Two generations later, Richard Crashaw caught up the universal sentiment, when, in his lines "Upon Bishop Andrewes' Picture before his Sermons,'' he exclaims:—
"This reverend shadow cast that setting sun, Whose glorious course through our horizon run, Left the dim face of this dull hemisphere, All one great eye, all drown'd in one great teare.''
Andrewes was distinguished in many fields. At court, though no trifler or flatterer, he was a favourite counsellor in three successive reigns, but he never meddled much in civil or temporal affairs. His learning made him the equal and the friend of Grotius, and of the foremost contemporary scholars. His preaching was a unique combination of rhetorical splendour and scholarly richness; his piety that of an ancient saint, semi-ascetic and unearthly in its self-denial. As a churchman he is typically Anglican, equally removed from the Puritan and the Roman positions. He stands in true succession to Richard Hooker in working out the principles of the Puritanism, Andrewes chiefly combated Romanism. A good summary of his position is found in his First Answer to Cardinal Perron, who had challenged James I.'s use of the title "Catholic.'' His position in regard to the Eucharist is naturally more mature than that of the first reformers. "As to the Real Presence we are agreed; our controversy is as to the mode of it. As to the mode we define nothing rashly, nor anxiously investigate, any more than in the Incarnation of Christ we ask how the human is united to the divine nature in One Person. There is a real change in the elements—we allow ut panis iam consecratus non sit panis quem natura formavit; sed, quem benedictio consecravit, et consecrando etiam immutavit'' Responsio, p. 263). Adoration is permitted, and the use of the terms "sacrifice'' and "altar'' maintained as being consonant with scripture and antiquity. Christ is "a sacrifice—so, to be slain; a propitiatory sacrifice—so, to be eaten'' (Sermons, vol. ii. p. 296). "By the same rules that the Passover was, by the same may ours be termed a sacrifice. In rigour of speech, neither of them; for to speak after the exact manner of divinity, there is but one only sacrifice, veri nominis, that is Christ's death. And that sacrifice but once actually performed at His death, but ever before represented in figure, from the beginning; and ever since repeated in memory to the world's end. That only absolute, all else relative to it, reprerentative of it, operative by it. . . . Hence it is that what names theirs carried, ours do the like, and the Fathers make no scruple at it—no more need we'' (Sermons, vol. ii. p. 300). As to reservation, "it needeth not: the intent is had without it,'' since an invalid may always have his private communion. Andrewes declares against the invocation of saints, the apparent examples in patristic literature are "rhetorical outbursts, not theological definitions.'' His services to his church have been summed up thus:—(1) he has a keen sense of the proportion of the faith and maintains a clear distinction between what is fundamental, needing ecclesiastical commands, and subsidiary, needing only ecclesiastical guidance and suggestion; (2) as distinguished from the earlier protesting standpoint, e.g. of the Thirty-nine Articles, he emphasized a positive and constructive statement of the Anglican position.
LITERATURE.—Of his works the Manual of Private Devotions is the best known, for it appeals to Christians of every church. One of the many good modern editions is that by Alex. Whyte (1900). Andrewes's other works occupy eight volumes in the Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology (1841-1854). Of biographies we have those by H. Isaacson (1650), A. T. Russell (1863), R. L. Ottley (1894), and Dean Church's essay in Masters in English Theology. See also W. H. Frere, Lancelot Andrewes as a Representative of Anglican Principles (1898; Church Hist. Soc. Publications, No. 44).
ANDREWS, JAMES PETTIT (c. 1737-1797), English historian and antiquary, was the younger son of Joseph Andrews, of Shaw House, Newbury, Berkshire, where he was born. He was educated privately, and having taken to the law was one of the magistrates at the police court in Queen Square, Westminster, from 1792 to his death. He developed a taste for literature, and his miscellaneous works include The Savages of Europe (London, 1764), a satire on the English which he translated from the French, and Anccdotes Ancient and Modern (London, 1789) a.n amusing collection of gossip. His chief work was a History of Great Britain connected with the Chronology of Europe from Caesar's Invasion to Accession of Edward VI., in 2 vols. (London, 1794-1795) . Its plan is somewhat singular, as a portion of the history of England is given on one page, and a general sketch of the contemporaneous history of Europe on the opposite page. He also wrote a History of Great Britain from Death of Henry VIII. to Accession of James VI. of Scotland, a continuation of Robert Henry's History of Great Britain, published in 1796 and again in 1806. Andrews died at Brompton on the 6th of August 1797, and was buried in Hampstead Church. He married Anne Penrose, daughter of a rector of Newbury.
ANDREWS, THOMAS (1813-1885), Irish chemist and physicist, was born on the 19th of December 1813 at Belfast, where his father was a linen merchant. After attending the Belfast Academy and also the Academical Institution, he went to Glasgow in 1828 to study chemistry under Professor Thomas Thomson, and thence migrated to Trinity College, Dublin, where he gained distinction in classics as well as in science. Finally, he graduated as M.D. at Edinburgh in 1835, and settled down to a successful medical practice in his native place, also giving instruction in chemistry at the Academical Institution. Ten years later he was appointed vice-president of the newly established Queen's College, Belfast, and professor of chemistry, and these two offices he held till 1879, when failing health compelled his retirement. He died on the 26th of November 1885. Andrews first became known as a scientific investigator by his work on the heat developed in chemical actions, for which the Royal Society awarded him a Royal medal in 1844. Another important research, undertaken with P. G. Tait, was devoted to ozone. But the work on which his reputation mainly rests, and which best displayed his skill and resourcefulness in experiment, was concerned with the liquefaction of gases. He carried out a very complete inquiry into the laws expressing the relations of pressure, temperature and volume in carbonic dioxide, in particular establishing the conceptions of critical temperature and critical pressure, and showing that the gas passes from the gaseous to the liquid state without any breach of continuity.
His scientific papers were published in a collected form in 1889, with a memoir by Professors Tait and Crum Brown.
ANDRIA, a town and episcopal see of Apulia, Italy, in the province of Bari; 35m. W. of the town of Bari by steam tramway, and 6 m. S.S.E. of Barletta. Pop. (1901) 49,569. It was founded probably about 1046 by Peter, the first Norman count of Andria. It was a favourite residence of the emperor Frederick II., whose second and third wives, Iolanthe and Isabella of England, were buried in the cathedral dedicated to St Richard, who is believed to have come from England in 492; their tombs, however, no longer exist. There are several other fine churches of the 13th century. The Castel del Monte, 9 1/2 m. S. of Andria, was constructed by Frederick II., who frequently resided here; it is an octagonal building in two storeys with octagonal towers at each angle, and was further surrounded by three outer walls. Despite its massive and imposing exterior, its details are fine.
See E. Rocchi in L'Arte, i. (1898) 121.
ANDRIEU, BERTRAND (1761-1822), French engraver of medals, was born at Bordeaux. He is considered as the restorer of the art in France, which had declined after the time of Louis XIV.; and during the last twenty years of his life he was entrusted by the French government with the execution of every work of importance. Many of his medals are figured in the Medallic History of Napoleon.
ANDRIEUX, FRANCOIS GUILLAUME JEAN STANISLAS (1759-1833), French man of letters, was born at Strassburg on the 6th of May 1759. He was educated at Strassburg and proceeded to Paris to study law. There he became a close friend of Collin d'Harleville. He became secretary to the duke of Uzes, and practised at the bar, but his attention was divided between his profession and literature. His plays are of the 18th century style, comedies of intrigue, but they rank with those of Collin d'Harleville among the best of the period next to those of Beaumarchais. Les Etourdis, his best comedy, was represented in 1788 and won for the author the praise of La Harpe. Andrieux hailed the beginning of the Revolution with delight and received a place under the new government, but at the beginning of the Terror he retreated to Mevoisins, the patrimony of his friend Collin d'Harleville. Under the Convention he was made civil judge in the Court of Cassation, and was one of the original members of the Institute. A moderate statesman, he was elected secretary and finally president of the Tribunat, but with other of his colleagues he was expelled for his irreconcilable attitude towards the establishment of the civil code. On his retirement he again turned to write for the stage, producing Le Tresor and Moliere avec ses amis in 1804. He became librarian to Joseph Bonaparte and to the Senate, was professor of grammar and literature at the Ecole Polytechnique and eventually at the College de France. As a professor he was extraordinarily successful, and his lectures, which have unhappily not been preserved, attracted mature men as well as the ordinary students. He was rigidly classical in his tastes, and an ardent opponent of romanticism, which tended in his opinion to the subversion of morals. Among his other plays are La Comedienine (1816), one of his best comedies, and a tragedy, Lucius Junius Brutus (1830). Andrieux was the author of some excellent stories and fables: La Promenade de Fenelon, Le Bulle d'Alexandre VI. and the Meunier de Saint-Souci. In 1829 he became perpetual secretary to the Academy, and in fulfilment of his functions he worked hard at the completion of the Dictionary. He died on the 9th of May 1833 in Paris.
See also A. H. Taillandier, Notice sur la vie et les ouvrages d'Andrieux (1850); Sainte-Beuve, Portraits litteraires, vol. i.
ANDRISCUS, often called the "pseudo-Philip,'' a fuller of Adramyttium, who claimed to be a son of Perseus, last king of Macedonia. He occupied the throne for a year (149-148 B.C..) Unable to obtain a following in Macedonia, he applied to Demetrius Soter of Syria, who handed him over to the Romans. He contrived, however, to escape; reappeared in Macedonia with a large body of Thracians; and, having completely defeated the praetor Publius Juventius (149), he assumed the title of king. His conquest of Thessaly and alliance with Carthage made the situation dangerous. Eventually he was defeated by Q. Caecilius Metellus (148), and fled to Thrace, whose prince gave him up to Rome. He figured in the triumph of Metellus (146), who received the title of "Macedonicus'' for his victory. Andriscus's brief reign was marked by cruelty and extortion. After this Macedonia was formally reduced to a province.
Velleius Paterculus i. 11; Florus ii. 14; Livy, Epit. 49, 50, 52; Diod. Sic. xxxii. 9.
ANDROCLUS, a Roman slave who lived about the time of Tiberius. He is the hero of a story told by Aulus Gellius (v. 14), which states that Androclus had taken refuge from the cruelties of his master in a cave in Africa, when a lion entered the cave and showed him his swollen paw, from which Androclus extracted a large thorn. The gratelul animal subsequently recognized him when he had been captured and thrown to the wild beasts in the circus, and, instead of attacking him, began to caress him (Aelian, De Nat. An. vii. 48).
ANDROMACHE, in Greek legend, the daughter of Eetion, prince of Thebe in Mysia, and wife of Hector. Her father and seven brothers fell by the hands of Achilles when their town was taken by him; her mother, ransomed at a high price, was slain by Artemis (Iliad, vi. 414). During the Trojan War her husband was slain by Achilles, and after the capture of the city her son Astyanax (or Scamandrius) was hurled from the battlements (Eurip. Troades, 720). When the captives were allotted, Andromache fell to Neoptolemus (Pyrrhus), the son of Achilles, whom she accompanied to Epirus, and to whom she bore three sons. When Neoptolemus was slain at Delphi, he left his wife and kingdom to Helenus, the brother of Hector (Virgil, Aen. iii. 294). After the death of her third husband, Andromache returned to Asia Minor with her youngest son Pergamus, who there founded a town named after himself. Andromache is one of the finest characters in Homer, distinguished by her affection for her husband and child, her misfortunes and the resignation with which she endures them. The death of Astyanax, and the farewell scene between Andromache and Hector (Iliad, vi. 323), were represented in ancient works of art, while Andromache herself is the subject of tragedies by Euripides and Racine.
ANDROMEDA, in Greek legend, the daughter of Cepheus and Cassiopeia (Cassiope, Cassiepeia), king and queen of the Ethiopians. Cassiopeia, having boasted herself equal in beauty to the Nereids, drew down the vengeance of Poseidon, who sent an inundation on the land and a sea-monster which destroyed man and beast. The oracle of Ammon having announced that no relief would be found until the king exposed his daughter Andromeda to the monster, she was fastened to a rock on the shore. Here Perseus, returning from having slain the Gorgon, found her, slew the monster, set her free, and married her in spite of Phineus, to whom she had before been promised. At the wedding a quarrel took place between the rivals, and Phineus was turned to stone by the sight of the Gorgon's head (Ovid, Metam. v. 1). Andromeda followed her husband to Tiryns in Argos, and became the ancestress of the family of the Perseidae. After her death she was placed by Athena amongst the constellations in the northern sky, near Perseus and Cassiopeia. Sophocles and Euripides (and in modern times Corneille) made the story the subject of tragedies, and its incidents were represented in numerous ancient works of art.
Apollodorus ii. 4; Hyginus, Fab. 64; Ovid, Metam. iv. 662; Fedde, De Perseo et Andromeda (1860).
The Greeks personified the constellation Andromeda as a woman with her arms extended and chained. Its Latin names are Persea, Mulier catenata ("chained woman''), Virgo devota, &c.; the Arabians replaced the woman by a seal; Wilhelm Schickard (1592-1635) named the constellation "Abigail''; Julius Schiller assigned to it the figure of a sepulchre, naming it the "Holy Sepulchre.'' In 1786 Johann Elert Bode formed a new constellation, named the "Honours of Frederick,'' after his patron Frederick II., out of certain stars situated in the arm of Ptolemy's Andromeda; this innovation found little favour and is now discarded.
Twenty-three stars are catalogued by Ptolemy and Tycho Brahe; Hevelius increased this number to forty seven, while Flamsteed gave sixty-six. The most brilliant stars are a Andromedae or "Andromeda's head,'' and b Andromedae in the girdle (Arabic mirach or mizar), both of the second magnitude; g Andromedae in the foot (alamak or alhames), of the third magnitude. Scientific interest centres mainly on the following:—the nebula in Andromeda, one of the finest in the sky (see NEBULA); g Andromedae, the finest binary in the heavens, made up of a yellow star of magnitude 2 1/2, and a blue-green of magnitude 5 1/2, the latter being itself binary; Nova Andromedae, a "new'' star, discovered in the nebula by C. E. A. Hartwig in 1885, and subsequently spectroscopically examined by many observers; R Andromedae, a regularly variable star; and the Andromedids, a meteoric swarm, associated with Biela's comet, and having their radiant in this constellation (see METEOR.)
ANDRON (Gr. andron), that part of a Greek house which was reserved for men, as distinguished from the gynaeceum (gunaikeion), the women's quarters.
ANDRONICUS I. (COMNENUS), emperor of the East, son of Isaac, and grandson of Alexius I. Comnenus, was born about the beginning of the 12th century. He was endowed by nature with the most remarkable gifts both of mind and body. He was handsome and eloquent, but licentious; and at the same time active, hardy, courageous, a great general and an able politician. His early years were spen in alternate pleasure and military service. In 1141 he was taken captive by the Turks (Seljuks) and remained in their hands for a year. On being ransomed he went to Constantinople, where was held the court of his cousin, the emperor Manuel, with whom he was a great favourite. Here the charms of his niece, the princess Eudoxia, attracted him. She became his mistress, while her sister Theodora stood in a similar relation to the emperor Manuel. In 1152, accompanied by Eudoxia, he set out for an important command in Cilicia. Failing in his principal enterprise, an attack upon Mopsuestia, he returned, but was again appointed to the command of a province. This second post he seems also to have left after a short interval, for he appeared again in Constantinople, and narrowly escaped death at the hands of the brothers of Eudoxia. About this time (1153) a conspiracy against the emperor, in which Andronicus participated, was discovered and he was thrown into prison. There he remained for about twelve years, during which time he made repeated but unsuccessful attempts to escape. At last, in 1165, he was successful; and, after passing through many dangers, reached the court of Yaroslav, grand prince of Russia, at Kiev. While under the protection of the grand prince, Andronicus brought about an alliance between him and the emperor Manuel, and so restored himself to the emperor's favour. With a Russian army he joined Manuel in the invasion of Hungary and assisted at the siege of Semlin. After a successful campaign they returned together to Constantinople (1168); but a year after, Andronicus refused to take the oath of allegiance to the prince of Hungary, whom Manuel desired to become his successor. He was removed from court, but received the province of Cilicia. Being still under the displeasure of the emperor, Andronicus fled to the court of Raymund, prince of Antioch. While residing here he captivated and seduced the beautiful daughter of the prince, Philippa, sister of the empress Maria. The anger of the emperor was again roused by this dishonour, and Andronicus was compelled to fly. He took refuge with Amalric, king of Jerusalem, whose favour he gained, and who invested him with the town of Berytus, now Beirut. In Jerusalem he saw Theodora, the beautiful widow of the late king Baldwin and niece of the emperor Manuel. Although Andronicus was at that time fifty-six years old, age had not diminished his charms, and Theodora became the next victim of his artful seduction. To avoid the vengeance of the emperor, she fled with him to the court of the sultan of Damascus; but not deeming themselves safe there, they continued their perilous journey through Persia and Turkestan, round the Caspian Sea and across Mount Caucasus, until at length they settled among the Turks on the borders of Trebizond. Into that province Andronicus, with a body of adventurers, made frequent and successful incursions. While he was absent upon one of them, his castle was surprised by the governor of Trebizond, and Theodora with her two children were captured and sent to Constantinople. To obtain their release Andronicus made abject submission to the emperor; and, appearing in chains before him, implored pardon. This he obtained, and was allowed to retire with Theodora into banishment in the little town of Oenoe, on the shores of the Black Sea. In 1180 the emperor Manuel died, and was succeeded by his son Alexius II., who was under the guardianship of the empress Maria. Her conduct excited popular indignation; and the consequent disorders, amounting almost to civil war, gave an opportunity to the ambition of Andronicus. He left his retirement, secured the support of the army and marched upon Constantinople, where his advent was stained by a cruel massacre of the Latin inhabitants. Alexius was compelled to acknowledge him as colleague in the empire, but was soon put to death. Andronicus, now (1183) sole emperor, married Agnes, widow of Alexius II., a child eleven years of age. His short reign was characterized by strong and wise measures. He resolved to suppress many abuses, but, above all things, to check feudalism and limit the power of the nobles. The people, who felt the severity of his laws, at the same time acknowledged their justice, and found themselves protected from the rapacity of their superiors. The aristocrats, however, were infuriated against him, and summoned to their aid William of Sicily. This prince landed in Epirus with a strong force, and marched as far as Thessalonica, which he took and destroyed; but he was shortly afterwards defeated, and compelled to return to Sicily. Andronicus seems then to have resolved to exterminate the aristocracy, and his plans were nearly crowned with success. But in 1185, during his absence from the capital, his lieutenant ordered the arrest and execution of Isaac Angelus, a descendant of the first Alexius. Isaac escaped and took refuge in the church of St Sophia. He appealed to the populace, and a tumult arose which spread rapidly over the whole city. When Andronicus arrived he found that his power was overthrown, and that Isaac had been proclaimed emperor. Isaac delivered him over to his enemies, and for three days he was exposed to their fury and resentment. At last they hung him up by the feet between two pillars. His dying agonies were shortened by an Italian soldier, who mercifully plunged a sword into his body. He died on the 12th of September 1185.
ANDRONICUS II. (PALAEOLOGUS) (1260-1332), eastern Roman emperor, was the elder son of Michael Palaeologus, whom he succeeded in 1282. He allowed the fleet, which his father had organized, to fall into decay; and the empire was thus less able than ever to resist the exacting demands of the rival powers of Venice and Genoa. During his reign the Turks under Osman conquered nearly the whole of Bithynia; and to resist them the emperor called in the aid of Roger di Flor, who commanded a body of Spanish adventurers. The Turks were defeated, but Roger was found to be nearly as formidable an enemy to the imperial power. He was assassinated by Andronicus's son and colleague, the emperor Michael IX., in 1305. His adventurers (known as the Catalan Grand Company) declared war upon Andronicus, and, after devastating Thrace and Macedonia, conquered the duchy of Athens and Thebes. From 1320 onwards the emperor was engaged in war with his grandson Andronicus (see below). He abdicated in 1328 and died in 1332.
ANDRONICUS III. (c. 1296-1341), eastern Roman emperor, was the son of Michael, son of Andronicus II. His conduct during youth was so violent that, after the death of his father Michael in 1320, his grandfather resolved to deprive him of his right to the crown. Andronicus rebelled; he had a powerful party, and the first period of civil war ended in his being crowned and accepted as colleague by his grandfather, 1325. The quarrel broke out again and, notwithstanding the help of the Bulgarians, the older emperor was compelled to abdicate, 1328. During his reign Andronicus III. was engaged in constant war, chiefly with the Turks, who greatly extended their conquests. He annexed large regions in Thessaly and Epirus, but they were lost before his death to the rising power of Servia under Stephen Dusan. He did something for the reorganization of the navy, and re-covered Lesbos and Chios from the Genoese. He died in 1341.
ANDRONICUS OF CYRRHUS, Greek astronomer, flourished about 100 B.C. He built a horologium at Athens, the so-called "tower of the winds,'' a considerable portion of which still exists. It is octagonal, with figures carved on each side, representing the eight principal winds. A brazen Triton on the summit, with a rod in his hand, turned round by the wind, pointed to the quarter from which it blew. From this model is derived the custom of placing weathercocks on steeples.
ANDRONICUS OF RHODES (c. 70 B.C.), the eleventh scholarch of the Peripatetics. His chief work was the arrangement of the writings of Aristotle and Theophrastus with materials supplied to him by Tyrannion. Besides arranging the works, he seems to have written paraphrases and commentaries, none of which is extant. Two treatises are sometimes erroneously attributed to him, one on the Emotions, the other a commentary on Aristotle's Ethics (really by Constantine Palaeocappa in the 16th century, or by John Callistus of Thessalonica).
ANDROPHAGI (Gr. for "man-eaters''), an ancient nation of cannibals north of Scythia (Herodotus iv. 18, 106), probably in the forests between the upper waters of the Dnieper and Don. They were most likely Finns (Samoyed has the same meaning) and perhaps the ancestors of the Mordvinians (q.v..)
END OF FIRST VOLUME.