Project Gutenberg Encyclopedia
Previous Part     1 ... 75  76  77  78  79  80  81  82  83  84  85  86  87  88  89     Next Part
Home - Random Browse

The surroundings of Mount Tronador, consisting of Tertiary granite and basalt, form one of the most interesting regions in the Pataronian Andes for the mountaineers of the future. To the east extends the large and picturesque lake of Nahuel-Huapi, to the west is Lake Todos Los Santos (50 sq. m.), to which the access is easy and of which the scenery is of surpassing beauty. Between 41 deg. and 38 deg. S. lat., among other smaller lakes, are Lakes Traful (45 sq. m.), Lacar (32 sq. m.), which, properly belonging to the system of Atlantic lakes, empties itself by the only water gap that occurs in this zone of the Cordillera into the river Valdivia, a tributary of the Pacific, Lake Lolog (15 sq. m.), Huechu-lafquen (45 sq. m.), and Lake Alumine (21 sq. m.). The volcanoes of Lanin (12,140 ft.), Quetropillan (9180 ft.), Villarica (10,400 ft.), Yaimas and Tolhuaca are all more or less active; the first is in the main chain, while the others are on the western slope. The scenery in the neighbourhood is magnificent, the snowy cones rising from amidst woods of araucaria, and being surrounded by blue lakes. While the scenery of the western slope of the Andes is exceedingly grand, with its deep fjords, glaciers and woods, yet the severity of its climate detracts considerably from its charm. The climate of the eastern slope, however, is milder, the landscapes are magnificent, with wooded valleys and beautiful lakes. The valleys are already partly settled by colonists. Between 52 deg. and 40 deg. S. lat. erosion has carried the watershed of the continent from the summit of the Cordillera to the eastern plains of Patagonia.

From 40 deg. S. southward the Chile-Argentine Boundary Commission under Sir T. H. Holdich carried out important investigations in 1902; and between 38 deg. and 33 deg. S. lat. the Andes were somewhat extensively explored about the close of the 19th century by Argentine and Chilean Commissions. The highest peaks in the latter section are volcanic and their eruptions have sensibly modified the character of the primitive ridges. Outflows of lava and tufa cover the mountain sides and fill up the valleys. The Jurassic and Cretaceous formations, which in the Southern Cordillera are situated outside of the range to the east, form to a considerable extent the mass of the great range, together with quartz porphyry, the Tertiary, granite and other eruptive rocks, which have been observed along all the chain in South America up to Alaska in the north. Gneiss is seldom met with, but there are crystalline rocks, belonging chiefly to the pre-Cordillera of the eastern and to the Cordillera de la Costa on the western side.

Chile-Argentina from 38 deg. S. northward.

About 38 deg. S. the Andes take a great transversal extension; there are no wide intermediate valleys between the different ridges but the main ridge is perfectly defined. Volcanic cones continue to predominate, the old crystalline rocks almost disappear, while the Mesozoic rocks are most common. The higher peaks are in the main chain, while the Domuyo (15,317 ft.) belongs to a lateral eastern ridge. The principal peaks between this and Mount Tupungato at 33 deg. S. lat. are: Mount Cochico (8255 ft.), Campanario, (13,140 ft.), Peteroa (13,297 ft.), Tinguiririca, Castillo (16,535 ft.), Volcano Maipu (17,576 ft.), Alvarado (14,600 ft.), Amarillo (15,321 ft.), Volcano San Jose (19,849 ft.), Piuquenes (17,815 ft.), and Volcano Bravard (19,619 ft.).

North of Maipu volcano, ascended by R. P. Gussfeldt in 1883, the Cordillera is composed of two huge principal ridges which unite and terminate in the neighbourhood of Mount Tupungato. The valley between them is 9000 ft. high; and in that part of the Cordillera are situated the highest passes south of 33 deg. S. lat., one of which, the Piuquenes Pass, reaches 13,333 ft., whilst the easiest of transit and almost the lowest is that of Pichachen (6505 ft.), which is the most frequented during winter. Mount Tupungato reaches 22,329 ft., according to Argentine measurement. To the north of this mountain, situated at the watershed of the Andes, extends a lofty region comprising peaks such as Chimbote (18,645 ft.) and Mount Polleras (20,266 ft.). The Pircas Pass is situated at a height of 16,962 ft. The gaps of Bermejo and Iglesia, in the Uspallata road, the best known of all the passes between Argentina and Chile, are at 13,025 ft. and 13,412 ft. altitude respectively, while the nearest peaks, those of Juncal and Tolorsa, are 19,358 and 20,140 ft. high.

Mounts Tupungato, Aconcagua (23,393 ft.) and Mercedario

A. Alluvium G. Upper Jurassic Gypsum C. Cretaceous (including upper & lower) YV. Younger Volcanic Rocks M. Upper Jurassic (Malm) } OV. Older Volcanic Rocks D. Middle Jurassic (Dogger) }mostly porphyrite Di. Dioritic Rocks L. Liassic }porphyritic X. Change of bearing in the conglomerate Sections

(21,982 ft.) are the highest peaks of the central Argentine-Chilean Andes. These three peaks are formed of eruptive rocks, surrounded by Jurassic beds which have undergone a thorough metamorphosis. While in the west of the Andes, from the latitude of Aconcagua, the central valley of Chile runs without any notable interruption to the south end of the continent, a valley which almost disappears to the north, leaving only some rare inflexions which are considered by Chilean geographers and geologists to be a continuation of the same valley; to the east in Argentina a longitudinal valley, perfectly characterized, runs along the eastern foot of the Cordillera, separating this from the pre- Cordillera, which is parallel to the Cordillera de la Costa of Chile. Between Aconcagua and Mercedario are the passes of Espinacito (14,803 ft.) and Los Patos or Valle Hermoso (11,736 ft.), chosen by the Argentine General San Martin, when he made his memorable passage across the chain during the War of Independence. North of Valle Hermoso the Andean ridges, while very high, are not abrupt, and the passes are more numerous than in the south; some of them descending 10,000 ft., but most of them between 13,000 and 14,000 ft. The pass of Quebrada Grande is 12,468 ft. in altitude; Cencerro, 12,944 ft.; Mercedario, 13,206 ft.; Ojota, 14,304 ft.; Pachon, 14,485 ft.; while Gordito is 10,318 ft. Farther north the passes are higher. Barahona Pass is 15,092 ft.; Ternera, 15,912 ft.; San Lorenzo, 16,420 ft., while the peak of the volcano reaches 18,143 ft.; Mount Olivares, 20,472 ft.; Porongos, 19,488 ft.; Tortolas, 20,121 ft.; and Potro, 19,357 ft.


As far as 28 deg. S. lat. the Cordillera de los Andes has been principally formed by two well-defined ridges, but to the north, recent volcanic action has greatly modified its orography. Only a single line of passes characterizes the main ridge, and amongst them are the passes of Ollita (15,026 ft.), Penas Negras (14,435 ft.), Pircas Negras (13,615 ft.), La Gallina (I6,240 ft.), Tres Quebradas (15,535 ft.), and Aguita (15,485 ft.). To the north of Mount Potro the peaks in the Cordillera are not very prominent as far as the great mass of Tres Quebradas, but here are to be met with some that may he considered as amongst the highest of the whole range. Mount Aguita is 20,600 ft., and the culminating peak of those of Tres Cruces reaches 226,58 ft. To the east of the eastern longitudinal valley, at 27 deg. S. lat., begins a high volcanic plateau between the Cordillera and the southern prolongation of the Bolivian Cordillera Real, which contains lofty summits, such as Mount Veladero ( 20,998 ft.), Mount Bonete (21,980), Mount Reclus (20,670), Mount Pissis (22,146), Mount Ojo del Salado (21,653), and Incahuasi (21,719). To the north of Tres Cruces is a transversal depression in the Cordillera, which is considered to be the southern termination of the high plateau of the Puna de Atacama. The Cordillera of the Andes borders the Puna to the west, while the Bolivian Cordillera Real bounds it to the east. In that region the Cordillera of the Andes is of comparatively recent origin, being principally constituted by a line of high volcanoes, the chief summits being those of Juncal, Panteon de Aliste, Azufre or Listarria (18,636 ft.), Llullaillaco (21,720), Miniques (19,357), Socompa (19,948), Licancaur (19,685), Viscachuelas (20,605), Tapaquilcha (19,520), Oyahua (19,242), Ancaquilcha (20,275), Olca (19,150), Mino (20,112), Sillilica (21,100), Perinacota (20,918), Sagama (22,339), Tacona (19,740), Misti (19,029); to the east closes in the intermediary high plateau which begins at 28 deg. S. lat. in Argentina. The principal peaks of the Bolivian Andes and its prolongation from south to north, are Famatina, in the centre of Argentina, (20,340 ft.), Languna Blanca (18,307), Diamante (18,045), (Cachi (20,000), Granadas, Lipez (19,680), Guadalupe (18,910), Chorolque (18,480), Cuzco (17,930), Enriaca (18,716), Junari (16,200), Michiga (17,410), Quimza-Cruz (18,280), Illimani (21,190) and Sorata (21,490).

While the western range of the Cordillera is principally formed by volcanic rocks, the eastern (to the east of the range is Cerro Potosi, 15,400 ft.) Andes of Bolivia are chiefly composed of old crystalline rocks. Between the ranges in the high plateau north to 27 deg. are numerous isolated volcanoes which have been in activity in recent times, such as Peinado (18,898 ft.), San Pedro (18,701), Antuco (19,029), Antofalla (20,014), Rincon (17,881), Pastos Grandes (17,553), Zapalegui (17,553), Suniguira (19,258), Tahue (17,458); volcanoes which have been elevated from a lncustrine basin, which very recently occupied the whole extension, and the remains of which are, in the south, the Laguna Verde, at 28 deg. , and in the north Lake Titicaca. The discovery of great Pampean mammals in the Pleistocene beds of that region shows that this upheaval of the latter is very recent, for in the heart of the Cordillera, as well as on the west coast of Bolivia and Peru, there have been discovered, in very recent deposits, the remains of some mammals which cannot have crossed the high range as it now exists.


The two Cordilleras that formed the Andes to the north of 28 deg. S. lat. are continued in Peru. The western, which reaches an altitude of about 10,000 ft., then ceases to exist as a continuous chain, there remaining only a short, high ridge, called by Edward Whymper the "Pacific range of the equator,'' and between this ridge and the crystalline Andean axis, the "avenue of volcanoes,'' to use his words, arises amidst majestic scenery. Chimborazo, which is not in the main chain, reaches 20,517 ft.; Cotopaxi (19,580), Antisana (19,260), Coyambo (19,200) are in the eastern range, with many other peaks over 16,000 ft. which still contain glaciers. Sangay (17,380 ft.), under the equator, according to Wolff, appears to be the most active volcano in the world. Pichincha (15,804 ft.) and Cotocachi (16,297 ft.) are the loftiest volcanoes of the western range. In Colombia the three principal chains are continuations of those under the equator, and show very slight traces of volcanic action,


In the western chain, which is remarkable for its regularity, the highest peak is 11,150 ft., and the lowest pass 6725 ft. The central chain, separated from the western chain by the valley of the Cauca and from the eastern by the valley of the Magdalena, is unbroken; it is the more important owing to its greater altitudes and is of volcanic character. To the south, near the equator, are Mounts Arapul (13,360 ft.) and Chumbul (15,720 ft.). The volcanoes Campainero (12,470 ft.) and Pasto (14,000 ft.) are also in that zone. Farther north is the volcano Purace, which presents a height of 16,000 ft.; then come Huila (18,000), Santa Catalina (16,170), and Tolima (18,400), Santa Isabel (16,760), Ruiz (17,390) and Hervas (18,340). The eastern chain begins north of the equator at 6000 ft., gradually rises to the height of Nevado (14,146 ft.), Pan de Azucar (12,140 ft.), and in the Sierra Nevada de Cochi attains to peaks of 16,700 ft.

The snow-line of the Andes is highest in parts of Peru where it lies at about 16,500 ft. Its general range from the extreme north to Patagonia is 14,000 to 15,500 ft., but along the Patagonian frontier it sinks rapidly, until in Tierra del Fuego it lies at about 4900 ft.

Structure.—The structure of the Andes is least complex in the southern portion of the range. Between 33 deg. and 36 deg. S. the chain consists broadly of a series of simple folds of Jurassic and Cretaceous beds. It is probably separated on the east from the recent deposits of the pampas by a great fault, which, however, is always concealed by an enormous mass of scree material. The Cretaceous beds lie in a broad synclinal upon the eastern flank, but the greater part of the chain is formed of Jurassic beds, through which, on the western margin, rise the numerous andesitic volcanic centres. There is no continuous band of ancient gneiss, nor indeed of any beds older than the Jurassic. There is very little over-folding or faulting, and the structure is that of the Jura mountains rather than of the Alps. The inner or eastern ridge farther north of Argentina consists of crystalline rocks with infolded Ordovician and Cambrian beds, often overlaid unconformably by a sandstone with plant-remains (chiefly Rhaetic). In Bolivia this eastern ridge, separated from the western Cordillera by the longitudinal valley in which Lake Titicaca lies, is formed chiefly of Archaean and Palaeozoic rocks. All the geological systems, from the Cambrian to the Carboniferous, are represented and they are all strongly folded, the folds leaning over towards the west. West of the great valley the range is composed of Mesozoic beds, together with Tertiary volcanic rocks. (The Cordillera of Argentina and Chile is clearly the continuation of the western chain alone.) In Ecuador there is still an inner chain of ancient gneisses and schists and an outer chain composed of Mesozoic beds. The longitudinal valley which separates them is occupied mainly by volcanic deposits. North of Ecuador the structure becomes more complex. Of the three main chains into which the mountains are now divided, the western branch is formed mostly of Cretaceous beds; but the inner chains no longer consist exclusively of the older rocks, and Cretaceous beds take a considerable share in their formation.

The great volcanoes, active and extinct, are not confined to any one zone. Sometimes they rise from the Mesozoic zone of the western Cordillera, sometimes from the ancient rocks of the eastern zone. But they all he within the range itself and do not, as in the Carpathians and the Apennines, form a fringe upon the inner border of the chain.

The curvature of the range around the Brazilian massif, and the position of the zone of older rocks upon the eastern flank, led Suess to the conclusion that the Andes owe their origin to an overthrust from east to west, and that the Vorland lies beneath the Pacific. In the south Wehrli and Burckhardt maintain that the thrust came from the west, and they look upon the ancient rocks of Argentina as the Vorland. In this part of the chain, however, there is but little evidence of overthrusting of any kind.

AUTHORITIES.—John B. Minchin, "Journey in the Andean Tableland of Bolivia,'' Proceedings of Geographical Society (1882); Paul Gussfeldt, Reise in den centralen chileno-argentinischen Andes (Berlin, 1884); John Ball, Notes of a Naturalist in South America (London, 1887); Alfred Hettner, Reisen in den colombianischen Andeen (Leipzig, 1888); "Die Kordillere von Bogota,'' Peterm. Mitteilungen, civ. (1892); Edward Whymper, Travels amongst the Great Andes of the Equator (London, 1892); Teodoro Wolff, Geografia y Geologia del Ecuador (Leipzig, 1892); E. A. Fitzgerald, The Highest Andes (London, 1899); Sir Martin Conway, "Explorations in the Bolivian Andes,'' Geogr. Journ. xiv. (London, 1899); The Bolivian Andes (London and New York, 1901); Carl Burckhardt, Expedition geologique dans la region Andine, 38 deg. —39 deg. S. lat.; Leo Wehrli, "Cordillere argentino-chilienne, 40 deg. et 41 deg. S. lat.'' Revista del Museo de La Plata (1899); F. P. Moreno, "Explorations in Patagonia,'' Geogr. Journ. xvi. (1900); Hans Steffen, "The Patagonian Cordillera and its Main Rivers, between 41 deg. and 48 deg. S. lat.,'' Geogr. Journ. (London, 1900); Paul Kruger, Die chilenische Renihue Expedition (Berlin, 1900); Carl Burckhardt, "Profils geologiques transversaux de la Cordillera argentino-chilienne,'' Anales del Museo de La Plata (1900); Argentine-Chilian Boundaries in the Cordillera de los Andes, Argentine Evidence (London, 1900); "South America; Outline of its Physical Geography,'' Geogr. Journ. xvii. (1901); Maps of Cordillera de los Andes, Surveys of Argentine Boundary Commission; L. R. Patron, Cordillera de los Andes (Republica de Chile, Oficina des Limites) Santiago (Chile), 1903 et seq.); Sir T. H. Holdich, "The Patagonian Andes,'' Geogr. Journ. xxiii: (1904).

1 As to the specific elevations of many of the peaks mentioned in this article, various authorities differ, and it is impossible in many cases to rate one estimate as of greater value than another.

ANDESINE, a member of the group of minerals known as plagioclase felspars, occupying a position in the isomorphous series about midway between albite (NaAlSi3O8) and anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8); its chemical composition and physical characters are therefore intermediate between those of the two extremes of the series. Distinctly developed crystals or crystallized specimens are rarely met with, the mineral usually occurring as embedded crystals and grains in the igneous and gneissic rocks, of which it forms a component part. It occurs, for example, in the andesite of the Andes, from whence it derives its name.

ANDESITE, a name first applied by C. L. von Buch to a series of lavas investigated by him from the Andes, which has passed into general acceptance as the designation of a great family of rocks playing an important part in the geology of most of the volcanic areas of the globe. Not only the Andes but most of the Cordillera of Central and North America consist very largely of andesites; they occur also in great numbers in Japan, the Philippines, Java and New Zealand. They belong to all geological epochs, and are frequent among the Silurian and Devonian rocks of Britain, forming the ranges of the Cheviots, Ochils, Breidden Hills, and part of the Lake district. The well-known volcanoes, Montagne Pelee, the Soufriere of St Vincent, Krakatoa, Tarawera and Bandaisan have within recent years emitted great quantities of andesitic rocks with disastrous violence. No group of lavas is more widespread and more important from a geographical standpoint than the andesites.

They are typical intermediate rocks, containing on an average about 60% of silica, but showing a considerable range of composition. Most of them correspond to the plutonic diorites, but others more nearly represent the gabbros. Their essential distinguishing features are mineralogical and consist in the presence of much soda-lime felspar (ranging from oligoclase to bytownite and even anorthite), along with one or more of the ferro-magnesian minerals, biotite, hornblende, augite and hypersthene. Both olivine and quartz are typically absent, though in some varieties they occur in small quantity. Orthoclase is more common than these two, but is never very abundant. The andesites have mostly a porphyritic structure, and the larger felspars and ferro-magnesian minerals are often visible to the naked eye, lying in a finer groundmass, usually crystalline, but sometimes to a large extent vitreous. When very fresh they are dark-coloured if they contain much glass, but paler in colour, red, grey or pinkish when more thoroughly crystallized. They weather to various shades of dark brown, reddish-brown, green, grey and yellow. Many of them are highly vesicular or amygdaloidal.

The older (pre-Tertiary) andesites are grouped together by many German, and formerly by British petrologists, under the term porphyrites, but are distinguished only by being, as a rule, in a less fresh condition. Apart from this there are three great subdivisions of this family of rocks, the quartz-andesites or dacites, the hornblende-and biotite-andesites, and the augite and hypersthene-andesites (or pyroxene-andesites). The dacites, a term first applied by Karl Heinrich Hektor Guido Stache (b. 1833 ) to quartz-bearing andesite of Transylvania or Dacia, contain primary quartz, and are the most siliceous members of the family; their quartz may appear in small blebs (or phenocrysts), or may occur only as minute interstitial grains in the groundmass; other dacites are very vitreous (dacitic-pitchstones). In many of their structural peculiarities they closely simulate the rhyolites, from which they differ in containing less potash and more soda, and in consequence less orthoclase felspar and more plagioclase. The hornblende- and biotite-andesites, like the dacites, have in most cases a pale colour (pink, yellow or grey), being comparatively rich in felspar. They resemble the trachytes both in appearance and in structure, but their felspar is mostly plagioclase, not sanidine. The biotite and hornblende have much the same characters in both of these groups of rocks, and are often surrounded by black borders produced by corrosion and partial resorption by the magma. A pale green augite is common in these andesites, but bronzite or hypersthene is comparatively rare. The pyroxene-andesites are darker, more basic rocks, with a higher specific gravity, and approach closely to the basalts and dolerites, especially when they contain a small amount of olivine. They are probably the commonest types of andesite, both at the present time and in former geological periods. Often their groundmass consists of brownish glass, filled with small microliths of augite and felspar, and having a velvety, glistening lustre when observed in a good light (hyalopilitic structure).

In addition to the accessory minerals, zircon, apatite and iron oxides, which are practically never absent, certain others occur which, on account of their rarity and importance, are of special interest. Sharply-formed little crystals of cordierite are occasionally found in andesites (Japan, Spain, St Vincent, Cumberland); they seem to depend on more or less complete digestion of fragments of gneiss and other rocks in the molten lava. Garnet and sapphire have also been found in andesites, and perhaps have the same signification; a rose-red variety of epidote (withamite) is known as a secondary product in certain andesites (Glencoe, Scotland), and the famous red porphyry (porfido rosso) of the ancients is a rock of this type. Ore deposits very frequently occur in connexion with andesitic rocks (Nevada, California, Hungary, Borneo, &c.), especially those of gold and silver. They have been laid down in fissures as veins of quartz, and the surrounding igneous rocks are frequently altered and decomposed in a peculiar way by the hot ascending metalliferous solutions. Andesites affected in this manner are known as propylites. The alteration is one of those post-volcanic, pneumatolytic processes, so frequent in volcanic districts. Propylitization consists in the replacement of the original minerals of the andesite by secondary products such as kaolin, epidote, mica, chlorite, quartz and chalcedony, often with the retention of the igneous structures of the rocks.

In microscopic characters the andesites present considerable variety; their porphyritic felspars are usually of tabular shape with good crystalline outlines, but often filled with glass enclosures. Zonal structure is exceedingly common, and the central parts of the crystals are more basic (bytownite, &c.) than the edges (oligoclase). Sanidine occurs with considerable frequency, but not in notable amount. The biotite and hornblende are yellow or brown and richly pleochroic. The hypersthene is nearly always idiomorphic, with a distinct pleochroism ranging from salmon-pink to green. Augite may be green in the more acid andesites, but is pale brown in the pyroxene-andesites. The apatite is often filled with minute dust-like enclosures. In the dacites felsitic groundmasses are by no means rare, but microcrystalline types consisting of plagioclase and sanidine with quartz are more prevalent. The hornblende- and mica-andesites have groundmasses composed mainly of acid plagioclase with little orthoclase or glassy base (pilotaxitic groundmass). Clear brown glass with many small crystals of plagioclase and pale brown augite (hyalopilitic groundmass) is very frequent in pyroxene-andesites. Vitreous rocks belonging to all of the above groups are well known though not very common, and exhibit the perlitic, pumiceous, spherulitic and other structures, characteristic to volcanic obsidians and pitchstones. (J. S. F.)

ANDIJAN, a town of Russian Turkestan, Province of Ferghana. eastern terminus of the Transcaspian railway, 84 m. by rail E.N.E. of Khokand, on the left bank of the upper Syr-darya. Altitude 1630 ft. Pop. (1900) 49,682. It was formerly the residence of the khans of Khokand, and has beautiful gardens and a large park in the middle of the town. Andijan is a centre for the trade in raw cotton and has cotton factories. All over Central Asia, West Turkestan merchants are known generally as Andijani. The town was destroyed by an earthquake on the 16th-17th of December 1902, when 5000 persons perished and 16,000 houses were demolished. It has since been rebuilt.

ANDIRON (older form anderne; med. Lat. andena, anderia), a horizontal iron bar, or bars, upon which logs are laid for burning in an open fireplace. Andirons stand upon short legs and are usually connected with an upright guard. This guard, which may be of iron, steel, copper, bronze, or even silver, is often elaborately ornamented with conventional patterns or heraldic ornaments, such as the fleur-de-lys, with sphinxes, grotesque animals, mythological statuettes or caryatides supporting heroic figures or emblems. Previously to the Italian Renaissance, andirons were almost invariably made entirely of iron and comparatively plain, but when the ordinary objects of the household became the care of the artist, the metal-worker lavished skill and taste upon them, and even such a man as Jean Berain, whose fancy was most especially applied to the ornamentation of Boulle furniture, sometimes designed them. Indeed the fire-dog or chenet reached its most artistic development under Louis XIV. of France, and the first extant examples—often of cast-iron—are to be found in French museums and royal palaces. Fire-dogs, with little or no ornament, were also used in kitchens, with ratcheted uprights for the spits. Very often these uprights branched out into arms or hobs for stewing or keeping the viands hot.

ANDKHUI, a town and khanate in Afghan Turkestan. The town (said to have been founded by Alexander the Great) stands between the northern spurs of the Paropamisus and the Oxus; it is 100 m. due west of Balkh on the edge of the Turkman desert. The khanate is of importance as being one of the most northern in Afghanistan, on the Russian border. Until 1820 it was subject to Bokhara, but in that year Mahmud Khan besieged it for four months, took it by storm and left it a heap of ruins. To preserve himself from utter destruction the khan threw himself into the arms of the Afghans. The tract in which Andkhui stands is fertile, but proverbially unhealthy; the Persians account it "a hell upon earth'' by reason of its scorching sands, brackish water, flies and scorpions. The population, estimated at 15,000, consists principally of Turkmans with a mixture of Uzbegs and a few Tajiks. The district was allotted to Afghanistan by the Russo- Afghan boundary commission of 1885.

ANDOCIDES, one of the "ten'' Attic orators, was born about 440 B.C. Implicated in the mutilation of the Hermae (415), although he saved his life by turning informer, he was condemned to partial loss of civil rights and went into exile. He engaged in commercial pursuits, and after two unsuccessful attempts returned to Athens under the general amnesty that followed the restoration of the democracy (403), and filled some important offices. In 391 he was one of the ambassadors sent to Sparta to discuss peace terms, but the negotiations failed, and after this time we hear no more of him. Oligarchical in his sympathies, he offended his own party and was distrusted by the democrats. Andocides was no professional orator; his style is simple and lively, natural but inartistic.

Speeches extant:—De Reditu, plea for his return and removal of civil disabilities; De Mysteriis, defence against the charge of impiety in attending the Eleusinian mysteries; De Pace, advocating peace with Sparta; Contra Alcibiadem, generally considered spurious. Text:—Blass, 1880, Lipsius, 1888; De Myst., with notes by Hickie, 1885; De Red. and De Myst., with notes by Marchant, 1889; see Jebb, Attic Orators; L. L. Forman, Index Andocideus, 1897.

ANDORRA, or ANDORRE, a small, neutral, autonomous, and semi-independent state, on the Franco-Spanish frontier, and chiefly on the peninsular side of the eastern Pyrenees. Pop. (1900) about 5500; area about 175 sq. m. Andorra is surrounded by mountains, and comprises one main valley, watered by the Gran Balira, Valira or Balire, a tributary of the Segre, which itself flows into the Ebro; with several smaller valleys, the most important being that of the Balira del Orien, which joins the Gran Balira on the left. The territory was once densely wooded, and is said to derive its name from the Moorish Aldarra, "the place thick with trees''; but almost all the forests have been destroyed for fuel. The climate is generally cold, with very severe winters. The land is chiefly devoted to pasture for the numerous flocks and herds; but on the more sheltered southern slopes it is carefully cultivated, and produces grain, potatoes, fruit and tobacco. Game and trout are plentiful; milk, butter, hams, hides and wool are exported, principally to France. The local industries are of the most primitive kind, merely domestic, as in the middle ages. Lack of capital, of coal, and of good means of communication prevents the inhabitants from making use of the iron and lead in their mountains. During the coldest winter months their communications are much easier with Spain than through the snow-clad passes leading into Ariege. The only roads are bridle-paths, and one municipal road by the Balira valley, connecting Andorra with the high road to Seo de Urgel and Manresa; but in 1904 France and Spain agreed to build a railway from Ax to Ripoll, which would greatly facilitate traffic.

The Andorrans are a robust and well-proportioned race, of an independent spirit, simple and severe in their manners. They are all Roman Catholics. Apart from the wealthier landowners, who speak French fluently, and send their children to be educated in France, they use the Catalan dialect of Spanish. Andorra comprises the six parishes or communes of Andorra Vicilla, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Ordino and San Julian de Loria, which are subdivided into fifty-two hamlets or pueblos.

Preserved from innovations by the mutual jealousy of rival potentates, as well as by the conservative temper of a pastoral population, Andorra has kept its medieval usages and institutions almost unchanged. In each parish two consuls, assisted by a local council, decide matters relating to roads, police, taxes, the division of pastures, the right to collect wood, &c. Such matters, as well as the general internal administration of the territory, are finally regulated by a Council General of 24 members (4 to each parish), elected since 1866 by the suffrages of all heads of families, but previously confined to an aristocracy composed of the richest and oldest families, whose supremacy had been preserved by the principle of primogeniture. A general syndic, with two inferior syndics, chosen by the Council General, constitutes the supreme executive of the state. Two viguiers—one nominated by France, and the other by the bishop of Urgel—command the militia, which consists of about 600 men, although all capable of bearing arms are liable to be called out. This force is exempt from all foreign service, and the chief office of the viguiers is the administration of criminal justice, in which their decisions, given simply according to their judgment and conscience, there being no written laws, are final. Civil cases, on the other hand, are tried in the first instance before one of the two aldermen, who act as deputies of the viguiers; the judgment of this court may be set aside by the civil judge of appeal, an officer nominated by France and the bishop of Urgel alternately; the final appeal is either to the Court of Cassation at Paris or to the Episcopal College at Urgel. The French viguier is taken from the French department of Ariege and appointed for life, but the viguier of the bishop must be an Andorran, holding office for three years and re-eligible. There are notaries and clerks, auditors for each parish elected by the heads of families, police agents and bailiffs, chosen and sworn in, like all the above officers, by the Council General. The archives are mostly kept in the "house of the valley'' in the capital, Andorra Vicilla, a struggling village of 600 inhabitants. In this government house the Council General meets and has a chapel. Here also the aldermen, viguiers and judge of appeal administer justice and assemble for all purposes of administration. Two magistrates, styled rahanadores, are appointed by the Council General to see that viguiers and judges preserve the customs and privileges of Andorra. The parishes have a permanent patrol of six armed men besides the militia. Spain and the bishop of Urgel are very jealous of French encroachments, and claim to have a better right ultimately to annex the little state. In the meanwhile it continues to pay each of the suzerain powers L. 40 a year, levied by a tax on pastures.

Andorra is the sole surviving specimen of the independence possessed in medieval times by the warlike inhabitants of many Pyrenean valleys. Its privileges have remained intact, because the suzerainty of the district became equally and indivisibly shared in 1278 between the bishops of Urgel and the counts of Foix, the divided suzerainty being now inherited by the French crown and the present bishop of Urgel; and the two powers have mutually checked innovations, while the insignificant territory has not been worth a dispute. Thus Andorra is not a republic, but is designated in official documents as the Vallees et Suzerainetes. Before 1278 it was under the suzerainty of the neighbouring counts of Castelbo, to whom it had been ceded in 1170 by the counts of Urgel. A marriage between the heiress of Castelbo and Roger Bernard, count of Foix, carried the rights of the above-named Spanish counts into the house of Foix, and hence subsequently to the crown of France, when the heritage of the feudal system was absorbed by the sovereign; but the bishops of Urgel claimed certain rights, which after long disputes were satisfied by the "Act of Division'' executed in 1278. The claims of the bishopric dated from Carolingian times, and the independence of Andorra, like most other Pyrenean anomalies, has been traditionally ascribed to Charlemagne (742-814).

AUTHORITIES.—With the exception of Etudes geographiques sur la vallee d'Andorre, by J. Blade (Paris, 1875), the standard books on Andorra deal mainly with its history and institutions. They comprise the following:—The Valley of Andorra, translated from the French of E. B. Berthet by F. H. Deverell (Bristol, 1886); J. Aviles Arnau, El Pallas y Andorra (Barcelona, 1893); L. Dalmau de Baquer, Historia de la Republica de Andorra (Barcelona, 1849): C. Baudon de Mony, Origines historiques de la question d'Andorre (in the Bibliotheque de l'Ecole des Chartes, vol. 46, Paris, 1885). See also C. Baudon de Mony, Relations politiques des comtes de Foix avec la Catalogue, jusqu'au commencement du XIVe siecle (Paris, 1896). A fair map was published by A. Hartleben, of Vienna, in 1898.

ANDOVER, a market-town and municipal borough in the Andover parliamentary division of Hampshire, England, 67 m. W.S.W. of London by the London & South Western railway, served also by the Midland & South Western Junction railway. Area 8663 acres. Pop. (1901) 6509. It is pleasantly situated on the river Anton, a tributary of the Test, in a hilly district. The church of St Mary replaced an ancient one in 1848; a Norman doorway is preserved from the original structure. The site of a Norman priory can be traced. Several early earthworks are seen in the vicinity, among which the circular camp on Bury Hill, S.W. of the town, is a very fine example. It is probably of British origin. Andover is the centre of a large agricultural district. Malting is carried on and there is a large iron-foundry; but the silk manufactures, once prosperous, are now extinct. The corporation consists of a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12 councillors.

There are numerous Roman villas in the district, but Andover itself is not a Roman site. The town, the name of which appears in the forms Andefeian, Andieura and Andover, probably owes much of its importance to the neighbourhood of the Roman road from Silchester to Old Sarum. It is mentioned in King Edred's will, a document of doubtful authenticity, dated c. 955. Later the Witenagemot met here, and it is the traditional scene of the meeting of AEthelred and Olaf the Dane. Andover existed as a borough before 1176, and Henry II. exempted its inhabitants from toll and passage. In 1201 King John increased the farm paid by the burgesses, while Henry III. granted them return of writs, probate of wills and other privileges. The corporation was reconstituted in 1599 and again in 1682. From 1295 till 1305 the burgesses returned two members to parliament but then ceased to do so till 1586. After the reform of 1867 they returned only one member and in 1885 the borough was disfranchised. A gild merchant is mentioned as early as 1175. The cattle-market was granted in 1682, and there is an ancient corn-market, probably held by prescription. The November sheep-fair dates from 1205, and the neighbouring fair at Weyhill: (since 1599 a part of the borough) was formerly among the most important in England. The town possessed an iron-market early m the 14th century. At that date the wool-trade also was very prosperous, and the manufactures of silk and parchment are among the extinct industries of the town.

ANDOVER, a township of Essex county, Massachusetts, U.S.A., pleasantly situated on the S. side of the Merrimac Valley. Pop. (1890) 6142; (1900) 6813; (1910 U.S. census) 7301. The Shawsheen river supplies power for a considerable manufacturing industry (twine, woollens and rubber goods being manufactured) in the villages of Andover, Ballardville and Frye. Andover, the principal village, is about 23 m. N. of Boston and is served by the western division of the Boston & Maine railway and by interurban electric railways. The township is noteworthy for its educational institutions. Abbot Academy, opened in 1829, is said to be the oldest existing academy in the United States incorporated for the education of girls alone; an art gallery, given to the academy by Mrs John Byers, was opened in 1907. Phillips Academy, opened in 1778 (incorporated in 1780), was the first incorporated academy of the state; it was founded through the efforts of Samuel Phillips (1752-1802, president of the Massachusetts senate in 1785-1787 and in 1788-1801, and lieutenant-governor of Massachusetts in 1801-1802), by his father, Samuel Phillips (1715-1790), and his uncle, John Phillips (1719-1795), "for the purpose of instructing youth, not only in English and Latin grammar, writing, arithmetic and those sciences wherein they are commonly taught, but more especially to learn them the great end and real business of living.'' It is one of the largest secondary schools in New England and enjoys a wide and high reputation. An archaeological department, with an important collection in American archaeology, was founded by Robert S. Peabody and his wife in 1901. The Academy grounds include those occupied in 1808-1909 by the Andover Theological Seminary before its removal to Cambridge (q.v..) Andover was settled about 1643 and was incorporated in 1646, being named from the English town of Andover, Hampshire, whence some of the chief settlers had migrated; the first settlement was made in what is now the township of North Andover (pop. 5529 in 1910), which was separated from Andover in 1885. Simon Bradstreet (1603-1697), important among the early men of Massachusetts, was one of the founders; and his wife, Anne Dudley Bradstreet (1612-1672), was the first woman versifier of America; the Bradstreet house in North Andover, said to have been built about 1667, is still standing. Andover was a prominent centre in the witchcraft trials of 1692. Elizabeth Stuart Phelps-Ward was born and lived for many years in Andover, and Harriet Beecher Stowe lived here from 1852 to 1864 and is buried here.

See S. L. Bailey, Historical Sketches of Anidover (Boston, 1880); John L. Taylor, Memoir of Samuel Phillips (Boston, 1856); and Philena and Phebe F. M'Keen, History of Abbot Academy (Andover, 1880).

ANDRADA, DIEGO DE PAIVA DE (1528-1575), Portuguese theologian, was born at Coimbra, son of the grand treasurer of John III. His original bent was towards foreign mission. He earned distinction in 1562 at the council of Trent as envoy of King Sebastian. Between 1562 and 1567 he published many controversial tracts, especially against the Lutheran, Martin Chemnitz (q.v..) His first tract, De Societatis Jesu Origine, led to his being erroneously presumed a Jesuit (P. Alegambe, Biblioth. Scriptorum S. J., 1676, p. 177). His De Conciliorum Auctoritate was welcomed at Rome as exalting the papal authority. Posthumous were his Defensio Tridentinae Fidei, 1578 (remarkable for its learned statement of various opinions regarding the Immaculate Conception), and three sets of his sermons in Portuguese.

His nephew, DIEGO, the younger (1586-1660), produced Chauleidos (1628) and other Latin poems, including sacred dramas; a novel, Casamento Perfeito (1630); and shone as a historical critic.

See Bibliographie Universelle (1811); N. Antonio, Biblioth. Hisp. Nova (1783), i. 304; and for the nephew, life by A. Dos Reys in Corp. Illust Poet. Lat. (1745) iii.

ANDRADA E SYLVA, BONIFACIO JOZE D', (1765-1838), Brazilian statesman and naturalist, was born at Villa de Santos, near Rio Janeiro. In 1800 he was appointed professor of geology at Coimbra, and soon after inspector-general of the Portuguese mines; and in 1812 he was made perpetual secretary of the Academy of Lisbon. Returning to Brazil in 1819, he urged Dom Pedro to resist the recall of the Lisbon court, and was appointed one of his ministers in 1821. When the independence of Brazil was declared, Andrada was made minister of the interior and of foreign affairs; and when it was established, he was again elected by the Constituent Assembly, but his democratic principles resulted in his dismissal from office, July 1823. On the dissolution of the Assembly in November, he was arrested and banished to France, where he lived in exile near Bordeaux till, in 1829, he was permitted to return to Brazil. But being again arrested in 1833, and tried for intriguing on behalf of Dom Pedro I., he passed the rest of his days in retirement till he died at Nictheroy in 1838.

ANDRASSY, JULIUS (GYULA), COUNT (1823-1890), Hungarian statesman, the son of Count Karoly Andrassy and Etelka Szapary, was born at Kassa in Hungary on the 8th of March 1823. The son of a Liberal father, who belonged to the Opposition at a time when to be in opposition was to be in danger, Andrassy at a very early age threw himself into the political struggles of the day, adopting at the outset the patriotic side. Count Istvan Szechenyi was the first adequately to appreciate his capacity, when in 1845 the young man first began his public career as president of the society for the regulation of the waters of the Upper Theiss. In 1846 he attracted attention by his bitter articles against the government in Kossuth's paper, the Pesti Hirlap, and was returned as one of the Radical candidates to the diet of 1848, where his generous, impulsive nature made him one of the most thorough-going of the patriots. When the Croats under Jellachich invaded Hungary, Andrassy placed himself at the head of the gentry of his county, and served with distinction at the battles of Pakozd and Schwechat, as Gorgei's adjutant (Sept. 1848). Towards the end of the war Andrassy was sent to Constantinople by the revolutionary government to obtain at least the neutrality of Turkey during the struggle. After the catastrophe of Vilagos he migrated first to London and then to Paris. On the 21st of September 1851 he was hanged in effigy by the Austrian government for his share in the Hungarian revolt. He employed his ten years of exile in studying politics in what was then the centre of European diplomacy, and it is memorable that his keen eye detected the inherent weakness of the second French empire beneath its imposing exterior. Andrassy returned home from exile in 1858, but his position was very difficult. He had never petitioned for an amnesty, steadily rejected all the overtures both of the Austrian government and of the Magyar Conservatives (who would have accepted something short of full autonomy), and clung enthusiastically to the Deak party. On the 21st of December 1865 he was chosen vice-president of the diet, and in March 1866 became president of the sub-committee appointed by the parliamentary commission to draw up the Composition (commonly known as the Ausgleich) between Austria and Hungary, of which the central idea, that of the "Delegations,'' originated with him. It was said at that time that he was the only member of the commission who could persuade the court of the justice of the national claims. After Koniggratz he was formally consulted by the emperor for the first time. He advised the re-establishment of the constitution and the appointment of a responsible ministry.

On the 17th of February 1867 the king appointed him the first constitutional Hungarian premier. It was on this occasion that Deak called him "the providential statesman given to Hungary by the grace of God.'' As premier, Andrassy by his firmness, amiability and dexterity as a debater, soon won for himself a commanding position. Yet his position continued to be difficult, inasmuch as the authority of Deak dwarfed that of all the party leaders, however eminent. Andrassy chose for himself the departments of war and foreign affairs. It was he who reorganized the Honved system, and he used often to say that the regulation of the military border districts was the most difficult labour of his life. On the outbreak of the Franco-German War of 1870, Andrassy resolutely defended the neutrality of the Austrian monarchy, and in his speech on the 28th of July 1870 warmly protested against the assumption that it was in the interests of Austria to seek to recover the position she had held in Germany before 1863. On the fall of Beust (6th of November 1871), Andrassy stepped into his place. His tenure of the chancellorship was epoch-making. Hitherto the empire of the Habsburgs had never been able to dissociate itself from its Holy Roman traditions. But its loss of influence in Italy and Germany, and the consequent formation of the Dual State, had at length indicated the proper, and, indeed, the only field for its diplomacy in the future—the near East, where the process of the crystallization of the Balkan peoples into nationalities was still incomplete. The question was whether these nationalities were to be allowed to become independent or were only to exchange the tyranny of the sultan for the tyranny of the tsar. Hitherto Austria had been content either to keep out the Russians or share the booty with them. She was now, moreover, in consequence of her misfortunes deprived of most of her influence in the councils of Europe. It was Andrassy who recovered for her her proper place in the European concert. First he approached the German emperor; then more friendly relations were established with the courts of Italy and Russia by means of conferences at Berlin, Vienna, St Petersburg and Venice.

The "Andrassy Note.''

The recovered influence of Austria was evident in the negotiations which followed the outbreak of serious disturbances in Bosnia in 1875. The three courts of Vienna, Berlin and St Petersburg had come to an understanding as to their attitude in the Eastern question, and their views were embodied in the dispatch, known as the "Andrassy Note,'' addressed on the 30th of December 1875 by Count Andrassy to Count Beust, now Austrian ambassador to the court of St James's. In it he pointed out that the efforts of the powers to localize the revolt seemed in danger of failure, that the rebels were still holding their own, and that the Ottoman promises of reform, embodied in various firmans, were no more than vague statements of principle which had never had, and were probably not intended to have, any local application. In order to avert the risk of a general conflagration, therefore, he urged that the time had come for concerted action of the powers for the purpose of pressing the Porte to fulfil its promises. A sketch of the more essential reforms followed: the recognition rather than the toleration of the Christian religion; the abolition of the system of farming the taxes; and, in Bosnia and Herzegovina, where the religious was complicated by an agrarian question, the conversion of the Christian peasants into free proprietors, to rescue them from their double subjection to the great Mussulman landowners. In Bosnia and Herzegovina also elected provincial councils were to be established, irremovable judges appointed and individual liberty guaranteed. Finally, a mixed commission of Mussulmans and Christians was to be empowered to watch over the carrying out of these reforms. The fact that the sultan would be responsible to Europe for the realization of his promises would serve to allay the natural suspicions of the insurgents.1

To this plan both Great Britain and France gave a general assent, and the Andrassy Note was adopted as the basis of negotiations. When war became inevitable between Russia and the Porte, Andrassy arranged with the Russian court that, in case Russia prevailed, the status quo should not be changed to the detriment of the Austrian monarchy. When, however, the treaty of San Stefano threatened a Russian hegemony in the near East, Andrassy concurred with the German and British courts that the final adjustment of matters must be submitted to a European congress. At the Berlin Congress in 1878 he was the principal Austrian plenipotentiary, and directed his efforts to diminish the gains of Russia and aggrandize the Dual Monarchy. The latter object was gained by the occupation of Bosnia-Herzegovina under a mandate from the congress. This occupation was most unpopular in Hungary, both for financial reasons and because of the strong philo-Turk sentiments of the Magyars, but the result brilliantly justified Andrassy's policy. Nevertheless he felt constrained to bow before the storm, and placed his resignation in the emperor's hands (8th of October 1879). The day before his retirement he signed the offensive-defensive alliance with Germany, which placed the foreign relations of Austria-Hungary once more on a stable footing.

After his retirement, Andrassy continued to take an active part in public affairs both in the Delegations and in the Upper House. In 1885 he warmly supported the project for the reform of the House of Magnates, but on the other hand he jealously defended the inviolability of the Composition of 1867, and on the 5th of March 1889 in his place in the Upper House spoke against any particularist tampering with the common army. In the last years of his life he regained his popularity, and his death on the 18th of February 1890 was universally mourned as a national calamity. He was the first Magyar statesman who, for centuries, had occupied a European position. Breadth of view, swift resourcefulness, and an intimate knowledge of men and things were his distinguishing qualities as a statesman. Personally he was the most amiable of men; it has been well said that he united in himself the Magyar magnate with the modern gentleman. His motto was: "It is hard to promise, but it is easy to perform.'' If Deak was the architect, Andrassy certainly was the master-builder of the modern Hungarian state.

By his wife, the countess Katinka Kendeffy, whom he married in Paris in 1856, Count Andrassy left two sons, and one daughter, Ilona (b. 1859), who married Count Lajos Batthyany. Both the sons gained distinction in Hungarian politics. The eldest, Tivador (Theodore) Andreas (b. 10th of July 1857), was elected vice-president of the Lower House of the Hungarian parliament in 1890. The younger, Gyula (Julius, b. 30th of June 1860), became under-secretary in the Wekerle ministry in 1892; in 1893 he became minister of education, and in June 1894 was appointed minister in attendance on the king, retiring in 1895 with Wekerle; in 1898, with his elder brother, he left the Liberal party, but returned to it again after the fall of the Banffy ministry; he is the author of Ungarns Ausgleich mit Osterreich vom Jahre 1867 (Ger. ed., Leipzig, 1897), and a work in Hungarian on the origins of the Hungarian state and constitution (Budapest, 1901).

See Andrassy's Speeches (Hung.) edited by Bela Lederer (Budapest, 1891); Memoir (Hung.) by Benjamin Kallay (Budapest, 1891); Necrology (Hung.) in the Akad. Ertesito, Evf. 14 (Budapest, 1891; Recollections of Count Andrassy (Hung.), by Mano Konyi (Budapest, 1891). (R. N. B.)

1 Hertslet, Map of Europe by Treaty, No. 456, vol. iv. p. 2418.

ANDRE, JOHN (1751-1780), British soldier, was born in London in 1751 of Genevese parents. Accident brought him in 1769 to Lichfield, where, in the house of the Rev. Thomas Seward, whose daughter Anna was the centre of a literary circle, he met the beautiful Miss Honora Sneyd. A strong attachment sprang up between the two, but their marriage was disapproved of by Miss Sneyd's family, and Andre was sent to cool his love in his father's counting-house in London and on a business tour to the continent. Commerce was, however, too tame an occupation for his ambitious spirit, and in March 1771 he obtained a commission in the Seventh (Royal Fusiliers), which, after travel in Germany, he joined in Canada in 1774. Here his character, conduct and accomplishments gained him rapid promotion. Miss Sneyd in 1773 married R. L. Edgeworth, the father of the novelist, Maria Edgeworth, having previously refused Thomas Day, the author of Sanford and Merton; but Andre remained faithful to his love for her. In a letter to Anna Seward, written shortly after being taken prisoner by the Americans at the capitulation of St John's on the 3rd of November 1775, he states that he has been "stripped of everything except the picture of Honora, which I concealed in my mouth. Preserving this I yet think myself fortunate.'' Exchanged towards the close of 1776, Andre became in succession aide-de-camp to General Grey and to the commander-in-chief of the British forces, Sir Henry Clinton, who raised him to the rank of major and appointed him adjutant- general of the forces in 1778. Early in 1780 the American general, Benedict Arnold (q .v.), thinking himself injuriously treated by his colleagues, made overtures to the British to betray to them the important fortress of West Point on the Hudson river, the key of the American position, of which he was commandant. This seemed to Sir Henry Clinton a favourable opportunity for concluding the war, and Major Andre was appointed to negotiate with Arnold. For this purpose he landed from a vessel bearing a flag of truce and had an interview with Arnold, who delivered to him full particulars and plans of the fortress of West Point, and arranged with him to co-operate with the British during an attack which was to be made in a few days. Unfortunately for Andre, the British vessel was fired on before the negotiations were finished and obliged to drop down the river. Andre, therefore, could not return by the way he came and was compelled to pass the night within the American lines. After making the fatal mistake of exchanging his uniform for a civilian disguise, he set out next day by land for New York, provided by Arnold with a passport, and succeeded in passing the regular American outposts undetected. Next day, however, just when all danger seemed to be over, Andre was stopped by three American militiamen, to whom he gave such contradictory answers that, in spite of Arnold's pass, they searched him and discovered in his boots the fatal proofs of his negotiations for the betrayal of West Point. Notwithstanding his offer of a large sum for his release, his captors delivered him up to the nearest American officer. Washington, although admitting that Andre was "more unfortunate than criminal,'' sent him before a court-martial, by which, notwithstanding a spirited defence, he was, in consequence of his own admissions, condemned to death as a spy. In spite of the protests and entreaties of Sir Henry Clinton and the threats of Arnold he was hanged at Tappan on the 2nd of October 1780. Arnold, warned by the unfortunate Andre, escaped by flight the punishment he so richly merited. The justice of Andre's execution has been a fruitful theme for discussion, but both British and American military writers are agreed that he undoubtedly acted in the character of a spy, although under orders and entirely contrary to his own feelings. Washington's apparent harshness in refusing the condemned man a soldier's death by shooting has also been censured, but it is evident that no other course was open to the American commander, since a mitigation of the sentence would have implied a doubt as to its justice. Besides courage and distinguished military talents, Major Andre was a proficient in drawing and in music, and showed considerable poetic talent in his humorous Cow-chase, a kind of parody on Chevy-chase, which appeared in three successive parts at New York, the last on the very day of his capture. His fate excited universal sympathy both in America and Europe, and the whole British army went into mourning for him. A mural sculptured monument to his memory was erected in Westminster Abbey by the British government when his remains were brought over and interred there in 1821; and a memorial has been erected to him by Americans on the spot where he was taken. Andre's military journal, giving an interesting account of the British movements in America from June 1777 to the close of 1778, was taken to England in 1782 by General Grey, whose descendant, Earl Grey, discovered it in 1902 and disposed of it to an American gentleman.

See The Life and Career of Major John Andre, &c., by Winthrop Sargent (new ed., New Vork, 1902); Andre's Journal (Boston, Mass., The Bibliophile Society, 1904).

ANDREA, GIOVANNI (1275-1348), Italian canonist, was born at Mugello, near Florence, about 1275. He studied canon law at Bologna, where he distinguished himself in this subject so much that he was made professor at Padua, and later at Pisa and Bologna, rapidly acquiring a high reputation for his learning and his moral character. Curious stories are told of him; for instance, that by way of self-mortification he lay every night for twenty years on the bare ground with only a bear's skin for a covering; that in an audience he had with Pope Boniface VIII. his extraordinary shortness of stature led the pope to believe he was kneeling, and to ask him three times to rise, to the immense merriment of the cardinals; and that he had a daughter, Novella, so accomplished in law as to be able to read her father's lectures in his absence, and so beautiful, that she had to read behind a curtain lest her face should distract the attention of the students. He is said to have died at Bologna of the plague in 1348, and an epitaph in the church of the Dominicans in which he was buried, calling him Rabbi Doctorum, Lux, Censor, Normaque Morum, testifies to the public estimation of his character. Andrea wrote a Gloss on the Sixth Book of the Decretals, Closses on the Clementines and a Commentary on the Rules of Sextus. His additions to the Speculum of Durando are a mere adaptation from the Consilia of Oldradus, as is also the book De Sponsalibus et Matrimonio, from J. Anguisciola.

ANDREA DEL SARTO (1487-1531). This celebrated painter of the Florentine school was born in Gualfonda, Florence, in 1487, or perhaps 1486, his father Agnolo being a tailor (sarto): hence the nickname by which the son is constantly designated. There were four other children. The family, though of no distinction, can be traced back into the 14th century. Vannucchi has since 1677 been constantly given as the surname—according to some modern writers, without any authority. It has recently been said that the true name is Andrea d'Agnolo di Francesco di Luca di Paolo del Migliore. But this only gives, along with our painter's Christian name, the Christian names of his antecessors for five generations, and is in no way his own surname. In 1494 Andrea was put to work under a goldsmith. This occupation he disliked. He took to drawing from his master's models, and was soon transferred to a skilful woodcarver and inferior painter named Gian Barile, with whom he remained until 1498. Barile, though a coarse-grained man enough, would not stand in the way of the advancement of his promising pupil, so he recommended him to Piero di Cosimo as draughtsman and colourist. Piero retained Andrea for some years, allowing him to study from the famous cartoons of Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. Finally Andrea agreed with his friend Franciabigio, who was somewhat his senior, that they would open a joint shop; at a date not precisely defined they took a lodging together in the Piazza del Grano. Their first work in partnership may probably have been the "Baptism of Christ,'' for the Florentine Compagnia dello Scalzo, a performance of no great merit, the beginning of a series, all the extant items of which are in monochrome chiaroscuro. Soon afterwards the partnership was dissolved. From 1509 to 1514 the brotherhood of the Servites employed Andrea, as well as Franciabigio and Andrea Feltrini, the first- named undertaking in the portico of the Annunziata three frescoes illustrating the life of the Servite saint Filippo Benizzi (d. 1285). He executed them in a few months, being endowed by nature with remarkable readiness and certainty of hand and unhesitating firmness in his work, although in the general mould of his mind he was timid and diffident. The subjects are the saint sharing his cloak with a leper, cursing some gamblers, and restoring a girl possessed with a devil. The second and third works excel the first, and are impulsive and able performances. These paintings met with merited applause, and gained for their author the pre-eminent title "Andrea senza errori'' (Andrew the unerring)—the correctness of the contours being particularly admired. After these subjects the painter proceeded with two others—the death of S. Filippo and the children cured by touching his garment,—all the five works being completed before the close of 1510. The youth of twenty-three was already in technique about the best fresco-painter of central Italy, barely rivalled by Raphael, who was the elder by four years. Michelangelo's Sixtine frescoes were then only in a preliminary stage. Andrea always worked in the simplest, most typical and most trying method of fresco—that of painting the thing once and for all, without any subsequent dry-touching. He now received many commissions. The brotherhood of the Servites engaged him to do two more frescoes in the Annunziata at a higher price; he also painted, towards 1512, an Annunciation in the monastery of S. Gallo.

The "Tailor's Andrew'' appears to have been an easy-going plebeian, to whom a modest position in life and scanty gains were no grievances. As an artist he must have known his own value; but he probably rested content in the sense of his superlative powers as an executant, and did not aspire to the rank of a great inventor or leader, for which, indeed, he had no vocation. He led a social sort of life among his compeers of the art, was intimate with the sculptor Rustici, and joined a jolly dining-club at his house named the Company of the Kettle, also a second club named the Trowel. At one time, Franciabigio being then the chairman of the Kettle-men, Andrea recited, and is by some regarded as having composed, a comic epic, "The Battle of the Frogs and Mice''—a rechauffe, as one may surmise, of the Greek Batrachomyomachia, popularly ascribed to Homer. He fell in love with Lucrezia (del Fede), wife of a hatter named Carlo Recanati; the hatter dying opportunely, the tailor's son married her on the 26th of December 1512. She was a very handsome woman and has come down to us treated with great suavity in many a picture of her lover-husband, who constantly painted her as a Madonna and otherwise; and even in painting other women he made them resemble Lucrezia in general type. She has been much less gently handled by Vasari and other biographers. Vasari, who was at one time a pupil of Andrea, describes her as faithless, jealous, overbearing and vixenish with the apprentices. She lived to a great age, surviving her husband forty years.

By 1514 Andrea had finished his last two frescoes in the court of the Servites, than which none of his works was more admired— the "Nativity of the Virgin,'' which shows the influence of Leonardo, Domenico Ghirlandajo and Fra Bartolommeo, in effective fusion, and the "Procession of the Magi,'' intended as an amplification of a work by Baldovinetti; in this fresco is a portrait of Andrea himself. He also executed at some date a much-praised head of Christ over the high altar. By November 1515 he had finished at the Scalzo the allegory of Justice, and the "Baptist preaching in the desert,''—followed in 1517 by "John baptizing,'' and other subjects. Before the end of 1516 a "Pieta'' of his composition, and afterwards a Madonna, were sent to the French court. These were received with applause; and the art-loving monarch Francis I. suggested in 1518 that Andrea should come to Paris. He journeyed thither towards June of that year, along with his pupil Andrea Sguazzella, leaving his wife in Florence, and was very cordially received, and for the first and only time in his life was handsomely remunerated. Lucrezia, however, wrote urging his return to Italy. The king assented, but only on the understanding that his absence from France was to be short; and he entrusted Andrea with a sum of money to be expended in purchasing works of art for his royal patron. The temptation of having a goodly amount of pelf in hand proved too much for Andrea's virtue. He spent the king's money and some of his own in building a house for himself in Florence. This necessarily brought him into bad odour with Francis, who refused to be appeased by some endeavours which the painter afterwards made to reingratiate himself. No serious punishment, however, and apparently no grave loss of professional reputation befell the defaulter.

In 1520 he resumed work in Florence, and executed the "Faith'' and "Charity'' in the cloister of the Scalzo. These were succeeded by the "Dance of the Daughter of Herodias,'' the "Beheading of the Baptist,'' the "Presentation of his head to Herod,'' an allegory of Hope, the "Apparition of the Angel to Zacharias'' (1523), and the monochrome of the Visitation. This last was painted in the autumn of 1524, after Andrea had returned from Luco in Mugello,—to which place an outbreak of plague in Florence had driven him, his wife, his step-daughter and other relatives. In 1525 he painted the very famous fresco named the "Madonna del Sacco,'' a lunette in the cloisters of the Servites; this picture (named after a sack against which Joseph is represented propped) is generally accounted his masterpiece. His final work at the Scalzo was the "Birth of the Baptist'' (1526), executed with some enhanced elevation of style after Andrea had been diligently studying Michelangelo's figures in the sacristy of S. Lorenzo. In the following year he completed at S. Salvi, near Florence, a celebrated "Last Supper,'' in which all the personages seem to be portraits. This also is a very fine example of his style, though the conception of the subject is not exalted. It is the last monumental work of importance which Andrea del Sarto lived to execute. He dwelt in Florence throughout the memorable siege, which was soon followed by an infectious pestilence. He caught the malady, struggled against it with little or no tending from his wife, who held aloof, and he died, no one knowing much about it at the moment, on the 22nd of January 1531, at the comparatively early age of forty-three. He was buried unceremoniously in the church of the Servites.

Various portraits painted by Andrea are regarded as likenesses of himself, but this is not free from some doubt. One is in London, in the National Gallery, an admirable half-figure, purchased in 1862. Another is at Alnwick Castle, a young man about twenty years of age, with his elbow on a table. Another at Panshanger may perhaps represent in reality his pupil Domenico Conti. Another youthful portrait is in the Uffizi Gallery, and the Pitti Gallery contains more than one. Among his more renowned works not already specified are the following. The Virgin and Child, with St Francis and St John the Evangelist and two angels, now in the Uifizi, painted for the church of S. Francesco in Florence; this is termed the "Madonna di S. Francesco,'' or "Madonna delle Arpie,'' from certain figures of harpies which are decoratively introduced, and is rated as Andrea's masterpiece in oil-painting. The altar-piece in the Uffizi, painted for the monastery of S. Gallo, the "Fathers disputing on the doctrine of the Trinity''—SS. Augustine, Dominic, Francis, Lawrence, Sebastian and Mary Magdalene—a very energetic work. Both these pictures are comparatively early—towards 1517. The "Charity'' now in the Louvre (perhaps the only painting which Andrea executed while in France). The "Pieta,'' in the Belvedere of Vienna; this work, as well as the "Charity,'' shows a strong Michelangelesque influence. At Poggio a Caiano a celebrated fresco (1521) representing Julius Caesar receiving tribute, various figures bringing animals from foreign lands—a striking perspective arrangement; it was left unfinished by Andrea and was completed by Alessandro Allori. Two very remarkable paintings (1523) containing various incidents in the life of the patriarch Joseph, executed for the Borgherini family. In the Pitti Gallery two separate compositions of the "Assumption of the Virgin,'' also a fine "Pieta.'' In the Madrid museum the "Virgin and Child,'' with Joseph, Elizabeth, the infant Baptist and an Archangel. In the Louvre the "Holy Family,'' the Baptist pointing upwards. In Berlin a portrait of his wife. In Panshanger a fine portrait named "Laura.'' The second picture in the National Gallery ascribed to Andrea, a "Holy Family,'' is by some critics regarded as the work rather of one of his scholars—we hardly know why. A very noticeable incident in the life of Andrea del Sarto relates to the copy, which he produced in 1523, of the portrait group of Leo X. by Raphael; it is now in the Naples Museum, the original being in the Pitti Gallery. Ottaviano de' Medici, the owner of the original, was solicited by Frederick II., duke of Mantua, to present it to him. Unwilling to part with so great a pictorial prize and unwilling also to disoblige the duke, Ottaviano got Andrea to make the copy, which was consigned to the duke as being the original. So deceptive was the imitation that even Giulio Romano, who had himself manipulated the original to some extent, was completely taken in; and, on showing the supposed Raphael years afterwards to Vasari, who knew the facts, he could only be undeceived when, a private mark on the canvas was named to him by Vasari and brought under his eye. It was Michelangelo who had introduced Vasari in 1524 to Andrea's studio. He is said to have thought very highly of Andrea's powers, saying on one occasion to Raphael, "There is a little fellow in Florence who will bring sweat to your brow if ever he is engaged in great works.''

Andrea had true pictorial style, a very high standard of correctness and an enviable balance of executive endowments. The point of technique in which he excelled least was perhaps that of discriminating the varying textures of different objects and surfaces. There is not much elevation or ideality in his works—much more of reality. His chiaroscuro is not carried out according to strict rule, but is adjusted to his liking for harmony of colour and fused tone and transparence; in fresco more especially his predilection for varied tints appears excessive. It may be broadly said that his taste in colouring was derived mainly from Fra Bartolommeo, and in form from Michelangelo; and his style partakes of the Venetian and Lombard, as well as the Florentine and Roman—some of his figures are even adapted from Albert Durer. In one way or other he continued improving to the last. In drawing from nature, his habit was to sketch very slightly, making only such a memorandum as sufficed to work from. The scholars of Andrea were very numerous; but, according to Vasari, they were not wont to stay long, being domineered over by his wife; Pontormo and Domenico Puligo may be mentioned.

In this account of Andrea del Sarto we have followed the main lines of the narrative of Crowe and Cavalcaselle, supplemented by Vasari, Lanzi and others.

There are biographies by Biadi (1829), by von Reumont (1831), by Baumann (1878), and by Guinness (1899). (W. M. R.)

ANDREANI, ANDREA, Italian engraver on wood, in chiaroscuro, was born at Mantua about 1540 (Brulliot says 1560) and died at Rome in 1623. His engravings are scarce and valuable, and are chiefly copies of Mantegna, Durer and Titian. The most remarkable of his works are "Mercury and Ignorance,'' the "Deluge,'' "Pharaoh's host drowned in the Red Sea'' (after Titian), the "Triumph of Caesar'' (after Mantegna), and "Christ retiring from the judgment-seat of Pilate.''

ANDREE, KARL (1808-1875), German geographer, was born at Brunswick on the 20th of October 1808. He was educated at Jena, Gottingen and Berlin. After having been implicated in a students' political agitation he became a journalist, and in 1851 founded the Bremer Handelsblatt. From 1855, however, he devoted himself entirely to geography and ethnography, working successively at Leipzig and at Dresden. In 1862 he founded the important geographical periodical Globus. His works include Nordamerika in geographischen und geschichtlichen Umrissen (Brunswick, 1854), Geographische Wanderungen (Dresden, 1859), and Geographie des Welthandels (Stuttgart, 1867-1872). He died at Wildungen on the 10th of August 1875.

His son RICHARD, born on the 26th of February 1835, followed his father's career, devoting himself especially to ethnography. He wrote numerous books on this subject, dealing notably with the races of his own country, while an important general work was Ethnographische Parallelen und Vorgleiche (Stuttgart, 1878). He also took up cartography, having a chief share in the production of the Physikalisch-statistische Atlas des deutschen Reiches (Leipzig, 1877), Allgemeine Handatlas (first ed., 1881), and other atlases; and he continued the editorship of the Globus.

ANDREE, SALOMON AUGUST (1854-1897?), Swedish engineer, was born at Grenna, on Lake Vetter, on the 18th of October 1854. After education at the Stockholm technical college, he studied aeronautics, and in 1895 elaborated a plan for crossing the north polar region by a balloon which should be in some degree dirigible by sails and trailing ropes. After an abortive effort in 1896, the winds being contrary, he started with two companions from Danes Island, Spitsbergen, on the 11th of July 1897. The party was never seen again, nor is the manner of its fate known. Of several expeditions sent in search of it, the first started in November 1897, on the strength of a report of cries of distress heard by shipwrecked sailors at Spitsbergen; in 1898 and 1899 parties searched the north Asiatic coast and the New Siberia Islands; and in May 1899 Dr Nathorst headed an expedition to eastern Greenland. None was successful, and only scanty information was obtained or inferred from the discovery of a few buoys (on the west of Spitsbergen, northern Norway, Iceland, &c.) which the balloonists had arranged to drop, and a message taken from a carrier pigeon despatched from the balloon two days after its ascent. There were also messages in two of the buoys, but they dated only from the day of the ascent. The others were empty.

ANDREINI, FRANCESCO, Italian actor, was born at Pistoia in the last half of the 16th century. He was a member of the company of the Gelosi which Henry IV. summoned to Paris to please his bride, the young queen Marie de' Medici. His wife ISABELLA ANDREINI (1562-1604) was a member of her husband's company, distinguished alike for her acting and her character,—commemorated in the medal struck at Lyons in the year of her death, with her portrait on one side, and the figure of Fame on the reverse with the words aeterna fama. She was also known in literature, her books including a pastoral, Mirtilla (Verona, 1588), a volume of songs, sonnets and other poems (Milan, 1601), and a collection of letters, published after her death. She inspired many of the French poets, notably Isaac du Ryer (d. c. 1631). Her son GIAMBATTISTA ANDREINI (1578-1650) was born in Florence, and had a great success as a comedian in Paris under the name of Leylio. He was a favourite with Louis XIII., and also with the public, especially as the young lover. He left a number of plays full of extravagant imagination. The best known are L'Adamo (Milan, 1613), The Penitent Magdalene (Mantua, 1617), and The Centaur (Paris, 1622). From the first of these three volumes, which are extremely rare, Italians have often asserted that Milton, travelling at that time in their country, took the idea of Paradise Lost.

ANDREOSSY, ANTOINE-FRANCOIS, COUNT (1761-1828), French soldier and diplomatist, was born at Castelnaudary, in Languedoc, on the 6th of March 1761. He was of Italian extraction, and his ancestor Francois Andreossy (1633-1688) had been concerned with Riquet in the construction of the Languedoc Canal in 1669. He had a brilliant career at the school of artillery at Metz, obtained his commission in 1781, and became captain in 1788. On the outbreak of the Revolution he adopted its principles. He saw active service on the Rhine in 1794 and in Italy in 1795, and in the campaign of 1796-97 was employed in engineer duties with the Army of Italy. He became chef de brigade in December 1796 and general of brigade in 1798, in which year he accompanied Bonaparte to Egypt. He served in the Egyptian campaign with distinction, and was selected as one of Napoleon's companions on his return to Europe. Andreossy took part in the coup d'etat of the 18th of Brumaire, and on the 6th of January 1800 was made general of division. Of particular importance was his term of office as ambassador to England during the short peace which followed the treaties of Amiens and Luneville. It had been shown (Coquille, Napoleon and England, 1904) that Andreossy repeatedly warned Napoleon that the British government desired to maintain peace but must be treated with consideration. His advice, however, was disregarded. When Napoleon became emperor he made Andreossy inspector-general of artillery and a count of the empire. In the war of 1805 Andreossy was employed on the headquarters staff of Napoleon. From 1808 to 1809 he was French ambassador at Vienna, where he displayed a hostility to Austria which was in marked contrast to his friendliness to England in 1802-1803. In the war of 1809, Andreossy was military governor of Vienna during the French occupation. In 1812 he was sent by Napoleon as ambassador to Constantinople, where he carried on the policy initiated by Sebastiani. In 1814 he was recalled by Louis XVIII. Andreossy now retired into private life, till the escape of his former master from Elba once again called him forth. In 1826 he was elected to the Academie des Sciences, and in the following year was deputy for the department of the Aude. His numerous works included the following:—on artillery (with which arm he was most intimately connected throughout his military career), Quelques idees relatives a l'usage de l'artillerie dans l'attaque et . . . la defense des places (Metz); Essai sur le tir des projectiles creux (Paris, 1826); and on military history, Campagne sur le Main et la Rednitz de l'armee gallo-batave (Paris, 1802); Operations des pontonniers en Italie . . . 1195-1796 (Paris, 1843). He also wrote scientific memoirs on the mouth of the Black Sea (1818-1819); on certain Egyptian lakes (during his stay in Egypt); and in particular the history of the Languedoc Canal (Histoire du canal du Midi, 2nd ed., Paris, 1804), the chief credit of which he claimed for his ancestor. Andreossy died at Montauban in 1828.

See Marion, Notice necrologique sur le Lt.-General Comte Andreossy.

ANDRES, JUAN (1740-1817), Spanish Jesuit, was born at Planes in the province of Valencia, and became professor of literature at Gandia and finally royal librarian at Naples. He died at Rome on the 12th of January 1817. He is the author of many miscellaneous treatises on science, music, the art of teaching the deaf and dumb, &c. But his chief work, the labour of fully twenty years, is entitled Dell' origine, progressi, e stato attuale d' ogni Letteratura (7 vols., Parma, 1782-1799). A Spanish translation by his brother Carlos appeared at Madrid between 1784 and 1806, and an abridgment in French (1838-1846) was compiled by the Jesuit Alexis Nerbonne. The original was frequently reprinted during the first half of the 19th century.

See C. Sommervogel, Bibliotheque de la compagnie de Jesus, premiere partie (Brussels and Paris), vol. i. col. 342-350.

ANDREW (Gr. Andreas, manly), the Christian Apostle, brother of Simon Peter, was born at Bethsaida on the Lake of Galilee. He had been a disciple of John the Baptist (John i. 37-40) and was one of the first to follow Jesus. He lived at Capernaum (Mark i. 29). In the gospel story he is referred to as being present on some important occasions as one of the disciples more closely attached to Jesus (Mark xiii. 3; John vi. 8, xii. 22); in Acts there is only a bare mention of him (i. 13). Tradition relates that he preached in Asia Minor and in Scythia, along the Black Sea as far as the Volga. Hence he became a patron saint of Russia. He is said to have suffered crucifixion at Patras (Patrae) in Achaea, on a cross of the form called Crux decussata (X) and commonly known as "St Andrew's cross.'' According to tradition his relics were removed from Patras to Constantinople, and thence to St Andrews (see below). The apocryphal book, The Acts of Andrew, mentioned by Eusebius, Epiphanius and others, is generally attributed to Leucius the Gnostic. It was edited and published by C. Tischendorf in the Acta Apostolorum apocrypha (Leipzig, 1821). This book, as well as a Gospel of St Andrew, was declared apocryphal by a decree of Pope Gelasius. Another version of the Andrew legend is found in the Passio Andreae, published by Max Bonnet (Supplementum II Codicis apocryphi, Paris, 1895). On this was founded an Anglo-Saxon poem ("Andreas und Elene,'' first published by J. Grimm, 1841; cf. C. W. Goodwin, The Anglo-Saxon Legends of S. Andreas and S. Veronica, 1851). The festival of St Andrew is held on the 30th of November.

See APOCRYPHAL LITERATURE: also Lipsius, Die apokryphen Apostelgeschichten und Apostellegeniden, vol. i. (1883), and Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, s.v.

Scottish Legends.—About the middle of the 8th century Andrew became the patron saint of Scotland. Concerning this there are several legends which state that the relics of Andrew were brought under supernatural guidance from Constantinople to the place where the modern St Andrews stands (Pictish, Muckross; Gaelic, Kilrymont). The oldest stories (preserved in the Colbertine MSS., Paris, and the Harleian MSS. in the British Museum) state that the relics were brought by one Regulus to the Pictish king Angus (or Ungus) Macfergus (c. 731-761). The only historical Regulus (Riagail or Rule, whose name is preserved by the tower of St Rule) was an Irish monk expelled from Ireland with St Columba; his date, however, is c. 573-600. There are good reasons for supposing that the relics were originally in the collection of Acca, bishop of Hexham, who took them into Pictland when he was driven from Hexham (c. 732), and founded a see, not, according to tradition, in Galloway, but on the site of St Andrews. The connexion with Regulus is, therefore, due in all probability to the desire to date the foundation of the church at St Andrews as early as possible.

See A. Lang, St Andrews (London, 1893), pp. 4 ff.; W. F. Skene, Celtic Scotland; also the article ST ANDREWS.

ANDREW II. (1175-1235), king of Hungary, son of Bela III., king of Hungary, succeeded his nephew, the infant Ladislaus III., in 1205. No other Magyar king, perhaps, was so mischievous to his country. Valiant, enterprising, pious as he was, all these fine qualities were ruined by a reckless good nature which never thought of the morrow. He declares in one of his decrees that the generosity of a king should be limitless, and he acted up to this principle throughout his reign. He gave away everything, money, villages, domains, whole counties, to the utter impoverishment of the treasury, thereby rendering the crown, for the first time in Hungarian history, dependent upon the great feudatories, who, in Hungary as elsewhere, took all they could get and gave as little as possible in return. In all matters of government, Andrew was equally reckless and haphazard. He is directly responsible for the beginnings of the feudal anarchy which well-nigh led to the extinction of the monarchy at the end of the 13th century. The great feudatories did not even respect the lives of the royal family, for Andrew was recalled from a futile attempt to reconquer Galicia (which really lay beyond the Hungarian sphere of influence), through the murder of his first wife Gertrude of Meran (September 24, 1213), by rebellious nobles jealous of the influence of her relatives. In 1215 he married Iolanthe of France, but in 1217 was compelled by the pope to lead a crusade to the Holy Land, which he undertook in hopes of being elected Latin emperor of Constantinople. The crusade excited no enthusiasm in Hungary, but Andrew contrived to collect 15,000 men together, whom he led to Venice; whence, not without much haggling and the surrender of all the Hungarian claims upon Zara, about two-thirds of them were conveyed to Acre. But the whole expedition was a forlorn hope. The Christian kingdom of Palestine was by this time reduced to a strip of coast about 440 sq. m. in extent, and after a drawn battle with the Turks on the Jordan (November 10), and fruitless assaults on the fortresses of the Lebanon and on Mount Tabor, Andrew started home (January 18, 1218) through Antioch, Iconium, Constantinople and Bulgaria. On his return he found the feudal barons in the ascendant, and they extorted from him the Golden Bull (see HUNGARY, History.) Andrew's last exploit was to defeat an invasion of Frederick of Austria in 1234. The same year he married his third wife, Beatrice of Este. Besides his three sons, Bela, Coloman and Andrew, Andrew had a daughter Iolanthe, who married the king of Aragon. He was also the father of St Elizabeth of Hungary.

No special monograph for the whole reign exists, but there is a good description of Andrew's crusade in Reinhold Roehricht, Geschichte des Konigreiches Jerusalem (Innsbruck, 1898) . The best account of Andrew's government is in Laszlo Szalav's History of Hungary (Hung.), vol. i. (Leipzig and Pest, 1851-1862). (R. N. B.)

ANDREW OF LONGJUMEAU (Longumeau, Lonjumel, &c.), a French Dominican, explorer and diplomatist. He accompanied the mission under Friar Ascehn, sent by Pope Innocent IV. to the Mongols in 1247; at the Tatar camp near Kars he met a certain David, who next year (1248) appeared at the court of King Louis IX. of France in Cyprus. Andrew, who was now with St Louis, interpreted to the king David's message, a real or pretended offer of alliance from the Mongol general Ilchikdai (Ilchikadai), and a proposal of a joint attack upon the Islamic powers for the conquest of Syria. In reply to this the French sovereign despatched Andrew as his ambassador to the great Khan Kuyuk; with Longjumeau went his brother (a monk) and several others—John Goderiche, John of Carcassonne, Herbert "le sommelier,'' Gerbert of Sens, Robert a clerk, a certain William, and an unnamed clerk of Poissy. The party set out about the 16th of February 1249, with letters from King Louis and the papal legate, and rich presents, including a chapel-tent, lined with scarlet cloth and embroidered with sacred pictures. From Cyprus they went to the port of Antioch in Syria, and thence travelled for a year to the khan's court, going ten leagues a day. Their route led them through Persia, along the southern and eastern shores of the Caspian (whose inland character, unconnected with the outer ocean, their journey helped to demonstrate), and probably through Talas, north-east of Tashkent. On arrival at the supreme Mongol court—either that on the Imyl river (near Lake Ala-kul and the present Russo-Chinese frontier in the Altai), or more probably at or near Karakorum itself, south-west of Lake Baikah—Andrew found Kuyuk Khan dead, poisoned, as the envoy supposed, by Batu's agents. The regent-mother Ogul Gaimish (the "Camus'' of Rubruquis) seems to have received and dismissed him with presents and a letter for Louis IX., the latter a fine specimen of Mongol insolence. But it is certain that before the friar had quitted "Tartary''' Mangu Khan, Kuyuk's successor, had been elected. Andrew's report to his sovereign, whom he rejoined in 1251 at Caesarea in Palestine, appears to have been a mixture of history and fable; the latter affects his narrative of the Mongols' rise to greatness, and the struggles of their leader, evidently Jenghiz Khan, with Prester John; it is still more evident in the position assigned to the Tatar homeland, close to the prison of Gog and Magog. On the other hand, the envoy's account of Tatar manners is fairly accurate, and his statements about Mongol Christianity and its prosperity, though perhaps exaggerated (e.g. as to the 800 chapels on wheels in the nomadic host), are based on fact. Mounds of bones marked his road, witnesses of devastations which other historians record in detail; Christian prisoners, from Germany, he found in the heart of "Tartary'' (at Talas); the ceremony of passing between two fires he was compelled to observe, as a bringer of gifts to a dead khan, gifts which were of course treated by the Mongols as evidence of submission. This insulting behaviour, and the language of the letter with which Andrew reappeared, marked the mission a failure: King Louis, says Joinville, "se repenti fort.''

We only know of Andrew through references in other writers: see especially William of Rubruquis in Recueil de voyages, iv. (Paris, 1839), pp. 261, 265, 279, 296, 310, 353, 363, 370; Joinville, ed. Francisque Michel (1858, &c.), pp. 142, &c.; Jean Pierre Sarrasin, in same vol., pp. 254-235; W.illiam of Nangis in Recueil des historiens des Gaules, xx. 359-367; . Remusat, Memoires sur les relations politiques des princes chretiens . . . avec les . . . Mongols (1822, &c.), p. 52. (C. R. B.)

ANDREW, JOHN ALBION (1818-1867), American political leader, "war governor'' of Massachusetts, was born at Windham, Maine, on the 31st of May 1818. He graduated at Bowdoin College in 1837, studied law in Boston, was admitted to the Suffolk bar in 1840, and practised his profession in Boston. He also took a deep interest in religious matters, was a prominent member of the Church of the Disciples (Unitarian; founded in Boston by the Rev. James Freeman Clarke), and was assistant editor for some time of The Christian World, a weekly religious paper. With ardent anti-slavery principles, he entered political life as a "Young Whig'' opposed to the Mexican War; he became an active Free-Soiler in 1848, and in 1854 took part in the organization in Massachusetts of the new Republican party. He served one term, in 1858, in the state House of Representatives, and in 1859 declined an appointment to a seat on the bench of the state supreme court. In this year he took such an active part in raising funds to defend John Brown, then on trial in Virginia, that he aroused the suspicions of a senatorial committee investigating Brown's raid, and was summoned to Washington to tell what he knew of the affair. In 1860 he was chairman of the Massachusetts delegation to the Republican national convention at Chicago, which nominated Lincoln for the Presidency; and from 1861 to January 1866, throughout the trying period of the Civil War, he was governor of Massachusetts, becoming known as one of the ablest, most patriotic and most energetic of the remarkable group of "war governors'' in the North. Immediately after his inauguration he began filling the militia regiments with young men ready for active service, saw that they were well drilled and supplied them with good modern rifles. As a result, Massachusetts was the only northern state in any way prepared for war when the Confederates fired on Fort Sumter; and her troops began to muster in Boston on the 16th of April, the very day after President Lincoln's call for volunteers. On the next day the Sixth Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry started south for the defence of Washington, and was the first fully armed and equipped volunteer regiment to reach the capital. Within six days after the call, nearly four thousand Massachusetts volunteers had departed for Washington. In 1865, at Governor Andrew's own request, the secretary of war authorized him to raise several regiments of negro troops, with white commissioned officers, and the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts Infantry was the first regiment of free negroes raised in the North. Governor Andrew's example was quickly followed in other states, and before the end of the year 36,000 negroes had been enrolled in the Union armies. When the war department ruled that the negro troops were entitled to pay only as "labourers'' and not as soldiers, Governor Andrew used all his influence with the president and the secretary of war to secure for them the same pay as white troops, and was finally successful. Notwithstanding his loyal support of the administration during the struggle, he did not fully approve of its conduct of the war, which he deemed shifting and timid; and it was with great reluctance that he supported Lincoln in 1864 for a second term. In 1865 he rejected the more radical views of his party as to the treatment to be accorded to the late Confederate states, opposed the immediate and unconditional enfranchisement of freedmen, and, though not accepting President Johnson's views in their entirety, he urged the people of Massachusetts to give the new president their support. On retiring from the governor's office he declined the presidency of Antioch College, at Yellow Springs, Ohio, and various positions in the service of the Federal government, and resumed the practice of law, at once achieving great success. In 1865 he presided at the first national convention of the Unitarian Church. He died suddenly of apoplexy, at Boston, on the 30th of October 1867.

See Henry G. Pearson's Life of John A. Andrew (2 vols., Boston and New York, 1904).

ANDREWES, LANCELOT (1555-1626), English divine, was born in 1555 in London. His family was an ancient Suffolk one; his father, Thomas, became master of Trinity House. Lancelot was sent to the Cooper's free school, Ratcliff, in the parish of Stepney, and then to the Merchant Taylors' school under Richard Mulcaster. In 1571 he was entered as a Watts scholar at Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, where in 1574-1575 he graduated B.A., proceeding M.A. in 1578. In 1576 he had been elected fellow of Pembroke. In 1580 he took orders; in 1581 he was incorporated M.A. at Oxford. As catechist at his college he read lectures on the Decalogue, which, both on their delivery and on their publication (in 1630), created much interest. He also gained much reputation as a casuist. After a residence in the north as chaplain to Henry Hastings, earl of Huntingdon, President of the North, he was made vicar of St Giles's, Cripplegate, in 1588, and there delivered his striking sermons on the temptation in the wilderness and the Lord's prayer. In a great sermon on the 10th of April (Easter week) 1588, he stoutly vindicated the Protestantism of the Church of England against the Romanists, and, oddly enough, adduced "Mr Calvin'' as a new writer, with lavish praise and affection. Andrewes was preferred to the prebendal stall of St Pancras in St Paul's, London, in 1589, and on the 6th of September of the same year became master of his own college of Pembroke, being at the time one of the chaplains of Archbishop Whitgift. From 1589 to 1609 he was also prebendary of Southwell. On the 4th of March 1590, as one of the chaplains of Queen Elizabeth, he preached before her a singularly outspoken sermon, and in October gave his introductory lecture at St Paul's, undertaking to comment on the first four chapters of Genesis. These seem to have been worked up later into a compilation called The Orphan Lectures (1657). Andrewes was an incessant worker as well as preacher, and often laboured beyond his strength. He delighted to move among the people, and yet found time to meet with a society of antiquaries, of which Raleigh, Sidney, Burleigh, Arundel, the Herberts, Saville, Stow and Camden were members. In 1598 he declined the two bishoprics of Ely and Salisbury, as the offers were coupled with a proposal to alienate part of the revenues of those sees. On the 23rd of November 1600 he preached at Whitehall a remarkable sermon on justification, which gave rise to a memorable controversy. On the 4th of July 1601 he was appointed dean of Westminster and gave much attention to the school there. He assisted at the coronation of James I. and in 1604 took part in the Hampton Court conference. His name is the first on the list of divines appointed to make the authorized version of the Bible. In 1605 he was consecrated bishop of Chichester and made lord almoner. In 1609 he published Tortura Torti, a learned work which grew out of the Gunpowder Plot controversy and was written in answer to Bellarmine's Matthaeus Tortus, which attacked James I.'s book on the oath of allegiance. After his translation to Ely (1609), he again controverted Bellarmine in the Responsio ad Apologiam, a treatise never answered. In 1617 he accompanied James I. to Scotland with a view to persuading the Scots that Episcopacy was preferable to Presbyterianism. In 1618 he attended the synod of Dort, and was soon after made dean of the Chapel Royal and translated to Winchester, a diocese which he administered with loving prudence and the highest success. He died on the 26th of September 1626, mourned alike by leaders in Church and state.

Previous Part     1 ... 75  76  77  78  79  80  81  82  83  84  85  86  87  88  89     Next Part
Home - Random Browse