Putnam's Word Book
by Louis A. Flemming
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grasp, n. seizure, apprehension, gripe, clasp, grip, prehension; hold, possession; comprehension, understanding.

grasping, a. avaricious, sordid, covetous, niggardly, greedy.

grass, n. herbage, pasture, pasturage; sward, sod, greensward, lawn, esplanade. Associated Words: agrostology, agrostologist, agrostography, gramineous, graze, palea, graminology, gramineal, swath, rowen, aftermath, turf, tussock, hassock, aftergrass, fog, glume, graminaceous.

grass-eating, a. graminivorous, herbivorous.

grass-eating animals. Herbivora.

grateful, a. thankful. Antonym: ungrateful.

gratification, n. satisfaction, indulgence, enjoyment, fruition, pleasure, delight.

gratify, v. satisfy, indulge, content, delight, humor, Antonyms: deny, mortify.

grating, a. harsh, jarring, rasping, discordant.

gratitude, n. thankfulness. Antonym: ingratitude.

gratuitous, a. spontaneous, free, voluntary; unrepaid, unrequited; uncalled for, unwarranted, unfounded.

grave, a. important, momentous, serious; sober, solemn, staid, demure, sedate, quiet, thoughtful, subdued, sepulchral.

grave, n. tomb, sepulcher, charnel-house, ossuary, sepulture; tumulus, barrow.

grave-clothes, n. pl. cerements, shroud, winding-sheet.

gravel, n. pebbles, grit, shingle; arena; gravelstone, pebble, calculus.

graven, a. carved, sculptured.

graver, n. engraver, sculptor; burin.

grave wax. adipocere.

gray, a. hoary; slate, drab, maltese, mouse-colored.

grease, n. lubricant, fat.—v. lubricate.

greaser, n. lubricant, lubricator.

greasy, a. sebaceous, oily, unctuous, oleaginous, fatty.

great, a. immense, enormous, prodigious, gigantic; numerous, countless; superior, excellent, admirable; eminent, famous, illustrious, distinguished, renowned, famed, noted; egregious, flagrant, serious, grievous; fabulous, excessive, immoderate, exorbitant.

greatest, a. supreme, superlative, utmost, maximum.

greatest good. summum bonum.

great-hearted, a. magnanimous.

great-heartedness, n. magnanimity.

great spirit. Manito (Amer. Ind.)

greediness, n. avarice, voracity, avidity, covetousness, rapacity, gluttony, insatiableness, cupidity.

greedy, a. avaricious, grasping; sordid, covetous; insatiable, ravenous, voracious, gluttonous, rapacious; insatiate.

greedy-gut, n. (Low) glutton, gormand.

Greek, a. Grecian, Hellenic.

Greek, n. Grecian, Hellene; Romaic, Hellenic, Neo-Hellenic.

Greek, n. (Colloq.) mystery.

green, a. verdant, emerald, virid, virescent; immature, unripe; raw, untrained, callow, unsophisticated, awkward, inexperienced, unskilled, undisciplined, gullible; unseasoned; fresh, undecayed. Antonyms: sear, parched, seasoned, ripe, experienced, veteran.

greenhorn, n. (Colloq.) tyro, novice, gull, dupe, yahoo, gudgeon.

greenhouse, n. conservatory.

green manuring. sideration.

greenness, n. verdancy, viridity, verdure; rawness, immaturity, unripeness; inexperience, unsophisticatedness, gullibility..

greensand, n. marl.

green-sickness, n. chlorosis.

greet, v. address, salute, hail, accost.

greeting, n. salutation, salute.

grief, n. anguish, sorrow, heartbreak, regret, remorse, dolor, misery, heartache, woe, tribulation, rue, affliction, bereavement, trial, adversity, distress, grievance.

grievance, n. wrong, injustice, resentment, trouble, complaint, gravamen (Law).

grieve, v. mourn, regret, lament, rue, weep, sorrow, bewail, deplore; wound, afflict, try, distress, pain.

grievous, a. afflictive, distressing, deplorable, lamentable, painful; heinous, atrocious, flagitious, outrageous, flagrant, egregious, nefarious; plaintive, pitiful.

grill, n. gridiron, broiler.

grilling, n. broiling, grillade.

grimy, a. begrimed.

grind, v. crush, powder, pulverize, comminute, bruise, bray, triturate, levigate; harass, persecute, oppress.

grind, n. grinding, pulverization; (Slang) drudgery; (Slang) dig.

grinder, n. abradant.

grinding, n. pulverization, trituration, crushing, levigation.—a. abradant.

grinding stone. millstone, muller, metate.

grip, n. clutch, grasp; (Colloq.) grippe.

grip, n. (Colloq.) gripsack, valise, satchel, traveling-bag.

grip, v. seize, clutch, grasp, clinch.

gripes, n. pl. colic.

griping, n. gripes, colic.

grippe, n. influenza.

gristle, n. cartilage.

gristly, a. cartilaginous.

grit, n. firmness, resolution, courage, fortitude, spirit, determination.

gritty, a. sandy; (Colloq.) unyielding, plucky, spirited, determined, resolute.

grizzly bear. Ephraim (Hunter's name).

groan, n. and v. moan.

grogblossom, n. rosedrop, rosy whelk.

grogshop, n. dramshop, saloon.

groom, n. valet; hostler, stable-man; bridegroom.

groove, n. rut, channel, furrow; chamfret, rabbet, fluting; stria, striation.

groove, v. channel, furrow; chamfer, flute.

grooved, a. channeled, chamfered, fluted, striated.

gross, n. aggregate.

grotesque, a. fantastic, bizarre, outlandish, baroque, whimsical.

grouchy, a. (Colloq.) unamiable, sullen, surly, cynical, morose, cross.

ground, n. soil, earth, dirt, clod, loam, mould, clay, land; premise, reason, consideration, motive, inducement, reason; terra-firma.

ground hog. woodchuck, American marmot.

groundless, a. unfounded, chimerical, baseless, unauthorized.

grounds, n. pl. settlings, sediment, dregs, precipitate.

ground squirrel. chipmunk, hackee.

groundwork, n. foundation, basis, base.

group, n. cluster, assemblage, crowd.

grouty, a. (Colloq.) unamiable, sulky, sullen, cynical, surly, morose.

grovel, v. crawl, sneak, cringe, wallow, fawn.

groveling, a. debased, abject, servile, sneaking.

grow, v. increase, extend, augment, wax, accrue, develop, expand, mature, flourish, thrive; vegetate, sprout, pullulate, germinate, bourgeon; raise, cultivate. Antonyms: wane, atrophy, blast, diminish, stunt, stagnate.

grower, n. cultivator.

growing, a. developing, waxing, increasing, flourishing.

growing together. accretion, concretion, coalescence.—a. coalescent, accretive.

growl, n. grumble, snarl, gnarl.

growler, n. grumbler, snarler, murmurer, cynic, pessimist, misanthrope.

growth, n. growing, development, accretion, extension, increase, augmentation, increment, enlargement; excrescence hypertrophy, overgrowth; germination, cultivation, pullulation, sprouting. Antonyms: atrophy, decrease, blasting, undevelopment.

grow together. coalesce, concrete, accrete

grub, v. drudge, slave, moil; root out, uprooc, eradicate.

grub, n. caterpillar, maggot, larva, grubworm.

grub-ax, n. mattock.

grudge, n. ill-will, hatred, antipathy, rancor, aversion, enmity, resentment, envy.

grudge, v. begrudge, resent, envy.

grudgeful, a. envious, resentful.

grudgingly, adv. unwillingly, reluctantly, sullenly, enviously resentfully.

gruff, a. ungracious, brusque, surly, rude, impolite, stern.

grum, a. morose, surly, sour, glum; guttural, low, rumbling.

grumble, v. murmur, repine, complain, croak; growl, snarl.

grumbler, n. complainer, croaker, fault-finder, growler.

grumpy, a. (Colloq.) surly, disgruntled, grouty, irritable, sullen.

guarantee, n. warranty, security, surety.

guard, v. protect, defend, shield, shelter, fortify, preserve. Antonym: expose.

guard, n. guardsman, watch, watchman, sentinel, patrol, sentry, picket; convoy, escort, body-guard; defense, protection, shield, safeguard, bulwark, armor; attention, heed, watch, circumspection. Associated Word: cordon.

guarded, a. cautious, wary, circumspect, careful, reserved, non-committal.

guardian, n. defender, guard, tutelary saint, keeper, warden, protector, defense, guardian angel. Antonyms: ward, protege.

guardian, a. tutelary, protecting, tutelar.

guardianship, n. protection, care, watch, wardenship, tutelage.

guess, v. conjecture, speculate, surmise; think, suppose, presume, apprehend, believe, daresay, opine.

guess, n. conjecture, surmise, supposition, speculation.

guesswork, n. conjecture.

guide, v. pilot, steer, direct, govern, conduct.

guide, n. conductor, pilot, director; cicerone; polestar; rudder, regulator; mentor, monitor, counsellor; key, clew.

guidebook, n. itinerary.

guiding star. loadstar, polestar, Cynosure.

guild, n. society, association, fraternity, corporation, brotherhood.

guile, n. subtlety, cunning, wiliness, deceit, insincerity, artifice.

guileful, a. deceitful, crafty, artful, wily, subtle, designing.

guileless, a. innocent, artless, sincere, undesigning, ingenuous.

guilt, n. criminality, guiltiness, complicity, culpability, crime; wrong, offense, transgression, sin. Antonyms: innocence, inculpability.

guiltless, a. inculpable, blameless, innocent.

guilty, a. culpable, punishable, criminal, peccant, sinful.

guise, n. way, custom, manner, mien; garb, shape, appearance, dress, cloak.

gulch, n. gully, ravine.

gulf, n.abyss, chasm; vortex, whirlpool, rapids, maelstrom; bay.

gulfweed, n. sargasso.

gull, n. cheat, swindle, humbug, fraud; dupe, gudgeon, cully; seamew, mew, cob.

gullet, n. esophagus.

gullible, a. credulous.

gully, n. gulch, ravine, gorge, couloir.

gumboll, n. parulis.

gummy, a. viscous, adhesive.

gumption, n. (Colloq.) shrewdness, sagacity, discernment, acumen, common sense.

gum-yielding, a. guttiferous.

gun, n. firearm, weapon, rifle, shotgun, blunderbuss, musket, flobert, pistol, revolver, derringer, cannon, swivel gun, matchlock, breech-loader, stanchion gun, arquebus, Krupp gun, Winchester, howitzer, gatling gun, flintlock. Associated Words: bayonet, gunsmith, bore, caliber, trigger, hammer, ramod, armory, armorer, gunsmithery, holster.

gun-cotton, n. pyroxylin.

gunner, n. cannoneer.

gunroom, n. wardroom.

guns, n. pl. artillery, ordnance, cannon, armament, arms.

gunsmith, n. armorer, gunmaker.

gunwale, n. portoise.

gush, v. rush, pour, stream, spout.

gushing, a. rushing, pouring; (Colloq.) effusive, demonstrative, ebullient, sentimental.

gusto, n. enjoyment, appreciation, relish, taste.

gut, n. intestine.—v. disembowel, eviscerate.

guts, n. pl. intestines, bowels, entrails.

gutter, n. eaves trough, cullis; conduit, channel, drain, rindle; groove.

guttersnipe, n. (Slang) street Arab, gamin.

gutting, n. disembowelment, evisceration.

guy, n. guy-rope, stay, shore; scarecrow, dowdy, fright, effigy.

guy, v. steady, guide, shore, stay (with a rope); (Colloq.) fool, baffle, ridicule.

gymnast, n. athlete.

gymnastic, a. athletic, calisthenic.

gymnastics, n. pl. athletics, calisthenics.

gypsy, n. Romany, Bohemian; Romany, Romanes (language); schemer, sharper.

gypsy, a. nomadic, vagabond.


Habit, n. wont, custom, practice, usage, habitude, addiction, way, routine.

habitual, a. wonted, customary, regular, accustomed.

habituate, v. accustom, addict, inure, familiarize. Antonyms: disaccustom, wean.

hag, n. vixen, virago, termagant, harridan, fury, Jezebel, beldame.

haggard, a. gaunt, emaciated, hollow-eyed.

haggle, v. hack, hackle; chaffer, higgle.

haggler, n. higgler, chafferer.

hail, v. accost, salute, address, signal.

hail-storm, n. Associated Words: paragrandine, paragrele.

hair, n. bristle; pubescence; pubes; tentaculum, palpus; lock, tress; coiffure; chignon; forelock. Associated Words: trichology, depilatory, depilitant, depilate, depilation, disheveled, bandeau, barrette, tonsure, pomade, follicle, sac, fillet, ecdysis, endysis, bandoline, piliferous, piliform, piligerous, coiffeur, tousled.

hairiness, n. hirsuteness, hirsuties, pubescence, villosity, capillament, hypertrichosis.

hairless, a. bald, glabrous, depilous.

hairsplitting, a. subtle, fine.

hair-worm, n. gordius.

hairy, a. hirsute, shaggy, bristly, pubescent.

half, adv. partially, imperfectly.

half, n. moiety.

half-blooded, a. hybrid, mongrel, degenerate, half-breed.

half-hearted, a. indifferent, lukewarm, perfunctory.

half-moon, n. crescent. Associated Word: semilunar.

halfway, adv. in the middle, imperfectly, partially.—a. intermediate, midway.

half-witted, a. imbecile, defective, silly, dull-witted, witless.

half-yearly, a. semi-annual, bi-annual.

hall, n. auditorium, lyceum; vestibule, entry, court; corridor, passage, lobby; manor-house; odeon.

hallow, v. consecrate, venerate, reverence, sanctify, bless.

hallowed, a. holy, sacred, consecrated, dedicated, blessed, sanctified.

hallucination, n. aberration, chimera, fallacy, self-deception, delusion, phantasm, illusion.

halo, n. nimbus, glory, aureola, aureole.

haloed, a. glorified, aureoled.

halve, v. bisect, dimidiate.

halving, n. bisection, dichotomy, dimidiation.

hammer, n. sledge, sledge-hammer, maul, mallet, beetle, gavel, kevel, crandall, marteline. Associated Words: peen, hephestic, poll.

hammer, v. beat, forge, malleate, beetle.

hammer and tongs. vigorously, forcibly, energetically.

hamper, v. fetter, shackle, impede, restrain, hinder, encumber, embarrass.

hamper, n. hanaper; shackle, fetter, restraint, impediment.

hamstring, n. hough.—v. disable, cripple, lame, hough.

hand, n. paw, manus. Associated Words: chirology, chiromancy, palmistry, chiropody, chiropodist, chirognomy, chirographer, chirographist, chirogymnast, chirologist, cheirosophy, manicure, chiromancer, manual, chirography, ambidextral, ambidextrous, ambidexterity, ambidexter, achirous, chiragra, fist, manacle, castanets, mount, discriminal, bimanual, bimanous.

handbag, n. satchel, reticule.

handbook, n. manual, guidebook, vade mecum, hornbook, enchiridion.

handcuff, n. manacle, fetter, shackle.

hand down. transmit (in succession).

handle, n. bail; hilt, haft.

handy, a. dexterous, adroit, ready; convenient.

hang, v. suspend; dangle; execute; droop, drop; append, attach; depend, rest; hover, impend, threaten; lean, incline, slope; lynch.

hang, n. (Colloq.) connection, arrangement, plan.

hang back. hesitate, falter, be reluctant.

hangdog, a. sneaking, ashamed, shamefaced, guilty.

hanger-on, n. tagtail, satellite, parasite, sycophant, dependant, vassal, minion, sponger, toady, heeler, toadeater, fawner, votary.

hanging, a. suspended, pendent, pendulous, pensile, dangling.

hanging, n. suspension; execution; drapery, valance, tapestry, dorsal, lambrequin. Associated Words: gallows gibbet.

hanging on. persistence, tenacity, importunity.

hangman, n. executioner.

hangnail, n. agnail.

hang out. project, protrude.

hang over. impend, project.

hang to. cling.

hanker, v. long for, yearn, crave, covet, lust.

hankering, n. longing, craving, yearning.

haphazard, n. chance, accident, random.

happen, v. occur, befall, betide; supervene, intervene.

happiness, n. felicity, blessedness, delight, gladness, pleasure, ecstasy, bliss, rapture, merriment, mirth, elation, beatitude, joy. Antonyms: sorrow, grief. Associated Words: eudemonics, eudemonist, eudemonism, eudemonic, beatify, beatification, hedonics, hedonist, hedonic, hedonism, felicific, felicitate, felicitation.

happy, a. joyous, light-hearted, gay, blissful, glad, delighted, elated, merry, ecstatic, buoyant, cheerful, gratified, joyful, beatific, rapturous, felicitous, blithe, halcyon, charmed, exultant, ravishing, gladdened; lucky, prosperous, successful; auspicious. Antonyms: See unhappy.

happy-go-lucky, a. improvident, easy-going, unthrifty.

harangue, n. declamation, ranting, effusion, screed, tirade.

harangue, v. declaim, spout, rant.

harass, v. fatigue, tire, weary; annoy, vex, torment, perplex, distress, persecute, worry, bother.

harbinger, n. forerunner, precursor, herald, messenger.

harbor, n. refuge, shelter, asylum, retreat; port, haven, destination.

hard, a. firm, solid, compact, impenetrable, unimpressible, unyielding, rigid, adamantine, dense, insoluble, flinty, indurate, indurated, infrangible; arduous, laborious, wearisome, onerous, burdensome, toilsome, tiresome, exhausting, difficult, knotty, intricate, puzzling, incomprehensible; irresistible, uncontrollable; severe, rigorous, unendurable, oppressive, unjust, grievous, calamitous, incompliant; stern, unyielding, obdurate, unfeeling, exacting, insensible, hard-hearted, callous, implacable, inflexible; repelling, constrained, inelegant; severe, inclement, rigorous; excessive, immoderate; unprosperous, unfavorable, disastrous.

hard case. (Colloq.) incorrigible, reprobate, derelict, outcast.

hard coal. anthracite, glance coal.

harden, v. indurate, solidify; petrify, ossify, sear, brutalize, embitter; inure, season, fortify, steel, brace, accustom.

hardened, a. indurated; callous, inexorable, ossified, petrified, obdurate, incorrigible, inveterate, case-hardened, seared, depraved, graceless, impenitent, confirmed; sclerosed, sclerotic.

hardening, n. induration; habituation, confirmation; solidification, petrifaction, ossification; sclerosis (Med.).

hard-headed, a. shrewd, astute, sagacious.

hard-hearted, a. unsympathetic, inexorable, ruthless, unsparing, stern, obdurate, incompassionate.

hardihood, n. boldness, bravery, courage, intrepidity, fortitude; audacity, effrontery, impudence.

hard lines. hardship, difficulties, adversity.

hardness, n. induration, compactness, impenetrability, solidity, firmness, adamant. Associated Word: durometer.

hardship, n. privation, adversity, affliction, reverse, calamity, disaster, visitation.

hardware, n. ironmongery.

hardy, a. courageous, intrepid, brave; hearty, hale, robust, lusty.

hare-brained, a. heedless, reckless, rash, giddy, careless.

harem, n. concubines, seraglio.

harlot, n. prostitute, courtesan, whore.

harlotry, n. prostitution, whoredom.

harm, v. injure, hurt, damage, impair, scathe, mar, deface, abuse, misuse.

harm, n. injury, damage, detriment, scath, mischief, misfortune.

harmful, a. injurious, pernicious, detrimental, baneful, noxious, prejudicial, deleterious, ruinous, hurtful.

harmless, a. innocuous, innoxious; inoffensive, peaceable; uninjured, unscathed.

harmonious, a. symmetrical, correspondent, consistent, congruent, conformable; consonant, symphonious, melodious amicable, peaceable. Antonyms: inharmonious, discordant, antagonistic, incompatible.

harmonize, v. agree, chime, tally, correspond, accord; adjust, reconcile.

harmony, n. concord, agreement, concurrence, consonance chime, unison, unanimity; concordance, congruity, adaptation, consistency. Antonyms: discord, antagonism, variance, contention, incongruity, inconsistency, dissension, opposition.

harness, n. saddlery; accouterments, armor, array, gearing, equipment, tackling, gear; caparison, trappings, Associated Words: saddler, saddlery.

harness, v. equip, array, caparison, tackle.

harp, n. lyre. Associated Words: harpist, lyrist, lyrism, lyric, plectrum.

harpy, n. extortioner, oppressor.

harrow, v. wound, lacerate, tear, distress, torture, harass.

harsh, a. inharmonious, rough, disagreeable, unpleasant, raucous; dissonant, strident, discordant, cacophonous: austere, morose, severe, ungracious, inurbane, discourteous, churlish, uncivil, blunt, bluff, brusque, acrimonious, caustic, acrid, repulsive.

harum-scarum, a. (Colloq.) wild, giddy, reckless, volatile, indiscreet, hare-brained.

harvest, n. ingathering; crop, produce, yield, fruit.

hash, n. ragout, gallimaufry, potpourri, ollapodrida, olio, rechauffe (rehash).

haste, n. celerity, swiftness, dispatch, expedition, speed, quickness; hurry, urgency, precipitance. Antonyms: slowness, dilatoriness.

hasten, v. accelerate, expedite, quicken, precipitate press, urge; hurry.

hastiness, n. haste, precipitancy, precipitation, precipitance, speediness.

hasty, a. swift, rapid, quick, fast; precipitate, rash, eager, precipitant; cursory, hurried, superficial.

hatch, v. breed, incubate; concoct, excogitate, brew, scheme.

hatcher, n. incubator.

hatchet, n. small ax; tomahawk; machete; dolabra.

hate, v. dislike, detest, abhor, despise, abominate, loathe, execrate.

hateful, a. execrable, odious, detestable, abominable, malevolent, malicious.

hatred, n. hate, aversion, detestation, animosity, malignity, antipathy, spite, feud, malice, grudge, malevolence, resentment, dislike, abhorrence.

haughtiness, n. arrogance, hauteur, superciliousness, disdain, contumely.

haughty, a. arrogant, supercilious, disdainful, cavalier, magisterial, assuming, lordly.

haunt, n. resort.

hauteur, n. arrogance, contumely, superciliousness, haughtiness, overweening.

haven, n. harbor, port, retreat, asylum, refuge, shelter.

havoc, n. destruction, devastation, waste, ruin, desolation, demolition, wreck.

hawk, n. falcon; goshawk, kestrel. Associated Words: accipitral, raptorial.

haystack, n. rick.

hazard, n. chance, contingency, casualty; risk, random, jeopardy, danger, peril, venture. Antonyms: safety, security, assurance, certainty, surety.

hazard, v. venture, risk, jeopard, endanger.

hazardous, a. perilous, precarious, risky, unsafe, dangerous.

haze, n. obscurity, dimness, fog, vapor, mist, confusion.

hazy, a. foggy, misty, vaporous; obscure, confused.

head, n. poll, cephalon; costard (Contemptuous), noddle, pate. Associated Words: phrenology, phrenologist, craniology, craniologist, cephalology, sinciput, occiput, cephalism, behead, decapitate, decapitation, capitation, vertex, crown, skull, cranium, fontanel, trepan, coronal, microcephaly, craniometry, macrocephaly, cephalic, per capita, scalp.

head, n. chief, leader, commander, director; crisis, culmination; spike; section, department, category, class.

head, a. principal, chief, leading, cardinal, foremost, main, premier.

headache, n. megrim, cephalalgy, galea.

headdress, n. coiffure.

heading, n. title, caption.

headland, n. cape, promontory, foreland.

heading off. interception.

headless, a. acephalous; beheaded, decapitated; leaderless, unorganized.

headlong, adv. headforemost; precipitately, rashly; pell-mell, helter-skelter, confusedly.

head off. intercept.

headsman, n. executioner, Jack Ketch.

headstrong, a. willful, perverse, stubborn, intractable, froward.

heal, v. cure, repair; cicatrize.

healing, a. curative, sanative, restorative, remedial, mollifying, sanatory, therapeutic, lenitive, medicinal, emollient, assuasive.

health, n. Associated Words: hygiene, Hygeia, hygienic, hygienics, eucrasy, sanitation, sanitarian, soteriology, eutrophic, hygienist, sanitary.

healthful, a. healthy; salubrious, wholesome.

healthy, a. hale, well, hearty; salubrious, salutary, wholesome. Antonyms: unhealthy, ill, sickly, morbid, delicate, diseased.

heap, n. pile, mass, accumulation, lot, stack, cumulation.

heap, v. amass, accumulate, pile, stack, cumulate.

hearer, n. auditor.

hearing, n. audition, listening; audience; earshot, sound, hearing distance. Associated Words: auditory, acoumeter, acoumetry, acoustic, audible, audibility, audiometer, deaf, deafness, microcoustic, microphonous, otacoustic, inaudible, inaudibility, clairaudient, clairaudience, audient, audiphone, sonometer, audile.

hearsay, n. rumor, report, gossip, bruit, on dit.

heart, n. cardia; conscience, character; essence, core, pith, kernel, marrow. Associated Words: cardiology, carditis, cardiac, cordial, cardialgia, cardiometry, dexiocardia, systole, diastole, pericardium, endocardium, auricle, ventricle, valve, aneurism, stethoscope, peridiastole.

heart-broken, a. disconsolate, inconsolable, broken-hearted.

heartburn, n. cardialgia, water-brash, pyrosis.

heartburning, n. discontent, resentment, envy, rankling.

hearthstone, n. hearth, fireside, ingleside. Associated Words: Vesta, Hestia.

heartless, a. acardiac; cruel, pitiless. See cruel.

heart-shaped, a. cordate, cordiform.

heartwood, n. duramen.

hearty, a. cordial, heartfelt, sincere; healthy, robust, hale; nourishing, nutritious.

heat, n. warmth, caloric; cauma. Associated Words: pyrology, pyrologist, thermology, pyrometry, pyrometer, pyronomics, calorifics, therm, thermal, pyrography, caloric, calorie, thermic, swelter, thermostat, thermometer, thermometry.

heat, n. vehemence, fire, ardor, impetuosity, fervor, fervency, zeal, intensity, enthusiasm; oestrus, rut.

heat, v. warm, calefy.

heathen, a. pagan, heathenish, paganic, gentile, paganish; irreligious, godless.

heathen, n. pagan, idolater.

heathenism, n. idolatry, paganism, pagandom, gentilism; irreligion, godlessness.

heathenize, v. paganize.

heat stroke. insolation.

heaven, n. Paradise, Elysium, Eden, the New Jerusalem, glory; Olympus, Elysium, Elysian, Arcadia; Valhalla, Walhalla; Nirvana.

heavenly, a. celestial, supernal; divine, beatific, ravishing, sublime, ecstatic.

heaviness, n. weight, ponderosity, ponderousness, gravity.

heavy, a. weighty, massive, ponderous; burdensome, oppressive, onerous, severe; unraised, soggy, indigestible, unleavened.

heavy hand. severity, oppression, persecution, tyranny, extortion.

hector, v. torment, tease, plague, bully, harass.

heed, v. mind, regard, consider, notice, attend.

heed, n. regard, attention, consideration, notice. Antonyms: disregard, inattention.

heedful, a. attentive, circumspect, cautious, vigilant, mindful. Antonyms: inattentive, uncircumspect, unmindful, careless, heedless.

heel bone. calcaneum, fibulare.

height, n. altitude, loftiness; elevation; stature, tallness; eminence, exaltation; summit, zenith, apex, culmination. Associated words: altimetry, altimeter, hypsometry, hypsometer.

heinous, a. atrocious, flagrant, flagitious, monstrous, nefarious.

heir, n. inheritor; scion; coheir, parcener.

hell, n. inferno, infernal regions, Gehenna, limbo, abyss, Avernus, Pandemonium, Abaddon, Styx, Hades, Sheol, the grave; Naraka (Buddhism).

hellish, a. infernal, malignant, fiendish, diabolical, atrocious.

helm, n. rudder, tiller, wheel; steersman, pilot; command, control, administration.

helmet, n. casque, headpiece, morion, sallet.

help, v. abet, assist, befriend, succor, aid, cooeperate, collaborate, second, facilitate, subsidize; remedy, ameliorate, alleviate, promote, further.

help, n. aid, assistance, succor, support, facilitation, backing, subsidy, subvention, cooeperation; remedy, relief, cure, restorative.

helper, n. assistant, ally, auxiliary, supporter, abettor, helpmeet, associate, coadjutor, confederate, deputy, aider, colleague, acolyte, adjuvant, collaborator, subsidiary, co-aid, cooeperator, accessory, accomplice.

helpful, a. assistant, conducive, instrumental, useful, salutary.

helping, a. assisting, auxiliary, subsidiary, accessory.

helter-skelter, adv. (Colloq.) irregularly, disorderly, pell-mell, headlong.

hem in. environ, surround, encompass, beset, hedge in.

hen, n. partlet; pullet (young hen).

herald, n. messenger, forerunner, precursor, harbinger, crier.

herald, v. proclaim, announce, foretell, usher in.

herd, n. drove; rabble, mob, multitude. Associated Words: gregarious, gregal.

herdsman, n. ranchman, vaquero, cowboy, vacher.

hereditary, a. ancestral, patrimonial, inheritable, inherited.

heritage, n. inheritance, hereditament, patrimony; possession.

hermit, n. recluse, anchoret, anchorite, eremite, solitary, cenobite.

heroic, a. valiant, bold, daring, brave; desperate, drastic, extreme.

heroism, n. courage, valor, bravery, prowess, fortitude, intrepidity.

hesitancy, n. indecision, vacillation, uncertainty, irresolution, wavering.

hesitate, v. doubt, vacillate, falter, dubitate, waver, scruple, demur, deliberate.

hesitation, n. indecision, doubt, vacillation, reluctance, wavering.

hidden, a. covert, latent, concealed; recondite, esoteric, abstruse, unrevealed.

hide, v. veil, cloak, conceal, dissemble, cache, secrete, mask; skulk, lurk.

hidebound, a. untractable, bigoted, obstinate, uncompromising.

hideous, a. horrible, grim, ogreish, grisly, repulsive, ugly, ghastly, shocking.

hiding, n. concealment, secretion.

high, a. lofty, tall, elevated, towering.

high and dry. aground, beached, stranded.

high and mighty. (Colloq.) arrogant, overbearing, domineering, lordly.

higher, a. supernal.

highest, a. loftiest, superlative, meridian, maximum, supreme, topgallant.

highest good. summum bonum.

highest point. meridian, culmination, zenith, maximum.

highfaluting, a. bombastic, grandiloquent.—n. bombast.

highflown, a. bombastic, grandiloquent, pretentious, magniloquent, grandiose.

highflying, a. aspiring, presumptuous, ambitious, Icarian.

highgo, n. (Colloq.) spree, revel, carousal.

highhanded, a. overbearing, tyrannical, arbitrary, autocratic, despotic.

high jinks. (Colloq.) revelry, carousal, wild sport.

highland, n. plateau.

high liver. gormand, sybarite, epicure, gourmet, voluptuary, gastronomer, bon vivant.

high living. gormandism, sybaritism, epicurism, luxury. Antonyms: asceticism, abstemiousness, moderation.

highminded, a. magnanimous, honorable, noble. Antonyms: mean, base, low, servile, abject, ignoble.

highmindedness, n. magnanimity.

high time. full time; (Slang) carousal, revelry.

hightoned, a. shrill, acute; magnanimous, honorable; (Colloq.) fashionable, aristocratic.

highwayman, n. bandit, desperado, road agent, outlaw, footpad.

hill, n. mound, eminence, knoll, elevation; monadnock; butte; monticle; copple; Acropolis; foothill.

hillock, n. knoll, mound.

hilly, a. undulating, uneven, rolling.

hind, n. rustic, boor, peasant.

hinder, n. (Slang) buttocks, rump, seat, fundament.

hinder, a. rear, back.

hinder, v. retard, obstruct, hamper, impede, forestall, forefend, check, thwart, foil.

hindrance, n. retardation, hindering; obstacle, impediment, obstruction, restraint, frustration, encumbrance, check.

hinge joint. diarthrosis, ginglymus.

hint, v. intimate, suggest, imply, allude to, refer.

hint, n. allusion, suggestion, insinuation, intimation, innuendo, inkling.

hip, n. haunch, huckle; (hip-bone) innominate, ilium, ischium, pubis. Associated Words: sciatic, ischial, ischiatic, coxalgia, acetabulum.

hire, n. salary, wages, pay, stipend, remuneration, compensation.—v. engage; let, lease.

hireling, a. mercenary, venal.—n. mercenary.

hiss, n. sibilation, sibilance, hissing.—v. sibilate, whiz.

hissing, a. sibilant, sibilatory.

history, n. annals, chronicle, record, account; biography, autobiography. Associated Words: historic, historicity, historian, historiology, historiography, Clio, prehistoric.

hit, v. smite, buffet, strike.

hitch, n. catch, impediment, obstacle, obstruction, contretemps.—v. hook, yoke, unite, attach.

hoard, v. garner, amass, save, treasure.

hoard, n. store, supply, stock, accumulation.

hoarse, a. harsh, discordant, husky, raucous, guttural.

hobgoblin, n. sprite, goblin, bugaboo.

hobo, n. (Colloq.) tramp, vagrant, vagabond.

hodgepodge, n. medley, farrago, salmagundi, potpourri.

hog, n. swine, porker; boar; sow; barrow (castrated); glutton. Associated Word: porcine.

hoggish, a. swinish, gluttonous, voracious.

hoitytoity, a. flighty, giddy, thoughtless.

hold, v. sustain, restrain, retain, detain, withhold, arrest; contain; clutch, grasp, grip, clinch.

hold back. check, restrain, impede, curb, retard.

holdback, n. check, hindrance, restraint, impediment.

holder, n. tenant, occupier; incumbent.

hold in. restrain, curb, check, repress, retain, rein.

holding, n. restraint, retention, checking, continence, tenacity, detention; tenure, incumbency. Antonyms: incontinence, release.

hole, n. cavity, excavation, pit, perforation, rent, fissure, opening, aperture, delve, cache, concavity, mortise, puncture, orifice, eyelet, crevice, loophole, interstice, gap, spiracle, vent, bung, pothole, manhole, scuttle, scupper, muset, muse; cave, holt, den, lair, retreat, cover, hovel, burrow. Antonyms: imperforation, closure. Associated words: auger, drill, gimlet, bodkin, bore, bit, puncture, perforate, pink, awl, stylet, imperforable, imperforate, punch, wimble, pierce, eyeleteer, dibble, plug, spigot, spile, gouge, puncheon, probe.

holiday, n. festival, fete, fiesta (Sp.).

holiness, n. sanctity, piety, godliness, devoutness, sacredness.

hollow, a. excavated, cavernous, vacant, void, unfilled, empty; cannulated; concave, depressed, gaunt, sunken; insincere, unsound, false, hypocritical. Antonyms: convex, protuberant, sincere.

hollow, v. scoop, excavate, concave.

hollow, n. depression, cavity, valley; concavity, channel, groove, concave, recess; correi.

holy, a. sacred, consecrated, hallowed, sanctified, saintly, godly, pious, guileless.

Holy Ghost. Paraclete, Holy Spirit, the Comforter, the Sanctifier.

holy oil. chrism. Associated Words: chrismatory, chrismation, chrismal, cruet, ampulla, unction.

holy water. Associated Words: asperges, aspergill, aspergillum, aspersorium, aspersoir, stoup, font, benitier, cruet, hyssop.

homage, n. deference, obeisance, reverence, honor; fealty, fidelity, allegiance; adoration.

home, n. domicile, residence, dwelling-place, abode, dwelling, hearth, hearthstone; habitat, seat; asylum, retreat. Associated Words: domestic, domesticate, domesticity, domestication, inhabitativeness.

homeborn, a. native, indigenous.

homely, a. plain, plain-looking, uncomely; inelegant, rude.

homesickness, n. nostalgia. Associated Word: nostalgic.

homing instinct. orientation.

hone, n. oilstone.

honest, a. honorable, reputable; upright, sincere, guileless, ingenuous, incorruptible.

honesty, n. uprightness, probity, integrity, candor, sincerity, rectitude.

honey, n. Associated Words: melliferous, mellific, mellification, metheglin, mellifluent, mellifluous, mellite, mellivorous, meliphagan, meliphagous, hydromel, mead, comb.

honey-combed, a. alveolate, cellular, faviform, favaginous.

honey-dew, n. meligo, nectar.

honeysuckle, n. woodbine, caprifole.

honey-tongued, a. persuasive, seductive.

honor, n. respect, esteem, veneration, reverence, deference, homage; probity, integrity, magnanimity, uprightness, chastity, decency, virtue, modesty; eminence, distinction, fame; glory, excellency, pride. Antonyms: dishonor, disesteem, irreverence, improbity, disrepute, reproach.

honor, v. esteem, respect, revere, reverence, venerate; dignify, exalt, elevate.

honorable, a. upright, honest, equitable, reputable, magnanimous.

honors, n. pl. titles, dignities, privileges. Associated Words: timocracy, timocratic, honorary, honorific.

hood, n. cowl, fascinator, capote, capoch, camail, amice, chaperon, capuchin, bashlyk (Russia).

hooded, a. cowled, capistrate.

hoodlum, n. (Colloq.) rowdy, larrikin.

hoodwink, v. deceive, impose upon, delude, hoax, dupe, overreach.

hook, n. hasp, clasp, catch; crook, tenaculum, peavey, clives, agraffe, fluke, pot-hook, cant-hook, cleek, trammel, cottrel; snare, decoy, trap; bill-hook, sickle.

hook, v. fasten, catch, secure; entrap, ensnare; gore; (Colloq.) steal.

hooked, a. aquiline, bent, curvated, uncinate.

hookedness, n. aquilinity, incurvation.

hoot, v. shout, deride, denounce, execrate.

hop, v. spring, jump, skip, frisk, bound, leap, caper, trip, gambol, dance.

hope, n. optimism, anticipation. Antonyms: despair, desperation, pessimism.

hopeful, a. expectant, optimistic, promising, sanguine.

hopeless, a. despairing, disconsolate, desperate, unpromising

hops, n. pl. Associated Words: lupulin, humulin, lupuline.

horde, n. troop, gang, throng, crowd, multitude (nomadic and predatory).

horn, n. antler; epithema; antenna. Associated Words: cornification, cornute, dehorn, croche, gore, crocket.

horn, n. trumpet, bugle, cornet, trombone; cornucopia; shophar (Jewish); spur.

horning, n. (Slang) charivari.

hornless, a. polled, mulley, mooley, dodded.

horns of a dilemma. alternatives.

horny, a. ceratose, corneous, cornified, callous, hard.

horrible, a. dreadful, terrible, hideous, shocking, grim, ghastly, atrocious, revolting, nefarious, appalling, heinous, dire, grewsome, execrable, awful.

horrid, a. offensive, detestable, horrible.

horror, n. abhorrence, dread, consternation, detestation.

horror-stricken, a. horror-struck, horrified, appalled.

horse, n. Equus; (male) stallion, stud, sire; (female) mare, dam; (young) colt, foal, filly; (small) pony, tit, mustang; steed, charger, nag, gelding, cockhorse, cob, pad, padnag, roadster, punch, broncho, warragal, sumpter, centaur, hackney, jade, mestino, pintado, roan, bat horse, Bucephalus, Pegasus, Dobbin, Bayard, hobby-horse. Associated words: equine, equestrian, equestrianism, equestrienne, equerry, fractious, hostler, groom, hostlery, postilion, coachman, jockey, hippocampus, hippogriffe, manege, chack, hippology, hippophile, hippotomy, tandem, equitation, farriery, equitant, paddock, hippiatrics, hippiatry, neigh, whinny, nicker, hopple.

horse block. montoir.

horse doctor. veterinarian, veterinary, veterinary surgeon, farrier, horse leech.

horseflesh, n. Associated Words: hippophagy, hippophagism, hippophagist, hippophagous, equivorous.

horse-fly, n. breese-fly, bot-fly.

horse-laugh, n. guffaw, cachinnation.

horse-louse, n. nitter.

horseman, n. jockey; equestrian; cavalier; cavalryman; chasseur.

horseshoer, n. farrier, blacksmith.

horseshoeing, n. farriery.

horse-trader, n. jockey.

hose, n. hosiery; tubing.

hospital, n. infirmary, asylum, retreat, sanitarium. Associated words: nosocomial, hospitalism.

host, n. entertainer; landlord, hotel-keeper; multitude, throng, horde; army, legion. Associated Word: xenial.

host, n. Associated Words: ciborium, pyx, paten, monstrance, ostensory, ostension, ostensorium.

hostile, a. antagonistic, inimical, unfriendly, repugnant, adverse.

hostility, n. enmity, animosity, unfriendliness, opposition, warfare, aggression.

hostler, n. groom.

hot, a. torrid, sultry, fiery, scalding, scorching, grilling, broiling, tropical, candent; vehement, passionate, irascible, fervid, ardent, piquant, pungent, acrid, spicy.

hot-blooded, a. ardent, passionate, irritable, excitable, irascible.

hotel, n. hostelry, inn, tavern, caravansary.

hotel-keeper, n. hosteler, host, landlord, inn-keeper, Boniface.

hot room of Roman baths. caldarium.

hot springs. Thermae.

hound, v. importune, harass.

house, n. dwelling, residence, domicile, abode, habitation; mansion, palace; tenement; chateau, pavilion, villa, manse, phalanstery, lodge; kiosk; topek; hutch; (religious house) monastery, convent; firm, company, concern; palafitte.

house, v. shelter, protect, harbor; abide, dwell, lodge.

household, n. family, menage.

household gods. Lares et Penates. Associated word: lararium.

housewarming, n. infare (Local U.S.).

hovel, n. hut, shanty, shack, cabin, den, dugout.

howl, v. yowl, roar, ululate, yawl.—n. yowling, ululation, howling, wail.

hub, n. nave; protuberance, hummock.

hubbub, n. tumult, uproar, din, clamor, commotion, racket, hurly-burly.

huckleberry, n. whortleberry.

huckster, n. peddler, hawker, chapman, cadger, hucksterer.

huff, n. petulance, tiff, pet.

huffy, a. petulant, touchy, irritable.

hug, n. embrace.—v. embrace, clasp.

huge, a. mammoth, colossal, vast, stupendous, enormous.

hullabaloo, n. (Colloq.) uproar, vociferation, hubbub, din, clamor, tumult.

hum, n. drone, murmur, buzz, bombination; croon.

hum, v. drone, murmur, buzz, bombinate; croon.

humble, a. lowly, meek, modest, unassuming, unpretentious.

humble, v. humiliate, debase, abase, degrade.

humbug, n. imposition, hoax, deception, imposture, charlatanism, quackery, cajolery; impostor, deceiver, cheat, charlatan.

humbug, v. deceive, impose on, hoax.

humdrum, a. monotonous, tedious, prosy, tiresome.—n. monotony, tedium.

humiliate, v. humble, mortify, abash, disgrace, degrade.

humiliation, n. abasement, mortification, degradation, ignominy; humbleness, meekness.

humility, n. meekness, lowliness, self-abasement, diffidence, modesty.

humor, n. disposition, temper, mood; facetiousness, jocularity, waggery, pleasantry, wit, satire; pl. caprices vagaries, whims, fancies, whimsies.

humor, v. indulge, please, gratify, temporize. Antonyms: discipline, deny, curb, mortify.

humorist, n. wag, droll, jester, wit.

humorous, a. facetious, droll, comical, jocular, waggish.

hump, n. protuberance, hunch.

humpbacked, a. hunchbacked, deformed.

humpy, a. protuberant, humped, uneven.

hunch, n. hump, protuberance; chunk, lump.

hundredfold, a. centuple.

hundred years. century, centenary, centennial.

Hungarian, n. Magyar.

hunger cure. nestitherapy, limotherapy, limotherapia.

hungry, a. voracious, ravenous, eager; starved, depleted, infertile, barren.

hunky, a. (Slang) even, square, all-right, satisfactory.

hunt, v. chase, pursue, follow; search, seek, ransack, rummage, ferret; poach (hunt unlawfully).

hunt, n. chase, pursuit, search, hunting.

hunter, n. huntsman, sportsman, Nimrod; seeker, pursuer, chaser; Diana.

hunting, n. chase, hunt, field-sport. Associated Words: quarry, game, poaching, poacher, mort, yoicks, hoicks.

hunting horn. bugle.

hurly-burly, n. tumult, bustle, turmoil, confusion, commotion.

hurrah, n. cheer, huzza.

hurricane, n. cyclone, tornado, typhoon.

hurried, a. cursory, hasty, superficial.

hurry, n. haste, speed, dispatch, expedition, precipitancy, celerity.

hurry, v. hasten, impel, expedite, accelerate, speed, precipitate.

hurt, v. damage, wound, impair, harm, injure, offend, harry.

hurt, n. injury, wound, detriment, harm, damage.

hurtful, a. See injurious.

husband, n. spouse, benedict. Antonyms: bachelor, celibate. Associated Words: marital, monandry, polyandry cuckold, cuckoldom, henpecked.

hush, v. silence, still, repress, suppress; appease, allay.

husk, n. glume, hull, rind, shell, bark, kex.

husky, a. dry, raucous, harsh, discordant, guttural, hoarse.

hussy, n. jade, quean; jilt, flirt, jill.

hustle, v. jostle.

hut, n. hovel, shack, shed.

hybrid, n. mongrel, crossbreed, cross.—a. mongrel, crossbred.

hypocrisy, n. dissimulation, Pharisaism, sanctimoniousness.

hypocrite, n. dissembler, Pharisee, formalist, dissimulator.

hypocritical, a. Pharisaical, canting, dissembling, sanctimonious, insincere. Antonyms: sincere, unfeigned, undissembling, ingenuous.


ice, n. Associated Words: igloo, iceberg, glacier, floe, icicle, frazil, avalanche, curling, skate, skee, skating, skeeing, brash, glare, serac, crampoons, calk, glaciate, glaciation, creeper, anchor ice.

iced, a. chilled, frappe.

Iceland moss. lichen.

icy, a. glacial, glacious.

idea, n. conception, notion, opinion, fancy, impression; intention, design.

ideal, a. faultless, consummate, perfect.

idiocy, n. imbecility, foolishness, fatuity, folly, senselessness

idiot, n. imbecile.

idiotic, a. imbecile, foolish, fatuous, senseless.

idle, a. leisure; vain, unavailing, futile, ineffectual; indolent, slothful, inactive, lazy, otiose.

idleness, n. indolence, sloth, inaction, laziness; futility, vanity. Associated Word: Cocagne.

idler, n. sluggard, drone, lounger, loafer, dawdler, donothing.

idol, n. image (of a divinity), effigy, graven image; Juggernaut. Associated Words: idolater, idolatrous, idolatry, idolize, iconoplast, iconoclast, iconodule, idolomania, iconography, iconology, idoloclast, iconomachy, ting, iconolatry.

idolize, v. deify, worship, adore.

ignis fatuus. Will-o'-the-wisp, Jack-with-a-lantern, decoy.

ignoble, a. humble, plebeian, untitled; base, dishonorable, low.

ignominious, a. dishonorable, shameful, infamous, disreputable.

ignominy, n. disgrace, dishonor, reproach, obloquy, shame, humiliation.

ignoramus, n. dunce, illiterate, sciolist, wiseacre, dullard, simpleton.

ignorance, n. illiteracy, inerudition, unenlightenment, nescience; quackery, charlatanry.

ignorant, a. illiterate, inerudite unenlightened, uninformed, unlearned, untaught, uneducated, unlettered, nescient; quackish, charlatanic. Antonyms: educated, instructed, schooled, trained, proficient, learned.

ignorantly, adv. unknowingly, unconsciously, inadvertently, unwittingly.

ignorant person. ignoramus, illiterate.

ignore, v. disregard, slight, connive, overlook.

ill, a. ailing, sick, unwell; evil, unfavorable, adverse, bad.

ill at ease. uneasy, uncomfortable, anxious.

ill-boding, a. ominous, inauspicious.

illegal, a. illicit, unlawful, contraband, unlicensed, illegitimate.

illegality, n. unlawfulness, illegitimacy.

illegitimate, a. bastard, adulterine; illegal, illicit; spurious.

illegitimate, v. illegitimatize, bastardize.

illiberal, a. ungenerous, parsimonious, stingy; narrow-minded, bigoted.

illiberality, n. parsimony, stinginess; narrow-mindedness, bigotry, intolerance.

illicit, a. prohibited, unlawful.

illness, n. malady, sickness, disease.

illogical, a. fallacious, sophistical, unsound.

illusion, n. mockery, hallucination, chimera, phantasm, delusion, glamour.

illusive, a. delusive, illusory, chimerical, mocking.

illustrate, v. elucidate, picture, demonstrate, exemplify.

illustration, n. elucidation, exemplification; comparison, example, simile.

ill-will, n. malice, resentment, grudge, rancor, malevolence, antipathy, hatred.

image, n. statue; effigy, figure; ikon, eikon; idol.

image breaker. iconoclast, idoloclast, vandal.

image breaking. iconoclasm, vandalism.

image worship iconolatry, iconoduly.

imaginary, a. fancied, visionary, chimerical, illusive, phantasmal.

imagination, n. fancy, conception, notion, conceit, figment, phantasm.

imagine, v. conceive, fancy; think, suppose, opine, apprehend.

imbecile, n. idiot, witling, fool.

imbecility, n. idiocy, fatuity, foolishness, amentia.

imbedded, a. enfonced.

imitate, v. copy, ape, counterfeit; personate, impersonate, mimic, simulate; parody, caricature.

imitation, n. copy, counterfeit; mimicry, impersonation, mimesis; pasticcio; parody, travesty, burlesque; onomatopoeoea.

imitative, a. apish, copying, mimicking, mimetic; onomatopoetic.

imitator, n. copyist, follower, mimic, mime, ape, echo, impersonator.

immanence, n. inherence, indwelling.

immanent, a. inherent, indwelling.

immature, a. undeveloped, embryonic, crude, unripe, premature, untimely.

immediately, adv. instantly, forthwith, directly, straightway, at once, now, instanter. Antonyms: hereafter, by and by, after a while.

immense, a. vast, infinite, illimitable, immeasurable.

immerse, v. submerge, plunge into, dip, immerge, douse; engross.

immersed, a. submerged, plunged into; engrossed, absorbed, occupied.

immersion, n. submersion, immersing; engrossment, absorption.

immoderate, a. excessive, exorbitant, inordinate, intemperate, unrestrained.

immodest, a. indecorous, indelicate, shameless; lewd, unchaste, obscene.

immodesty, n. indecorum, indelicacy, impudicity; lewdness, unchastity, obscenity.

immoral, a. licentious, dissolute, vicious, profligate, loose, illicit, rakish.

immorality, n. vice, licentiousness, depravity, profligacy, obliquity.

immortality, n. deathlessness, athanasia; perpetuity.

immovable, a. fast, permanent, impassive, firm, steadfast.

impact, n. collision, forcible contact; force.

impart, v. communicate.

impartial, a. equitable, fair, disinterested, unbiased, unprejudiced.

impartiality, n. fairness, equity, disinterestedness, justice.

impassable, a. impenetrable, pathless, impervious.

impatient, a. restless, restive, fretful, eager, impetuous.

impede, v. retard.

impediment, n. obstacle, barrier, obstruction, stumblingblock.

impending, a. imminent, threatening.

impenetrable, a. impervious, imperforable.

impenitence, n. incontrition, obduracy, impenitency.

impenitent, a. incontrite, unrepentant, obdurate, incorrigible, recusant, relentless.

imperative, a. binding, compulsory, obligatory, imperious, peremptory.

imperfect, a. defective, faulty, deficient, undeveloped, abortive, fallible, frail, errable.

imperfection, n. defect, blemish, shortcoming, infirmity, foible, deformity, disfigurement, vice, frailty, fallibility.

imperious, a. despotic, magisterial, domineering, dictatorial, tyrannical, imperative.

imperishable, a. permanent, indestructible, enduring.

impersonate, v. personate; personify.

impersonation, n. personation, impersonating; impersonification.

impersonator, n. mimic, personator, mime, actor.

impertinent, a. irrelevant, inapplicable, impudent, saucy, rude, insolent, malapert, flippant.

impervious, a. impermeable, impenetrable, imperviable.

impetus, n. momentum, force, impulse, incentive.

impish, a. malignant.

implacable, a. unappeasable, vindictive, pitiless, irreconcilable.

implant, v. instill, inculcate, ingraft, infix.

implied, a. tacit, inferential.

implore, v. beseech, supplicate, entreat, obsecrate.

imploring, n. supplication, obsecration.

impolite, a. discourteous, inurbane, rude, uncivil, disrespectful, saucy, insolent, impertinent, churlish, brusque, unamiable, surly, gruff, boorish.

impoliteness, n. discourtesy, inurbanity, incivility, impertinence, insolence.

importance, n. moment, materiality, consequence; pomposity, self-importance.

important, a. momentous, material, essential; pompous, consequential.

impose upon. delude, dupe, deceive, victimize.

imposing, a. impressive, stately, majestic, august.

impossibility, n. impracticability.

impossible, a. impracticable, unfeasible, unattainable.

impostor, n. pretender, cheat, charlatan, mountebank, quack, deceiver.

imposture, n. fraud, imposition, charlatanism, deception.

impracticability, n. unfeasibility.

impracticable, a. impossible, unfeasible.

impregnate, v. fecundate.

impregnation, n. fecundation.

imprison, v. incarcerate, immure.

imprisonment, n. incarceration, durance, immurement, duress, confinement, commitment.

impromptu, a. improvised, offhand, extempore, extemporaneous.

improper, a. indecorous, unseemly, indecent, inappropriate, wrong, solecistic.

impropriety, n. unsuitableness, unfitness, indecorum, barbarism, solecism.

improve, v. amend, ameliorate, rectify, better, mend; utilize, use; gain, get better.

improvement, n. betterment, amelioration; meliorism; utilization.

improving, a. ameliorative, beneficial, amending.

impudence, n. insolence, impertinence, effrontery, rudeness.

impudent, a. insolent, impertinent, flippant, pert, brazen, saucy.

impulse, n. motive, incentive; impulsion, impetus.

impulsive, a. passionate, capricious, hasty; impellent, propulsive.

impure, a. tainted, defiled, contaminated, polluted, vitiated, infected; adulterated, alloyed, sophisticated; unchaste, lewd, indelicate, indecent; barbarous, vulgar, hybrid.

impurity, n. defilement, contamination, taint, pollution; adulteration, alloy, sophistication; unchastity, lewdness, indecency, indelicacy; pl. garblings, garbles.

inability, n. incompetence, impotence, incapability, incompetency, inefficiency, disability.

in a body. altogether, en masse.

inaccuracy, n. inexactness, incorrectness, impropriety.

inaccurate, a. incorrect, inexact, erroneous, faulty, wrong.

inaction, n. inactivity, inertness, stagnation, idleness.

inactive, a. inert, motionless, quiescent, dormant, inoperative, sluggish, stagnant, dilatory, latent, passive, torpid.

inactivity, n. inaction, passivity, inertia, lethargy, dormancy, stagnation, torpor, latency, sloth, Fabian policy.

inadequate, a. insufficient, deficient; defective, incomplete, imperfect.

inappropriate, a. unsuitable, unbecoming, inapplicable.

inapt, a. irrelevant, unsuitable, inept, inapplicable.

inattention, n. inadvertence, abstraction, heedlessness, disregard, neglect, remissness.

inattentive, a. heedless, absent-minded, inadvertent, unmindful, careless.

inbeing, n. inherence.

inborn, a. congenital, inherent, innate, instinctive, ingenerate.

incapable, a. incompetent, disqualified, unfit, insusceptible.

incarnation, n. incarnification, Avatar; personification.

incautious, a. unwary, inconsiderate, indiscreet, thoughtless.

incense, n. Associated Words: thurible, censer, thurification, thurify, frankincense, cense, thurifer.

incentive, n. motive, spur, incitement, stimulus, inducement provocation.

incident, n. event, happening, episode, occurrence.

incidental, a. casual, accidental, oontingent, fortuitous; subordinate, collateral, accessory.

incite, v. instigate, stimulate, arouse, goad, spur, impel.

incitement, n. stimulus, instigation, incitation, spur, incentive.

incivility, n. discourtesy, rudeness, incomity, inurbanity, disrespect.

inclination, n. leaning, slant; tendency, propensity, proneness, penchant, predilection.

incline, n. slant, slope, ascent, descent, grade.—v. lean, tend, dispose.

inclose, v. surround, encircle, circumscribe, encompass, enclose.

inclosure, n. surrounding, closure, barrier, fence, corral, stockade.

include, v. comprise, comprehend, inclose.

inclusion, n. comprisal.

income, n. revenue, proceeds; tontine, annuity. Associated Word: fructuary.

incomparable, a. peerless, matchless, transcendent, inimitable unrivalled, unapproachable.

incompetent, a. inefficient, unqualified, incapable; inadequate; unfit, unsuited.

incomplete, a. unfinished, defective, imperfect, deficient, partial, inchoate.

incomprehensible, a. inconceivable, abstruse, unfathomable.

inconsiderate, a. thoughtless, heedless, inattentive, careless.

inconsistency, n. discordance, incoherence, contrariety, incompatibility.

inconsistent, a. disagreeing, incoherent, contradictory, discrepant, incompatible.

inconstancy, n. fickleness, mutability, variableness, instability.

inconstant, a. fickle, changeable, volatile, flighty, mercurial, variable.

inconvenient, a. unhandy, incommodious, inopportune, untoward.

incorrect, a. inaccurate, erroneous, inexact, wrong; ungrammatical, solecistic.

incorrectness, n. inaccuracy, inexactness, error; impropriety.

increase, v. augment, advance, enlarge; multiply, be prolific, wax; aggravate, enhance, extend, augment, intensify, exacerbate, amplify, magnify, heighten, accelerate.

increase, n. augmentation, accretion, increment, accession, amplification, addition, accrument.

increase of motion. acceleration.

incremate, v. cremate, incinerate.

incremation, n. cremation.

incumbent, a. obligatory, imposed, binding.

incumbrance, n. hindrance, impediment, incubus; mortgage, claim, lien.

incurable, a. insanable, irremediable, immedicable; irremedicable, irreparable.

indebtedness, n. obligation; debts, liabilities.

indecency, n. immodesty, indelicacy, shamelessness, obscenity, ribaldry, lewdness.

indecent, a. immodest, obscene, indelicate, shameless, ribald, lewd, unchaste.

indecision, n. vacillation, indetermination, irresolution, wavering, inconstancy.

indecisive, a. inconclusive, vacillating, hesitating, irresolute, wavering.

indefatigable, a. untiring, persistent, unremitting, sedulous, unflagging.

indefinite, a. vague, indeterminate, equivocal, ambiguous, inexplicit, inexact.

indelicacy, n. unrefinement, rudeness, indecorum, immodesty.

indelicate, a. unrefined, indecorous, immodest, unchaste, rude, vulgar.

indemnity, n. security, insurance; restitution, reimbursement, indemnification.

indentation, n. bruise, notch, depression, indenture, serrature, jag, engrailment, crenellation.

independence, n. freedom, self-government, liberty, autonomy; opulence, affluence.

independent, a. self-governing, autonomous; self-reliant; exclusive, irrespective; affluent.

Indian, n. (aboriginal American) red man; (of mixed blood) metisse, ladino, mestizo, guacho, griffe, mameluco, half-breed. Associated Words: tepee, wigwam, tomahawk, lodge, wickiup, sachemdom, pueblo, calumet, totem, totemism, powwow, roanoke, coup, gens, Manito, pogamoggan, potlatch, chinook, runtee, travail, travois, strouding.

Indian blanket. stroud.

Indian chief. sachem, sannup, sagamore, brave.

Indian child. papoose.

Indian money. wampum, seawan, suckanhock, colcol, peag, hiagua, kopkops.

Indian prince. Maharajah, Rajah.

Indian princess or queen. Rani, Ranee.

Indian woman. squaw, mahaly.

India rubber. caoutchouc.

indicate, v. designate, betoken, signify.

indication, n. designation, signifying; symptom, evidence, sign, token, manifestation.

indicator, n. (as in a hotel) annunciator.

indictment, n. accusation, charge, arraignment, crimination.

indifference, n. apathy, coolness, negligence, unconcern, nonchalance, insouciance; mediocrity, inferiority; neutrality, impartiality, disinterestedness.

indifferent, a. disinterested, unconcerned, nonchalant, perfunctory, apathetic, insouciant; neutral, impartial; mediocre, passable, tolerable.

indirect, a. roundabout, circuitous, tortuous.

indiscreet, a. unwise, imprudent.

indiscretion, n. unwisdom, folly, imprudence; misstep, lapse.

indisposed, a. averse, disinclined, unwilling, loath, reluctant; sick, ill, unwell.

indisposition, n. disinclination, averseness, reluctance, unwillingness.

indisputable, a. undeniable, incontestable, indubitable, incontrovertible.

indissolvable, a. indissoluble.

indocile, a. intractable, refractory, unruly.

indolence, n. idleness, laziness, indulgence, sloth, inactivity, faineance.

indolent, a. lazy, slothful, supine, dronish, listless.

inducement, n. incentive, incitement, motive, stimulus.

indulge, v. satisfy, gratify, luxuriate; humor, pamper, cocker; grant, allow, permit. Antonyms: mortify, deny, suppress, restrain.

indulgence, n. humoring, pampering, gratification; kindness, favor, lenity, forbearance; absolution. Antonyms: mortification, denial, restraint, non-indulgence.

indulgent, a. forbearing, kind, lenient, lax, merciful.

industrial science. technology, polytechnics.

industrious, a. assiduous, diligent, sedulous, persistent, hard-working. Antonyms: idle, indolent, inactive, lazy.

industry, n. assiduity, diligence, activity; labor, work, exertion, efforts.

indwelling, n. immanence, inherence.—a. immanent, inherent.

ineffective, a. ineffectual, unavailing, inefficacious.

inefficient, a. ineffective, inefficacious; slack, remiss, incompetent.

inelastic, a. inductile, inextensible, rigid.

inelasticity, n. inductility, inextensibility, rigidity.

ineligible, a. disqualified.

inequality, n. disparity, disproportion, unevenness, irregularity; unfairness, injustice; inequation.

inexcusable, a. unpardonable, indefensible, unjustifiable, unwarrantable.

inexhaustible, a. exhaustless.

inexorable, a. unyielding, relentless, implacable, unmovable, unrelenting.

inexperienced, a. untrained, unpractised, undisciplined, raw, unskilled.

inexpert, a. maladroit, unskillful, bungling.

inexpressible, a. ineffable, unspeakable, unutterable.

infallibility, n. inerrability.

infallible, a. inerrable, unerring, sure, certain, undeniable.

infamous, a. disreputable, ignominious, scandalous, opprobrious, odious, heinous.

infamy, n. disgrace, ignominy, odium, obloquy, opprobrium.

infancy, n. babyhood; minority, nonage, pupilage.

infant, n. baby; minor.

infantile paralysis. poliomyelitis.

infatuate, v. enamor, charm. Antonyms: repel, disgust, disillusionize.

infection, n. contagion, contamination, vitiation, pollution.

infectious, a. contagious, pestiferous, epidemic, vitiating.

infer, v. deduce, imply, gather.

inference, n. deduction, conclusion, illation, corollary.

inferior, a. poorer, lower, subordinate, menial, minor, mediocre, subaltern.

inferior, n. subordinate. Antonyms: peer, equal, superior.

inferiority, n. subordinacy, mediocrity, deficiency.

infidel, n. free-thinker, atheist, unbeliever, skeptic.

infirmity, n. See weakness.

inflammable, a. combustible, accendible; irascible, irritable, excitable.

inflammation, n. phlogosis; phlegmasia. Associated Words: phlogistic, phlogogenous, antiphlogistic, demulcent delitescence.

inflammatory, a. phlogistic; seditious, incendiary.

inflate, v. expand, enlarge, distend.

inflated, a. distended, blown up; bombastic, pompous, grandiloquent, declamatory.

inflation, n. distention, expansion.

inflection, n. modulation, accent.

inflexibility, n. rigidity, stiffness; firmness, pertinacity, obstinacy, steadfastness.

inflexible, a. unyielding, rigid, impliable; immovable, resolute, steadfast.

influence, n. sway, control; persuasion, restraint; authority, ascendency, prestige.

influence, v. move, persuade, induce, sway, control, prevail upon, actuate, impel.

informal, a. unceremonious, unconventional, easy, natural, unconstrained.

informality, n. unceremoniousness.

information, n. knowledge, intelligence, instruction; (Law) complaint, accusation.

infringe, v. violate, transgress; encroach, trespass, intrench.

infringement, n. transgression, violation, breach, encroachment, trespass, intrenchment.

in full. unabridged, at length.

ingenious, a. inventive, resourceful.

ingratitude, n. unthankfulness.

ingredient, n. constituent, element, component, part.

inhabitant, n. dweller, denizen, residentiary, resident, citizen. Antonyms: sojourner, pilgrim, visitor.

inherent, a. innate, adhering, inexistent, inborn, inalienable.

inheritable, a. hereditable.

inheritance, n. heritage, patrimony, legacy.

inhuman, a. savage, barbarous, fiendish, brutal, cruel.

inhumanity, n. cruelty, brutality, barbarity, mercilessness.

injection, n. immission, injecting; enema, clyster, lavement.

injure, v. damage, harm, hurt, impair, disfigure, maim, mar, wound.

injurious, a. hurtful, harmful, detrimental, pernicious, deleterious, baneful, noxious, maleficent, prejudicial; defamatory, derogatory, detractory.

injury, n. damage, detriment, harm, hurt, wound, impairment, mutilation, defacement, violation, lesion. Associated Words: vulnerable, vulnerability, invulnerable, invulnerability, inviolable, vulnific.

injustice, n. inequity, unfairness; grievance.

inkling, n. hint, intimation, allusion.

inkstand, n. standish.

inky, a. atramentous, atramental, atramentarious.

inlaid work. marquetry, parquetry, mosaic.

inland, a. interior, internal.

inlet, n. entrance, ingress; bay, recess, bight, estuary, cove, frith, bayou.

inmate, n. occupant.

inn, n. lodging house, tavern, hotel; cabaret, caravansary, khan.

innate, a. inborn, inherent, native.

inner, a. internal, interior; obscure, esoteric, innermost parts, recesses, penetralia, sanctuary.

innocence, n. blamelessness, guilelessness, guiltlessness, impeccability, inoffensiveness.

innocent, a. blameless, guileless, guiltless, impeccable, inoffensive, sinless, artless, inculpable, irreproachable, irreprehensible, inerrable, irresponsible, virtuous, unsophisticated.

inquiring, a. curious, inquisitive.

inquiry, n. question, query, interrogation; research, investigationm scrutiny.

inquisitive, a. inquiring, mousing, curious, intrusive, prying, meddlesome. Antonyms: indifferent, unconcerned, uninterested.

insane, a. demented, crazy, mad, deranged, delirious, dementate; paranoiac. Antonyms: sane, rational.

insane asylum. bedlam, bethlehem, madhouse, retreat.

insanity, n. dementia, alienation of mind, madness, lunacy, craziness, derangement, frenzy, delirium, mania, hallucination, aberration of mind, bedlamism; paranoia, monomania. Antonyms: sanity, rationality, lucidity. Associated Words: alienist, alienism.

insatiable, a. unappeasable; voracious, rapacious, omnivorous.

inscrutable, a. incomprehensible, inexplicable, unsearchable.

insect, n. Associated Words: entomology, entomologist, entomologic, chrsalis, pupa, cicada, cocoon, credpitaculum, entomophilous, entornophily, entomtaxy, entomotomy, insecticidal, insectifuge, insectile, larva, lepidopterist, larvarium, stridor, stridulate, stridulation, silphology, stridulatory, nymph, horismology, imago.

insect-eaters, n. pl. Insectivora, Entomophaga.

insect-eating, a. insectivorous, entomophagous.

insect powder. insecticide, pyrethrum, entomologic, chrysalis, pupa, cicada, cocoon, crepitaculum, entomophilous, entomophily, entomotaxy, entomotomy, insecticidal, insectifuge, insectile, larva, lepidopterist, larvarium, stridor, stridulate, stridulation, silphology, stridulatory, nymph, horismology, imago.

insect-eaters, n. pl. Insectivora, Entomophaga.

insect-eating, a. insectivorous, entomophagous.

insect powder. insecticide, pyrethrum.

insecure, a. risky, unsafe, precarious, rickety, unstable, dangerous.

insecurity, n. unsafely, risk, instability, precariousness.

insensibility, n. unconsciousness, torpor, coma, narcosis, lethargy, numbness, narcoma, insusceptibility, anaesthesia, stupefaction, stupor, carus.

insensible, a. unfeeling, numb, insensate, torpid, unimpressible, unsusceptible, unconscious; imperceptible, gradual, imperceivable.

inseparable, a. indivisible, indissoluble.

insert, v. interpolate, intercalate, interject, ingraft, inosculate.

insertion, n. interjection, interpolation, intercalation, inosculation.

inside, a. internal, inner, interior.

insides, n. pl. entrails; penetralia, recesses.

insight, n. discernment.

insignificance, n. unimportance, pettiness, immateriality, triviality, inanity.

insignificant, n. meaningless; unimportant, immaterial, petty, trivial, paltry.

insincere, a. disingenuous, dissembling, false, hypocritical, affected, deceitful.

insincerity, n. duplicity, disingenuousness, hypocrisy, dissimulation.

insinuation, n. innuendo, intimation; ingratiation.

insist, v. persist, press, urge, contend.

insistence, n. persistence, pertinacity, importunity, urgency, contention, instance.

insnare, v. ensnare, entrap, seduce, inveigle, allure, entangle.

insolation, n. sunstroke, siriasis, sun bath.

insolence, n. impudence, contumely, impertinence, contumacy, effrontery, disrespect.

insinuation, n. innuendo, intimation; ingratiation.

insist, v. persist, press, urge, contend.

insistence, n. persistence, pertinacity, importunity, urgency, contention, instance.

insistent, a. persistent, importunate, insisting.

insnare, v. ensnare, entrap, seduce, inveigle, allure, entangle.

insolation, n. sunstroke, siriasis; sun bath.

insolence, n. impudence, contumely, impertinence, contumacy, effrontery, disrespect.

insolent, a. impudent, contumelious, overbearing, disrespectful contemptuous.

insoluble, a. indissoluble; unexplainable, insolvable, inexplicable.

inspect, v. examine.

inspiration, n. inhalation (breathing in); divine afflatus, theopneusty.

inspiring, a. inspiriting, elevating, promethean.

in spite of. notwithstanding, despite, nevertheless.

install, v. instate, induct.

installation, n. induction.

instance, n. persistency, request, solicitation, urgency; example, case, illustration.

instantly, adv. immediately, forthwith, at once, instanter, urgently, persistently.

instep, n. metatarsus, acrotarsium.

instruct, v. teach, indoctrinate, edify, enlighten, coach.

instruction, n. nurture, tuition, teaching, information, indoctrination, inculcation, education, admonition; edification, enlightenment; propaedeutics.

instructive, a. edifying, didactic, preceptive, mentorial; propaedeutic.

instructor, n. teacher, preceptor, tutor, master, coach, mentor, counselor, monitor, trainer.

instrument, n. tool, utensil, implement; agent, means, medium.

insufferable, a. intolerable, unendurable; detestable, offensive.

insufficiency, n. deficiency, inadequacy.

insufficient, a. inadequate, deficient, incommensurate, lacking.

insult, n. indignity, affront.

insult, v. offend, affront, flout.

insulting, a. offensive, contemptuous, contumelious, scurrilous.

insurance, n. assurance, indemnity.

insure, v. assure, indemnify; underwrite.

insurgency, n. revolt, rebellion, insubordination, mutiny.

insurgent, a. rebellious, mutinous, insubordinate, insurrectionary.

insurgent, n. rebel, revolter, mutineer, insurrectionist.

intaglio, n. diaglyph. Antonym: cameo.

intelligence, n. knowledge, discernment, insight, acumen.

intelligent, a. clever, discerning, astute, bright, knowing, apt, sensible.

intemperance, n. excess, immoderation, debauchery.

intemperate, a. immoderate, excessive, unrestrained.

intend, v. design, purpose, propose, contemplate, plan.

intended, n. fiance (male), fiancee (female).

intense, a. extreme, excruciating.

intensify, v. aggravate, exacerbate, heighten.

intention, n. design, plan, purpose, aim.

intentional, a. deliberate, premeditated. Antonyms: unintentional, inadvertent, accidental.

intercede, v. mediate, interpose, propitiate.

intercession, n. mediation, interposition, propitiation.

intercessor, n. mediator, interceder, propitiator, make-peace.

interchange, n. reciprocation, reciprocity, permutation; alternation.

interest, n. concern; share, portion, part, participation; advantage, benefit, weal, behoof; usury. Antonyms: boredom, ennui, indifference, unconcern.

interested, a. concerned; prejudiced, partial. Antonyms: disinterested, unconcerned, bored.

interfere, v. clash, conflict; intermeddle, interpose, intervene.

interference, n. clashing, collision; intermeddling, interposition, intervention.

interlining, n. interlineation.

interloper, n. intruder, interferer.

intermediate, a. intervening, interjacent; interlocutory (Law).

intermittent, a. remittent, periodical, recurrent.

internal, a. inward, interior, inside, inner; esoteric; intrinsic; inherent.

interpret, v. construe, translate, render.

interpretation, n. rendering, rendition, translation; exegesis, exegetics, hermeneutics, isagogics, anagogics, dittology.

interrogation point. eroteme.

interval, n. interstice (space between); interim, meantime

intervening, a. intermediate, interjacent.

intervention, n. interference, interposition; mediation, intercession.

intestines, n. pl. entrails, bowels, inwards, guts; omentum, caul, vermiform appendix, colon, rectum, hindgut, enteron, caecum, ileum, ileus, volvulus, jejunum, duodenum, alimentary canal; chitterlings. Associated words: enterology, splanchnology, enterography, splanchnography, enteropathy, enteroplasty, enterotomy, enteralgia, enterolith, enteritis, intestinal, enteric, crypt, peristalsis, vermiculation, alvine, viscerate, visceration, eviscerate, evisceration, disembowel, disembowelment.

intolerable, a. insufferable, unendurable.

intolerance, n. bigotry, dogmatism, illiberality.

intolerant, a. bigoted, unforbearing, illiberal.

intrenchment, n. earthwork, fortification; encroachment, infringement, invasion, inroad.

intricacy, n. complication, entanglement, complexity.

intricate, a. complicated, entangled, involved, labyrinthian, mazy.

intrigue, n. conspiracy, machination, cabal, plot; amour (illicit love affair), liaison.

intrigue, v. plot, scheme, machinate, cabal.

intriguer, n. machinator, plotter, schemer, Figaro, intrigant, intrigante (female).

intriguing, a. scheming, Machiavelian, wily.

intrinsic, a. inherent, innate, real, genuine. Antonym: extrinsic.

introduction, n. preface, proem, exordium, prelude, prolegomenon, prologue, foreword; presentation; interpolation interposition, initiation.

introductory, a. preliminary, proemial, prefatory.

intrude, v. infringe, invade, encroach, obtrude, interlope.

intrusion, n. encroachment, obtrusion, infringement, interloping.

intrusive, a. obtrusive. Antonyms: unintrusive, unobtrusive, retiring.

intrust, v. commit, confide.

invade, v. infringe, encroach, trespass, intrench, trench.

invalid, a. null, void, of no efficacy; baseless, unfounded.

invalid, a. valetudinary.

invalid, n. valetudinarian.

invalidate, v. annul, abrogate, cancel, quash, nullify.

invalidation, n. nullification, abrogation, annulment.

invalidism, n. valetudinarianism.

invasion, n. irruption, foray, raid, aggression; violation, infringement, encroachment, intrenchment.

inveigle, v. wheedle, seduce.

inveiglement, n. wheedling, seduction.

investigate, v. probe, sift, examine.

investigation, n. examination, inquiry, research.

invidious, a. objectionable, offensive.

invincible, a. indomitable, unconquerable.

invisible, a. imperceptible, microscopic, evanescent.

invitation, n. bidding, call, summons.

invite, v. bid, ask, summon; allure, induce, entice.

invocation, n. prayer, supplication.

involuntary, a. uncontrollable, instinctive, automatic, compulsory, forced.

inwards, n. pl. entrails, intestines, bowels, guts; viscera; giblets, inmeats, umbles.

iota, n. scintilla, tittle, atom, mite, jot, whit, bit, particle.

Ireland, n. Erin, Emerald Isle.

iridescent, a. prismatic, nacreous.

iris, n. flower-de-luce, fleur-de-lis, flag.

Irish, a. Hibernian.

Irishman, n. Hibernian, Milesian, Teague, Pat, Paddy.

iron, v. smooth; mangle.

irons, n. pl. fetters, chains, handcuffs, shackles, manacles, hampers, gyves.

ironworker's pneumonia. siderosis.

irrecoverable, a. irretrievable.

irregular, a. inconformable, abnormal, anomalous, exceptional, unsymmetrical, unusual, erose, baroque, aberrant.

irregularity, n. inconformableness, abnormality, asymmetry, anomaly, aberration, intermittency.

irreligious, a. ungodly, impious, godless, sacrilegious, blasphemous, profane.

irresolute, a. wavering, vacillating, inconstant, fickle, double-minded.

irresolution, n. indecision, vacillation, inconstancy, fickleness.

irresponsible, a. unaccountable, unanswerable, unreliable.

irritable, a. irascible, fretful, spleeny, choleric, petulant, fiery, captious, splenetic.

irritate, v. intensify, stimulate; provoke, vex, annoy, offend, chafe.

isinglass, n. fishglue, ichthyocol, ichthyocolla; mica; carlock.

island, n. isle, eyot, holm, islet; atoll. Associated Words: insular, insularity, archipelago, lagoon, coral, maroon, marooner.

isolate, v. insulate, segregate, dissociate, detach, separate.

isolated, a. insulated, separate, solitary, segregated, sporadic.

isolation, n. insulation, segregation; loneliness, solitude.

issue, v. gush, disembogue; sally forth, debouch; proceed, emanate, ensue, follow, result.

Italian laborers. Associated Word: padrone.

Italian paste. macaroni, vermicelli.

itch, n. psora, scabies; prurigo; sycosis (barber's itch); eczema; pruriency.

itching, a. tingling, prurient.

ivory, n. Associated Words: eburnean, eburnine, eburin, eburnification, eburnation.

ivy, n. Associated Words: hederaceous, hederal, hederic, hederiferous, hederose.


Jab, n. (Colloq.) thrust, punch, dig.

jabber, n. gibberish, chatter, gabble, babble.—v. gabble, gibber, babble, chatter.

jackass, n. donkey; dolt, simpleton, witling, ignoramus, fool.

jacket, n. coat, jerkin, blouse, spencer, bolero, pea-jacket sontag, blazer, sweater, reefer, jersey, jumper, cardigan jacket, grego, garibaldi, camisole, temiak (Eskimo); cleading.

jade, n. nephrite, jadeite; nag, plug; hussy, wench, quean.

jag, n. notch, cleft, barb, protuberance.—v. notch.

jagged, a. cleft, jaggy, notched, serrated, erose, sharp.

jail, n. prison, lockup, calaboose, workhouse, limbo.

jail bird. prisoner.

jailer, n. warden, turnkey, sheriff.

jail fever. typhus fever.

jam, n. preserve, conserve; crowd, throng, crush.

jam, v. squeeze, crowd, press, wedge in, bruise.

jamboree, n. (Slang) carousal, revelry, carouse, spree.

jangle, n. clashing, clang, discord, dissonance; wrangling, quarrel, dispute, altercation.

jangle, v. clash, clang; quarrel, wrangle, dispute, altercate.

jangling, a. discordant, dissonant, clashing, inharmonious.

janitor, n. doorkeeper, porter, concierge; (female) janitress, janitrix.

Japan, n. Nippon, Flowery Kingdom. Associated Words: Japanese, geisha, coolie, Mikado, samurai, shizoku, heimin, kwazoku, Mongol, Mongolian, kimono, Dairi, daimio, saki, Tycoon, Shogun.

japan, n. lacquer, varnish, enamel.

jar, n. crock; gurglet; shock, jolt, vibration.—v. jolt, jounce, shock, discompose, unsettle; grate.

jargon, n. gibberish, drivel, babble, gabble, twaddle, bosh; cant, slang, flash, argot, dialect.

jaundice, n. icterus.—v. prejudice.

jaundiced, a. prejudiced, biased, warped.

jaunty, a. airy, showy, finical, affected, fine.

jaw, n. Jawbone, jowl; maxilla (upper jaw); mandible (lower jaw).

jaw, v. (Low) scold, upbraid, berate, clamor, rail at.

jawless, a. agnathic, agnathous.

jaw muscle. masseter.

jayhawker, n. guerrilla.

jealous, a. suspicious, distrustful.

jealousy, n. suspicion, distrust.

jeer, v. mock, deride, ridicule, taunt, jibe.

jeering, n. mockery, derision, ridicule, scoffing, sneer, taunt.

jellylike, a. gelatinous, colloid.

jeopard, v. imperil, risk, expose, endanger, hazard.

jeopardize, v. jeopard.

jeopardy, n. danger, peril, hazard, exposure.

jerk, v. twitch, yerk.

jerked beef. charqui.

jerky, a. abrupt, unconnected.

jest, n. joke, witticism, quip, jeu d' esprit, Joe Miller.

jest, v. joke.

jester, n. joker, wag; buffoon, merry-andrew, clown, harlequin, zany.

jesting, n. joking, jest, raillery, banter, persiflage, facetiousness, badinage, jocularity.

jesting, a. waggish, jocular, facetious, sportive.

jet, v. spurt, spout, gush; protrude, project.—n. spouting, spurt, gush.

Jew, n. Hebrew, Israelite, Judahite, Judean, Semite, Yid; Rabbi, Sadducee, Pharisee, Levite. Associated Words: Yiddish, ghetto, kosher, tref, Talmud, kittel, sephardic, Sanhedrim, synagogue, Jewry, Judaism, judaize.

Jewish, a. Hebrew, Judaic, Israelitish, Hebraic, Semitic.

Jewish beggar. schnorrer.

Jewish marriage broker. schatchen.

jewel, n. gem, brilliant.

jewelry, n. jewels; bijoutry.

Jew's pitch. asphaltum, bitumen.

Jezebel, n.virago, she-devil, fury, Gorgon, termagant.

jibe, v. (Colloq.) agree, harmonize, fit.

jiffy, n. (Colloq.)moment, instant, second, trice.

jill, n. coquette, flirt; sweetheart, gill.

jilt, n. coquette, flirt.

jingle, n. tinkling, jingling, tintinnabulation; rhyme.—v. tinkle.

job, n. task; situation, position.

jocose, a. facetious, waggish, sportive, merry, jocular, humorous.

jocular, a. jesting, jocose, sportive, merry, waggish.

jocularity, n. jesting, waggishness, waggery, facetiousness, drollery.

jog, n. shake, jolt, jar, shove; hitch, break.

jog, v. push, shake, jostle; suggest to, notify, remind.

johnny cake. hoecake, corncake.

join v. connect, couple, unite, combine, associate, add, append, annex, link, conjoin, mortise, dowel, splice, knit, dovetail, mingle, coalesce, unify, confederate; abut. Antonyms: disjoin, disconnect. See separate.

joiner, n. link, coupling, bond; woodworker, carpenter.

joint, n. gimbal joint, dove-tail joint, joggle joint, mortise joint, miter, dowel, scarf joint, rabbet joint.

joint, n. articulation; suture, commissure, knuckle. Associated words: arthrology, arthrography, synosteology arthrectomy, synovia, articular, bursa, synovial, internode, internodal, anchylose, dislocate, dislocation, luxate, luxation.

joint, a. combined, joined, united.

jointed, a. articulated, hinged; knotted, gnarled.

jointless, a. acondylous, anarthrous, inarticulate.

joke, n. jest, witticism, jocosity, sally, jeu d'esprit, quip, quirk, Joe Miller.

joke, v. rally, banter, jest.

joking, n. jesting, rallying, banter, persiflage, jocularity, waggishness.

jokingly, adv. sportively, jestingly, waggishly, jocularly.

jolly, a. jovial, vivacious, congenial, convivial, mirthful, sportive, gay, facetious, boon, waggish, jocular, jocose, witty, blithe, sprightly, cheery.

jolly, v. (Colloq.) make good-natured, joke, jest, cheer, encourage.

jolt, n. jar, shock, jounce, jolting.—v. shake, jar, jounce.

jot, n. iota, point, tittle, bit, mite, atom, scintilla, ace, particle, whit.

jotting, n. memorandum, note, entry.

jounce, n. jolt, shake, jolting.—v. jolt, shake, jar.

journal, n. day-book, daily register, record; diary; periodical, publication, magazine, gazette, ephemeris.

journey, n. trip, tour, pilgrimage, excursion, travel, jaunt, peregrination. Associated Words: itinerary, itinerancy, viatic, viaticum.

journeyman, n. handicraftsman, artisan. Antonyms: apprentice, amateur.

joust, v. tilt.

Jove, n. Jupiter.

jovial, a. jolly, mirthful, gay, merry, sportive, hilarious, gleeful.

joviality, n. gayety, jollity, sportiveness, liveliness.

joy, n. gladness, exultation, jubilation, mirth, festivity glee, elation, merriment.

joyful, a. joyous, glad, elated, jubilant, exhilarating, happy, buoyant, merry, encouraging, felicitous.

joyous, a. joyful.

jubilant, a. joyful, exultant, triumphant.

jubilation, n. rejoicing, exultation, triumph.

Judas, n. betrayer, traitor.

Judas, a. traitorous, treacherous, disloyal, perfidious.

judge, v. adjudge, adjudicate, try; discern, distinguish, discriminate, decide; esteem, think, consider, reckon, deem, regard; arbitrate.

judge, n. justice, judger; arbitrator, arbiter, umpire, referee; connoisseur, critic; puisne; deemster (Isle of Man). Associated Words: judicial, judicially, judicable, judicatory, judicature, judiciary.

judges, n. pl. judiciary.

judgment, n. decision, adjudication, arbitrament, arbitration, adjudgment; sentence, decree, verdict; discrimination, discernment.

judgment-seat, n. court, tribunal, bar, judicatory.

judicial, a. judicative, judicatory, juridical, judiciary.

judicious, a. prudent, discreet, well-advised.

jug, n. pitcher, ewer, demijohn, flagon; bellarmine, long-beard.

juggler, n. prestidigitator, magician, conjurer; cheat, impostor; jongleur.

jugglery, n. sleight of hand, legerdemain, prestidigitation, magic, conjuring; imposture, trickery, hankey-pankey.

juice, n.. sap, lush; must.

juicy, a. succulent, sappy, lush, luscious. Antonyms: juiceless, sapless, dry.

jumble, v. confuse, disarrange, entangle, mix

jumble, n. disorder, confusion, disarray, mixture, entanglement, chaos, hodgepodge.

jump, v. spring, bound, leap, hop, caper, vault; bounce, jolt.

jump, n. leap, spring, bound, hop, vault, caper, jolt.

junction, n. union, coalition; juncture.

juncture, n. joint, seam; crisis, conjuncture, point, exigency.

jungle, n. thicket, brake, boscage, brush.

junket, n. delicacy, sweetmeat; feast, banquet. —v. feast, banquet, regale, entertain.

junta, n. council, tribunal, assembly, convention.

junto, n. secret council, cabal, clique, faction.

jury, n. Associated Words: impanel, panel, venire, venire, facias, tales, talesman.

juryman, n. juror.

just, a. upright, honest, conscientious, honorable, straightforward; condign, merited, deserved, due; reasonable, conscionable, equitable, fair; unbiased, impartial correct, exact, accurate, proper, appropriate. Antonyms: dishonest, inequitable, undeserved. See unjust.

just, adv. precisely, exactly; closely, nearly, almost; barely, scarcely, only.

justice, n. justness, quity, impartiality; judge. Antonyms: inequity, injustice.

justifiable, a. warrantable, defensible, vindicable.

justification, n. vindication, exuplpation, exoneration, defense.

justifier, n. justificatior, vindicator, defender.

justify, v. vindicate, warrant, excuse, exonorate, exculpate, absolve, defend.

justle, v. clash, bump, jostle, collide.

justly, adv. honestly, fairly, equitably, impartially.

justness, n. justice, fairness, equity, impartiality, condignness.

jut, v. jut out, project, protrude.—n. projection, jutt.

jutting, a. projecting, protruding.

jutting out. projection, projecture, protrusion

jutty, n. pier, mole, jetty.

juvenile, a. youthful, young, immature.

juvenility, n. youthfulness, immaturity.


Keel over. (Colloq.) overturn, capsize, tip over.

keen, a. sharp, acute, trenchant; penetrating, shrewd, astute, discerning; piercing, poignant, excruciating, a crimonious, mordacious, bitter, intense, severe; eager, ardent, ravenous, vehement.

keep, n. custody, charge; maintenance, support; stronghold, donjon; condition, case.

keep, v. detain, restrain, hold, retain, repress, withhold; preserve, conserve; maintain, continue; guard, shield, defend, protect, screen, preserve; entertain, harbor; observe, adhere to, fulfill; commemorate, celebrate, solemnize; support, sustain, provide for.

keep back. reserve, withhold; restrain, repress, check.

keep company with. associate with, accompany, go with.

keep down. hold in subjection, restrain, hinder, subdue.

keeper, n. warden; superintendent, curator, custodian, guardian, attendant, defender, overseer.

keep from. abstain from, refrain from.

keeping, n. holding, restraint, custody, guard, guardianship, protection, tutelage; detention, retention; maintenance support, subsistence, board; conformity, congruity, harmony, consistency, correspondence; observance; celebration, commemoration, fulfillment.

keeping back. reservation, reserving, withholding; restraint, repression, checking.

keep on. proceed, continue, persist.

keepsake, n. memento, souvenir.

keep to. adhere to.

keep under. hold in subjection, subdue, mortify.

keep up. maintain, continue.

kelter, n. (Colloq.) condition, order.

kernel, n. seed, grain; nucleus; gist, core, pith, substance, essence, marrow. Associated Words: enucleate, enucleation, exacinate, exacination.

kerosene, n. coal oil, petroleum.

kettle, n. caldron (a large kettle).

kettledrum, n. tympano; pl. tympani.

key, n. Associated Words: claviger, clavigerous, cleidomancy, escutcheon, lock.

key, n. pitch, tone.

key, n. clew, solution, guide, explanation, elucidation, clavis; wharf, quay; forelock, cotter, bar, pin; samara.

keyboard, n. clavier.

kick, v. spurn, calcitrate, recalcitrate, winch; resist, oppose; recoil.

kick, n. kicking, opposition.

kicking, n. spurning, recalcitration, calcitration, winch; opposition, resistance.

kicking, a. recalcitrant, calcitrant, resistant.

kiddy, v. (Slang) deceive, outwit, hoax.

kidnap, v. abduct.

kidnapper, n. abductor, man-stealer.

kidnapping, n. abduction.

kidney, n. Associated Words: nephrology, nephrotomy, nephritis, renal, emunctory, nephritic, loins, reins.

kidney, n. sort, kind, variety, disposition.

kidney-shaped, a. reniform.

kidney stone. nephrite, jade.

kill, v. slay, slaughter, murder, assassinate, butcher, despatch, execute, lynch, massacre, burke, immolate, guillotine, decimate, destroy, blast; counteract, neutralize; quell, extinguish.

killer, n. slayer, murderer, butcher, assassin, assassinator, executor, destroyer.

killing, n. slaying, slaughter, butchering, butchery, assassination, massacre, strangulation, immolation, holocaust, execution, fusillade, carnage, murder, manslaughter, chaud-medley, lynching, guillotine, burkism, garrote, chance-medley, decimation, assideration, destruction, blasting; counteraction, neutralization.

killing, a. fatal, mortal, deadly, destructive; captivating, charming, fascinating.

kilt, n. filibeg.

kilter, n. (Colloq.) condition, order.

kin, n. relationship; relatives, relations, kindred, kinsfolk, kinsmen.

kin, a. kindred.

kind, a. indulgent, compassionate, merciful, lenient, clement, benignant, gracious, benevolent, kind-hearted, forbearing, benign, beneficent, humane, obliging.

kind, n. variety, genus, species, strain, breed, nature, genre, sort, style, character, description, kidney.

kind-hearted, a. compassionate, lenient, clement, kind.

kindle, v. enkindle, fire, ignite, incite, inflame, rouse.

kindling, n. enkindling, incitement, accension.

kindly, a. kind.

kindness, n. compassion, benignity, benevolence, kindliness, graciousness, clemency, compassionateness; favor, service, good turn.

kindred, n. relationship; relatives, relations, kinsfolk, kin, kinsmen.

kindred, a. related, congenial, allied, similar.

kine, n. pl. cows, cattle.

king, n. monarch, sovereign, potentate, regulus. Associated Words: regicide royalty, regnal, regnant, regnancy, regalia, viceroy, camarilla, dynastic, dynasty.

kingdom, n. empire, dominion, sovereignty, monarchy, realm.

kingly, a. royal, regal, monarchical; sovereign, august, majestic, grand. Antonyms: servile, mean, abject, slavish, unkingly.

king's evil. scrofula.

kink, v. snarl, become entangled.

kink, n. snarl, knot, entanglement, twist; crotchet, whim, caprice, eccentricity.

kinky, a. snarled, tangled, knotted; crotchety, eccentric, capricious.

kinsman, n. relative.

kiss, v. osculate.

kiss, n. osculation, buss, smack; pax (kiss of peace).

kissing, n. osculation.—a. osculant, oscillatory.

kitchen, n. cookroom, cuisine, scullery (back kitchen); galley (Nautical). Associated Words: scullion, culinary, olitory.

kith, n. acquaintance.

knack, n. gimcrack, trinket, toy, plaything, knickknack, kickshaws, gewgaw, bauble; skill, readiness, aptitude, proficiency, dexterity, adroitness; trick, device.

knarl, n. knot, gnarl, knag, knurl, node.

knarled, a. knotted, gnarled, knurly, gnarly, knotty, knurled, knarred.

knave, n. villain, rascal, scamp. See scoundrel.

knavery, n. villainy, rascality, scoundrelism, chicanery, knavishness, roguery.

knavish, a. unprincipled, rascally, villainous.

knee, n. Associated Words: genuflect, genuflection, ham, hock, gonitis, stifle, geniculate, dib, quadriceps.

knee breeches. smallclothes, knickerbockers.

kneecap, n. patella, kneepan.

kneeling desk. priedieu.

knees, n. pl. marrowbones.

knickerbockers, n. pl. knee breeches, smallclothes.

knickknack, n. gimcrack, gewgaw, bauble, trinket, knack, curio, bric-a-brac.

knife, n. dagger, stiletto, dirk, poniard, bowie-knife, misericorde, anlace, yataghan, machete, bolo, handjar, skean, creese, barong, sword, billhook, saber; scalpel, lancet, bistoury; jackknife, pen-knife, pocket-knife. Associated Words: cutler, cutlery, sheath, sheathe, unsheathe, scabbard, cultrivorous, cultrate, cultriform, tang, scale, spring, blade, kick, spatula.

knight, n. man-at-arms; champion, partisan, lover, gallant.

knighthood, n. chivalry. Associated Word: accolade.

knightly, a. chivalrous, gallant.

knob, n. excrescence, boss, lump, tubercle, knop, stud, hard swelling; finial, knosp.

knock, v. rap; clash, bump; strike, beat.—n. blow, stroke; rap.

knock about. (Colloq.) wander about, saunter, stroll.

knock down. fell, floor, prostrate.

knockknee, n. inknee.

knock under. yield, submit, give in.

knoll, n. hillock, mound.

knop, n. See knob.

knot, n. entanglement, snarl, intricacy, complication; cluster, group, band, bevy, gang, company; joint, node, knag, burl, gnarl, knob, nodule, nodosity; tuft, bunch.

knot, v. entangle, tie, snarl. Antonyms: disentangle, unravel, untie.

knotted, a. knurled, knaggy, gnarled, gnarly; snarled, entangled, interwoven.

knotty, a. knotted, gnarled, crossgrained; intricate, difficult, complicated.

knowable, a. ascertainable, cognizable, cognoscible, intelligible, recognizable. Antonyms: unknowable, unascertainable, incognoscible, unrecognizable.

knowall, n. (Colloq.) wiseacre, quidnunc.

knowing, a. intelligent, sagacious, wise, clever; expressive, significant; (Colloq.) artful, sharp, cunning.

knowingly, adv. consciously, intelligently, wittingly, designedly, sagely, purposely, sapiently, significantly, expressively.

knowledge, n. learning, lore, erudition, culture, enlightenment, attainments, information; cognizance, apprehension, cognition, understanding, ken; omniscience (universal knowledge); prescience (foreknowledge); polymathy. Antonyms: sciolism, ignorance, inerudition, dilettanteism pedantry, unfamiliarity.

knuckle bones. dibs.

knuckle to. (Colloq.) submit to, yield, cringe, obey.

kodak, n. camera (portable).


labor, n. toil, work, drudgery, task, industry, travail.

labor, v. toil, work, drudge, slave, moil, travail.

labored, a. studied, elaborate, overwrought, stiff, unnatural.

laborer, n. toiler, workman, stevedore, roustabout, drudge, hack, peon, coolie, navvy.

laborious, a. toilsome, arduous, onerous; diligent, industrious, sedulous.

labyrinth, n. maze, intricacy, complexity.

lace, n. string, cord, thong, aglet.

lacerate, v. tear, rend, mangle, laniate, harrow, wound, harry, distress.

laceration, n. tearing, rending, laniation, harrowing, wound.

lack, v. need, want, be in need of, require, sedulous.

labyrinth, n. maze, intricacy, complexity.

lace, n. string, cord, thong, aglet.

lacerate, v. tear, rend, mangle, laniate, harrow, wound, harry, distress.

laceration, n. tearing, rending, laniation, harrowing, wound.

lack, v. need, want, be in need of, require.

lack, n. want, need, deficiency, dearth, paucity, scarcity, drought, default, deficit, insufficiency, inadequacy, shortness.

lackadaisical, a. pensive, dreamy, languishing, die-away.

lackey, n. flunky.

lacking, a. deficient, insufficient, unsupplied, shy, wanting, devoid.

ladylove, n. See sweetheart.

lag, v. fall behind, loiter, linger, delay, saunter.

laggard, n. loiterer, lagger, lingerer, saunterer, idler.

lake, n. pond; lagoon. Associated Words: lacustrine, lacustral.

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