At the farther end of the salle des Procureurs is a door, which leads into the ancient Grand Chambre (great Chamber), in which the court of assizes are now held. This hall may be considered as the finest in the kingdom. The ceiling, which is divided into sculptured compartments, decorated with gilt bronze ornaments, is of oak to which time has given the appearance of ebony. The whole of the flooring was formerly covered with arabesques, according to the custom of the reign of Lewis the XIIth. From this floor, an ancient fire place which existed in the Chambre de Conseil, or Counsel Hall, a curious painting which the antiquarian Millin mentions in his national antiquities and on which witnesses were sworn have all disappeared.
On the exterior, only two parts of this elegant edifice, that which is exposed to the setting sun, and the middle one to the south, have retained their primitive beauty. The latter is now under repair and renovation. At the commencement of the last century, the modern portion of the building which faces the west, was erected. The front of this building fell to the ground on the 10th of april 1812, and brought down with it the whole ceiling, which was painted by the celebrated Jouvenet, who, having his right hand paralysed, painted with his left, and in a manner worthy of such a painter, the Triumph of Justice.
Considerable embellishments have taken place in the court of the Palais. The massive flight of stone steps, which led to the salle des Procureurs, and which especially hid from view the beautiful angular turret, has been removed. A new staircase has been erected at the middle of the facade, before the door of the prisons, the entrance to which, is at the side. This staircase is composed of a single straight flight, of five metres (fifteen feet) in breadth, and is crowned by a porch in the style of the building. The ancient wall, which closed the court on the side of the rue aux Juifs, has been replaced by a cast iron railing, in the gothic style. The front of the Palais being thus exposed to view, the aspect of the edifice becomes as imposing as picturesque. Behind the Palais-de-Justice, in the rue Saint-Lo, is a large building, which answers the purpose of a court of appeals, for the cour royale. The offices of the town-hall were established here during the revolution. It was formerly the residence of the first presidents of the parliament of Normandy.
TOWER DE LA GROSSE-HORLOGE.
The following inscription, which is engraved on a brass plate, and is perfectly well preserved, is placed above the door at the foot of the staircase.
En lan de lincarnarian nee segour. mil ccc.xx.iiii. et neuf. fu comence rest berfrop: et Es ans ensuiuas iusques en lan mil. ccc.xx.iiii. et xviii. fu fait et parfait. ou quel temps noble home mess. Guille de Bellengues rheunllier chambellen di Roy nostre Sire estoit cappitaine de reste ville. honorable home pourneu et sage Johan de la tuille bailly. et sire Guillaumealorge. Johan mustel. Guille de gaugy. Richart de sommery. Nicolae le roux. Gaultier campion, ronseillers de la Dicteville. et pierres hermes reseueur d'icelle.
Proceeding on, we ascend the tower of the belfry, by a flight of two hundred steps, at the top of which is the bell, with the following inscription:
JE SUI: NOMME: ROUVEL: ROEJEN: LE SENON: ME SJSE: SERE: REGAN: DAMJENS: ME FJST
We perceive by this inscription, that this bell was named Rouvel, and not Rembol, as tradition would have it; but it is better known under the name of the Cloche d'argent (silver bell), although not a grain of silver entered into the composition of it. It rings every night at nine o'clock. It also rings peals on occasion of any national rejoicings or public calamities. This bell was made in the year 1447; it was then called the horloge du Beffroi. The stone vault, which crosses the street, at the place still called porte Massacre (the murder gate) was erected in 1527. On each side of this arcade, we perceive the dial plates and medallions.
Under the Vault, in the centre, we see sculptures representing a shepherd tending sheep. On each of the sides, are other sheep grazing. To the left, and facing the old market place, we may read the following inscription: Animam suam ponit pro ovibus suis, which indicates sufficiently the allegory of this composition, if we did not also see on the opposite side these other words: Pastor bonus.
Beside the arcade, but nearer to the rue des Vergetiers, the tower of the Belfry rises. We perceive a platform at the top of the tower, surrounded by an iron railing, from whence is a view of the whole town. Above is a dome, surmounted by a small steeple.
THE COVERED MARKETS.
About the middle of the Xth century, Richard Ist, surnamed Sans-Peur, and third duke of Normandy, caused a palace to be erected on the Seine, which consisted of a large tower and served at the same time as a defence to the town. It was also the state prison. Henry Ist added several buildings. Several fortifications had been previously erected, the former being then called the Vielle-Tour (old Tower). This tower was destroyed by Philip-Augustus; it was there, according to the greater number of historians, that in 1204 the cruel John-Sans-Terre caused his nephew, Arthur of Britanny, to be confined, and murdered him with his own hand. The present halles (covered markets) occupy the greater portion of the site formerly occupied by the palace and the Vieille-Tour, which has left its name to the two markets we are presently going to speak of.
Those vast warehouses for different manufactures, called halles (or marts), were erected in the second half of the XIIIth century, about the time when Lewis IXth fixed the fifth enclosure of the town of Rouen. These marts are considered the most important in France. The most considerable portion, and also the most ancient of the whole building, is set apart for the sale of linen cloths. Its length is two hundred and seventy two feet, by fifty in breadth. The roof is supported by two rows of stone pillars. The two other marts, one for coton stuffs and the other for worsted stuffs and cloth, are each two hundred feet in length. These marts were open till about the year 1493, at which time they were enclosed, to prevent vagabonds taking shelter in them. The linen mart separates the market which is held on this place in to two unequal portions. The larger occupies the north side, and is called the place de la Haute-Vieille-Tour; it is reserved for the sale of old linen, old utensils and particularly for the sale of crockery and glass ware. The second occupies the south side, and is called the Basse-Vieille-Tour, because it is considerably lower than the other portion. Several kinds of eatables are sold here, especially fish.
There formerly existed a very beautiful fountain in the middle of the higher place, which was composed of a triangular pyramid, surmounted by a statue of Alexander; but not the least vestige of it remains. The present fountain is supplied with water from the Gaalor spring.
Near the linen-mart, we observe a remarkable edifice, which projects from the rest of the building, called the monument of Saint-Romain. This structure however does not form part of the marts, to which it has not the least resemblance. Neither did it form apart, of the palace of the ancient dukes of Normandy, as some persons still believe. The style of its architecture sufficiently indicates the time of its erection, namely 1542. The corinthian order of architecture appears in the whole height of the building. It was on the first floor that the celebrated old ceremony, called the levee de la Fierte, for the delivrance of a prisoner, took place every year.
In the neighbourhood of the linen and cotton marts, is the corn mart; it is three hundred feet in length, its breadth being in proportion. It is open three days in the week: mondays, wednesdays and fridays: the two others marts are open only on fridays.
[Footnote 18: To have all accounts of this ceremony, see the work of Mr Floquet, entitled: Histoire du Privilige de Saint-Romain, etc,—Rouen, E. Le Grand, 1833, 2 vol. 8vo.]
Untill the year 1493, the merchants of Rouen had no place of meeting alloted to transact their commercial affairs. They met however, in the cathedral but, without authorisation. The municipal authorities, wishing to put a stop to this state of things, made an arrangement with the bailiff of Rouen, who issued a decree: "That there should be erected at the lower end of the New-Market place, and at the expense of the town, a large stone building, and on the second floor of this edifice, a large hall was to be reserved for the use of the merchants of the town, those of other nations also having the same right, to meet and transact their affairs; which hall is to be named, for the future, the common town hall."
The stone building here spoken of, is that vast wing, which closes the court of the Palais-de-Justice to the west; and the common town hall is that known under the name of Salle des Procureurs or des Pas-Perdus.
About the year 1664, the merchants company obtained a portion of ground on the quay, where they met untill 1827. Since then, that portion of ground has been given up to enlarge the quay. The meridian which ornamented this ancient exchange, is now placed in the garden of the town hall. Since the straightening of the quay, the uncovered exchange has been placed before the Consuls—(or covered exchange) so that the one might communicate with the other: it occupies the portion of ground, which is situated between the rue Nationale and the rue des Iroquois, and is surrounded by an iron railing.
TRIBUNAL OF COMMERCE,
COMMONLY NAMED THE CONSULS.
It is in the gallery on the ground floor, that the merchants meet, when the rainy weather does not permit their meeting in the uncovered exchange: This was formerly the Juridiction consulaire; so its destination has not been changed since the tribunal of commerce is established here. In the middle of the gallery on the ground floor, and to the right on entering from the quay, we remark a handsome staircase, which is formed by a double flight of steps, from the first landing. Before the revolution, the statue of Louis XVth was placed here.
This staircase leads up to the audience hall of the chamber of commerce, which is the most remarkable of the three rooms which compose the first floor of the building. It is ornamented, with a fine picture of Christ by Van Dyck. In one of the neighbouring rooms are two paintings of large dimensions, by Lemonnier, a native of Rouen. One of these paintings represents the audience given by Louis XVIth to the Chamber of commerce of Rouen, on the 28th june 1786, in the great hall of the archbishop's palace, called the Salle des Etats. All the figures are of natural size, and are striking likenesses. The subject of the other painting is allegorical.
There are three different entrances to this edifice, one from the rue Nationale, another from the rue des Charrettes and a third from the Quay.
The edifice containing the ancient custom-house being a great deal too small and inconvenient for that purpose, it became indispensable to erect another building. For this object, the municipal administration opened a public competition on the 14th october 1833, for the erection of another edifice. In the month of may 1834, the preference was given to the plan of Mr Ed. Isabelle, a distinguished architect in Paris, who was charged with putting his plan into execution. The excavations were commenced on the 17th february 1835, in the presence of the mayor, the municipal council, etc., and the building was terminated in 1838.
The architectural appearance of this edifice reminds us a little of the severe style of the florentine architecture; the large doorway is ornamented with the attributes of commerce, as likewise the coping of the edifice; two bas-reliefs, of eight and a half feet high, and sculptured on stone by David, representing the symbols of navigation and commerce, decorate the middle of the facade on the first floor. This building is situated on the Havre quay, a little farther on than the old one. It has three entrances: the principal, on the quay, leads into a large rectangular court, which is covered with a cupola of cast-iron; opposite to the entrance of this court, is placed against the wall the fine bas-relief, which ornamented the front of the old custom-house, a very handsome piece of workmanship by Coustou, a statuary of the XVIIIth century; it represents Mercury with the different attributes of commerce. Two other entrances from the quay lead to the offices and dwellings of some higher persons attached to the customs. The lateral entrances serve as outlets to merchandise after having been searched or examined in the covered court.
The bonded and examining warehouses are on the ground floor, as likewise the offices of the comptroller, sub-comptroller and searchers; the entresole is destined for other offices; the first floor is occupied with the dwelling and offices of the director; and lastly, the second story contains the dwelling of the principal receiver and the residing comptroller.
The entrepot reel, is situated, behind the new custom-house; this warehouse is used for warehousing merchandise after the duties, have been paid. The front of this edifice which is situated in the rue des Charrettes, was erected in 1826.
Rue de Sotteville, suburb of Saint-Sever.
For a long time the municipal council had occupied themselves with the idea of endowing the town with an establishment of this description, the want of which was imperiously felt; numerous plans were presented and discussed; at last, after a thorough examination, the town obtained, by royal ordinance of the 18th august 1833, the authorisation to establish a public and common slaughterhouse, with apparatus for melting the tallow, scalding house and tripe house, on the fine property, which is situated in the rue de Sotteville, at the corner of the avenue de Grammont, bought for that purpose from Mr Burel.
A public competition was opened at the end of the year 1838 for the plans of this establishment, and the prize was decreed, on the 20th march 1834, to Mr Etienne-Theodore Dommey, an architect from Paris.
The first stone of this establishment was laid by Mr Hy Barbet, the mayor of Rouen, on the 28th july 1835, in the presence of the civil and military authorities and a large number of spectators.
This important establishment, which was built within the period of two years, and which is now completed, is one of the finest of this description. The expences, including the purchase of the ground, amounted to the sum of 970,000 francs, and the annual product is estimated about 80,000 francs.
The principal entrance is from the rue de Sotteville, a handsome gateway between two gate houses gives a view of the whole building. The total superficies of the buildings is of seven thousand three hundred and thirty seven metres, or about the same number of yards.
Spacious streets and avenues planted with trees permit of a free access to all parts of the establishment. It is well supplied with water, and has a canal to carry off the dirty water of the establishment, which allows its being kept very clean.
To visit the slaughterhouse, apply to the secretary general's office at the town hall.
Rue du Grand-Maulevrier.
The entrance court, is almost square, and surrounded on the four sides by buildings of a regular architecture. This portion formed the ancient college of the Jesuits. At a short distance to the north, and on a raised portion of ground, stands a large building formerly called the Joyeuse seminary, from the name of its founder, the cardinal de Joyeuse. These two establishments have now been united. That part, named Joyeuse, is exclusively reserved for the youngest children: they have their separate play ground, which is formed of the terraces of the garden. The courts, which are alloted to the other classes, are situated lower than the former. The college contains about two hundred boarders and five hundred day scholars.
The college church particularly deserves to be mentioned. Its porch is situated in the rue Bourg-L'abbe; we remark on the right of the entrance a statue of Charlemagne, which we recognise by the globe he holds in his hand; on the left, is that of Saint-Louis. The erection of this church was commenced in 1614. It was formerly intended to be attached to the college of the Jesuits. Marie de Medicis laid the first stone of this church, which was only finished in 1704, and dedicated on the 21st of december of the same year. Several paintings decorate the interior, which is grand and majestic. The public are admitted into this church during the hours of divine service.
The municipal administration has caused a handsome marble mausoleum to be erected to the memory of the cardinal de Joyeuse, the founder of the seminary, in one of the lateral chapels to the left on entering.
Rue de Lecat, at the extremity of the rue de Crosne.
The establishment of vast hospitals is very ancient in Rouen. The one of which I am speaking was formerly situated near the cathedral, between the Calende square and the rue de la Madeleine. The house which is opposite the southern porch of Notre-Dame, is a part of the remains of that hospital. In 1758, it was transferred to the new building, which had been erected in 1749, on the place called the Lieu-de-Sante, other buildings having been afterwards added.
The Hotel-Dieu is exclusively reserved for the reception of the inhabitants of the town, excepting cases of urgency, which after having been treated during six months, are dismissed as incurable, and are admitted into the Hospice-General, if they have dwelt during ten years in the town. More than four thousand persons are admitted into this hospital annually. About two thirds of the sick are under the care of the physicians, the remainder under that of the surgeons of the establishment. Different rooms are reserved for different maladies. One of these is alloted to soldiers; another, which is known under the name of Gesine, is reserved for lying in women. There is also a separate room for Children under five years of age, and several rooms for boarders.
There are in all fifteen rooms, containing together more than six hundred beds, the half of which are of iron.
The medical practice is divided into two distincts parts; that of physicians, that of surgeons. Their visits are made regularly twice in the day.
The Hotel-Dieu, is at the western extremity of the rue de Crosne-hors-Ville, which is planted with trees, and offers a fine avenue. The buildings which form the hospital (properly so called), are those which are situated opposite the entrance gate which gives admittance to the vast court of the hospital.
The two hospitals are under the same superintendance which is renewed by one fifth, every year. This commission acquires each day a greater right to public gratitude and especially to that of the poor.
This is situated in the lower part of the town, to the south-east, and occupies a vast portion of ground adjoining the boulevard Martainville. Gratitude causes us here to mention the name of Claude Groulard, first president of the parliament of Rouen, in 1602. From that date the establishment of an hospital, really took place for the reception of the poor sick inhabitants. Previously, there existed only a subsidy, for the relief of the poor. After Groulard, a counsellor of parliament, named Damiens, wishing to uphold more effectually the existence of the hospital; quitted his house and situation, on purpose to live within and in this way be nearer to watch over the wants of the poor.
The Hospice-General has been successively enlarged at different periods. Lately, they have made a considerable purchase of land, and erected vast buildings. Its population is of about two thousand individuals. Although under the same administrative commission as the Hotel-Dieu, it has its particular director, who acts under the superintendance of the commission, which commission is subject to the public administration.
The care of foundlings is one of the principal attributes of the Hospice-General. Orphans, who are found without means of existence, are brought up in the same way as those who are abandoned; excepting, that they are maintained at the expence of the communes to which they belong; while at the same time the others are chargeable to the departement; excepting however the assistence of the communes. The establishment provides the baby linen and clothing for the use of the foundlings; it likewise pays all the expenses of feeding and education of these children, as long as they remain in the hospital. When they are sent into the country, the amount of board, and nurses charges, till they attain the age of twelve years, is paid out of the funds of the departement. The Hospice-General, receives each year on an average about five or six hundred foundlings. A tour is always ready at one of the entrances to receive them. Once a week, two coaches filled with these unfortunate little creatures, are sent off one into the country called the pays de Bray, the other to that called the Roumois, where they are left with agents who are charged to leave them with the nurses. In each of those communes, doctors are employed by the administrative commission to visit them in case of sickness.
We perceive, the front of the church of the hospital, from the boulevard Martainville. In 1785, the ancient chapel belonging to this hospital being found too small to contain the population, it became necessary to erect the present for that purpose. This church was dedicated on the 25th march 1790. The architecture has been much criticised. Perhaps more harmony on the whole might have been desirable; but nevertheless, the different parts of it are handsome, and the edifice, such as it is, still does honour to its author, the late Mr Vauquelin.
The principal entrance to this hospital is situated in the rue Bourgerue.
THE ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE,
Situated in the rue Saint-Julien, suburb of Saint-Sever.
The freres de Saint-Yon, having been invited, in 1705, to come and establish themselves in Rouen, by the archbishop Nicolas Colbert and the first president Nicolas Camus de Pont-Carre, they accordingly purchased the portion of ground, which bears their name, in 1708. They erected the church themselves without the assistance of an architect, even acting as masons and workmen. The first stone was laid on the 7th june 1728. This edifice is of remarkable execution. In the exterior, its elevation is about ninety six feet including a lantern of about thirty, which stands above the transept of the edifice. In the interior, the length is one hundred and twenty five feet and the breadth twenty five feet. On the 16th of july 1734, the Freres de Saint-Yon, carried with great pomp, to their Church, the remains of their founder, the venerable Lasalle, who died in 1719, and was buried in the church of Saint-Sever. Independently of poor children, who were instructed by the monks according to their condition, they likewise received incorrigible children, who were sent by their parents to be taken care of; they also received a limited number of insane persons, thirty were habitually kept here at the expence of their families.
From the time when the Freres de Saint-Yon, as also all other religious communities, were suppressed, untill 1820, the house of Saint-Yon, became successivly a revolutionary prison, a barrack, a grenier d'abondance, or corn store house, a house of detention for spanish prisoners, an hospital for wounded soldiers in 1814, and a poor house. This last establishment was one of the most considerable of this description; but, it was suppressed in 1820, by royal ordonance.
Already in the preceding year, the Conseil general of the departement of the Seine-Inferieure had taken into consideration the deplorable state, to which the unfortunate insane were reduced, and they resolved to alleviate their wretched condition. It had been represented to them that these unfortunate people could not receive in the hospitals of Rouen, Havre or Dieppe, where there were great numbers of them shut up, the great attention, which their position required, or not even those which humanity demanded.
The conseil general on a proposition from Mr Malouet, then prefect of the departement, voted the establishment of a special asylum for the insane belonging to the departement. The buildings and dependencies of the ancient monastery of Saint-Yon were designated as being fit for that purpose. The situation of the place at the extremity of the suburb, and in a healthy situation, and the numerous plantations which it would be easy to make in the large gardens which surround the establishment, appeared as many favourable circumstances, to fix the choice of the administration.
Therefore, in 1821, they entered into a contract for the building of five different courts for the treatement of insane persons.
On the 25th August 1822, on the feast of Saint-Louis, the prefect Mr de Vanssay laid the first stone of the establishement.
From that time the works were carried on with activity. Already in July 1825, fifty seven patients had been admitted. This asylum contains at this time, 390 boarders and 150 poors at the charge of the departement.
It occupies a superficies of nine or ten hectares. The inmates are taken care of by the sisters of Saint-Joseph of Cluny.
The admirable order which reigns in the establishment, the internal management to which the insane are subjected, have already attracted the attention of foreign medical men, who are charged with the treatement of the same malady in the hospitals of their own countries. It may be said that this asylum has, for several years served as a model to all the others.
There are two principal prisons in Rouen: the house of correction, and the maison de justice, in the court of the Palais-de-Justice. The first, commonly called Bicetre, contains the debtors, prisoners accused but not tried, and those sentenced to imprisonment under twelve months; in the second those already convicted for crimes are confined. Those sentenced to more than twelve months are sent to the central depot at Gaillon, ten leagues distant from Rouen.
According to a statement made by Mr Vingtrinier, the principal physician of the prisons, the average of the population of the house of correction is about three hundred; that of the maison de justice about ninety; the mortality about one in fifty nine, in the first, and one in sixty eight, in the second.
There are three different barracks in Rouen: the first is situated near the quai aux Meules at Saint-Sever, and contains about one thousand men. The second on the Champ-de-Mars, and contains about seven hundred and fifty men. The third is the caserne Bonne-Nouvelle, situated in the suburb of Saint-Sever. Most people pass the ancient priory of Bonne-Nouvelle (so named by Queen Matilda, on receiving the news of the victory of Hastings), and see only a barrack. To the monks who formerly inhabited this ancient priory, cuirassiers, dragoons and foot soldiers have succeeded.
The barracks of Bonne-Nouvelle will contain about three hundred cavalry or about six hundred infantry.
HOTEL DU BOURGTHEROULDE,
Place de la Pucelle.
After the cathedral and Saint-Ouen, this town possesses no other monument which excites more the curiosity of french or English antiquarians. The first person who described the famous bas-reliefs of the Camp du Drap-d'Or, which ornament the exterior of the ancient gallery of the edifice, is dom Montfaucon in the 4th volume of his Monuments of the french Monarchy. He only did it, on the indications given by the abbe Noel, who gave the first explanations of these sculptures. After Montfaucon came Dr Ducarel, who has only copied the learned benedictine. Dibdin, the British antiquarian, has also paid his tribute of admiration to the hotel du Bourgtheroulde, in his Bibliographical, antiquarian and picturesque tour through France. Cotman and Dawson Turner, his countrymen, have given a place to this edifice in their respective publications. M. de Jolimont, in his most remarquable monuments in the town of Rouen devotes an article and two engravings to this edifice. MM. Nodier, Taylor and de Cailleux have enriched their picturesque and romantic tour, with a collection of lithographic engravings representing the celebrated interview between Francis Ist and Henry VIIIth, that took place in 1520 in a field situated between Guines and Ardres in Picardy. Mr A. Le Prevost has also written learned memoirs on the hotel du Bourgtheroulde. He has fixed the date of the building (about the end of the XVth century), and revealed the name of the founder (Guillaume-le-Roux), and facilitated the numerous descriptions which have been made of it. The most complete, is that given by M. Delaqueriere, in his work entitled: Historical description of the houses of Rouen.
In the short description that we give of this remarkable building, we must notice the bas-reliefs, six in number, which adorn the elegant hexagonal tower, in the inner court and represent pastoral scenes. We must also add that interpreters make a great mistake when they inform strangers that the celebrated maid of Orleans (burnt in 1431) was judged and imprisoned in this building.
ANCIENT ABBEY OF SAINT AMAND,
NON EST HIC ALIVD NISI DOMVS DEI.
The pious monks who caused this simple and touching inscription to be engraven over the gate of their monastery, never supposed that one day it would offer the most strange of solecisms. Enter this house and you will have great difficulty in believing that you visit one of the most celebrated abbeys in Rouen.
This abbey, which was founded and endowed by the pious lady Aimeline, and enriched by the liberalities of Robert-the-Magnificent, this once famous monastery, which was honoured by the protection of kings, is now a confused sort of inclosure and inhabited by workmen of different kinds. Dirty courts and buildings in ruin have been for a long time the only remains of the interior of Saint-Amand. Some parts nevertheless have escaped destruction. Such is a very curious building, which had been erected about the end of the XVIth century during the life of the abbot Thomasse Daniel. This edifice is extremely remarkable from the sculptures which cover the whole front, and chiefly represent pointed windows. On the first floor, we find a room with two fire places, on one we may still distinguish in spite of mutilation, the armorial bearings of the Daniel family. The wainscot is even more curious than the sculptures which ornament the front of the house. At one of the corners of this building there is a small turret, of stone, its form is polygonal; its ornaments are rich and in very good taste: it is a fine specimen of the productions of the renaissance.
The building, with a front of the Ionic order, which is separated from the other by the turret of which we have just spoken, contains a room, which a few years ago, excited the curiosity of connoisseurs. The fire place was surmounted by an oaken wainscot, which represented, in niches separated by pilasters, four figures, those of the virgin, the angel Gabriel, Saint-Margaret and Saint-Magdalen.
BUREAU DES FINANCES,
Opposite the front of the Cathedral.
This was the ancient Palace of the Court des Aides. The building is principally composed of hewn stone: it was built about the year 1509. Although this edifice has suffered numerous degradations, it still merits the attention of connoisseurs. The building has two separate fronts: the principal one opposite the cathedral, the other in the rue du Petit-Salut. The decorations are the same on both.
In 1705, the Cour des Aides was united to the Cour des Comptes, under the name Cour de Comptes, Aides et Finances de Rouen. The present edifice has nevertheless always retained the name of Bureau des Finances.
REMARKABLE HOUSES AND CELEBRATED MEN.
Ancient town hall, rue de la Grosse-Horloge and rue Thouret.
Sculptured wooden houses, Grande-Rue, no 115 and 129.
House, rue aux Juifs, no 47 and 49.
House, rue Perciere, no 11.
House, rue Bouvreuil, no 4.
House, rue Etoupee, no 4.
Houses, rue des Carmes, no 69 to 77.
House, rue Caquerel, no 13.
House, rue Damiette, no 29.
Houses, rue Eau-de-Robec, no 186, 221, 223.
Houses, rue Malpalu, no 90 and 92.
Houses, rue du Change, no 2 to 8.
Houses, rue du Bac, no 28 and 30.
House, rue des Cordeliers, no 45.
Houses which are remarkable as having been those in which the following celebrated men were born.
House in the rue de la Pie, no 4, where in 1606 the great Corneille was born.
House in the rue des Bons-Enfants, no 132-134, where Fontenelle, was born on the 11th february 1657.
House in the rue aux Ours, no 61. An inscription placed on this house reminds us, that it was here, that A. Boieldieu, the celebrated composer, was born.
House rue aux Juifs, no 9. Here Jean Jouvenet, the celebrated painter, was born on the 21st August, 1647.
To these celebrated names we must add the following of men equally natives of Rouen: Thomas Corneille (the brother of Peter), Lemery, Basnage, Samuel Bochart, the fathers Berruyer, Brumoy, Daniel, Sanadon, the painters Restout, Letellier, Sacquepee, Colombel, Lemonnier, Gericault, mademoiselle Champmesle, madame Du Boccage, Armand Carrel, Edward Adam, Dulong. Rouen is the birth-place of many other distinguished men.
STONE BRIDGE AND STATUE OF CORNEILLE.
This bridge was opened to the public, in 1829. It is about one hundred and fifty yards higher up than the bridge of boats, which was formerly almost opposite the rue du Bac. We may almost say that it is formed of two separate bridges, of which the two ends join each other on the western extremity of the Ile Lacroix. Each part of the bridge is composed of three arches. The span of the middle arch is of thirty one metres (93 feet french); the lateral arches, are of twenty six metres (78 feet); the whole length of the bridge is two hundred and sixty six metres (798 feet). In the centre of the platform on the bridge, is placed the bronze statue of Pierre Corneille, on a pedestal of white Carrara marble, which rests on a base of granite.
This statue is twelve feet high, and weighs 4540 kilogrammes (9274 pounds de marc). It was cast by Mr Honore Gonon, at Paris, after the model by Mr David. The pedestal is by Mr Gregoire, the civil architect of the Seine-Inferieure. The height of the monument is twenty six feet. The first stone was laid by the king, on the 10th september 1833. The statue was solemnly inaugurated, on the 19 october 1834. On one side of the pedestal, we distinguish the following inscription:
TO PIERRE CORNEILLE, BY SUBSCRIPTION, 1834.
This statue was erected by means of a subscription, opened by the Society of Emulation of Rouen. It is to this society that we owe the first idea of this national monument.
A medal was struck for the occasion, and represents on one side the head of Pierre Cornellie, with the following inscription:
Pierre Corneille, born at Rouen the 6th june 1606, died at Paris on the 1st october 1684.
And on the reverse, the statue, with this inscription:
Statue of bronze, erected by subscription to Pierre Corneille in his native town, through the exertions of the Society of Emulation of Rouen, in 1834.
[Footnote 19: Erected in 1626, it was demolished in september 1836.]
The numerous commercial trading vessels, which come up the Seine, were formerly obliged to wait several days, before they could get along side the quay to discharge. It became essential to enlarge the port, for which reason the stone bridge, at the entrance to the town, was built; but this arrangement rendered another bridge indispensable; and in 1828, the town council consulted on the possibility of removing the bridge of boats farther down; but the bad state it was in, and the enormous sum it cost to keep it in repair, and the length of time it took to open it for the passage of vessels, at once caused them to give up all idea of this old machine, formerly looked upon us a wonder; but, which did not now answer the purpose.
On the 8th of june 1834, a royal ordinance was issued, approving the undertaking. At last MM. Seguin brothers, civil engineers, and Pierre Colin, undertaker of public works, were, on the 16th october 1834, declared the approved contractors for the erection of the bridge; at the same time granting to them the receipts of the tolls for a period of 99 years, the bridge to be terminated at the latest, by the 1st of january 1837. And it was entirely completed by the 1st september 1836 (the very day the bridge of boats was suppressed). At the expiration of the 99 years, the bridge will become the property of the government. Its breadth is seven metres thirty centimetres, its length 197 metres, and the whole expense has amounted to 750,000 fr. On the left of the bridge is situated a guard house, and on the right Brune's house, erected by the city as a reward for courage and devotedness on many occasions.
RIVER AND RIVULETS.
THE RIVER SEINE.
The source of the Seine is to be found near the hamlet of Envergeraux, and about two leagues and half from the village of Saint-Seine, in Burgundy. After a course of more than 200 leagues from east to west, it falls into the Ocean, between Havre and Honfleur.
The depth of the Seine at Rouen allows this town to be classed amongst the principal ports of France. They calculate at from 2000 to 2500 the number of vessels of all sizes, which annually come this port.
[Footnote 20: See: Voyage from Havre to Rouen; and Excursion from Rouen to Paris, by the Seine. Rouen, 1839, in-18vo, with maps and plates.]
This rivulet has its source near the village of Fontaine-sous-Preaux; about two leagues from Rouen, runs through five communes, and enters Rouen by the suburb Saint-Hilaire; passing through the town, it falls into the Seine, near the stone bridge.
The Aubette has its source at Saint-Aubin, a small village near Rouen. This rivulet runs through Saint-Leger-du-bourg-Denis, Darnetal, enters Rouen by the suburb Martainville, and falls into the Seine, at the entrance to the Cours-Dauphin, near the porte Guillaume-Lion. These two rivers are specially useful for mills and dying establishments.
If the etymology of the name Renelle is doubtful, the utility of the stream at least is not so. It supplies numerous tanneries, of which there are still a great many in the street which bears its name. This sort of industry is very ancient in Rouen, and has never been established in any other part of the town. On the 22nd of march 1560, the parliament issued an act, ordering all the tanners to remove their establishments to the Eau-de-Robec; but, they said that they required clear water to carry on their trade, and therefore, were allowed, by order of the king, to remain on the Renelle. This rivulet comes from the Gaalor spring, and flows from the fountain of the Bailliage, almost in a straight line to the Seine, into which it falls.
The more churches there were in a town, there should be as many public fountains. Under the ancient law, a tub was placed at the entrance of the temples, in which the priests washed their hands and feet; under the new, and in imitation, fountains were placed near the churches, where the christians, before entering, washed their face and hands. This remark was applicable especially, in Rouen, before the revolution, where the number of churches and fountains was quite equal. There are not now thirty seven parochial churches; but we can still count thirty six public fountains, not including those in many private houses.
Of all these fountains, only seven merit particular attention, from their architectural and historical character. They are the fountains of the Croix-de-Pierre, the Crosse, the Grosse-Horloge, the Vieux-Marche, the Pucelle, Saint-Maclou, and Lisieux.
FOUNTAIN OF THE CROIX-DE-PIERRE,
There formerly existed, not far from the fountain known at present under the name of the Croix-de-Pierre (stone cross), a cross, which had been raised through the piety of the inhabitants; but, we now can find no authentic document of the period of its being erected; all we know is that it had been rebuilt in the year 1628.
This fountain is composed of three partitions in the form of a pyramid, and is ornamented with some statues; its appearance is exceedingly fine. One may still form an idea of the beauty of its architecture, in spite of its ruinous condition, and even the repairs it has undergone.
FOUNTAIN OF THE CROSSE,
At the corner of the streets des Carmes, and de l'Hopital.
This is a small monument in the gothic style of the end of the XVth century. The sculptures which decorate it, are remarkable for their fineness and delicacy. It is surmounted by a royal crown. Its name comes from its being situated at the corner of the house, which had for sign the crozier belonging to the monks of Notre-Dame de l'Ile-Dieu.
Some etymologists see in the word Crosse, an alteration of the english word cross. In the year 1815, this fountain was completely renewed.
FOUNTAIN OF THE GROSSE-HORLOGE,
At the corner of the streets des Vergetiers, and the Grande-Rue.
FOUNTAIN OF THE VIEUX-MARCHE,
On the old market place.
A modern square building, of the doric order. It was erected by Mr Bouet, an architect of Rouen.
FOUNTAINS OF SAINT-MACLOU, AND OF THE PUCELLE.
Strangers will be repaid for their trouble in going to see these fountains. The first, is situated at the corner of the church of Saint-Maclou; there remain still two figures of children, an elegant creation of Jean Goujon. We mention the second, the fountain of the Pucelle, on the place of the same name, on account of the historical recollections, which are attached to it. It is a heavy composition of Paul Slodtz. Its want of style causes us to regret the beautiful triangular fountain, which was erected after the execution, in this square; of the heroine of Vaucouleurs, a monument which instead of destroying, they should have tried to preserve.
FOUNTAIN OF LISIEUX,
Rue de la Savonnerie.
This fountain is by far the most remarkable of the whole. It is thus named on account of its being erected against a house, which belonged to the bishop of Lisieux, who lodged in it when he came to Rouen. At the top of the pyramid, we may remark Apollo, dressed in a most extraordinary manner, and represented playing on the harp. Under the god of the poets, we distinguish the horse Pegasus. Immediately beneath, a figure with three heads is represented, of which the manuscripts make a philosophy. The nine muses are distributed in the rest of the masonry, under the figure with three heads, which might almost be that of a Hecate. Rocks, trees, turf and sheep, form the accompaniements of this Mount-Parnassus.
The water ran formerly from two brass figures of Salamanders, which indicated the date of the time of Francis the first. Mutilated as it is, this monument is still very curious, and merits to be visited. Its erection dates from the year 1518.
[Footnote 21: According to these manuscripts, the three heads represent Logic, Philosophy and Metaphysics. They were surmounted by a crown.]
Rouen has also its mineral waters, which, even in the neighbouring towns, have a sort of reputation, I will point out three of the principal sources, after Lepecq de la Cloture: The first, to the east, is known under the name of la Marequerie, to which we arrive by the rue Martainville; the second, to the south east, named de Saint-Paul; the third is situated at Deville, in the neighbourhood of Rouen. The learned doctor, on whose authority I speak, assures us that sick people to whom he ordered the water of the last named spring, were cured by the use of it. He also adds, that this spring might become very valuable to the inhabitants of the western quarter of the town. Nevertheless, it has never been much known, and even at the present day very few people are acquainted with its existence.
SQUARES AND MARKET PLACES.
OLD MARKET AND PLACE DE LA PUCELLE.
The name of the first of these two places points out to us that it is the most ancient in Rouen; it is also the most considerable. It existed in the XIth century, and was at that period, situated in the suburb. Formerly, it covered a much larger space of ground than at present; since, in the XVIth century, it occupied the whole of the ground contained between the rue du Vieux-Palais, the church of Saint-Eloi and Saint-Michael; the last mentioned church has disappeared within the last few-years, and is replaced by a handsome building, which is named the Hotel Saint-Michel. About the commencement of the XVIth century, the houses in the neighbourhood of the church of Saint-Eloi and the rue du Vieux-Palais, were erected; one of them still remains, it is the Hotel da Bourgtheroulde, which I have already described. The old market was thus divided, into two unequal parts. The spot where the innocent Joan of Arc was burnt in 1431, retains the name of place de la Pucelle. It is also called place du Marche-aux-Veaux, on account of its former destination. It is then on the old market place, that the French heroine was sacrificed to the superstition of that age.
Fruit, eggs, cream cheeses, or small Neufchatel cheeses: such are the supplies to be found in this market. About fifty years ago, a gilt leaden statue, representing Louis XVth in his youth, and covered with the royal mantle, was to be seen. This monument has been replaced by the present obelisk, which furnishes an abundant supply of water to the inhabitants of this quarter.
Before 1429, this place served as a poultry and grass market. In 1537, it was paved and enclosed with a low wall. In 1641, two stone Crosses, still visible in some ancient engravings, were placed at the two corners. In the time of Pommeraye, the parvis Notre-Dame, was the place on which bonfires were lighted. At present it is the flower and seed market, regularly held on the sundays and fridays.
PLACE DE LA CALENDE.
It was formerly called Port-Morant, port des navires, or port de Notre-Dame, because, before the first dukes enclosed the Seine within certain limits, the vessels discharged their cargoes at this place. The house which is exactly opposite the porch of the church and on which we distinguish a dial, is the remains of the old Hotel-Dieu.
In the year 949, Otho, emperor of Germany, Louis IVth, king of France, and Arnold, count of Flanders, laid siege to the town of Rouen. The duke Richard Ist, surnamed Sans-Peur, made a sortie by the porte Beauvoisine, and fell on the enemies of which he made a great slaughter. This action took place partly on the site of the present Rouge-Mare (red-pool), from the blood with which it was covered.
In 1450, the Rouge-Mare became the horse market, which has, since the end of the last century, been transferred to the Boulingrin. The Rouge-Mare is now the butter market.
The English have returned to the French that which they had borrowed of them. Formerly, people did not go to walk on the boulevard, but on the boule-verd, from which the english have made bowling-green, a literal translation. From this word, the french derive their Boulingrin.
This place is situated at the junction of the rampes Beauvoisine and Saint-Hilaire; it is a vast square surrounded by a magnificent double row of horse chestnut trees. Since the horse market has been transferred to it, people commonly call it the new Rouge-Mare.
PICTURE GALLERY AND MUSEUMS.
At the Town Hall.
The opening of this library took place on the 4th july 1809. Since then, the inhabitants and strangers are admited into this establishment every day, (except Sundays, thursdays and during the vacations), from eleven till four, and from 6 till 9 o'clock in the evening. The present collection, consists of about thirty five thousand volumes. There are above eleven hundred manuscripts. Several of them are very curious and rare, from their date, their illuminations, or their subjects. Amongst the first, although not the most ancient, I will mention the famous Gradual by Daniel d'Aubonne, who died in the year 1714. It measures two feet seven inches in length by one foot ten inches in breadth and weighs seventy three pounds. It is ornamented with brass plates; on each side of the binding, we may observe the armorial bearings of the abbey of Saint-Ouen, which are also of brass. This manuscript contains about two hundred vignettes, initials of all sizes, and also a great number of gilt letters. One cannot admire too much the patience of the author, who passed thirty years, it is said, on this immense undertaking. The library contains also other manuscripts, infinitely more precious, amongst which are several of the XIth, IXth, and even of the VIIth and VIIIth centuries. The learned will distinguish amongst the most important of the manuscripts, the curious missal of archbishop Robert, which was brought from England about the year 1050, with the benedictionary, which was used at the coronation of the Anglo-Saxon Kings. These two manuscripts are ornamented with magnificent miniatures in the greek style of the empire. The books printed before the year 1500 amount to three hundred and twenty eight, of which two hundred and forty bear dates; the most ancient is of 1468.
The library contains also collections of great value and editions which have become very rare. The government has enriched it with several very valuable works. The most important gift that has yet been made to the library, is that which was sent, by the commission of records in England, of the collection of historical documents, which they have published. This magnificent gift, which will be followed by several others, is composed of 71 vols. folio, and 168 vols. 8 vo.
The Leber's magnificent collection of books and manuscripts, bought last year by the city, will shortly be added to the public library.
The present keeper is M.A. Pottier.
At the Town Hall.
The opening of the picture gallery took place on the same day (4th july 1809), as that of the library. The greater part of the paintings have been collected in the departement. The government has also assisted in enriching it, by giving several paintings of different schools, the municipal council by voting different acquisitions, and some private persons, by voluntary gifts. This interesting collection is composed of about three hundred paintings, amongst which we remark a Virgin in the midst of Angels, called the Virgin of Saint-Sixte, by Raphael, an admirable copy, if not a second original of the picture known under the same name in the gallery of Dresden; also three small paintings, placed next to each other, and which are incontestably by that great painter and in his best style; the Van Eyck representing the Virgin in the midst of young girls; a mass during the league, a painting which is curious on account of the subject and great personnages which it represents; a Conversion of saint Matthew, by Valentin; a saint Francis in prayer, by Hannibal Carrache; an Ecce Homo and a copy of the Holy family, by Mignard; a death of saint Francis, by Jouvenet; several marines, by Vernet; a descent from the Cross, by Lahire; the plague of Milan, by Lemonnier, of Rouen; and a great many others, which it would require too much room to mention here. At the extremity of the entrance gallery, we remark a statue of baked clay by Caffiery, representing Pierre Corneille. Several marble statues and plaster castes of the finest ancient statues, are placed in the room at the extremity of this gallery. The statues which we observe in the lobby are those of general Bonchamps, by David, and opposite, that of Achilles, by Bougron. The latter belongs to the academy, which possesses also the magnificent painting by Mr Court, representing Corneille complimented in the theatre by the great Conde and the fine portrait of Boieldieu, by Mr Boullenger de Boisfremont. These two paintings are placed in the hall of the academy, adjoining that of the library and picture gallery; strangers are permitted to see them.
During the month of July, there is an exhibition of paintings, principally by artists of Rouen.
The establishment is open to the public on sundays and thursdays, and every day to painters and strangers, from ten till four o'clock.
The present keeper is M.H. Bellange.
[Footnote 22: Another statue of Corneille, in marble, is placed in the large hall on the ground floor; it is a much esteemed work of Cortot, a french sculptor.]
MUSEUM OF ANTIQUITIES.
At Saint-Mary's, rue Poussin.
This museum, which was established in 1833, after a proposition of Mr Dupont-Delporte, prefect, by the general council of the departement, was opened to the public in 1834. It occupies two of the galleries of the cloister of the ancient convent of Saint-Mary. In the first gallery are the gallic, roman and gallo-roman antiquities, as also those of the middle ages; in the second, those of the period, termed the renaissance. This chronological order has been preserved as much as possible. The searches which have taken place in different parts of the departement, and especially in the roman theatre at Lillebonne, have produced the greater number of antiquities. A great many others are through the generosity of private individuals. This museum contains statues, busts, bas-reliefs, fragments of architecture, sarcophagi, urns of marble and stone; vases of bronze, glass and baked earth; gallic and roman medals, pieces of french coins, seals of the middle ages, stained glass, arms, pieces of furniture, utensils and ornaments of different ages.
This museum is open on sundays and holy days from eleven till four o'clock, and on tuesdays and thursdays for amateurs and strangers, from twelve till three o'clock.
The keeper is Mr A. Deville.
MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY.
At Saint-Mary's, rue Poussin.
The municipal administration of Rouen founded the gallery of natural history, in 1827; but, it was only in the year 1832, and after having been enriched by the administration of that time, that it was judged fit to be offered to public curiosity.
The increase of this museum has been rapid; already, within its few years of existence, it may be advantageously compared with most provincial collections; and through the maritime situation of the town, may one day be placed immediately after that at Paris. It is remarkable, for the numerous shells which it possesses, as also for some mammiferi, which are exceedingly rare. This gallery is open to the public, on sundays and holy days; foreigners and students may enter on any day.
Mr Pouchet is the director of this establishment.
ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, ARTS AND BELLES-LETTRES.
FREE SOCIETY OF EMULATION.
CENTRAL SOCIETY OF AGRICULTURE.
SOCIETY FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY.
SOCIETY OF MEDICINE.
SOCIETY OF THE FRIENDS OF ARTS.
COMMISSION OF ANTIQUITIES.
This garden was formerly situated on the Cours-Dauphin, but, the municipal administration wishing to render that portion of the town named Martainville, more healthy, entertained the project of opening a street at the entrance of the town, on the ground occupied by this garden; in consequence they sought another place, more suitable for a botanical garden. The place fixed upon, is the park of Trianon, where people formerly went, to visit the fine hot houses, and rare collection of dahlias and other plants, which belonged to a distinguished english florist, Mr Calvert.
This new botanical garden, is situated at the extremity of the rue d'Elbeuf, and forms a square of about 45,500 metres (or yards) surface. Mr Lejeune, an architect, gave the plan of this garden.
LECTURES ON CHEMISTRY.
These lectures take place every year, (beginning the 15th november), on tuesdays and saturdays at one o'clock, in one of the halls of the ancient convent of Saint-Marie. The lectures are principally on the application of chemistry to arts and industry.
LECTURES ON NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.
These lectures were instituted in 1835; they take place twice a week in the amphitheatre at Saint-Marie.
PUBLIC LESSONS IN DRAWING.
This school, founded by Mr Descamps, the author of the lives of flemish painters, is now established at Saint-Marie. The lessons commence in the month of november and finish in the month of august, from one o'clock till three.
LECTURES ON NATURAL HISTORY.
They take place in the amphitheatre, which is given for this science, and is situated at Saint-Marie, Poussin street. The lectures take place on tuesdays and saturdays, during the winter, at eight o'clock in the evening.
There are besides, at Saint-Marie, every sunday, lectures on geometry and mechanics applied to arts and manufactures, and lectures also on commercial law and book keeping.
SECONDARY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE.
The different branches are taught in the hospitals, by the physicians who are attached to these establishments.
The Theatre-des-Arts at the corner of the rues Grand-Pont and des Charrettes, was erected by Francis Gueroult, an architect of Rouen. The first stone was laid on the 18th june 1774, and the opening took place the 29th june 1776, on Saint-Peter's day and the fete of Corneille. This theatre was altered and lighted with gas, in 1835, and will contain about seventeen or eighteen hundred persons. The ceiling was painted by Lemoine, a native of this city, and represents the apotheosis of Corneille.
The peristyle fronting the rue des Charrettes is in the form of a quarter of a circle and is composed of columns of the ionic order. The medallion of Pierre Corneille is sculptured on the entablature which is supported by these columns, and on each side of the medallion, we perceive Melpomene with a dagger, and Thalia with a mask.
The performers for operas and comedies are generally good.
The second theatre is situated on the old market place and is called the Theatre-Francais; this building formerly used as a tennis court, was opened for theatrical purposes on the 2nd of february 1793. This theatre will contain about twelve hundred persons. Besides these two theatres, there is a third at the entrance of Saint-Sever, which is the circus or Ambigu-Dramatique.
PUBLIC WALKS IN ROUEN.
COURS BOIELDIEU AND THE EXCHANGE.
These are the fashionable walks. The bronze statue between the two is that of Boieldieu, the celebrated french composer a native of Rouen. It is the work of the sculptor Dantan the younger.
COURS DE LA REINE.
According to Farin, this public walk was formed for a walk for the ladies, and is one of the finest in the kingdom; its length is about 674 fathoms. Four rows of large elms form the whole length on the banks of the Seine. On holy-thursday, the Cours-de-la-Reine begins to be used as a fashionable promenade, and it may be said that on that day, it has a very gay appearance.
AVENUES OF MONT-RIBOUDET, AND COURS-DAUPHIN.
The first is the principal entrance to Rouen from Havre and Dieppe, and the second, at the opposite extremity of the quay, the entrance from Paris, Evreux, etc.
They occupy, for the greater part, the place of the ditches which surrounded the town; they were planted between the years 1770 and 1780 and were paved in 1783, at the expense of the town. They are about 3 miles in length.
WALKS WITHOUT THE TOWN.
Mount Saint-Catherine first presents itself. We may go to it, either by the Paris high road, or by the petites eaux Martainville. The last mentioned, although the least frequented, is perhaps the preferable route on account of the diversity of the landscape.
It will be useless for the traveller, when he has reached the top of the hill, to look for the ancient abbey of the Sainte-Trinite-du-Mont, the chapel of the priory of Saint-Michel, or the fortifications, in which the marquis of Villars withstood the attacks of Henry IVth; nothing of them remains at the present day, except two remnants of a wall, which threaten to fall on the traveller, who is imprudent enough to approach too near them.
From this elevated position, in turning towards the north-east, we see the valley of Darnetal, which has become so rich through the industry of those who inhabit it. The eye reposes with pleasure on the gothic tower of the church of Carville; and of which, according to tradition, Henry IVth, made a post of observation when he besieged the fort of the ligue. We must not forget that an English detachment, which served in the army of the king, conducted itself very bravely in the different attacks, with which it was entrusted. On the opposite side of the valley of Darnetal and towards the north, we distinguish the hill named des Sapins, on which the monumental burying ground is situated. This latter hill adjoins the Bois-Guillaume from which also the view is admirable although inferior to that from the mount Saint-Catherine, which advances like a promontory, above the immense valley of the Seine, while that of Bois-Guillaume or Beauvoisine, recedes from the circular line formed by the union of these different hills.
The Bois-Guillaume joins Saint-Aignan. We cross the latter commune, on our way to Mont-aux-Malades, formerly the Mont-Saint-Jacques. Antiquarians will not fail to go and see a church at this place, which is a venerable remains of norman architecture. There were two, but the other is now almost destroyed. Travellers should also visit the hill of Canteleu from which the view is very fine, and at the same time the country house of M. Elie Lefebure, called the Chateau of Canteleu.
BURYING GROUNDS OF ROUEN.
There are at present, five burying grounds for the roman catholics, and two for the protestants. They are the burying grounds of Saint-Gervais, Beauvoisine, Val-de-la-Jatte, of which a part has been walled off for the protestants; Mont-Gargan, Saint-Sever, and Champ-des-Oiseaux, which latter forms the second protestant burying ground. The great demand of families, to obtain a piece of ground, on which to erect a monument on the tomb of a relation, had caused a great diminution of ground for interments; the municipal administration therefore took measures to prevent the consequences of it. On the proposition of the marquis de Martainville, then mayor of the town they determined, on the 24th april 1823, that a monumental burying should be established on the east of Rouen, on a portion of the hill of Fir-Trees which was barren, and could be disposed of without any loss.
This new burying ground contains about ten acres of ground, enclosed with walls. A chapel is erected on the highest point of the hill; and a vault has been formed under it for the provisional deposit of bodies, which cannot be interred immediately. A tariff exists, which regulates the sum to be paid by families, who wish to purchase a place in this burying ground.
Historical introduction 1.
Chapels of ease.
Churches closed in 1791 101.
Town hall (Hotel-de-Ville) 104.
Archiepiscopal palace 106.
Tower of the Grosse-Horloge 113.
Coverted markets 116.
Exchange (la Hourse) 120.
Tribunal of commerce or the Consuls 122.
Custom house (la Douane) 123.
Public slaughterhouse (les Abbatoirs) 126.
Royal college 129.
Hotel du Bourgtheroulde 144.
Ancient abbey of Saint-Amand 146.
Ancient bureau des finances 149.
Remarkable houses and celebrated men 150.
Stone bridge and statue of Corneille 152.
Suspension bridge 155.
River and rivulets 157.
Mineral waters 165.
Squares and marketplaces 166.
The maid of Orleans, etc. 167.
Library, picture gallery and museums.
Public library 171.
Picture gallery 174.
Museum of antiquities 177.
Museum of natural history 179.
Learned societies 180.
Botanical garden, etc. 181.
Public and gratuitous courses of instruction 189.
Walks in Rouen 186.
Walks without the town 188.
Burying grounds 190.