The Back.—There is a well-marked furrow stretching all the way down the middle line of the back from the external occipital protuberance to the cleft of the buttocks. In this the spinous processes of the vertebrae can be felt, especially if the model bend forward. The cervical spines are difficult to feel, except the seventh and sometimes the second, and although the former is called the vertebra prominens, its spine is less easily felt than is that of the first thoracic. In practice it is not very easy to identify any one spine with certainty: one method is to start from the prominent first thoracic and to count down; another is to join the lower angles of the two scapulae (fig. 2, g) when the arms are hanging down, and to take the spine through which the line passes as the seventh.
The spinal furrow is caused by the prominence of the erector spinae muscles on each side; these become less well marked as they run upward. The outlines of the scapulae can be well seen; they cover the ribs from the second to the seventh inclusive. The scapular spine is quite subcutaneous, and can be followed upward and outward from the level of the third thoracic spine to the acromion, and so to the outer end of the clavicle. On the lower margin of the acromion is a little tubercle known as the metacromial process or acromial angle, which is very useful for taking measurements from. The tip of the twelfth rib may usually be felt about two inches above the middle of the iliac crest, but this rib is very variable in length. The highest point of the iliac crest corresponds to the fourth lumbar spine, while the posterior superior iliac spine is on a level with the second sacral vertebra. This posterior superior spine is not easily felt, owing to the ligaments attached to it, but there is usually a little dimple in the skin over it (fig. 2, b) . By drawing horizontal lines through the 1st, 3rd and 5th lumbar spines, the transpyloric, subcostal and intertubercular lines or planes may be reproduced behind and the same viscera localized.
The Arm.—Running downward and outward from the inner half of the clavicle, where that bone is convex forward, is the clavicular part of the pectoralis major, while from the outer third of the bone, where it is concave forward, is the clavicular part of the deltoid; between these two muscles is an elongated triangular gap with its base at the clavicle, and here the skin is somewhat depressed, while the cephalic vein sinks between the two muscles to join the axillary vein. The tip of the coracoid process is situated just under cover of the inner edge of the deltoid, one inch below the junction between the outer and middle thirds of the clavicle. The deltoid muscle (fig. 1, b) forms the prominence of the shoulder, and its convex outline is due to the presence of the head of the humerus deep to it; when this is dislocated the shoulder becomes flattened. The pectoralis major forms the anterior fold of the axilla or armpit, the posterior being formed by the latissimus dorsi and teres major muscles. The skin of the . floor of this space is covered with hair in the adult, and contains many large sweat glands. The axillary vessels and brachial plexus of nerves lie in the outer wall, while on the inner wall are the serrations of the serratus magnus muscle, the outlines of some of which are seen on the side of the thorax, through the skin, when the arm is raised (fig. 1, a) . Below the edge of the pectoralis major, the swelling of the biceps (fig. 1, g) begins to be visible, and this can easily be traced into its tendon of insertion, which reaches below the level of the elbow joint. On each side of the biceps is the external and internal bicipital furrow, in the latter of which the brachial artery may be felt and compressed. The median nerve is here in close relation to the artery. At the bend of the elbow the two condyles of the humerus may be felt; the inner one projects beneath the skin, but the outer one is obscured by the rounded outline of the brachio-radialis muscle. The superficial veins at the bend of the elbow are very conspicuous; they vary a good deal, but the typical arrangement is an M, of which the radial and ulnar veins form the uprights, while the outer oblique bar is the median cephalic and the inner oblique the median basilic vein. At the divergence of these two the median vein comes up from the front of the forearm, while the two vertical limbs are continued up the arm as the cephalic and basilic, the former on the outer side, the latter on the inner. On the back of the arm the three heads of the triceps are distinguishable, the external forming a marked oblique swelling when the forearm is forcibly extended and internally rotated (fig. 2, d.) In the upper part of the front of the forearm the antecubital fossa or triangle is seen; its outer boundary is the brachio-radialis, its inner the pronator radii teres, and where these two join below is the apex. In this space are three vertical structures—externally the tendon of the biceps, just internal to this the brachial artery, and still more internally the median nerve. Coming from the inner side of the biceps tendon the semi-lunar fascia may be felt; it passes deep to the median basilic vein and superficial to the brachial artery, and in former days was a valuable protection to the artery when unskilful operators were bleeding from the median basilic vein. About the middle of the forearm the fleshy parts of the superficial flexor muscles cease, and only the tendons remain, so that the limb narrows rapidly. In front of the wrist there is a superficial plexus of veins, while deep to this two tendons can usually be made to start up if the wrist be forcibly flexed; the outer of these is the flexor carpi radialis, which is the physician's guide to the radial artery where the pulse is felt. If the finger is slipped to the outer side of this tendon, the artery, which here is very superficial, can be felt beating. The inner of the two tendons is the palmaris longus, though it is not always present. On cutting down between these two the median nerve is reached.
The wrist joint may be marked out by feeling the styloid process of the radius on the outer side, and the styloid process of the ulna on the inner side behind, and joining these two by a line convex upward. The superficial appearance of the palm of the hand is described in the article on PALMISTRY; with regard to anatomical landmarks the superficial palmar arterial arch is situated in the line of the abducted thumb, while the deep arch is an inch nearer the wrist. The digital nerves correspond to lines drawn from the clefts of the fingers toward the wrist. On the back of the forearm the olecranon process of the ulna is quite subcutaneous, and during extension of the elbow is in a line with the two condyles, while between it and the inner condyle lies the ulnar nerve, here known popularly as the "funny bone.'' From the olecranon process the finger may be run down the posterior border of the ulna, which is subcutaneous as far as the styloid process at the lower end. On the dorsum of the hand is a plexus of veins, deep to which the extensor tendons are seen on extending the fingers. When the thumb is extended, two tendons stand out very prominently, and enclose a triangular space between them which is sometimes known as the "anatomical snuff box''; the outer of these is the tendon of the extensor brevis, the inner of the extensor longus pollicis. Situated deeply in the space is the radial artery, covered by the radial vein. On the dorsum of the hand there is a plexus of veins, and deep to these the tendons of the extensor longus digitorum stand out when the wrist and fingers are extended.
The Leg.—Just below Poupart's ligament (fig. 1, d), a triangular depression with its apex downward may be seen in muscular subjects; it corresponds to Scarpa's triangle, and its inner border is the tendon of the adductor longus, which is easily felt if the model forcibly adducts the thigh. In this triangle the superficial inguinal glands may be made out. The head of the femur lies just below the centre of Poupart's ligament. The sartorius muscle forms the outer boundary of the triangle, and may be traced from the anterior superior spine obliquely downward and inward, across the front of the thigh, to the inner side of the knee. The two vasti muscles are well marked, the internal being the lower and forming with the sartorius the rounded bulging above the inner side of the knee. The internal saphenous vein runs superficially up the inner side of the thigh from behind the internal condyle to the femur to the saphenous opening in the deep fascia, the top of which is an inch horizontally outward from the spine of the pubis. On the other side of the thigh a groove runs down which corresponds to the ilio-tibial hand, a thickening of the fascia lata or deep fascia; the lower end of this leads to the head of the fibula. On the front of the thigh, below the sartorius, the rectus muscle makes a prominence which leads down to the patella, the outlines of which bone are very evident (fig. 1, e.) The only part of the femur besides the great trochanter which is superficial is the lower end, and this forms the two condyles for articulation with the tibia. If the posterior part of the inner condyle be joined to the mid-point between the anterior superior spine and the symphysis pubis, when the thigh is externally rotated, the line will correspond in its upper two-thirds to that of the common and superficial femoral arteries, the former occupying the upper inch and a half. The common femoral vein lies just internal to its artery, while the anterior crural nerve is a quarter of an inch external to the latter. The rounded mass of the buttock is formed by the gluteus maximus muscle covered by fat; the lower horizontal boundary is called the fold of the nates, and does not correspond exactly to the lower edge of the muscle. At the side of the buttock is a depression (fig. 2, e) where the great trochanter of the femur can be felt; a line, named after Nelaton, drawn from the anterior superior spine to the tuberosity of the ischium, passes through the top of this. On the back of the thigh the hamstrings form a distinct swelling; below the middle these separate to enclose the diamond-shaped popliteal space (fig. 2, z), the outer hamstrings or biceps being specially evident, while, on the inner side, the tendons of the semi-tendinosus and semi-membranosus can be distinguished. The external popliteal nerve may be felt just behind the biceps tendon above the head of the fibula.
On the front of the leg, below the knee, the ligamentum patellae is evident, leading down from the patella (fig. 1, e) to the tubercle of the tibia. From this point downward the anterior border of the tibia or shin is subcutaneous, as is also the internal surface of the tibia. Internal to the skin is the fleshy mass made by the tibialis anticus and extensor longus digitorum muscles. At the inner side of the ankle the internal malleolus is subcutaneous, while on the outer side the tip of the external malleolus is rather lower and farther back. Both this malleolus and the lower quarter of the shaft of the fibula are subcutaneous, and this area, if traced upward, is continuous with a furrow on the outer side of the leg which separates the anterior tibial from the peroneal groups of muscles, and eventually leads to the subcutaneous head of the fibula. At the back of the leg the two heads of the gastrocnemius form the calf, the inner one (fig. 2, e) being larger than the outer. Between the two, in the mid-line of the calf, the external saphenous vein and nerve lie, while lower down they pass behind the external malleolus to the outer side of the foot. The internal saphenous vein and nerve lie just behind the internal border of the tibia, and below pass in front of the internal malleolus. At the level of the ankle-joint the tibialis posticus and flexor longus digitorum tendons lie just behind the internal malleolus, while the peroneus longus and brevis are behind the external. Running down to the heel is the tendo Achillis with the plantaris on its inner side. On the dorsum of the foot the musculo-cutaneous nerve may be seen through the skin in thin people when the toes are depressed; it runs from the anterior peroneal furrow, already described, to all the toes, except the cleft between the two inner ones. There is also a venous arch to be seen, the two extremities of which pass respectively into the external and internal saphenous veins. The long axis of the great toe, even in races unaccustomed to boots, runs forward and outward, away from the mid-line between the two feet, so that perfectly straight inner sides to boots are not really anatomical. The second toe in classical statues is often longer than the first, but this is seldom seen in Englishmen. On the outer side of the sole the skin is often in contact with the ground all along, but on the inner side the arch is more marked, and, except in flat-footed people, there is an area in which the sole does not touch the ground at all.
For further details of surface anatomy see Anatomy for Art Students, by A. Thomson (Oxford, 1896); Harold Stiles's article in Cunningham's Text-Book of Anatomy (Young J. Pentland, 1902); G. Thane and R. Godlee's Appendix to Quain's Anatomy (Longmans, Green & Co., 1896); Surface Anatomy, by B. Windle and Manners Smith (H. K. Lewis, 1896); Landmarks and Surface Markings of the Human Body, by L. B. Rawling (H. K. Lewis, 1906); Surface Anatomy, by T. G. Moorhead (Bailliere, Tindall & Cox, 1903). No one interesred in the subject should omit to read an article on "Art in its relation to Anatomy,'' by W. Anderson, British Medical Journal, 10th August 1895. (F. G. P.)
1 The article in the 9th edition of this Encyclopaedia, dealing with the history of anatomy, and written by the late Dr Craigie of Edinburgh, has gained such a just reputation as the classical work on the subject in the English language that it is substantially reproduced. Here and there points of special or biographical interest are drawn attention to in the shape of footnotes, but any reader interested in the subject would do well to consult, with this article, the work of R. R. von Toply, Studien zur Geschichte der Anatomie im Mittelalter (Leipzig, 1898). In addition to this Professor A. Macalister has published a series of articles, under the head of "Archaeologia Anatomica,'' in the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology. These are written from a structural rather than a biblioraphical point of view, and will be found under the following headings: "Atlas and Epistropheus,'' J. Anat. vol. xxxiii. p. 204; "Veins of Forearm,'' vol. xxxiii. p. 343; "Poupart's Ligament,'' vol. xxxiii. p. 493; "Tendo-Achillis,'' vol. xxxiii. p. 676; "Parotid,'' vol. xxxv. p. 117; "Trochanter,'' vol. xxxv. p. 269.
2The oldest anatomical treatise extant is an Egyptian papyrus probably written sixteen centuries before our era. It shows that the heart, vessels, liver, spleen, kidneys, ureters and bladder were recognized, and that the blood-vessels were known to come from the heart. Other vessels are described, some carrying air, some mucus, while two to the right ear are said to carry the breath of life, and two to the left ear the breath of death. See A. Macalister, "Archaeologia Anatomica,'' J. Anat. and Phys. vol. xxxii. p. 775. But see also the article OMEN.
3 An interesting article on the character and work of the Maidstone surgeon, John Halle, by E. Barclay Smith, will be found in the J. Anat. and Phys. vol. xxxiv. p. 275.
4 It has been pointed out by Dr J. F. Payne that Vicary's work is merely an abridged copy of an unpublished English anatomical treatise of the 14th century. The name of the author is unknown, but internal evidence shows that he was a London surgeon. The manuscript was written in English in 1392. See British Medical Journal, January 25, 1896.
5 The passage of Servetus is so interesting that our readers may feel some curiosity in perusing it in the language of the author; and it is not unimportant to remark that Servetus appears to have been led to think of the course of the blood by the desire of explaining the manner in which the animal spirits were supposed to be generated:— "Vitalis spiritus in sinistro cordis ventriculo suam originem habet, juvantibus maxime pulmonibus ad ipsius perfectionem. Est spiritus tenuis, caloris vi elaboratus, flavo colore, ignea potentia, ut sit quasi ex puriore sanguine lucens, vapor substantiam continens aquae, aeris, et ignis. Generatur ex facta in pulmone commixtione inspirati aeris cum elaborato subtili sanguine, quem dexter ventriculus sinistro communicat. Fit autem communicatio haec, non per parietem cordis medium, ut vulgo creditur, sed magno artificio a dextro cordis ventrioulo, longo per pulmones ductu agitatur sanguis subtilis; a pulmonibus praeparatur, flavus efficitur, et a vena arteriosa in arteriam venosam transfunditur. Deinde in ipsa arteria venosa, inspirato aeri miscetur et exspiratione a fuligine expurgatur; aique ita tandem a sinistro cordis ventriculo totum mixtum per diastolen attrahitur, apta supellex, ut fiat spiritus vitalis. Quod ita per pulmones fiat communicatio et praeparatio, docet conjunctio varia, et communicatio venae arteriosae cum arteria venosa in pulmonibus. Confirmat hoc magnitudo insignis venae arteriosae, quae nec talis nec tanta esset facta, nec tantam a corde ipso vim purissimi sanguinis in pulmones emitteret, ob solum eorum nutrimentum; nec cor pulmonibus hac ratione serviret, cum praesertim antea in embryone solerent pulmones ipsi aliunde nutriri, ob membranulas illas seu valvulas cordis, usque ad horum nativitatem; ut docet Galenus, &c. Itaque ille spiritus a sinistro cordis ventriculo arterias totius corporis deinde transfunditur, ita ut qui tenuior est, superiora petit, ubi magis elaboratur, praecipue in plexu retiformi, sub basi cerebri sito, ubi ex vitali fieri incipit animalis, ad propriam rationalis animae rationem accedens.''— De Trinitate, lib. v.
6 Highmore was a physician practising at Sherborne all his life (1613-1685).
7 Glisson was for forty years professor of physic at Cambridge.
8 Wharton was a graduate both of Oxford and Cambridge, and physician to St Thomas's Hospital.
9 Willis was Sedleian professor of natural philosophy in Oxford in 1660. Later he practised in London.
10 Tyson was a graduate both of Oxford and Cambridge. He was reader of anatomy at Surgeons' Hall, London.
11 Collins was an M. D. of Padua, Oxford and Cambridge. He was physician in ordinary to Charles II.
12 Havers was a London physician, and died in 1702.
13 Robert Nesbitt (d. 1761) studied at Leiden and practised as a physician in London.
14 Humphrey Ridley (1653-1708) was a London physician who studied at Leiden.
15 Bidloo was a Dutch anatomist and Cowper a London surgeon.
16 Hewson was a partner with William Hunter in the Windmill Street School of Anatomy.
17 Cruikshank followed W. Hunter as lecturer at the Windmill Street school.
18 Scarpa was professor of anatomy at Modena and Pavia.
ANATTO (possibly a native American name, with many variants such as annatto, arnotto), a colouring matter produced from the seeds of Bixa orellana (natural order Flacourtiaceae), a small tree which grows in Central and South America. The seeds are surrounded with a thin coating of a waxy pulp, which is separated from them by washing in water, passing the liquid through a sieve and allowing the suspended pulp to deposit. The water is then drained away and the paste dried, till it is a thick, stiff, unctuous mass. In this state it has a dark orange-red colour and is known as "roll'' or "flag'' arnotto, according to the form in which it is put up, but when further dried it is called "cake'' arnotto. Arnotto is much used by South American Indians for painting their bodies; among civilized communities its principal use is for colouring butter, cheese and varnishes. It yields a fugitive bright orange colour, and is to some extent used alone, or in conjunction with other dyes, in the dyeing of silks and in calico printing. It contains a yellow colouring matter, bixin, C16H26O2.
ANAXAGORAS, Greek philosopher, was born probably about the year 500 B.C. (Apollodorus ap. Diog. Laert. ii. 7.) At his native town of Clazomenae in Asia Minor, he had, it appears, some amount of property and prospects of political influence, both of which he surrendered, from a fear that they would hinder his search after knowledge. Nothing is known of his teachers; there is no reason for the theory that he studied under Hermotimus of Clazomenae, the ancient miracle-worker. In early manhood (c. 464-462 B.C.) he went to Athens, which was rapidly becoming the headquarters of Greek culture. There he is said to have remained for thirty years. Pericles learned to love and admire him and the poet Euripides derived from him an enthusiasm for science and humanity. Some authorities assert that even Socrates was among his disciples. His influence was due partly to his astronomical and mathematical eminence, but still more to the ascetic dignity of his nature and his superiority to ordinary weaknesses—traits which legend has embalmed. It was he who brought philosophy and the spirit of scientific inquiry from Ionia to Athens. His observations of the celestial bodies led him to form new theories of the universal order, and brought him into collision with the popular faith. He attempted, not without success, to give a scientific account of eclipses, meteors, rainbows and the sun, which he described as a mass of blazing metal, larger than the Peloponnesus; the heavenly bodies were masses of stone torn from the earth and ignited by rapid rotation. The ignorant polytheism of the time could not tolerate such explanation, and the enemies of Pericles used the superstitions of their countrymen as a means of attacking him in the person of his friend.
Anaxagoras was arrested on a charge of contravening the established dogmas of religion (some say the charge was one of Medism), and it required all the eloquence of Pericles to secure his acquittal. Even so he was forced to retire from Athens to Lampsacus (434-433 B.C. ), where he died about 428 B.C., honoured and respected by the whole city.
It is difficult to present the cosmical theory of Anaxagoras in an intelligible scheme. All things have existed in a sort of way from the beginning. But originally they existed in infinitesimally small fragments of themselves, endless in number and inextricably combined throughout the universe. All things existed in this mass, but in a confused and indistinguishable form. There were the seeds (spermata) or miniatures of corn and flesh and gold in the primitive mixture; but these parts, of like nature with their wholes (the omoiomere of Aristotle), had to be eliminated from the complex mass before they could receive a definite name and character. The existing species of things having thus been transferred, with all their specialities, to the prehistoric stage, they were multiplied endlessly in number, by reducing their size through continued subdivision; at the same time each one thing is so indissolubly connected with every other that the keenest analysis can never completely sever them. The work of arrangement, the segregation of like from unlike and the summation of the omoiomere into totals of the same name, was the work of Mind or Reason; panta chremata en omou . eita nous elthon auta diekosmese. This peculiar thing, called Mind (nous), was no less illimitable than the chaotic mass, but, unlike the Intelligence of Heraclitus (q.v.), it stood pure and independent (mounos ef eoutou), a thing of finer texture, alike in all its manifestations and everywhere the same. This subtle agent, possessed of all knowledge and power, is especially seen ruling in all the forms of life. Its first appearance, and the only manifestation of it which Anaxagoras describes, is Motion. It originated a rotatory movement in the mass (a movement far exceeding the most rapid in the world as we know it), which, arising in one corner or point, gradually extended till it gave distinctness and reality to the aggregates of like parts. But even after it has done its best, the original intermixture of things is not wholly overcome. No one thing in the world is ever abruptly separated, as by the blow of an axe, from the rest of things. The name given to it signifies merely that in that congeries of fragments the particular "seed'' is preponderant. Every a of this present universe is only a by a majority, and is also in lesser number b, c, d. It is noteworthy that Aristotle accuses Anaxagoras of failing to differentiate between nous and psuche, while Socrates (Plato, Phaedo, 98 B) objects that his nous is merely a deus ex machina to Which he refuses to attribute design and knowledge.
Anaxagoras proceeded to give some account of the stages in the process from original chaos to present arrangements. The division into cold mist and warm ether first broke the spell of confusion. With increasing cold, the former gave rise to water, earth and stones. The seeds of life which continued floating in the air were carried down with the rains and produced vegetation. Animals, including man, sprang from the warm and moist clay. If these things be so, then the evidence of the senses must be held in slight esteem. We seem to see things coming into being and passing from it; but reflection tells us that decease and growth only mean a new aggregation (sugkrisis) and disruption (diakrisis.) Thus Anaxagoras distrusted the senses, and gave the preference to the conclusions of reflection. Thus he maintained that there must be blackness as well as whiteness in snow; how otherwise could it be turned into dark water?
Anaxagoras marks a turning-point in the history of philosophy. With him speculation passed from the colonies of Greece to settle at Athens. By the theory of minute constituents of things, and his emphasis on mechanical processes in the formation of order, he paved the way for the atomic theory. By his enunciation of the order that comes from reason, on the other hand, he suggested, though he seems not to have stated explicitly, the theory that nature is the work of design. The conception of reason in the world passed from him to Aristotle, to whom it seemed the dawn of sober thought after a night of disordered dreams. From Aristotle it descended to his commentators, and under the influence of Averroes became the engrossing topic of speculation.
AUTHORITIES.—The fragments of Anaxagoras have been collected by E. Schaubach (Leipzig, 1827), and W. Schorn (Bonn, 1829); see also F. W. A. Mullach, Fragmenta Philos. Graec. i. 243-252; A. Fairbanks, The First Philosophers of Greece (1898). For criticism see, T. Gomperz, Greek Thinkers (Eng. trans., L. Magnus, 1901), bk. ii. chap. 4; E. Bersot, De controversis quibusdam Anaxagorae doctrinis (Paris, 1844); E. Zeller, Die Philosophie der Griechen (Eng. trans., S. F. Alleyne, 2 vols., London, 1881); J. M. Robertson, Short History of Freethought (London, 1906); W. Windelband, History of Philosophy (Eng. trans., J. H. Tufts, 1893); J. I. Beare, Greek Theories of Elementary Cognition (1906); L. Parmentier, Euripide et Anaxagore (1892); F. Lortzing, "Bericht uber die griechischen Philosophen vor Sokrates'' (for the years 1876-1897) in Bursian's Jahresbericht uber die Fortschritte der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, cxvi. (1904), with references to important articles in periodicals. (W. W.; J. M. M.)
ANAXARCHUS (c. 340 B.C. a Greek philosopher of the school of Democritus, was born at Abdera. He was the companion and friend of Alexander in his Asiatic campaigns. He checked the vainglory of Alexander, when he aspired to the honours of divinity, by pointing to his wounded finger, saying, "See the blood of a mortal, not of a god.'' The story that at Bactra in 327 B.C. in a public speech he advised all to worship Alexander as a god even during his lifetime, is with greater probability attributed to the Sicilian Cleon. It is said that Nicocreon, tyrant of Cyprus, commanded him to be pounded to death in a mortar, and that he endured this torture with fortitude; but the story is doubtful, having no earlier authority than Cicero. His philosophical doctrines are not known, though some have inferred from the epithet eudaimonikos ("fortunate''), usually applied to him, that he held the end of life to be eudaimonia.
ANAXILAUS, of Larissa, a physician and Pythagorean philosopher, who was banished from Rome by Augustus, B.C. 28, on the charge of practising the magic art. This accusation appears to have originated in his superior skill in natural philosophy, by which he produced effects that the ignorant attributed to magic.
Euseb., Chron. ad Olymp. clxxxviii.; St Iren. i. 13; Pliny xix. 4, xxv. 95, xxviii. 49, xxxii. 52, xxxv. 50.
ANAXIMANDER, the second of the physical philosophers of Ionia, was a citizen of Miletus and a companion or pupil of Thales. Little is known of his life. Aelian makes him the leader of the Milesian colony to Amphipolis, and hence some have inferred that he was a prominent citizen. The computations of Apollodorus have fixed his birth in 611, and his death shortly after 547 B.C. Tradition, probably correct in its general estimate, represents him as a successful student of astronomy and geography, and as one of the pioneers of exact science among the Greeks. He taught, if he did not discover, the obliquity of the ecliptic, is said to have introduced into Greece the gnomon (for determining the solstices) and the sundial, and to have invented some kind of geographical map. But his reputation is due mainly to his work on nature, few words of which remain. From these fragments we learn that the beginning or first principle (arche, a word which, it is said, he was the first to use) was an endless, unlimited mass (apeiron), subject to neither old age nor decay, and perpetually yielding fresh materials for the series of beings which issued from it. He never defined this principle precisely, and it has generally (e.g. by Aristotle and Augustine) been understood as a sort of primal chaos. It embraced everything, and directed the movement of things, by which there grew up a host of shapes and differences. Out of the vague and limitless body there sprung a central mass,—this earth of ours, cylindrical in shape, poised equidistant from surrounding orbs of fire, which had originally clung to it like the bark round a tree, until their continuity was severed, and they parted into several wheel-shaped and fire-filled bubbles of air. Man himself and the animals had come into being by like transmutations. Mankind was supposed by Anaximander to have sprung from some other species of animals, probably aquatic. But as the measureless and endless had been the prime cause of the motion into separate existences and individual forms, so also, according to the just award of destiny, these forms would at an appointed season suffer the vengeance due to their earlier act of separation, and return into the vague immensity whence they had issued. Thus the world, and all definite existences contained in it, would lose their independence and disappear in the "indeterminate.'' The blazing orbs, which have drawn off from the cold earth and water, are the temporary gods of the world, clustering round the earth, which, to the ancient thinker, is the central figure.
See Histories of the Ionian School by Ritten, Mallet; Schleiercher, "Dissert. sur la philosophie d'Anaximandre,'' in the M.emoires de l'acad. des sciences de Berlin (1815); J. Burnet, Early Greek Philosophy (Lond. 1892);. A. W. Benn, Greek Philosophers (Lond. 1883 foll.); A. Fairbanks, First Philosophers of Greece (Lond. 1898); Ritter and Preller, Historia Phil. sec. sec. 17-22; Mullach, Fragmenta Phil. Graec. i. 237-240, and IONIAN SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY.
ANAXIMENES, of Lampsacus (fl. 380-320 B.C.), Greek rhetorician and historian, was a favourite of Alexander the Great, whom he accompanied in his Persian campaigns. He wrote histories of Greece and of Philip, and an epic on Alexander (fragments in Muller, Scriptores Rerum Alexandri Magni.) As a rhetorician, he was a determined opponent of Isocrates and his school. The Rhetorica ad Alexandrum, usually included among the works of Aristotle, is now generally admitted to be by Anaximenes, although some consider it a much later production (edition by Spengel, 1847).
See P. Wendland, Anax. von Lampsakos (1905); also RHETORIC.
ANAXIMENES, of Miletus, Greek philosopher in the latter half of the 6th century, was probably a younger contemporary of Anaximander, whose pupil or friend he is said to have been. He held that the air, with its variety of contents, its universal presence, its vague associations in popular fancy with the phenomena of life and growth, is the source of all that exists. Everything is air at different degrees of density, and under the influence of heat, which expands, and of cold, which contracts its volume, it gives rise to the several phases of existence. The process is gradual, and takes place in two directions, as heat or cold predominates. In this way was formed a broad disk of earth, floating on the circumambient air. Similar condensations produced the sun and stars; and the flaming state of these bodies is due to the velocity of their motions.
See Schmidt, Dissertatio de Anaximensis psychologia (Jena, 1869); Ritter and Preller, Historia Phil. sec. sec. 23-27; A. Fairbanks, First Philosophers of Greece (1898); Mullach, Fragmenta Phil. Graec. i. 241-243; also IONIAN SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY; EVOLUTION.
ANAZARBUS (med. Ain Zarba; mod. Navarza.) an ancient Cilician city, situated in the Aleian plain about 10 m. W. of the main stream of the Pyramus (Jihun) and near its tributary the Sempas Su. A lofty isolated ridge formed its acropolis. Though some of the masonry in the ruins is certainly pre-Roman, Suidas's identification of it with Cyinda, famous as a treasure city in the wars of Eumenes of Cardia, cannot be accepted in the face of Strabo's express location of Cyinda in western Cilicia. Under the early Roman empire the place was known as Caesarea, and was the metropolis of Cilicia Secunda. Rebuilt by the emperor Justin after an earthquake, it became Justinopolis (A.D. 525); but the old native name persisted, and when Thoros I., king of Lesser Armenia, made it his capital early in the 12th century, it was known as Anazarva. Its great natural strength and situation, not far from the mouth of the Sis pass, and near the great road which debouched from the Cilician gates, made Anazarbus play a considerable part in the struggles between the Byzantine empire and the early Moslem invaders. It had been rebuilt by Harun al-Rashid in 796 A.D., refortified at great expense by Saif addaula, the Hamdanid (10th century) and Saiked, and ruined by the crusaders.
The present wall of the lower city is of late construction, probably Armenian. It encloses a mass of ruins conspicuous in which are a fine triumphal arch, the colonnades of two streets, a gymnasium, &c. A stadium and a theatre lie outside on the south. The remains of the acropolis fortifications are very interesting, including roads and ditches hewn in the rock; but beyond ruins of two churches and a fine tower built by Thoros I. there are no notable structures in the upper town. For picturesqueness the site is not equalled in Cilicia, and it is worth while to trace the three fine aqueducts to their sources. (D. G. H.)
ANBAR, originally called FIRUZ SHAPUR, or PERISAPORA, a town founded about A.D. 350 by Shapur (Sapor) II. Sassanid, king of Persia, on the east bank of the Euphrates, just south of the Nahr Isa, or Sakhlawieh canal, the northernmost of the canals connecting that river with the Tigris, in lat. 33 deg. 22' N., long. 43 deg. 49' E. It was captured and destroyed by the emperor Julian in A.D. 363, but speedily rebuilt. It became a refuge for the Christian and Jewish colonies of that region, and there are said to have been 90,000 Jews in the place at the time of its capture by Ali in 657. The Arabs changed the name of the town to Anbar ("granaries''). Abu,l-'Abbas as-Saffah, the founder of the Abbasid caliphate, made it his capital, and such it remained until the founding of Bagdad in 762. It continued to be a place of much importance throughout the Abbasid period. It is now entirely deserted. The site is occupied only by ruin mounds, as yet unexplored. Their great extent indicates the former importance of the city. (J. P. PE.)
ANCACHS, a coast province of central Peru, lying between the departments of Lima and Libertad, and W. of the Maranon river. Area, 16,562 sq. m.; pop. (1896) 428,703. The department was created in 1835, and received its present name in 1839, and its last accession of territory in 1861. Lying partly on the arid coast, partly in the high Cordilleras and partly in the valley of the Maranon, it has every variety of climate and productions. Rice, cotton, sugar-cane, yucas (Manihot aipi) and tropical fruits are produced in the irrigated valleys of the coast, and wheat, Indian corn, barley, potatoes, coffee, coca, &c., in the upland regions. Cattle and sheep are also raised for the coast markets. Mining is likewise an important industry. The capital, Huaraz (est. pop. 8000 in 1896), on the Rio Santa or Huaraz, is a large mining centre in the sierras, 9931 ft. above sea-level, from which a railway runs to the small seaports of Santa and Chimbote, 172 m. distant. Other noteworthy towns are Caraz (6000) and Carhuaz (5000) in the sierra region, and Huarmey (1500) on the coast.
ANCAEUS, in Greek legend, son of Zeus or Poseidon, king of the Leleges of Samos. In the Argonautic expedition, after the death of Tiphys, helmsman of the "Argo,'' he took his place. It is said that, while planting a vineyard, he was told by a soothsayer that he would never drink of its wine. As soon as the grapes were ripe, he squeezed the juice into a cup, and, raising it to his lips, mocked the seer, who retorted with the words, Polla metaxu pelei kulikos kai cheileos akrou ("there is many a slip between the cup and the lip''). At that moment it was announced that a wild boar was ravaging the land. Ancaeus set down the cup, leaving the wine untasted, hurried out, and was killed by the boar.
Apollonius Rhodius, i. 188 (and Scholiast), ii. 867-900.
ANCASTER AND KESTEVEN, DUKE OF, an English title borne by the well-known Lincolnshire family of Bertie from 1715 to 1809. ROBERT BERTIE (1660-1723), son and heir of Robert, third earl of Lindsey (d. 1701), who succeeded his father as lord great chamberlain of England, was created marquess of Lindsey in 1706, being made duke of Ancaster and Kesteven in July 1715. His eldest surviving son, PEREGRINE (1686-1742), who had been a member of parliament for Lincolnshire from 1708 to 1714, succeeded to the dukedom and also to the lord-lieutenancy of Lincolnshire, which had been held by his father. His son and successor, PEREGRINE (1714-1778), who was also lord great chamberlain and lord-lieutenant of Lincolnshire, attained the rank of general in the British army. The fourth duke was ROBERT (1756-1779), son of the third duke, who died in July 1779, when his barony of Willoughby de Eresby and the hereditary office of lord great chamberlain fell into abeyance until 1780. The dukedom, however, and other honours came to his uncle BROWNLOW (1729-1809), on whose death in February 1809 the dukedom of Ancaster and Kesteven became extinct; but the earldom of Lindsey descended to a distant kinsman, Albemarle Bertie (1744-1818). After a second period of abeyance the barony of Willoughby de Eresby was revived in 1871 in favour of Clementina Elizabeth (d. 1888), a descendant of the Berties, who was the widow of Gilbert John Heathcote, 1st Baron Aveland (d. 1867). Her son and successor, GILBERT HENRY HEATHCOTE-DRUMMOND-WILLOUGHBY (b. 1830), 23rd Baron Willoughby de Eresby, and joint hereditary lord great chamberlain, was created earl of Ancaster in 1898.
ANCELOT, JACQUES ARSENE FRANCOIS POLYCARPE (1794-1854), French dramatist and litterateur, was born at Havre, on the 9th of February 1794. He became a clerk in the admiralty, and retained his position until the revolution of 1830. In 1816 his play Warwick was accepted by the Theatre Francais, but never produced, and three years later a five-act tragedy, Louis IX., was staged. Three editions of the play were speedily exhausted; it had a run of fifty representations, and brought him a pension of 2000 francs from Louis XVIII. His next work, Le Maire du palais, was played in 1825 with less success; but for it he received the cross of the legion of honour. In 1824 he produced Fiesque, a clever adaptation of Schiller's Fiesco. In 1828 appeared Olga, ou l'orpheline russe, the plot of which had been inspired by a voyage he made to Russia in 1826. About the same period he produced in succession Marie de Brabant (1825), a poem in six cantos; L'Homme du monde (1827), a novel in four volumes, afterwards dramatized with success; and in 1829 a play, Elisabeth d'Angleterre. By the revolution of July 1830 he lost at once his royal pension and his office as librarian at Meudon; and he was chiefly employed during the next ten years in writing vaudevilles and light dramas and comedies. A tragedy, Maria Padilla (1838), gained him admission to the French Academy in 1841. Ancelot was sent by the French government in 1849 to Turin, Florence, Brussels and other capitals, to negotiate on the subject of international copyright; and the treaties which were concluded soon after were the result, in a great measure, of his tact and intelligence.
ANCESTOR-WORSHIP, a general name for the cult of deceased parents and forefathers. Aristotle in his Ethics stigmatizes as "extremely unloving'' (lian afilon) the denial that ancestors are interested in or affected by the fortunes of their descendants; and in effect ancestor-worship is the staple of most religions, ancient or modern, civilized or savage. The ancient Jews were a striking exception; for though the frequent mention of ancestral graves on hilltops or in caves, and in connexion with sacred trees and pillars, and the resemblance of the "elohim'' in Exod. xxi. 4-6 to household gods, may suggest that cults of the dead preceded that of Yahweh, nevertheless in the classical age of their religion (see HEBREW RELIGION) as reflected in the Old Testament, ancestor-worship has already vanished. "The Semitic nomads,'' remarks Renan in his History of Israel (tome 1, p. 50), "were the religious race par excellence, because in fact they were the least superstitious of the families of mankind, the least duped by the dream of a beyond, by the phantasmagory of a double or a shadow surviving in the nether regions. . . . They suppressed the chimeras which went with belief in a complete survival after death, chimeras which were homicidal at the time, in so far as they robbed man of the true notion of death and led him to multiply murders.''
Renan here refers to the burial rite of an ancient Scythian king (as described by Herodotus, iv. 71), at whose tomb were strangled his concubine, cup-bearer, cook, groom, lackey, envoy, and several of his horses. Such cruel customs were, of course, and still are associated in many lands with the cult of the dead; but, on the other hand, there are gentler and more beneficial aspects observable to-day in China and Japan. There the mighty dead are present with the living, protect them and their houses and crops, are their strength in battle, and teach their hands to war and their fingers to fight. In the Russo-Japanese War in 1904-5 the greatest incentive to deeds of patriotic valour was for Japanese soldiers the belief that the spirits of their ancestors were watching them; and in China it is not the man himself that is ennobled for his philanthropic virtues or learning, but his ancestor. No more solemn duty weighs upon the Chinaman than that of tending the spirits of his dead forefathers. Confucius, it is recorded, sacrificed to the dead, as if they were present, and to the spirits, as if they were there. In view of such Chinese sacrifices the names of the dead are inscribed on wooden plaques called spirit-tablets, into which the spirits are during the ceremony supposed to enter, having quitted the very heaven and presence of God in order to commune with posterity. Twice a year, in spring and autumn,1 a Chinese ruler goes in state to the imperial college in Pekin, and presents the appointed offerings before the spirit-tablets of Confucius and of the worthies who have been associated with him in his temples. He greets the sage's spirit with this prayer:— "This year, in this month, on this day, I, the emperor, offer sacrifice to the philosopher K'ung, the ancient teacher, the perfect sage, and say, O teacher, in virtue equal to heaven and earth. . . Now in this second month of spring, in reverent observance of the old statutes, with victims, silks, spirits, and fruits, I offer sacrifice to thee.''
In ancient Rome painted wax images of ancestors who had served the state in its highest offices were preserved in the atria or halls of their descendants, inscribed, like the Chinese tablets, with titles recording their dignity and exploits. Whether the departed spirits tenanted them according to the Chinese belief is not recorded; though it probably was so, for at funerals they might be carried, like the images of the gods in Lectisternia (see IMAGE WORSHIP), on couches before the corpse. Oftener, however, they were mere masques worn at funerals by men who personated the ancestors and wore their robes of office. Perhaps the vulgar regarded these men as temporary reincarnations of those whom they thus represented.
The word Manes signified the friendly ancestral ghosts of a Roman household. To them, under the name of Lares, it was the solemn preoccupation of male descendants to offer food and sacrifice and to keep alight the hearth fire which cooked the offerings. Small waxen images of the Manes called Lares, clothed in dogskin, and on feast days crowned with garlands, stood round the family hearth of which they were the unseen guardians (but see LARES.) To lack such care and tendance was—along with want of regular burial—the most dreadful fate that could overtake an ancient; and a Roman, like a Hindu, in case he was childless, adopted a male child whose duty it would be, as if his own son, to continue after his death the family rites or sacra. On this side the ancestor-worship of the Aryans has been productive of the most important institutions of adoption and will or testament. Sir Henry Maine (Ancient Law, ch. v.) has justly observed that "the history of political ideas begins with the assumption that kinship in blood is the sole possible ground of community in political functions,'' and that in early commonwealths "citizens considered all the groups in which they claimed membership to be founded on common lineage.'' A man only shared in house, tribe and state, so far as he was descended from particular ancestors and eponymous heroes, and due cult of these illustrious dead was the condition of his enjoying any rights or inheriting any property. Yet if society was to grow, men of alien descent had to be admitted into the original brotherhood and amalgamated therewith. "Adverting to Rome singly,'' adds the same author, "we perceive that the primary group, the family, was being constantly adulterated by the practice of adoption.'' Thus transition was made possible from an agnatic society based on blood ties to one based on contiguity.
In the worship of the Lares the head of a Roman household commemorated and reinforced the blood tie which made one flesh of all its members living and dead. The gens in turn was regarded as an expansion of the family, as was the state of the gens; and members of these larger units by worship of common ancestors—usually mythical—kept alive the feeling that they were a single organic whole animated by a common soul and joined in consanguinity. Outcasts alone, the offspring of irregular unions, could be ignorant of the blood which ran in their veins, of the unseen ancestors to be fed and tended in family and gentile rites.2 Such considerations help us to understand the enormous importance attached in ancient societies to the right of intermarriage, as also to grasp the origin of wills and testaments. For a will was to begin with but a mode of indicating (not necessarily in writing) on whom devolved the duty of conducting a parent's funeral, and together with that duty the right of inheriting his property. The due performance of funeral rites re-created the blood tie and renewed the kinship of living and dead at the moment when death seemed specially to endanger it by removal of that representative of the household whose special duty it had been to keep up the family sacra. In Hindostan, as Maine remarks (op. cit. ch. vi.), we have a parallel to the Roman system; for there "the right to inherit a dead man's property is exactly co-extensive with the duty of performing his obsequies. If the rites are not properly performed or not performed by the proper person, no relation is considered as established between the deceased and anybody surviving him; the law of succession does not apply, and nobody can inherit the property. Every great event in the life of a Hindu seems to be regarded as leading up to and bearing on these solemnities. If he marries, it is to have children who may celebrate them after his death; if he has no children, he lies under the strongest obligation to adopt them from another family, 'with a view,' writes the Hindu doctor, 'to the funeral cake, the water and the solemn sacrifice.''' "May there be born in our lineage,'' so the Indian Manes are supposed to say, "a man to offer to us, on the thirteenth day of the moon, rice boiled in milk, honey and ghee.''3
It is then in connexion with the history of inheritance and adoption, and of the gradual evolution from societies held together only by blood-kinship to societies consolidated on other, bases, especially on that of local contiguity, that ancestor-worship chiefly calls for investigation.
We must now pass on to other aspects of it less important for the student of ancient law, but interesting to the folklorist.
In ancient Rome the Di manes, or as we should say the blessed dead, who reposed in their necropolis outside the walls, were specially commemorated on the dies parentales or days of placating them (placandis Manibus.) These began on the 13th of February and ended on the 22nd with the Caristia or feast of Cara Cognatio. The family have on the preceding days solemnly visited the grave, and offered to the shades gifts of water, wine, milk, honey, oil, and the blood of black victims; they have decked the tomb with flowers, have renewed the feast and farewell of the funeral, and have prayed to the ancestors to watch over their welfare. Now the survivors return home and hold a love-feast, in which all quarrels are healed, all trespasses forgiven. The Lares are brought out to preside over this solemn feast, and for the occasion are incincti or clothed in tunics girt at the loins.
It is doubtful whether we should dignify by the name of ancestor-worship the older Roman festival of the Lemuria, which was held on the 9th, 11th and 13th of May. For the lemures were, like our unlaid ghosts, unburied, mischievous or inimical spirits, and these three days were nefasti or unlucky, because their malign influence was abroad. The ghosts had to be driven out of the house, and Ovid (Fasti, v. 432) relates how the head of the family arose at midnight, and with feet unfettered by shoon or sandals, and with washen hands traversed his house beckoning against the ghosts with fingers joined to thumb. Nine times with averted glance he spat a black bean out of his mouth and cried: "With these I redeem me and mine.'' The ghosts followed and picked up, or perhaps entered into the beans. Then he washed afresh, and rattled his brass vessels, and nine times over bade them begone with the polite formula, Manes exite paterni, "Go forth, O paternal manes.''
The gesture described was probably the same as that with which a Christian priest averts demonic influences from the heads of his congregation in the act of blessing them. The many hands of Zeus Sabazios turned up in ancient excavations observe a similar gesture. All over the earth we meet with such periodically recurrent ceremonies of expelling demons and ghosts, who usually are given a meal before being hunted back into their graves. But an account of such ceremonies belongs rather to demonology than to the history of the worship of Manes, which are peaceful, well-conducted and beneficent beings, endowed and, so to speak on the foundation, like the Christian souls for whose masses money has been left. Ancestor-worship has its parallels in Christian cults of the dead and of the saints; it must be remembered, however, that a saint is not as a rule an ancestor, and that his cult is not based upon family feeling and love of kinsmen, nor tends to stimulate and encourage the same. Such cults have never prevented those who participated in them from fighting one another. Ancestor-worship on this side is also in strong contrast with the teaching of the Gospel, for it is an apotheosis of family affections and supplies a real cement wherewith to bind society together; whereas the Christian Messiah, taught that, "If any cometh to me, and hateth not his father and his mother, and his wife and his children, and his brethren and his sister, yea, and his own life also, he cannot be my disciple.'' To the ordinary good citizen of antiquity, whose religion was the consecration of family ties, such a precept was no less scandalous than it is to a Chinaman or Hindu of to-day. Was not the duty of following the Messiah to supersede even that of burying one's parents, the most sacred of all ancient obligations? The Church when it had once conquered the world allowed such precepts to lapse and fall into the background, and no one save monks or Manichaean heretics remembered them any more; indeed modern divines affect to believe that marriage rites and family ties were the peculiar concern of the Church from the very first; and few moderns will fail to sympathize with the misgivings of the barbarian chief who, having been converted and being about to receive Christian baptism, paused as he stepped down into the font, and asked the priests if in the heaven to which their rites admitted him he would meet and converse with his pagan ancestors. On being assured that he would not, he stepped out again and declined their methods of salvation.
In the above paragraphs we have drawn examples only from races organized on a patriarchal basis among whom the headship passes from father to son. But many primitive societies do not trace descent through males and yet may be said to worship ancestors. The aborigines of Australia furnish an example. The Aruntas among them are said to have no idea of paternity, but believe that local spirits of tree, rock or stream enter women as they pass by their haunts. In doing so they drop a wooden soul-token called a Churinga. This the elders of the tribe pick up or pretend to find, and carefully store up in a cleft of the hills or in a cave which no woman may approach. The souls of members of the tribe who have died survive in these slips of wood, which are treasured up for long generations and repaired if they decay. They are carried into battle to assist the tribe, are regularly anointed, fondled and invoked; for it is believed that the souls present in them are powerful to work weal and woe to friend and enemy respectively. They thus resemble the Chinese spirit tablet.
Reference has been made above to the possibility that the Roman imago of an ancestor actually embodied his ghost, at least on solemn occasions. The custom of providing a material abode or nidus for the ghost is found all over the earth; e.g. in New Ireland a carved chalk figure of the deceased, indicating the sex, is procured, and entrusted to the chief of a village, who sets it up in a funeral hut in the middle of a large taboo house adorned with plants. The survivors believe that the ghostly ogre, being so well provided for, will abstain from haunting them.
The Romans, as we remarked above, distinguished between the Lemures or wandering mischievous ghosts and the Manes snugly interred and tended in the, cemetery which was part of every Italian settlement. The distinction, however, is one for which survivors alone are responsible and not one inherent in the nature of ghosts. No race at all, it would seem, except the Jews, has ever been able to regard a man's death as the end of him; and except in the higher forms of Christianity the dead are everywhere supposed to need the same sort of food, equipment, tenement and gear which they enjoyed in life, and to molest the living unless they obtain it. It may be affection, or it may be fear, which prompts the survivor to feed and tend his dead; in general no doubt it is a mixture of both feelings.
In Africa and other savage countries a third motive sometimes operates, namely the desire to consult the dead—as Odysseus, anxious about his return home, was constrained to do—or to use them against the living; for negro magicians are reputed even to murder remarkable individuals in order to possess themselves of their power and to be able to use them as familiar spirits.
The question has often been raised, what is the relation of private cults of ancestors to public religion? Do men after death become gods? Euhemerus of Messenia tried of old to rationalize the Greek myths by supposing that the Olympian gods were deified men. Such a theory, like its modern rival of the sun-myth, may of course be pushed till it becomes absurd; yet in India critical observers, like Sir Alfred C. Lyall, attest innumerable examples of the gradual elevation into gods of human beings, the process even beginning in their lifetime. There a man wins local fame as an ascetic with abnormal powers, or a wife, because Alcestis-like she sacrificed herself for her husband and immolated herself on his pyre. Miracles occur at their shrines, and the surviving relatives who guard them wax rich off the offerings brought. "In the course of a very few years, as the recollection of the man's personality becomes misty, his origin grows mysterious, his career takes a legendary hue, his birth and death were both supernatural; in the next generation the names of the elder gods get introduced into the story, and so the marvellous tradition works itself into a myth, until nothing but a personal incarnation can account for such a series of prodigies. The man was an Avatar of Vishnu or Siva; his supreme apotheosis is now complete, and the Brahmins feel warranted in providing for him a niche in the orthodox pantheon.''4
AUTHORITIES.—H. S. Maine, Ancient Law (London, 1906); E. B. Tylor, Primitive Culture (London, 1903); and article on the "Matriarchal Family System,'' in the Nineteenth Century, xl. 81 (1896); de Coulanges, La Cite antique (17th ed., 1900); L. Andre, Le Culte des morts chez les Hebreux (1895); C. Gruneisen, Der Ahnenkultus und die Urreligion Israels (Halle, 1900); Grant Allen, The Evolution of the Idea of God (London, 1897); F. B. Jevons, Introduction to the History of Religion (London, 1896); Sir A. C. Lyall, Asiatic Studies (London, 1899 and 1907); D. G. Brinton, Religions of Primitive Peoples (New York, 1897); H. Oldenberg, Die religion des Veda (Berlin, 1894). (F. C. C.)
1 Prof. J. Legge, in Religious Systems of the World, London, 1892, p. 72.
2 Livy iv. 2:—"Quam enim aliam vim connubia promiscua habere, nisi ut ferarum prope ritu vulgentur concubitus plebis Patrumque? ut qui natus sit, ignoret, cujus sanguinis, quorum sacrorum sit.''
3 E. B. Tylor, Primitive Culture, ii. p. 119.
4 A. C. Lyall, Asiatic Studies (reprinted by Watts and Co., London, 1907), p. 19.
ANCHISES, in Greek legend, Trojan hero, son of Capys and Themis, grandson (according to Hyginus, son) of Assaracus, connected on both sides with the royal family of Troy, was king of Dardanus on Mt. Ida. Here Aphrodite met him and, enamoured of his beauty, bore him Aeneas. For revealing the name of the child's mother, in spite of the warnings of the goddess, he was killed or struck blind by lightning (Hyginus, Fab. 94). In the more recent legend, adopted by Virgil in the Aeneid, he was conveyed out of Troy on the shoulders of his son Aeneas, whose wanderings he followed as far as Sicily, where he died and was buried on Mt. Eryx. On the other hand, there was a grave on Mt. Ida at Troy pointed out as his. From the name Assaracus, from the intercourse between the Phoenicians and the early inhabitants of the Troad, and from the connexion of Aphrodite, the protecting goddess of the Phoenicians, with Anchises, it has been inferred that his family was originally of Assyrian origin. His flight on the shoulders of Aeneas is frequently represented on engraved gems of the Roman period; and his visit from Aphrodite is rendered in a beautiful bronze relief, engraved in Millingen's Unedited Gems.
ANCHOR (from the Greek agkura, which Vossius considers is from ogke, a crook or hook), an instrument of iron or other heavy material used for holding ships or boats in any locality required, and preventing them from drifting by winds, tides, currents or other causes. This is done by the anchor, after it is let go from the ship by means of the cable, fixing itself in the ground and there holding the vessel fast.
The word "anchor'' is also used figuratively for anything which gives security, or for any ornament or appendage which takes the same form. Owing to a vessel's safety depending upon the anchor, it is obviously an appliance of great importance, and too much care cannot be expended on its manufacture and proper construction. The most ancient anchors consisted of large stones, baskets full of stones, sacks filled with sand, or logs of wood loaded with lead. Of this kind were the anchors of the ancient Greeks, which, according to Apollonius Rhodius and Stephen of Byzantium, were formed of stone; and Athenaeus states that they were sometimes made of wood. Such anchors held the vessel merely by their weight and by the friction along the bottom. Iron was afterwards introduced for the construction of anchors, and an improvement was made by forming them with teeth or "flukes'' to fasten themselves into the bottom; whence the words odontes and dentes are frequently taken for anchors in the Greek and Latin poets. The invention of the teeth is ascribed by Pliny to the Tuscans; but Pausanias gives the credit to Midas, king of Phrygia. Originally there was only one fluke or tooth, whence anchors were called eterostomoi; but a second was added, according to Pliny, by Eupalamus, or, according to Strabo, by Anacharsis, the Scythian philosopher. The anchors with two teeth were called amfiboloi or amfistomoi, and from ancient monuments appear to have resembled generally those used in modern days, except that the stock is absent from them all. Every ship had several anchors; the largest,
FIG. 1.—Rodger's Anchor. FIG. 2.—lmproved Martin Anchor.
corresponding to our sheet anchor, was only used in extreme danger, and was hence peculiarly termed iera or sacra, whence the proverb sacram anchoram solvere, as flying to the last refuge.
Until the beginning of the 19th century anchors were of imperfect manufacture, the means of effecting good and efficient welding being absent and the iron poor, whilst the arms, being straight, generally parted at the crown, when weighing from good holding-ground. A clerk in Plymouth Yard, named Pering, in the early part of that century (1813) introduced curved arms; and after 1852 the Admiralty anchor, under the direction of the Board, was supplied to H.M. ships, followed by Lieutenant (afterwards Captain) Rodger's anchor (fig. 1). This marked a great departure from the form of previous anchors. The arms, de, df were formed in one piece, and were pivoted at the crown d on a bolt passing through the forked shank ab. The points or pees e, f, to the palms g were blunt. This anchor had an excellent reputation amongst nautical men of that period, and by the committee on anchors, appointed by the admiralty in 1852, it was placed second only to the anchor of Trotman. Later came the self-canting anchor, which, passing through successive improvements, became the improved Martin anchor (fig. 2) made of forged iron. A projection in the centre of the arms works in a recess at the hub of the shank: the vacancies outside the shank are filled by blocks bolted through on each side, and are flush with the side plates, which keep the flukes in position.
FIG. 3.—Improved Martin-Adelphi Anchor.
The introduction of cast steel in 1894 led to the improved Martin-Adelphi pattern (fig. 3), in which the crown and arms are cast in one, and, with the stock, are made of cast steel, the shank remaining of forged iron. A projection in the crown works in a recess (right, fig. 3), and is secured in its place by a forged steel pin, fitted with a nut and washer, which passes through the crown and the heel of the shank. All the above anchors were provided with a stock (fig. 1, hk), the use of which is to "cant'' the anchor. If it falls on the ground, resting on one arm and one stock, when a strain is brought on the cable, the stock cants the anchor, causing the arms to lie at a downward angle to the holding ground; and the pees enter and bury themselves below the surface of the soil.
To stow a stocked anchor on the forecastle, it is hove up close to the forefoot, and by means of a ground chain (secured to a balancing or gravity band on the anchor), which is joined to a catting chain rove through a cat davit, the anchor is hove up
FIG. 4.—Anchor Crane.
horizontally and placed on its bed, where it is secured by chains passing over a rod fitted with a lever for "letting go.'' The cat davit is hinged at its base, and can be laid flat on the deck for right ahead fire or when at sea. Ground and catting chains have been superseded in some ships by a wire pendant and cat hook; the anchor is then hove close up to the hawse-pipe. To avoid cutting away a portion of the forecastle, in the "Cressy,'' "Terrible'' and "Diadem'' classes of the British navy, the anchors, secured by chains, are stowed a-cock-bill, outside the ship, with their crowns resting on iron shoes secured to the ship's side and the flukes fore and aft. A difficulty is experienced in stowing the anchors when the ship is pitching or rolling heavily. Fig. 4 illustrates an anchor with cat davit or anchor crane used in the P. and O. Company's steamers ("India'' class, 8000 tons); for sea the anchor is stowed on board by the anchor crane.
Stockless anchors have been extensively used in the British mercantile marine and in some foreign navies. In 1903 they
FIG. 5.—Hall's Improved FIG. 6.—W. L. Byer's Stockless Anchor. Stockless Anchor.
were adopted generally for the British navy, after extensive anchor trials, begun in 1885. Their advantages are:—handiness combined with a saving of time and labour; absence of davits, anchor-beds and other gear, with a resulting reduction in weight; and a clear forecastle for "right ahead'' gun fire or for working ship. On the other hand a larger hawse-pipe is required, and there appears to be a consensus of opinion that a stockless anchor when "let go'' does not hold so quickly as a stocked one, is more uncertain in its action over uneven ground, and is more liable to "come home,' (drag). The stockless anchors principally in use in the British navy are Hall's improved, Byer's, and Wasteneys Smith's. In Hall's improved (fig. 5) the arms and crown of cast steel are in one piece, and the shank of forged steel passes up through an aperture in the crown to which it is secured by two cross bolts. Two trunnions or lugs are forged to the lower end of the shank. In Byer's plan (fig. 6) the flukes and crown consist of a steel-casting secured to a forged shank by a through bolt of mild steel, the axis of which is parallel to the points of the flukes; one end of the bolt has a head, but the other is screwed and fitted with a phosphor bronze nut to allow the bolt to be withdrawn for examination. A palm is cast on each side of the crown to trip the flukes when the anchor is on the ground, and for bringing them snug against the ship's side when weighing. Wasteneys Smith's anchor (fig. 7) is composed of
Fig. 7.—Wasteneys Smith's Stockless anchor.
three main parts, the shank and crown which form one forging, and the two flukes or arms which are separate castings. A bolt passes through the crown of the anchor, connecting the flukes to it; to prevent the flukes working off the connecting through bolt, two smaller bolts pass through the flukes at right angles to the through bolt and are recessed half their diameter into it.
Fig. 8 represents the starboard bow of H.M.S. "New Zealand''
FIG. 8.—Starboard Bow of H.M.S. "New Zealand.''
(16,350 tons) with lower and sheet (spare) anchors stowed. To let go a stockless anchor (fig. 9) the cable or capstan holder C is unscrewed, and in practice it is found desirable to knock off the bottle screw-slip A, allowing the weight of the anchor to be taken by the inner slip A' (Blake's stopper). Stern, stream and kedge anchors are usually stowed with special davits. A portable anchor suitable for small yachts is the invention of Mr Louis Moore; the shank passes through the crown of the anchor like the handle of a pickaxe and the stock over the head of the shank. At the end of the stock are loose pawls. There are no keys or bolts, and the only fastening is for the cable. The anchor takes to pieces readily and stows snugly. In 1890 Colonel Bucknill also invented a portable anchor for small yachts.
Iron buoy-sinkers (fig. 10), as used by the London Trinity House Corporation, weigh from 8 to 40 cwt.; the specified weight is cast on them in large raised figures, and the cast and wrought irons used are of special quality, of which samples are previously submitted to the engineer-in-chief.
The anchors supplied to ships of the British navy are reqaired
FIG. 9.—Forecastle of H.M.S. "New Zealand.,' A. Bottle or screw-slip. B. Deck or navel pices. A'. Slip or Blake's stopper. F. Fairleads for wire hawsers. D. Bitts. H. Hawse-pipes. C. Cable or Capstan-holders. S. Stopoer-bolts. C'. Centre line capstan. R. Rollers.
to withstand a certain tensile strain, expressed in tons, proportionate to their weights in cwts. New anchors are supplied by contractors, but repairs are made in H.M. dockyards, a record of its repairs being stamped on each anchor. In the Anchors and Cables Act 1899 a list is given of authorized testing-establishments, with their distinctive marks and charges, and testing- houses for foreign-owned vessels are
Fig. 10.—Iron Buoy- Sinker.
enumerated in Table 22 of Lloyd's Register of British and Foreign Shipping. Cast-steel anchors, in addition to the statutory tests, are subjected to percussive, hammering and bending tests, and are stamped "annealed steel.'' (J. W. D.)
ANCHOVY (Engraulis encrasicholus), a fish of the herring family, easily distinguished by its deeply-cleft mouth, the angle of the gape being behind the eyes. The pointed snout extends beyond the lower jaw. The fish resembles a sprat in having a forked tail and a single dorsal fin, but the body is round and slender. The maximum length is 8 1/8 in. Anchovies are abundant in the Mediterranean, and are regularly caught on the coasts of Sicily, Italy, France and Spain. The range of the species also extends along the Atlantic coast of Europe to the south of Norway. In winter it is common off Devon and Cornwall, but has not hitherto been caught in such numbers as to be of commercial importance. Off the coast of Holland in summer it is more plentiful, entering the Zuider Zee in such numbers as to give rise to a regular and valuable fishery. It is also taken in the estuary of the Scheldt. There is reason to believe that the anchovies found at the western end of the English Channel in November and December are those which annually migrate from the Zuider Zee and Scheldt in autumn, returning thither in the following spring; they must be held to form an isolated stock, for none come up from the south in summer to occupy the English Channel, though the species is resident on the coast of Portugal. The explanation appears to be that the shallow and landlocked waters of the Zuider Zee, as well as the sea on the Dutch coast, become raised to a higher temperature in summer than any part of the sea about the British coasts, and that therefore anchovies are able to spawn and maintain their numbers in these waters. Their reproduction and development were first described by a Dutch naturalist from observations made on the shores of the Zuider Zee. Spawning takes place in June and July, and the eggs, like those of the majority of marine fishes, are buoyant and transparent, but they are peculiar in having an elongated, sausage-like shape, instead of being globular. They resemble those of the sprat and pilchard in having a segmented yolk and there is no oil globule. The larva is batched two or three days after the fertilization of the egg, and is very minute and transparent. In August young specimens 1 1/2 to 3 1/2 in. in length have been taken in the Zuider Zee, and these must be held to have been derived from the spawning of the previous summer. There is no evidence to decide the question whether all the young anchovies as well as the adults leave the Zuider Zee in autumn, but, considering the winter temperature there, it is probable that they do. The eggs have also been obtained from the Bay of Naples, and near Marseilles, also off the coast of Holland, and once at least off the coast of Lancashire. The occurrence of anchovies in the English Channel has been carefully studied at the laboratory of the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth. They were most abundant in 1889 and 1890. In the former year considerable numbers were taken off Dover in drift nets of small mesh used for the capture of sprats. In the following December large numbers were taken together with sprats at Torquay. In November 1890 a thousand of the fish were obtained in two days from the pilchard boats fishing near Plymouth; these were caught near the Eddystone. When taken in British waters anchovies are either thrown away or sent to the market fresh with the sprats. If salted in the proper way, they would doubtless be in all respects equal to Dutch anchovies, if not to those imported from Italy. The supply, however, is small and inconstant, and for this reason English fish-curers have not learnt the proper way of preparing them. The so-called "Norwegian anchovies'' imported into England in little wooden kegs are nothing but sprats pickled in brine with bay-leaves and whole pepper. (J. T. C.)
ANCIEN REGIME, THE, a French phrase commonly used, even by English writers, to denote the social and political system established in France under the old monarchy, which was swept away by the Revolution of 1789. The phrase is generally applicable only to France, for in no other country, with perhaps the exception of Japan, has there been in modern times so clearly marked a division between "the old order'' and the new.
ANCIENT (also spelt ANTIENT; derived, through the Fr. ancien, old, from the late Lat. anitianum, from ante, before), old or in olden times. "Ancient history'' is distinguished from medieval and modern, generally as meaning before the fall of the western Roman empire. In English legal history, "ancient'' tenure or demesne refers to what was crown property in the time of Edward the Confessor or William the Conqueror. "The Ancient of days'' is a Biblical phrase for God. In the London Inns of Court the senior barristers used to be called "ancients.'' From the 16th to the 18th century the word was also used, by confusion with "ensign,'' i.e; flag or standard-bearer, for that military title, as in the case of Shakespeare's "ancient Pistol''; but this use has nothing to do with "ancient'' meaning "old.''
ANCIENT LIGHTS, a phrase in English law for a negative easement (q.v.) consisting in the right to prevent the owner or occupier of an adjoining tenement from building or placing on his own land anything which has the effect of illegally obstructing or obscuring the light of the dominant tenement. At common law a person, who opens a window in his house, has a natural right to receive the flow of light that passes through it. But his neighbour is not debarred thereby from building on his own land even though the effect of his action is to obstruct the flow of light thus obtained. Where, however, a window had been opened for so long a time as to constitute immemorial usage in law, the light became an "ancient light'' which the law protected from disturbance. The Prescription Act 1832 created a statutory prescription for light. It provided (s. 3) that "when the access and use of light to and for'' (any building) "shall have been actually enjoyed therewith for the full period of 20 years without interruption, the right thereto shall be deemed absolute and indefeasible, any local usage or custom to the contrary notwithstanding, unless it shall appear that the same was enjoyed by some consent or agreement, expressly made or given for that purpose by deed or writing.'' The statute does not create an absolute or indefeasible right immediately on the expiration of twenty years. Unless and until the dominant owner's claim is brought into question (s.4) no absolute or indefeasible title can arise under the act. The dominant owner has only an inchoate right to avail himself under the act of the twenty years' uninterrupted enjoyment, if his claim is brought into question. But in the meantime, however long the enjoyment may have been, his right is just the same, and the origin of his right is just the same as if the act had never been passed. These principles were laid down in 1904 by the House of Lords in the leading case of Colls v. Home & Colonial Stores Ltd. (1904 A.C. 179). They overrule an earlier view propounded by Lord Westbury in 1865 (Tapling v. Jones, 11 H.L.C. 290) that the Prescription Act 1832 had abrogated the common law prescription as to light, that the right to "ancient lights'' now depends upon positive enactment alone, and does not require, and ought not to be rested on, any fiction of a "lost grant'' (see EASEMENT.) There has been much difference of judicial opinion as to what constitutes an actionable interference with "ancient lights.'' On the one hand, the test has been prescribed that if an angle of 45 deg. —uninterrupted sky light—was left, the easement was not interfered with, and, while this is not a rule of law, it is a good rough working criterion. On the other hand, it was held in effect by the Court of Appeal in the case of Colls v. Home & Colonial Stores Ltd. (1902; 1 Ch. 302) that to constitute an actionable obstruction of ancient lights it was sufficient if the light was sensibly less than it was before. The House of Lords, however, in the same case (1904 A. C. 179) overruled this view, and held that there must be a substantial privation of light enough to render the occupation of the house or building uncomfortable according to the ordinary notions of mankind and (in the case of business premises) to prevent the plaintiff from carrying on his business as beneficially as before. See also Kine v. Jolly (1905; 1 Ch. 480).
There is, in Scots law, no special doctrine as to "ancient lights.'' The servitude of light in Scotland is simply the Roman servitude non officiendi luminibus vel prospectui (see EASEMENT and ROMAN LAW). The same observation applies to the Code Civil and other European Codes based on it. The doctrine as to ancient lights does not prevail generally in the United States (consult Rulinig Cases, under "Air'').
ANCILLARY (from the Lat. anicilla, a handmaid), an adjective meaning "subordinate to'' or "merely helping,'' as opposed to "essential.'' By Thackeray and some other writers it is also employed rather affectedly in its primary meaning of "pertaining to a maid-servant.''
ANCILLON, CHARLES (1659—1715), one of a distinguished family of French Protestants, was born on the 28th of July 1659, at Metz. His father, David Ancillon (1617-1692), was obliged to leave France on the revocation of the edict of Nantes, and became pastor of the French Protestant community in Berlin. Charles Ancillon studied law at Marburg, Geneva, and Paris, where he was called to the bar. At the request of the Huguenots at Metz, he pleaded its cause at the court of Louis XIV., urging that it should be excepted in the revocation of the edict of Nantes, but his efforts were unsuccessful, and he joined his father in Berlin. He was at once appointed by the elector Frederick "juge et directeur de colonic de Berlin.'' He had before this published several works on the revocation of the edict of Nantes and its consequences, but his literary capacity was mediocre, his style stiff and cold, and it was his personal character rather than his reputation as a writer that earned him the confidence of the elector. In 1687 he was appointed head of the so-called Academie des nobles, the principal educational establishment of the state; later on, as councillor of embassy, he took part in the negotiations which led to the assumption of the title of king by the elector. In 1699 he succeeded Pufendorf as historiographer to the elector, and the same year replaced his uncle Joseph Ancillon as judge of all the French refugees in Brandenburg. He died on the 5th of July 1715. Ancillon's chief claim to remembrance is the work that he did for education in Prussia, and the share he took, in co-operation with Leibnitz, in founding the Academy of Berlin. Of his fairly numerous works the only one still of value is the Histoire de l'etablissement des Francais refugies dans les etats de Brandebourg (Berlin, 1690).
ANCILLON, JOHANN PETER FRIEDRICH (1766-1837), Prussian historian and statesman, great-grandson of Charles Ancillon, was born at Berlin on the 30th of April 1766. He studied theology at Geneva, and after finishing his course was appointed minister to the French community at Berlin. At the same time his reputation as a historical scholar secured him the post of professor of history at the military academy. In 1793 he visited Switzerland, and in 1796 France, and published the impressions gathered during his travels in a series of articles which he afterwards collected under the title of Melanges de litterature et de philosophie (1801). Ancillon took rank among the most famous historians of his day by his next work, Tableau des revolutions du systeme politique de l'Europe depuis le XVe siecle (1803, 4 vols.; new ed., 1824), which gained him the eulogium of the Institute of France, and admission to the Academy of Berlin. It was the first attempt to recognize psychological factors in historical movements, but otherwise its importance was exaggerated. Its "sugary optimism, unctuous phraseology and pulpit logic'' appealed, however, to the reviving pietism of the age succeeding the Revolution, and these qualities, as well as his eloquence as a preacher, early brought Ancillon into notice at court. In 1808 he was appointed tutor to the royal princes, in 1809 councillor of state in the department of religion, and in 1810 tutor of the crown prince (afterwards Frederick William IV.), on whose sensitive and dreamy nature he was to exercise a powerful but far from wholesome influence. In October 1814, when his pupil came of age, Ancillon was included by Prince Hardenberg in the ministry, as privy councillor of legation in the department of foreign affairs, with a view to utilizing his supposed gifts as a philosophical historian in the preparation of the projected Prussian constitution. But Ancillon's reputed liberalism was of too invertebrate a type to survive the trial of actual contact with affairs. The practical difficulty of the constitutional problem gave the "court parson''—as Gneisenau had contemptuously called him—excuse enough for a change of front which, incidentally, would please his exalted patrons. He covered his defection from Hardenberg's liberal constitutionalism by a series of "philosophical'' treatises on the nature of the state and of man, and became the soul of the reactionary movement at the Berlin court, and the faithful henchman of Metternich in the general politics of Germany and of Europe.
In 1817 Ancillon became a councillor of state, and in 1818 director of the political section of the ministry for foreign affairs under Count Bernstorff. In his chief's most important work, the establishment of the Prussian Zollverein, Ancillon had no share, while the entirely subordinate role played by Prussia in Europe during this period, together with the personal part taken by the sovereign in the various congresses, gave him little scope for the display of any diplomatic talents he may have possessed. During this time he found plentiful leisure to write a series of works on political philosophy, such as the Nouveaux essais de politique et de philosophie (Paris, 1824). In May 1831 he was made an active privy councillor, was appointed chief of the department for the principality of Neuchatel, in July became secretary of state for foreign affairs, and in the spring of 1832, on Bernstorff's retirement, succeeded him as head of the ministry.
By the German public, to whom Ancillon was known only through his earlier writings and some isolated protests against the "demagogue-hunting'' in fashion at Berlin, his advent to power was hailed as a triumph of liberalism. They were soon undeceived. Ancillon had convinced himself that the rigid class distinctions of the Prussian system were the philosophically ideal basis of the state, and that representation "by estates'' was the only sound constitutional principle; his last and indeed only act of importance as minister was his collaboration with Metternich in the Vienna Final Act of the 12th of June 1834, the object of which was to rivet this system upon Germany for ever. He died on the 19th of April 1837, the last of his family. His historical importance lies neither in his writings nor in his political activity, but in his personal influence at the Prussian court, and especially in its lasting effect on the character of Frederick William IV.
See C. A. L. P. Varnhagen von Ense, Blatter aus der preussischen Geschichte, 5 vols. (Leipzig, 1868-1869); ib. Tagebucher, vol. i. (Leipzig, 1861); H. O. Treitschke, Deutsche Geschichte (Leipzig, 1879-1894), and essay on Ancillon in Preussiche Jahrbucher for April 1872; Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, s.v. (Leipzig, 1875).
ANCON, a small village and bathing-place on the coast of Peru, 22 m. N. of Lima by rail. The bay is formed by two projecting headlands and is one of the best on the coast. It has a gently sloping beach of fine sand and has been a popular bathing-place since the time of President Balta, although the country behind it is arid and absolutely barren. At some time previous to the discovery of America, Ancon had a large aboriginal population. Traces of terraces on the southern headland can still be seen, and the sand-covered hills and slopes overlooking the bay contain extensive burial-grounds which were systematically explored in 1875 by Messrs W. Reiss and A. Stubel (see Reiss and Stubel's The Necropolis of Anicon in Peru, translated by A. H. Keane, 3 vols., Berlin, 1880-1887). In modern times Ancon has been the scene of several important historical events. Its anchorage was used by Lord Cochrane in 1820 during his attacks on Callao; it was the landing-place of an invading Chilean army in 1838; it was bombarded by the Chileans in 1880; and in 1883 it was the meeting-place of the Chilean and Peruvian commissioners who drew up the treaty of Ancon, which ended the war between Chile and Peru.