria use it in their primitive and isolated abodes. Sometimes an old felt rug is propped up by poles and becomes a tent, in which dwell the shepherds of Central Asia.

This felt rug is made of the hair of the camel, goat, or sheep, or by a mixture of all these kinds. It is matted together by heavy and constant pounding, moistened with water, turned and beaten again and again until it becomes compact and solid. Sometimes the felts are decorated with colored threads and often the name of the weaver is woven in. Among the best felts are those made at Astrabad and Yezd.

In color felts are gray, brown, or white. The last named are woven at Khotan. No dye is used; the hue is that of the hair of the animal, or the composite hue resulting from the mixture of the hair of different animals.

[Illustration: DERBENT RUG

SIZE, 7.2 x 4.6

As a representative Derbent rug, this is an excellent example. It has the soft thick texture and long pile characterizing this product of the Caucasus. The entire dark blue field is covered with well-proportioned lozenge-shaped forms, distinctly outlined with serrated lines. Every centre has a cross of a color contrasting with the form containing it. The main border stripe is geometrical, with a variety of the hook design. Several floral devices are arranged in the maroon stripes on either side the wide one. There is a good deal of lustre to the rug, and the coloring is particularly charming in fine blues, soft rose, fawn, copper brown, subdued yellows, ivory, and rich green.

OWNED BY MRS. ARTHUR DANE WHEELER, CHICAGO.]

The felts have no seams, and are from one to four inches thick. Although this material is of far more ancient date than the days of St. Clement, a legend connects his name with the discovery of felt. The tradition is that while on a pilgrimage the Saint, having put a wad of carded wool into his shoes to protect his feet from blisters, found at the end of his journey that the pressure and moisture had converted the wool into felt.

HUNTING RUGS

The hunting rugs of Persia are the most remarkable and interesting rugs in existence. They had their origin in the Chinese pictures of hunting scenes, from which they were copied. They were undoubtedly made as early as the sixteenth century for the Shah. Exquisite in their weaving, marvellous in coloring, and of rare sheen, they are worthy of the closest attention. Nor is this their only merit; they serve as records of ancient customs, depicting the method of the chase, and portraying the mounted hunters in pursuit of the elephant, lion, phoenix, deer, and other creatures, fabulous and real. There are perhaps twelve of these precious rugs in existence. One, in silk, belongs to the Imperial House of Austria, another to Baron Adolphe Rothschild, a third is in the Palace at Stockholm, and a fourth, in wool, smaller than those mentioned, is in the possession of M. J. Maciet, Paris.



V

RUG-WEAVING IN EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES

In the preparation of this section of this work, there has been no attempt or desire to slight in any way the weaving industry of the West. It has not seemed advisable, however, to go into many details on the subject, for it is one easily learned from many sources by any one who desires. There is not the mystery about Occidental weaving that there is about Oriental, the latter perhaps appealing to our innate desire of acquiring knowledge difficult of access. A short account of rug-weaving in Europe and the United States will, therefore, be quite as satisfactory to the general reader as a more lengthy description.

GREEK RUGS

Greek rugs are almost as ancient as Greece herself. Many an old love-song of this land has praised the skill of the woman deftly plying the hand loom. But if one expects to see the glory of ancient Greece, in its perfection of form and design, transmitted in any degree to the industry of modern rug-weaving he will be disappointed. From time immemorial rugs have constituted a most important part of the dowry of a young girl from the provinces. Even now the courting of a bride in Crete is often prefaced with the question whether the girl is skilled in the handling of a loom. But the modern Greek rug is seldom seen outside of its own country, for it is generally made for home use, and the weaver is not easily induced to part with it. Besides this, the foreign market would not be large for them, especially in competition with the well-known and excellent Oriental rugs.

Greek rugs are of two kinds—the heavy ones which serve for floor coverings in the winter, and the thinner, which are used all the year round. Both are made of home-produced wool, often with hemp woof, and are worked by women and girls only, in wooden looms of a primitive order.

Athens is the only place in Greece where rugs are produced in a factory. Under the patronage of Her Majesty the Queen, an Association for the Education of Poor Women exists. This philanthropic association has founded an industrial institution which employs four hundred women and girls in its various departments, of whom about thirty are engaged in rug-weaving. The best rugs are those purely Grecian in design and quality, and for these special orders are generally sent in. The rugs thus woven are durable and effective. Sometimes an attempt is made to imitate Turkish rugs, but without their superb effect. Coarse rugs of an inferior class are sold in the bazaars of Athens. The predominant color in these is a dingy white, with stripes of various colors at the ends. The rug is really durable, though the noticeable, fuzzy nap soon wears off.

MOORISH AND SPANISH RUGS

The Arab conquerors of Spain, or the Moors as they are often called, are believed to have taught the Spaniards and Venetians the art of rug-weaving. The rugs now known as Moorish are made by the descendants of this race. Their leading color is yellow, and in style and quality they resemble the so-called Smyrna rug. Antique Moorish rugs are found in the cathedrals of Toledo and Seville. These are relics of the thirteenth century and have geometric designs.

Morocco rugs are Moorish. Those of modern manufacture are very inferior. The poorest aniline dyes are used, and it seems hardly possible that the splendid specimens of the fourteenth to the end of the seventeenth century were woven in Morocco. But the rugs in the Sultan's palace at Fez prove this fact, as does the splendid antique rug in the possession of Prince Schwarzenberg, at Vienna. Fez was formerly one of the chief seats of the rug industry, which is now limited mostly to Rabat. Unfortunately, aniline dyes are now largely used, and even the designs are less artistic than in former years. There is, however, a rug not known to the trade, and only rarely met with outside its home. It is the Tuareg rug, and is woven by the Berbers, a tribe occupying the desert south of Algeria and Tunis, and known as Tuareg or Tawarek by the Arabs. The Tuaregs are great traders, and control the principal caravan routes. Their rugs are woven by the women, and seldom if ever leave the families which weave them. The most beautiful are used as shrouds, and are buried with their owners.

Tunis sends out a few rugs woven at Kairuan. They are thick, heavy, but inferior in many ways to rugs of Oriental workmanship.

BOSNIAN, SERVIAN, ROUMANIAN, AND BULGARIAN RUGS

Bosnian rugs in olden times were sometimes very fine. Then came years of general depression, when the industry of weaving fell into decay. Finally the Austro-Hungarian administration was established at Bosnia, and new life was given to the work. Looms were erected by the Government, and a number of women were sent to Vienna, where they were taught the art of weaving. Returning to Bosnia, they were able to impart to others the knowledge they had gained, and thus the work prospered. To enhance further the value of these rugs, the latest designs in the old Bosnian rugs were selected, and by the harmonious blending of these with new designs and colors, modern rugs were made, which show decided improvement.

Servian rugs are woven throughout all Servia, but the principal seat of the industry is at Pirot, on the southern boundary of the Balkan Mountains. The rugs are of wool, and the best are very durable. The dyes are generally vegetable, the weaving is a home industry, and the designs are all worked on a black or red ground. The preferment in the modern rug is for red, but the older rugs had the black ground. The general design is an extended square, in the centre of which is a panel. The rest of the field is filled with stripes and geometrical forms in rather bright and varied coloring.

Roumanian rugs of modern make are quite inferior. They are woven on ordinary hand looms in the villages and towns among the mountains of Roumania. They are coarse, and the designs are in stripes, zigzag lines, or straight-lined figures. Occasionally flower designs have appeared, but these have been poorly reproduced, and in the most unsuitable combinations of color. Old Roumanian rugs are not in the market. They are owned by private individuals, and are not to be procured except at very high prices, if at all. These rugs differ from the modern ones in their better workmanship and designs.

Bulgarian rugs, as a rule, are very coarse in texture, loosely woven, and unattractive. Occasionally Bulgarian rugs are seen with finer weaving and well-chosen colors. Both men and women take part in preparing the wool, the former setting up the simple looms, preparing the darker dyes, and arranging the warp. The women choose the designs and colors, and weave the rugs. The colors commonly used are yellow, blue, brown, black, white, green, and red.

ENGLISH RUGS

In England the introduction of tapestries as hangings for walls was made by Eleanora, sister of Alfonso the Tenth of Castile, when she became the wife of Edward the First. In her journeyings these fabrics of the loom were carried as part of the royal baggage, and must have given some sense of cheer, particularly when they clothed the bare walls of the dreary castle of Caernarvon.

Edward the Third (1327-1377) invited Flemish weavers to settle in England. At that time England produced wool in large quantities, although very few fabrics were woven there, nine-tenths of the wool being sent to Ghent or Bruges to be manufactured; for the Flemish were the first people in the northern part of Europe who advanced in the arts and in manufactures. Throughout Northern and Western Europe rugs were seldom used, except for wall hangings and table covers, until the time of the Reformation in Germany.

Great Britain is now quite active in the manufacture of rugs with certain designs, a decided impetus to the improvement of this industry being given by Mr. William Morris, the English poet and artistic decorator, who was born near London in 1834.



The Morris Rug. With strong, firm texture, fine vegetable dyes, and with purely artistic designs, the Morris rug bears testimony to-day to the honesty, perseverance, and skill of the man for whom it is named. He himself testifies: "I am an artist or workman with a strong inclination to exercise what capacities I may have—a determination to do nothing shabby if I can help it." Decorative art in many branches is the richer to-day for the influence of Mr. Morris, but it is his rug-making that now claims attention. Mr. Bernhard Quaritch informs me in a letter dated August 31, 1899, that Mr. Morris learned the art of making rugs from a volume of the work entitled "Descriptions des Arts et Metiers." Mr. Morris had his own loom, and not only wove rugs, but dyed the wool for them himself, and instructed pupils, to whom his inspiration was a power. Long and laboriously he worked to achieve the best results, using vegetable dyes only, and he was finally successful. No dyer of the Orient could have been more pleased than was he when his efforts resulted in soft, glowing tints.

In design Mr. Morris excelled. He educated the popular taste by bringing forth the beauties of the simpler forms of the floral and vegetable world; he delighted especially in displaying the acanthus in varied conventional forms. Every rug he designed bears witness to his enthusiasm for harmony. Too aesthetic, some critics declare him to have been; but no one can deny the importance of his creations, for England needed to be awakened to a knowledge of her own inability to appreciate artistic decoration of the home, especially by means of the productions of the loom. It was this very fact, and his inability to procure artistic furniture such as would satisfy his aesthetic taste, that started Mr. Morris to create those fabrics which he desired.

FRENCH RUGS

The art of rug-weaving was first introduced into the West by the Moors when they conquered Spain. With the advance of civilization it proceeded to the land of the Gauls, where during the reign of Henry the Fourth it was brought from Persia. An inventor named Dupont was placed in charge of a workroom by the King, in the Palais du Louvre about the year 1605. In the year 1621 an apprentice of Dupont's, named Lourdes, was instructed to establish the industry of weaving in a district near Paris, where was the Hospice de la Savonnerie, an institution for poor children. The factory was called La Savonnerie because the building had been previously used for the manufacture of soap. Since 1825 La Savonnerie has been consolidated with the Gobelins manufactory. In 1664, Colbert, minister to Louis the Fourteenth, founded the establishment at Beauvais which is owned by the French Government, as is also that of the Gobelins, which Colbert bought of the Gobelin family. But it is to the Saracens that France ultimately owes the origin of her famous tapestries, and it is to the Saracens, through France, that Western and Northern Europe trace their obligation.

The industry has attained large proportions in France. At Aubusson alone over two thousand work-men are employed in rug-weaving. A fine specimen of the work done there is a rug of Oriental design made for a collector in New York. The piece-work system is now generally used throughout the weaving districts of France. The manufacturers themselves usually place the rugs on the market. France buys the greater quantity, although many are exported.

Austria-Hungary, Germany, Holland, and Italy have also had some experience in rug-weaving, and even little Switzerland at one time attempted its introduction, but with unsatisfactory results. Belgium, however, was more successful, for Brussels still produces a large number of rugs.

THE UNITED STATES

The United States is largely occupied in rug-weaving, and the centre of the Eastern section of this manufacture is Philadelphia. But in various sections of the country there are rug factories, both large and small.

The Abenakee rug is made at Pequaket, New Hampshire. It is the result of a desire on the part of Mrs. Helen R. Albee to give profitable employment to the women of the rural community where she lives. Her success is now assured, and the reward for much labor and thought has come in a lively demand for the rug.

The Abenakee rugs are not woven. They are an evolved form of the much despised New England hooked rug, which was made by drawing strips of old rag through burlap. The thick, soft, velvety Abenakee rugs of the present day are far removed in color, design, and texture from their humble ancestors. These rugs are all wool, hand-dyed in warm tones of terra-cotta, old rose, old pink, tans, dull yellows, rich old blues, olive and sage greens, and old ivory. They are made to order usually, to match in their ground color some special color in the room where they are to be placed, and the borders are made in harmonious tones. The range of design is wide, from Oriental to Occidental—from Japanese to North American Indian. But all suggestions, so soon as received, are modified and removed as far as possible from direct imitation of any foreign rugs. Mrs. Albee has aimed, not to reproduce Oriental effects, but to have the designs original and distinctive. Fortunately, for years previous to the establishment of this industry, she had studied the principles of design and their application to various textiles, and the knowledge which she thus acquired has proved most valuable.

The designs are bold and effective, but fineness of detail is precluded by the strips of material, each of which is a quarter of an inch wide. The color is arranged in broad masses.

The New England Hooked or Rag rug has for its foundation a strip of burlap or sacking. Through this, strips of cloth are hooked, which form loops, and this surface may be sheared or not, as the maker desires. There is such an absence of attractiveness in the old-time rag rug, that several women of taste and experience in art methods have sought the improvement of this industry. The results have been excellent, so that, ugly as the original rug is, it is esteemed as being the progenitor of the more artistic Abenakee, Sabatos, and Onteora rugs.

The Sabatos rug is a product of the little mountain village of Center Lovell, Maine, started in 1900 by Mrs. Douglas Volk of New York. She has now about a dozen women engaged in the work, this number including the spinners, dyers, and weavers.

The Sabatos rug is durable, harmonious in color and design, and is distinctly a home product. The wool of which it is made is sheared from the flocks of sheep in the vicinity. The shearing takes place annually in June; the wool is then carded, spun, and dyed. The threads of hand-spun wool are worked through a hand-woven webbing, and securely knotted or tied with a specially devised knot. The designs thus far are mainly adaptations from the native American Indian motives, which are simple and characteristic, furnishing a chance for broad color effects.

A special point is made of the dyes employed, those of vegetable origin ruling, and only those dyes which from experience have been found to be practically fast are used,—such for instance as genuine old Indigo blue, madder root, and butternut.

Berea College, Kentucky, is endeavoring to encourage the weaving of rag rugs of a superior order. So far, the industry which was started in 1905, is in a primitive state, the natives preferring to weave cotton and wool coverlets, the designs of which they brought across the mountains with them from Virginia in the early settlement of Kentucky. Floor rugs they consider troublesome. The weaving is carried on in the homes throughout the mountains of that region known as "Appalachian America"; it is really a survival of the old Colonial industry. The rugs are woven of strips of new ticking, and are especially designed for bath-rooms, children's nurseries, and porches. The coloring is done with the vegetable dyes and native barks and roots. The color schemes are the simple ones of a primitive people.

Navajo Rugs. The Navajo Indian Reservation covers about eleven thousand square miles, about six hundred and fifty of which are in the northwest corner of New Mexico, and the remainder in the northeast portion of Arizona. The region is well adapted for the raising of sheep, and every family possesses flocks, which are driven from place to place for pasture. The Navajos, however, never go to any great distance for this, but keep generally within a radius of fifty or sixty miles from home. This tribe weaves a rug that is useful, unique, durable, and when at its best, impervious to rain. Among the tribes, and in some Western homes, they are used as blankets, but it has become a fashion in many of the best houses in the Eastern States to use them entirely as rugs, couch coverings, and portieres.



It is believed that the Spaniards, when they arrived in that section of North America inhabited by the Pueblo tribe of Indians, communicated to them the industry of weaving these rugs, and that the Pueblos taught it to the Navajos. Thus it appears that the weaving of the Navajo rug was a result of the Moors' invasion of Europe. The sheep, which are raised by thousands, were also introduced by the Spaniards. The wool is not washed until after the shearing. In the last quarter of the nineteenth century the Navajos began to use the shears of the white man; previously they procured the wool by cutting it off the body of the animal with a knife, and pulling it from the legs.

The native dyes are red, yellow, and black, and the natural colors of the wool are black, gray, and white. The dyes of the white man are now much used. Formerly there was a beautiful blue, which has given way to the indigo. A scarlet cloth called Bayeta was once much used in the weaving of these rugs, but Germantown yarn and other inventions of the white man have largely superseded the old-time materials and methods.

The spindle is of the crudest form, and sometimes the wool is simply picked out from the mass, and rolled into the yarn or thread on the hand.

The looms are fashioned after the most primitive ones of the Orient, and the weaver sits on the ground and weaves upward. Women do most of the weaving, but occasionally a dusky-faced man may be seen at the loom. It takes about a month to weave a rug six feet ten inches by five feet seven inches.

The designs in the Navajo rugs are many, and mostly in angles and straight lines, the serrated diamond design being common, as is the swastika or fylfot. The weaver makes up her own designs as she goes along, occasionally only tracing it in the sand.

There is a symbolism attached to many forms in these rugs. The square with four knit corners represents the four quarters of heaven and the four winds. A tau cross is a symbol of protection and safety, and a prayer to the Great Spirit. A spiral form represents the purified soul, and a double spiral is a symbol of the soul's struggle. A wave mark represents the sea, over which the people came from a far country. Black is the symbol of water, regarded as the mother or spirit. Red is the symbol of fire, and is regarded as the father.

The native costume of the women of the Navajo tribe consists of two small rugs in dark blue or black, with a bright stripe at each end. They are of the same size, and sewed together at the sides, except where a place is left open for the arms. Formerly the Indians reserved their hand-made rugs for their own use, but now that there is so great a demand for the work of their hands, they sell those rugs, and content themselves with blankets of factory make.

Old Navajo rugs, like Oriental ones, are growing scarcer every year, and naturally are becoming more valuable and desirable. The fine textures, perfect workmanship, and glowing colors are seen at their best in productions of the past.



VI

MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

INSCRIPTIONS ON RUGS

We are occasionally indebted to an Oriental scholar for a translation of an inscription on a rug; often these inscriptions show the religious belief of the maker.

One fine rug in a museum in Austria has the following inscription: "Allah! No God exists besides Him, the Living, the Eternal. Nothing causes Him to slumber or to sleep. To Him belongs everything in heaven and on earth. Who can intercede with Him without His permission? He knows what is before and what is behind, and only so much of His wisdom can be grasped as He permits. His throne fills heaven and earth, and the support of both to Him is easy. He is the High One, the Exalted!"

A rug of Persian weave owned by Baron Nathaniel Rothschild has, worked in the oval cartouches, an inscription translated by Professor F. Bayer as follows:

1. "Honored mayst thou be in the world, Among the clever and wise.

2. May no sorrow be allotted thee by an unfavoring Heaven, And may no care torment thy heart.

3. May earth be all to thee that thou wouldst have it, and destiny prove thy friend. May high Heaven be thy protector.

4. May thy rising star enlighten the world, And the falling stars of thine enemies be extinguished.

5. May every act of thine prosper, And may every year and every day be to thee Spring-time."

In the Industrial Museum at Berlin there is a rug with this inscription: "There is no Deity but God, and Mahomet is His Prophet."

On a Persian silk rug is a line from the Koran: "All perisheth but His face."

Another rug has: "God is greatest! He is great!"

Often a marking in a corner of a rug is simply the name of the maker, and the date.

The Holy Carpet of the Mosque at Ardebil, now in the South Kensington Museum, at London, has the following interesting inscription woven in black characters in the light cream cartouche at the top of the carpet. Translated it reads:

"I have no refuge in the world other than thy threshold. My head has no protection other than this porchway. The work of the slave of this Holy Place, Maksoud of Kashan In the year 946."

(The year 946 of the Hegira corresponds to A. D. 1568.)

ORIENTAL SYMBOLS

All Oriental rugs have designs, and every design is symbolical. To the connoisseur, as well as to the owners of rugs, it is vastly interesting to understand the meaning attached to these symbols by the Orientals. Every one is familiar with the tree design in some of its various forms, and with the stiff little birds and the many odd and strange-looking animals which frequently are seen on an Eastern fabric of the loom. Yet each unique figure has a meaning, and it is a fascinating, as well as an apparently endless task, to find the hidden significance of these symbols. If one goes no further, he should at least become familiar with the designs on his own rugs, and know, if possible, what they typify.

The rug itself symbolizes Eternity and Space, and the filling or plan is the symbol of the world—beautiful, but fleeting and limited.



CHINESE SYMBOLS

BAT Happiness.

BUDDHIST SCEPTRE Success in literary labors.

CHI-LIN (a kind of doe) Nobleness; gentleness.

CLOUD-BAND The Deity.

COCK AND HEN ON AN ARTIFICIAL ROCK-WORK Pleasures of country life.

CRANE Immortality.

CROW Evil.

DEER Official emolument.

DRAGON The imperial emblem, signifying increase and imperial grandeur.

DRAGON WITH FIVE CLAWS ON EACH OF ITS FOUR FEET Exclusive emblem of the Emperor.

DRAGON AND PHOENIX Newly wedded pair.

DUCK Conjugal affection.

GOOSE Domestic felicity.

GOURD Happiness.

LION Victory.

MAGPIE Good luck.

OLD MAN LEANING ON A STAFF Long life.

OWL Dread.

PEACH Old age.

PHOENIX The Emblem of the Empress.

STORK Long life.

TORTOISE Long life.

TREE OF LIFE WITH SEVEN BRANCHES ON A SHORT STEMSeven days of Creation.

YOUNG STAGS Long life.

EGYPTIAN SYMBOLS

ASPS Intelligence.

BAT WITH A RING IN ITS CLAWS Duration.

BEE Immortality.

BEETLE Earthly life and the development of man in the future state.

BLOSSOM Life.

BOAT Serene spirit gliding upon the waters.

BULL Source of life.

BUTTERFLY Soul.

CARTOUCHE Eternity.

CRESCENT Celestial virgin.

CROCODILE Beneficent Deity.

DOVE Love; mourning of a widow.

EAGLE Creation; preservation; destruction; power.

EGG Life.

EYE OF OSIRIS Eye of the Eternal Judge over all.

FEATHER OF AN OSTRICH Truth; justice. (The ostrich itself does not appear In Egyptian art.)

FEATHERS OF RARE BIRDS Sovereignty.

FROG Renewed birth.

HAWK Power.

IBIS Usefulness; the heart.

LIZARD Divine wisdom.

LOTUS The Sun; creation; resurrection.

NILE KEY Life.

PALM TREE Immortality; longevity.

PAPYRUS Food for mind and body.

PINE CONE Fire.

POMEGRANATE Life.

ROSETTE A lotus motive.

SAIL OF A VESSEL Breath; the belief that the soul is inactive and worthless until revived by the breath of the mind.

SCARABAEUS Immortality; resurrection; a ruling providence.

SOLAR DISK WITH SERPENTS Royalty.

SPHINX Beneficent Being.

STAFF IN THE HANDS OF THE GODS Purity.

SUN Deity; life.

VIPER Power.

WHEEL Deity.

ZIGZAG Water.

INDIAN SYMBOLS

ASS Humility; austerity.

BANIAN OR BURR TREE Deity (because of its outstretched branches and overshadowing beneficence).

BUTTERFLY Beneficence of Summer.

FYLFOT CROSS OF BUDDHISM Auspiciousness.

KNOT AND FLOWER DESIGN Divine bounty and power.

SERPENT Desire.

JAPANESE SYMBOLS

PINE TREES Long life.

STORKS Long life.

TORTOISES Long life.

PERSIAN SYMBOLS

DESCENDING EAGLE Bad luck.

EAGLE Light; height.

FLYING EAGLE Good luck.

HOUNDS Fame; ever increasing honor.

LEOPARDS Fame; ever increasing honor.

LION Power; victory.

PEACOCK Fire; light.

PHOENIX Immortality.

STANDING EAGLE Good luck.

SUN Light.

SWORD Force.

TREE OF HEALTH Immortality.

TREE OF LIFE Knowledge; truth.

The Coat of Arms of Persia is the Lion holding a sword in his paw, and with the Sun at his back.

TURKISH SYMBOLS

CRESCENT Increasing power.

The Turkish Coat of Arms is the Crescent and the Star. These heavenly bodies are supposed to signify growth.

MISCELLANEOUS SYMBOLS

ANEMONE Good fortune.

BAT Maternity.

BIRD Spirit.

BOAR Winter.

BUTTERFLY Ethereal soul.

CIRCLE Eternity; perpetual continuity.

CYPRESS TREE Tree of life; immortality; perfect and renewed life.

DOG Destruction; vigilance.

ELEPHANT Patient endurance; self-restraint.

EVERGREENS Immortality.

FIR CONE An existence terminated but united—the union of the tribes against the dominion of Rome.

FLY Destroying attribute.

HARE Fertility.

HEART Man morally.

HIPPOPOTAMUS Destroying power.

HOG Deep meditation.

JUG Knowledge.

LILY Purity.

OLIVE Consecration to immortality.

OWL Wisdom.

OX Patience; gentleness.

PEACOCK Resurrection (because of the annual renewing of its plumage, and from a belief in the incorruptibility of its flesh).

PHOENIX Good luck; herald of prosperity; birth of great men.

PIG Universal kindness.

RAM Spiritual leadership.

REED Royalty.

RHINOCEROS Religious recluse.

SCORPION Invincible knowledge.

SERPENT Life; immortality.

SPEAR Destructive power.

SPIDER Slave of passion.

SQUIRREL Averter of evil.

STARS Divinity.

SWASTIKA Good fortune.

TURTLE Constancy.

WHEEL Universe.

WINGS Spontaneous motion.

WOLF Destroying power.

MEANINGS OF SOME OF THE PLACE-NAMES ASSOCIATED WITH RUGS

AKHISSAR White Citadel.

BAGDAD Abode of Peace.

BAKU Place of Winds.

BELUCHISTAN Land of the Beluchis.

BHAGULPORE Tiger City.

BOKHARA Treasury of Sciences; the Noble.

DECCAN The South Land.

DERBENT Fortified Gate.

FARS Land of the Farsi or Persians.

FU-CHAU Happy City.

GILAN The Marshes.

GULISTAN The Rose Garden.

HAIDERABAD Gate of Salvation.

HERAT The Pearl of Khorassan; the Gate of India.

ISLAMABAD Abode of Islam.

ISPAHAN Place of Horses.

JERUSALEM Heir of Peace.

KANDAHAR Key of India.

KARABAGH Country of the Sun.

KARA DAGH Black Mountains.

KELAT Castle.

KHORASSAN Land of the Sun.

KWATAH Citadel.

MECCA The Heart of Islam; the Holy City.

MESHED Tomb of a Martyr.

MIRZAPORE City of the Emir.

NING-PO Peaceful Wave.

PESHAWAR Advanced Fortress.

SAMARKAND The Head of Islam.

SHANG-HAI Approaching the Sea.

SRINAGAR City of the Sun.

TABRIZ Pinnacle of Islam.

TEHERAN The Pure.

YEZD City of Light; City of Worship.

GEOGRAPHICAL DATA

Owing to the variety of ways in which the names of Oriental localities are spelled when transliterated, it is extremely difficult to establish a standard of spelling. Many curious examples of this occur both on maps and in dictionaries. It is certainly confusing to open an atlas that is supposed to be an authority, and find that the name one seeks differs in spelling from that used in the atlas first consulted. Then by looking into dictionaries it is found that each of these has a different way of spelling the word sought. Then turning to a guide book of the country there will probably be found not only another combination of the letters, but also a conflict between the descriptive matter in the book and the map accompanying it. When books of travel are consulted, the embarrassment is still further increased.

After having accepted a mode of spelling geographical names for use in this volume, I propose in the pages that follow to assist the reader to locate the places mentioned, by assigning them to their respective countries, so that at a glance he may identify them. This classification will also be a key to the map.



Occasionally the name of a place has been inserted which is not rug-producing, but only a mart for the selling of rugs. This has seemed advisable as the names are intimately associated with the rug industry.

LOCALITIES ARRANGED GEOGRAPHICALLY

Afghanistan

BALKH. CHARIKAR. GHAZNI (GAeZNE). GULISTAN. HERAT. ISTALIF. JELALABAD. KABUL (CABUL, CABOOL). KANDAHAR. ZERNI.

Beluchistan

BAGH (BHAG). BELAR. GUNDAVA. JHALAWAN (DISTRICT). KELAT. KHOZDAR. MASTUNG. ORMARAH. QUETTA (KWATAH). RUSTAM KHAN. SARAWAN (DISTRICT). SONMEANI.

Chinese Empire

CANTON. FU-CHAU. HANG-CHAU. KIANG-SU. NING-PO. SHANG-HAI. SHAN-TUNG. SU-CHAU. TIENT-SING. TSI-NAN. TSING-CHAU. TSING-NING.

Province of East Turkestan

KARASHAR. KASHGAR. KUCHA. YANGI-HISSAR. YARKAND.

India

AGRA. AHMEDABAD. ALLAHABAD. ALLEPPI. AMBALA (UMBALLA). AMRITSAR. BAHADAPUR (DISTRICT). BANGALORE. BARDWAN. BARELI (BAREILLY). BELLARY. BENARES. BEYPUR. BHAGALPUR (BOGLIPOOR). BIJAPUR. BOMBAY. CALCUTTA. CAWNPUR. CHANDA. DECCAN (DEKKAN-PENINSULA). DELHI. ELLORE. GOA. GORAKHPUR (GORUKPORE). HAIDERABAD (HYDERABAD). JABALPUR (JUBBULPORE-JUBBULPUR). JAIPUR (JEYPORE). JALANDHAR (JULLINDER). JAMMU (JAMU). JODHPUR. KASHMIR (STATE, BRITISH INDIA). KHYRPUR. KOHAT. KOTAH. KUSHMORE. LAHORE. LUCKNOW. MADRAS. MALABAR (DISTRICT). MANDALAY. MASULIPATAM. MERUT. MIRZAPUR. MORADABOD. MULTAN. MURSHIDABAD. MYSORE. NAGPUR. NORTH ARCOT (DISTRICT). PATNA. PESHAWAR. POONA (POONEH). RAIPUR. RAMPUR. RANGPUR. SERAMPUR. SHIKARPUR. SRINAGAR (SERINUGGAR). SURAT. TANJORE. WARANGAL.

Japan

AITSI-KEN. KIOTO. SAKAI. TOKIO.

Persia

AARAGH (PROVINCE, WRITTEN IRAK ON MAPS). ARDEBAL (DISTRICT). ARDEBIL. ASTRABAD. AZERBAIJAN (PROVINCE). BIBIKABAD. BIJAR. BIRJAND. BUJNURD. BURUJIRD. BUSHIRE. ENZELI. FARS (PROVINCE FARSISTAN). FERAGHAN. GASK. GHILAN (GILAN). HAMADAN. HEREZ. IRAK-AJEMI (PROVINCE). ISPAHAN (MARKET ONLY). KAIN (GHAIN, GHAYN). KARA DAGH (DISTRICT). KASHAN. KERMANSHAH (KERMANSHAHAN). KHONSAR. KHORA-MABAD. KHORASSAN (KHORASAN, PROVINCE). KHUZISTAN (ANCIENT SUSIANA, PROVINCE). KIRMAN. KUCHAN. KURDISTAN (THE PERSIAN PORTION). LAR. LARISTAN (PROVINCE). LURISTAN (PROVINCE). MAKRAN (MEKRAN, DISTRICT). MAZANDARAN. MEHRAN. MESHHED. NIRIZ. NISHAPUR. OUSTRI-NAN. RAWAR. RESHT. SHIRAZ. SHIRWAN. SHUSTER. SINNA. SIRAB. SULTANABAD. TABRIZ (TABRIEZ). TEHERAN (MARKET ONLY). YEZD. ZARAND.

Russian Empire

ASTRAKHAN. BAKU. BATUM. DAGHESTAN (GOVERNMENT). DERBENT. ERIVAN. KARS. KAZAN. SHUSHU.

{ DAGHESTAN. CAUCASIA { DERBENT. { KUBA.

{ KARABAGH. TRANSCAUCASIA { SHEMAKHA. { SHIRVAN.

Central Asia

BOKHARA. FERGHANA (PROVINCE). HISSAR. KHIVA. KOKAND (KHOKAND). SAMARKAND.

Turkey in Asia

REGIONS

ARABIA. ARMENIA. ASIA MINOR OR ANATOLIA. KURDISTAN. MESOPOTAMIA. SYRIA.

DISTRICTS AND TOWNS

ADANA. ADIAMAN (ADIYEMEN). AFIUM-KARA-HISSAR. AIDIN. AKHISSAR. AKSHEHR. ALEPPO. ALTUN. ANATOLIA (DISTRICT). ASIUM. BAGDAD (BAGHDAD), SHIPPING PORT. BEHESNE. BEIRUT. BERGAMA (BERGAMO, PERGAMO). BRUSA (BROUSSA). CAESAREA. CHAL. CONSTANTINOPLE. DEMIRDJI. DIARBEKIR. EL-HOSN. ERZERUM. FAKEH. GEMERIK. GHIORDES (GORDIS, QOURDES, GUeRDIZ, ancient Gordus). HAIDAMOOR. HAKKAM. HAYZOOR. HEREKE. HISSAR. HOMS. HOSSU. JERUSALEM. KAISARIEH (CAESAREA). KARAHISSAR. KARAMAN. KERKUK. KHORSABAD. KIR-SHEHR. KONIEH. KULAH (KOULA, COULA). KUTAHIA (KUTAI, KUTAYAH). LADIK. MARASH (MARESH). MECCA. MEDINA. MILASSA (MELASSO, MYLASSO). MOSUL (MOUSSUL). OUCHAK (USHAK, OUSHAK). SAFIETA. SAVAS. SHARJAH (SHARKAH). SHIRVAN. SMYRNA (MART ONLY). SOHAR. SPARTA. TREBIZOND. URFA (OORFA). ZILEH (ZILLEH, ZELI).

Africa

CAIRO (MART).

KAIROUAN (the only place where the genuine Tunisian rugs are now made).

MISRATAH.

TAJURA.

TRIPOLI.

France

AUBUSSON.

BEAUVAIS.

ROUBAIX.

TOURCOING.

TOURNAY.

Greece

AGRINION. RACHOVA. OWEPHISSA.

LOCALITIES ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY

A

AARAGH, PERSIA. ADANA, TURKEY IN ASIA. ADIAMAN, TURKEY IN ASIA. AFIUM-KARA-HISSAR, TURKEY IN ASIA. AGRA, INDIA. AGRINION, GREECE. AHMEDABAD, INDIA. AIDIN, TURKEY IN ASIA. AITSI-KEN, JAPAN. AKHISSAR, TURKEY IN ASIA. AKSHEHR, TURKEY IN ASIA. ALEPPO, TURKEY IN ASIA. ALLAHABAD, INDIA. ALLEPPI, INDIA. ALTUN, TURKEY IN ASIA. AMABALA, INDIA. AMRITSAR, INDIA. ANATOLIA, TURKEY IN ASIA. ARDEBAL, PERSIA. ARDEBIL, PERSIA. ASIUM, TURKEY IN ASIA. ASTRABAD, PERSIA. ASTRAKAN, RUSSIA IN ASIA. AUBUSSON, FRANCE. AZERBAIJAN, PERSIA.

B

BAGDAD, TURKEY IN ASIA. BAGH, BELUCHISTAN. BAHADAPUR, INDIA. BAKU, RUSSIA IN ASIA. BALKH, AFGHANISTAN. BANGALORE, INDIA. BARDWAN, INDIA. BATUM, RUSSIA IN ASIA. BEAUVAIS, FRANCE. BEHESNE, TURKEY IN ASIA. BEIRUT, TURKEY IN ASIA. BELAR, BELUCHISTAN. BELLARY, INDIA. BENARES, INDIA. BERGAMA, TURKEY IN ASIA. BEYPUR, INDIA. BHAGALPUR, INDIA. BIBIKABAD, PERSIA. BIJAPUR, INDIA. BIJAR, PERSIA. BIRJAND, PERSIA. BOKHARA, CENTRAL ASIA. BOMBAY, INDIA. BRUSA, TURKEY IN ASIA. BUJNURD, PERSIA. BURUJIRD, PERSIA. BUSHIRE, PERSIA.

C

CAIRO, EGYPT. CALCUTTA, INDIA. CANTON, CHINESE EMPIRE. CAWNPUR, INDIA. CHANDA, INDIA. CHARIKAR, AFGHANISTAN.

D

DAGHESTAN, RUSSIA IN ASIA. DECCAN, INDIA. DELHI, INDIA. DEMIRDJI, TURKEY IN ASIA. DERBENT, RUSSIA IN ASIA. DIABEKIR, TURKEY IN ASIA.

E

EL-HOSN, TURKEY IN ASIA. ELLORE, INDIA. ENZELI, PERSIA. ERIVAN, RUSSIA IN ASIA. ERZERUM, TURKEY IN ASIA.

F

FAKEH, TURKEY IN ASIA. FARS, PERSIA. FERAGHAN, PERSIA. FU-CHAN, CHINESE EMPIRE.

G

GEMERIK, TURKEY IN ASIA. GHAZNI, AFGHANISTAN. GHILAN, PERSIA. GHIORDES, TURKEY IN ASIA. GOA, INDIA. GORAKHPUR, INDIA. GULISTAN, AFGHANISTAN. GUNDAVA, BELUCHISTAN.

H

HAIDAMOOR, TURKEY IN ASIA. HAIDERABAD, INDIA. HAKKAM, TURKEY IN ASIA. HAMADAM, PERSIA. HANG-CHAU, CHINESE EMPIRE. HAYZOOR, TURKEY IN ASIA. HERAT, AFGHANISTAN. HEREZ, PERSIA. HISSAN, CENTRAL ASIA. HISSAR, TURKEY IN ASIA. HOMS, TURKEY IN ASIA.

I

IRAK-AJEMI, PERSIA. ISPAHAN, PERSIA. ISTALIF, AFGHANISTAN.

J

JABALPUR, INDIA. JAIPUR, INDIA. JALANDHAR, INDIA. JAMMU, INDIA. JELALABAD, AFGHANISTAN. JERUSALEM, TURKEY IN ASIA. JHALAWAN, BELUCHISTAN. JOOHPUR, INDIA.

K

KABUL, AFGHANISTAN. KAIN, PERSIA. KAIROUAN, AFRICA. KAISARIEH, TURKEY IN ASIA. KANDAHAR, AFGHANISTAN. KARABAGH, RUSSIA IN ASIA. KARAHISSAR, TURKEY IN ASIA. KARAMAN, TURKEY IN ASIA. KARASHAR, EAST TURKESTAN. KARS, RUSSIA IN ASIA. KASHAN, PERSIA. KASHGAR, EAST TURKESTAN. KASHMIR, INDIA. KAZAN, RUSSIA IN ASIA. KELAT, BELUCHISTAN. KERKUK, TURKEY IN ASIA. KERMANSHAH, PERSIA. KHIVA, CENTRAL ASIA. KHONSAR, PERSIA. KHORA-MABAD, PERSIA. KHORASSAN, PERSIA. KHORSABAD, TURKEY IN ASIA. KHOZDAR, BELUCHISTAN. KHUZISTAN, PERSIA. KHYRPUR, INDIA. KIANG-SU, CHINESE EMPIRE. KIOTO, JAPAN. KIRMAN, PERSIA. KIR-SHEHR, TURKEY IN ASIA. KOHAT, INDIA. KOKAND, CENTRAL ASIA. KONIEH, TURKEY IN ASIA. KOTAH, INDIA. KUBA, RUSSIA IN ASIA. KUCHA, EAST TURKESTAN. KULAH, TURKEY IN ASIA. KURDISTAN, PERSIA. KUSHMORE, INDIA. KUTAHIA, TURKEY IN ASIA.

L

LADIK, TURKEY IN ASIA. LAHORE, INDIA. LAR, PERSIA. LARISTAN, PERSIA. LUCKNOW, INDIA. LURISTAN, PERSIA.

M

MAKRAN, PERSIA. MALABAR, INDIA. MARASH, TURKEY IN ASIA. MASTUNG, BELUCHISTAN. MASULIPATAM, INDIA. MAZANDARAN, PERSIA. MECCA, TURKEY IN ASIA. MEDINA, TURKEY IN ASIA. MEHRAN, PERSIA. MERUT, INDIA. MESHHED, PERSIA. MILASSA, TURKEY IN ASIA. MIRZAPUR, INDIA. MISRATAH, AFRICA. MOSUL, TURKEY IN ASIA. MUJUR, TURKEY IN ASIA. MULTAN, INDIA. MURSHIDABAD, INDIA. MYSORE, INDIA.

N

NAGPUR, INDIA. NING-PO, CHINESE EMPIRE. NIRIZ, PERSIA. NISHAPUR, PERSIA. NORTH ARCOT, INDIA.

O

ORMARAH, BELUCHISTAN. OUCHAK, TURKEY IN ASIA. OUSTRI-NAN, PERSIA. OWEPHISSA, GREECE.

P

PATNA, INDIA. PESHAWAR, INDIA. POONA, INDIA.

Q

QUETTA, BELUCHISTAN.

R

RACHOVA, GREECE. RAMPUR, INDIA. RANGPUR, INDIA. RESHT, PERSIA. RUSTAM KHAN, BELUCHISTAN.

S

SAFITA, TURKEY IN ASIA. SAKAI, JAPAN. SAMARKAND, CENTRAL ASIA. SARAKHS, PERSIA. SARAWAN, BELUCHISTAN. SERAMPUR, INDIA. SHANG-HAI, CHINESE EMPIRE. SHAN-TUNG, CHINESE EMPIRE. SHARJAH, TURKEY IN ASIA. SHEMAKHA, RUSSIA IN ASIA. SHIKARPUR, INDIA. SHIRAZ, PERSIA. SHIRVAN, RUSSIA IN ASIA. SHIRVAN, TURKEY IN ASIA. SHIRWAN, PERSIA. SHUSHA, RUSSIA IN ASIA. SHUSTER, PERSIA. SINNA, PERSIA. SIRAB, PERSIA. SIVAS, TURKEY IN ASIA. SMYRNA, TURKEY IN ASIA. SOHAR, TURKEY IN ASIA. SONMEANI, BELUCHISTAN. SRINAGAR, INDIA. SU-CHAU, CHINESE EMPIRE. SULTANABAD, PERSIA. SURAT, INDIA.

T

TABRIZ, PERSIA. TAJURA, AFRICA. TANJORE, INDIA. TEHERAN, PERSIA. TIENT-SING, CHINESE EMPIRE. TOKIO, JAPAN. TOURCOING, FRANCE. TOURNAY, FRANCE. TREBIZOND, TURKEY IN ASIA. TRIPOLI, AFRICA. TSI-NAN, CHINESE EMPIRE. TSING-CHAU, CHINESE EMPIRE. TSING-NING, CHINESE EMPIRE.

U

URFA, TURKEY IN ASIA.

W

WARANGAL, INDIA.

Y

YARKAND, EAST TURKESTAN. YEZD, PERSIA.

Z

ZARAND, PERSIA. ZERNI, AFGHANISTAN. ZILEH, TURKEY IN ASIA.

LIST OF AUTHORITIES

ALLEN, J. ROWELLY: Early Christian Symbolism.

American Journal of Archeology.

ASHENHURST, THOMAS R.: Design in Textile Fabrics.

AUBER, M.L., ABBE: Bible Myths.

BABELON, ERNEST: Manual of Oriental Antiquities.

BALL, J. DYER: Things Chinese.

BIRDWOOD, SIR GEORGE C.: The Industrial Arts of India.

BISHOP, Mrs. ISABELLA L. BIRD: Journeys in Persia and Kurdistan.

BISHOP, Mrs. ISABELLA L. BIRD: Unbeaten Tracks in Japan.

BLACKIE, C.: Dictionary of Place Names.

BODE, WILHELM: Vorderasiatische Knuepfteppiche.

Bonnick's Egyptian Belief and Modern Thought.

BRUMMER, MARTIN: Egypt, Three Essays on the History, Art, and Religion.

BUDGE, E.A. WALLIS: The Mummy Badge.

Century Atlas, The.

Century Dictionary, The.

Chambers's Encyclopaedia.

CLARKE, SIR C. PURDON: Oriental Carpets. (English Edition. Published by the Imperial and Royal Austrian Commercial Museum. Vienna, 1892.)

Constable's Hand Atlas of India.

COXON, HERBERT: Oriental Carpets.

CURSON, Hon. GEORGE N.: Persia and the Persian Question.

DAVIS AND COBERN: Ancient Egypt.

DENNY, M.B.: The Folk Lore of China.

DRESSER, CHARLES: Carpets.

EDWARDS, AMELIA: Third Lecture, Pharaohs, Fellahs, and Explorers.

ELKINS, JOSEPH, D.D.: Ancient Symbolism among the Chinese.

ELY, TALFOURD: Manual of Archaeology.

Emmaus's Life in Ancient Egypt.

EVANS, E. P.: Animal Symbolism in Ecclesiastical Architecture.

FABER, GEORGE STANLEY: Origin of Pagan Idolatry.

FERGUSSON, JAMES: Tree and Serpent Worship.

FUSENBETH, F. C., D.D.: Emblems of Saints.

GOODYEAR, WILLIAM H.: The Grammar of the Lotus.

HEDIN, SVEN: Through Asia.

HULME, F. EDWARD: Symbolism in Christian Art.

Iconographic Encyclopaedia of the Arts and Sciences.

INMAN, THOMAS, M.D.: Ancient Faiths.

JAMES, A. G. F. ELIOT: Indian Industries.

JONES, OWEN: The Grammar of Ornament.

Journal of the Society of Arts.

KARABACEK, Dr. JOSEPH: Die Persische Nadelmalerei.

KNIGHT, RICHARD PAYNE: The Symbolical Language of Ancient Art and Mythology.

LANDOR, A. HENRY SAVAGE: In the Forbidden Land.

LAYARD, AUSTEN HENRY: Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh.

LAYARD, AUSTEN HENRY: Nineveh and Babylon.

LAYARD, AUSTEN HENRY: Nineveh and Its Remains.

LENORMANT, FRANCOIS AND CHEVALIER, CHARLES: Manual of the Ancient History of the East.

LESSING, JULIUS: Oriental Carpets.

LUeBKE, WILHELM: History of Ancient Art.

MALCOM, Sir JOHN: History of Persia.

MARVIN, CHARLES: Merv, the Queen of the World.

MASPERO, GASTON C. CHARLES: Manual of Egyptian Archaeology.

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