The adoption of episcopal insignia by abbots was followed by an encroachment on episcopal functions, which had to be specially but ineffectually guarded against by the Lateran council, A.D. 1123. In the East, abbots, if in priests' orders, with the consent of the bishop, were, as we have seen, permitted by the second Nicene council, A.D. 787, to confer the tonsure and admit to the order of reader; but gradually abbots, in the West also, advanced higher claims, until we find them in A.D. 1489 permitted by Innocent IV. to confer both the subdiaconate and diaconate. Of course, they always and everywhere had the power of admitting their own monks and vesting them with the religious habit.
When a vacancy occurred, the bishop of the diocese chose the abbot out of the monks of the convent, but the right of election was transferred by jurisdiction to the monks themselves, reserving to the bishop the confirmation of the election and the benediction of the new abbot. In abbeys exempt from episcopal jurisdiction, the confirmation and benediction had to be conferred by the pope in person, the house being taxed with the expenses of the new abbot's journey to Rome. By the rule of St Benedict, the consent of the laity was in some undefined way required; but this seems never to have been practically enforced. It was necessary that an abbot should be at least 25 years of age, of legitimate birth, a monk of the house, unless it furnished no suitable candidate, when a liberty was allowed of electing from another convent, well instructed himself, and able to instruct others, one also who had learned how to command by having practised obedience. In some exceptional cases an abbot was allowed to name his own successor. Cassian speaks of an abbot in Egypt doing this; and in later times we have another example in the case of St Bruno. Popes and sovereigns gradually encroached on the rights of the monks, until in Italy the pope had usurped the nomination of all abbots, and the king in France, with the exception of Cluny, Premontre and other houses, chiefs of their order. The election was for life, unless the abbot was canonically deprived by the chiefs of his order, or when he was directly subject to them, by the pope or the bishop. The ceremony of the formal admission of a Benedictine abbot in medieval times is thus prescribed by the consuetudinary of Abingdon. The newly elected abbot was to put off his shoes at the door of the church, and proceed barefoot to meet the members of the house advancing in a procession. After proceeding up the nave, he was to kneel and pray at the topmost step of the entrance of the choir, into which he was to be introduced by the bishop or his commissary, and placed in his stall. The monks, then kneeling, gave him the kiss of peace on the hand, and rising, on the mouth, the abbot holding his staff of office. He then put on his shoes in the vestry, and a chapter was held, and the bishop or his commissary preached a suitable sermon.
The power of the abbot was paternal but absolute, limited, however, by the canons of the church, and, until the general establishment of exemptions, by episcopal control. As a rule, however, implicit obedience was enforced; to act without his orders was culpable; while it was a sacred duty to execute his orders, however unreasonable, until they were withdrawn. Examples among the Egyptian monks of this blind submission to the commands of the superiors, exalted into a virtue by those who regarded the entire crushing of the individual will as the highest excellence, are detailed by Cassian and others,—- e.g. a monk watering a dry stick, day after day, for months, or endeavouring to remove a huge rock immensely exceeding his powers. St Jerome, indeed, lays down, as the principle of the compact between the abbot and his monks, that they should obey their superiors in all things, and perform whatever they commanded (Ep. 2, ad Eustoch. de custod. virgin.). So despotic did the tyranny become in the West, that in the time of Charlemagne it was necessary to restrain abbots by legal enactments from mutilating their monks and putting out their eyes; while the rule of St Columban ordained 100 lashes as the punishment for very slight offences. An abbot also had the power of excommunicating refractory nuns, which he might use if desired by their abbess.
The abbot was treated with the utmost submission and reverence by the brethren of his house. When he appeared either in church or chapter all present rose and bowed. His letters were received kneeling, like those of the pope and the king. If he gave a command, the monk receiving it was also to kneel. No monk might sit in his presence, or leave it without his permission. The highest place was naturally assigned to him, both in church and at table. In the East he was commanded to eat with the other monks. In the West the rule of St Benedict appointed him a separate table, at which he might entertain guests and strangers. This permission opening the door to luxurious living, the council of Aix, A.D. 817, decreed that the abbot should dine in the refectory, and be content with the ordinary fare of the monks, unless he had to entertain a guest. These ordinances proved, however, generally ineffectual to secure strictness of diet, and contemporaneous literature abounds with satirical remarks and complaints concerning the inordinate extravagance of the tables of the abbots. When the abbot condescended to dine in the refectory, his chaplains waited upon him with the dishes, a servant, if necessary, assisting them. At St Alban's the abbot took the lord's seat, in the centre of the high table, and was served on silver plate, and sumptuously entertained noblemen, ambassadors and strangers of quality. When abbots dined in their own private hall, the rule of St Benedict charged them to invite their monks to their table, provided there was room, on which occasions the guests were to abstain from quarrels, slanderous talk and idle gossiping.
The ordinary attire of the abbot was according to rule to be the same as that of the monks. But by the 10th century the rule was commonly set aside, and we find frequent complaints of abbots dressing in silk, and adopting sumptuous attire. They sometimes even laid aside the monastic habit altogether, and assumed a secular dress.1 This was a necessary consequence of their following the chase, which was quite usual, and indeed at that time only natural. With the increase of wealth and power, abbots had lost much of their special religious character, and become great lords, chiefly distinguished from lay lords by celibacy. Thus we hear of abbots going out to sport, with their men carrying bows and arrows; keeping horses, dogs and huntsmen; and special mention is made of an abbot of Leicester, c. 1360, who was the most skilled of all the nobility in harehunting. In magnificence of equipage and retinue the abbots vied with the first nobles of the realm. They rode on mules with gilded bridles, rich saddles and housings, carrying hawks on their wrist, followed by an immense train of attendants. The bells of the churches were rung as they passed. They associated on equal terms with laymen of the highest distinction, and shared all their pleasures and pursuits. This rank and power was, however, often used most beneficially. For instance, we read of Whiting, the last abbot of Glastonbury, judicially murdered by Henry VIII., that his house was a kind of well-ordered court, where as many as 300 sons of noblemen and gentlemen, who had been sent to him for virtuous education, had been brought up, besides others of a meaner rank, whom he fitted for the universities. His table, attendance and officers were an honour to the nation. He would entertain as many as 500 persons of rank at one time, besides relieving the poor of the vicinity twice a week. He had his country houses and fisheries, and when he travelled to attend parliament his retinue amounted to upwards of 100 persons. The abbots of Cluny and Vendome were, by virtue of their office, cardinals of the Roman church.
In process of time the title abbot was improperly transferred to clerics who had no connexion with the monastic system, as to the principal of a body of parochial clergy; and under the Carolingians to the chief chaplain of the king, Abbas Curiae, or military chaplain of the emperor, Abbas Castrensis. It even came to be adopted by purely secular officials. Thus the chief magistrate of the republic at Genoa was called Abbas Populi. Du Cange, in his glossary, also gives us Abbas Campanilis, Clocherii, Palatii, Scholaris, &c.
Lay abbots (M. Lat. defensores, abbacomites, abbates laici, abbates milites, abbates saeculares or irreligiosi, abbatiarii, or sometimes simply abbates) were the outcome of the growth of the feudal system from the 8th century onwards. The practice of commendation, by which—-to meet a contemporary emergency—the revenues of the community were handed over to a lay lord, in return for his protection, early suggested to the emperors and kings the expedient of rewarding their warriors with rich abbeys held in commendam. During the Carolingian epoch the custom grew up of granting these as regular heritable fiefs or benefices, and by the 10th century, before the great Cluniac reform, the system was firmly established. Even the abbey of St Denis was held in commendam by Hugh Capet. The example of the kings was followed by the feudal nobles, sometimes by making a temporary concession permanent, sometimes without any form of commendation whatever. In England the abuse was rife in the 8th century, as may be gathered from the acts of the council of Cloveshoe. These lay abbacies were not merely a question of overlordship, but implied the concentration in lay hands of all the rights, immunities and jurisdiction of the foundations, i.e. the more or less complete secularization of
1 Walworth, the fourth abbot of St Alban's, c. 930, is charged by Matthew Paris with adopting the attire of a sportsman.
spiritual institutions. The lay abbot took his recognized rank in the feudal hierarchy, and was free to dispose of his fief as in the case of any other. The enfeoffment of abbeys differed in form and degree. Sometimes the monks were directly subject to the lay abbot; sometimes he appointed a substitute to perform the spirtual functions, known usually as dean (decanus), but also as abbot (abbas legitimas, monasticus, regularis). When the great reform of the 11th century had put an end to the direct jurisdiction of the lay abbots, the honorary title of abbot continued to be held by certain of the great feudal famines, as late as the 13th century and later, the actual head of the community retaining that of dean. The connexion of the lesser lay abbots with the abbeys, especially in the south of France, lasted longer; and certain feudal families retained the title of abbes chevaliers (abbates milltes) for centuries, together with certain rights over the abbey lands or revenues. The abuse was not confined to the West. John, patriarch of Antioch, at the beginning of the 12th Century, informs us that in his time most monasteries had been handed over to laymen, bencficiarii, for life, or for part of their lives, by the emperors.
In conventual cathedrals, where the bishop occupied the place of the abbot, the functions usually devolving on the superior of the monastery were performed by a prior.
The title abbe (Ital. abbate), as commonly used in the Catholic church on the European continent, is the equivalent of the English "Father,'' being loosely applied to all who have received the tonsure. This use of the title is said to have originated in the right conceded to the king of France, by the concordat between Pope Leo X. and Francis I. (1516), to appoint abbes commendataires to most of the abbeys in France. The expectation of obtaining these sinecures drew young men towards the church in considerable numbers, and the class of abbes so formed —-abbes de cour they were sometimes called, and sometimes (ironically) abbes de sainte esperance, abbes of St Hope—-came to hold a recognized position. The connexion many of them had with the church was of the slenderest kind, consisting mainly in adopting the name of abbe, after a remarkably moderate course of theological study, practising celibacy and wearing a distinctive dress—a short dark-violet coat with narrow collar. Being men of presumed learning and undoubted leisure, many of the class found admission to the houses of the French nobility as tutors or advisers. Nearly every great family had its abbe. The class did not survive the Revolution; but the courtesy title of abbe, having long lost all connexion in people's minds with any special ecclesiastical function, remained as a convenient general term applicable to any clergyman.
In the German Evangelical church the title of abbot (Abt) is sometimes bestowed, like abbe, as an honorary distinction, and sometimes survives to designate the heads of monasteries converted at the Reformation into collegiate foundations. Of these the most noteworthy is the abbey of Lokkum in Hanover, founded as a Cistercian house in 1163 by Count Wilbrand of Hallermund, and reformed in 1593. The abbot of Lokkum, who still carries a pastoral staff, takes precedence of all the clergy of Hanover, and is ex officio a member of the consistory of the kingdom. The governing body of the abbey consists of abbot, prior and the "convent'' of canons (Stiftsherren).
See Joseph Bingham, Origines ecclesiasticae (1840); Du Cange, Glossarium med. et inf. Lat. (ed. 1883); J. Craigie Robertson, Hist. of the Christian Church (1858-1873); Edmond Martene, De antiquis ecclesiae ritibus (Venice, 1783); C. F. R. de Montalembert, Les moines d'occident depuis S. Benoit jusqu'a S. Bernard (1860—1877); Achille Luchaire, Manuel des institutions francaises (Par. 1892). (E.V.; W.A.P.)
1 The Architectural History of the Conventual Buildings of the Monastery of Christ Church in Canterbury. By the Rev. Robert Willis. Printed for the Kent Archaeological Society, 1869.
ABBOTSFORD, formerly the residence of Sir Walter Scott, situated on the S. bank of the Tweed, about 3 m. W. of Melrose, Roxburghshire, Scotland, and nearly 1 m. from Abbotsford Ferry station on the North British railway, connecting Selkirk and Galashiels. The nucleus of the estate was a small farm of 100 acres, called Cartleyhole, nicknamed Clarty (i.e. muddy) Hole, and bought by Scott on the lapse of his lease (1811) of the neighbouring house of Ashestiel. It was added to from time to time, the last and principal acquisition being that of Toftfield (afterwards named Huntlyburn), purchased in 1817. The new house was then begun and completed in 1824. The general ground-plan is a parallelogram, with irregular outlines, one side overlooking the Tweed; and the style is mainly the Scottish Baronial. Into various parts of the fabric were built relics and curiosities from historical structures, such as the doorway of the old Tolbooth in Edinburgh. Scott had only enjoyed his residence one year when (1825) he met with that reverse of fortune which involved the estate in debt. In 1830 the library and museum were presented to him as a free gift by the creditors. The property was wholly disencumbered in 1847 by Robert Cadell, the publisher, who cancelled the bond upon it in exchange for the family's share in the copyright of Sir Walter's works. Scott's only son Walter did not live to enjoy the property, having died on his way from India in 1847. Among subsequent possessors were Scott's son-in-law, J. G. Lockhart, J. R. Hope Scott, Q.C., and his daughter (Scott's great-granddaughter), the Hon. Mrs Maxwell Scott. Abbotsford gave its name to the "Abbotsford Club,'' a successor of the Bannatyne and Maitland clubs, founded by W. B. D. D. Turnbull in 1834 in Scott's honour, for printing and publishing historical works connected with his writings. Its publications extended from 1835 to 1864.
See Lockhart, Life of Scott; Washington Irving, Abbotsford and Newstead Abbey; W. S. Crockett, The Scott Country.
ABBOTT, EDWIN ARROTT (1838- ), English schoolmaster and theologian, was born on the 20th of December 1838. He was educated at the City of London school and at St John's College, Cambridge, where he took the highest honours in the classical, mathematical and theological triposes, and became fellow of his college. In 1862 he took orders. After holding masterships at King Edward's School, Birmingham, and at Clifton College, he succeeded G. F. Mortimer as headmaster of the City of London school in 1865 at the early age of twenty-six. He was Hulsean lecturer in 1876. He retired in 1889, and devoted himself to literary and theological pursuits. Dr Abbott's liberal inclinations in theology were prominent both in his educational views and in his books. His Shakespearian Grammar (1870) is a permanent contribution to English philology. In 1885 he published a life of Francis Bacon. His theological writings include three anonymously published religious romances—Philochristus (1878), Onesimus (1882), Sitanus (1906). More weighty contributions are the anonymous theological discussion The Kernel and the Husk (1886), Philomythus (1891), his book on Cardinal Newman as an Anglican (1892), and his article "The Gospels'' in the ninth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, embodying a critical view which caused considerable stir in the English theological world; he also wrote St Thomas of Canterbury, his Death and Miracles (1898), Johannine Vocabulary (1905), Johannine Grammar (1906).
His brother, Evelyn Abbott (1843-1901), was a well-known tutor of Balliol, Oxford, and author of a scholarly History of Greece.
ABBOTT, EMMA (1849-1891), American singer, was born at Chicago and studied in Milan and Paris. She had a fine soprano voice, and appeared first in opera in London under Colonel Mapleson's direction at Covent Garden, also singing at important concerts. She organized an opera company known by her name, and toured extensively in the United States, where she had a great reputation. In 1873 she married E. J. Wethereil. She died at Salt Lake City on the 5th of January 1891.
ABBOTT, JACOB (1803-1879), American writer of books for the young, was born at Hallowell, Maine, on the 14th of November 1803. He graduated at Bowdoin College in 1820; studied at Andover Theological Seminary in 1821, 1822, and 1824; was tutor in 1824-1825, and from 1825 to 1829 was professor of mathematics and natural philosophy in Amherst College; was licensed to preach by the Hampshire Association in 1826; founded the Mount Vernon School for young ladies in Boston in 1829, and was principal of it in 1829—1833; was pastor of Eliot Congregational Church (which he founded), at Roxbury, Mass., in 1834-1835; and was, with his brothers, a founder, and in 1843—1851 a principal of Abbott's Institute, and in 1845—1848 of the Mount Vernon School for boys, in New York City. He was a prolific author, writing juvenile stories, brief histories and biographies, and religious books for the general reader, and a few works in popular science. He died on the 31st of October 1879 at Farmington, Maine, where he had spent part of his time since 1839, and where his brother Samuel Phillips Abbott founded in 1844 the Abbott School, popularly cailed "Little Blue.'' Jacob Abbott's "Rollo Books''-Rollo at Work, Rollo at Play, Rollo in Europe, &c. (28 vols.)—-are the best known of his writings, having as their chief characters a representative boy and his associates. In them Abbott did for one or two generations of young American readers a service not unlike that performed earlier, in England and America, by the authors of Evenings at Home, Sandford and Merton, and the Parent's Assistant. Of his other writings (he produced more than two hundred volumes in all), the best are the Franconia Stories (10 vols.), twenty-two volumes of biographical histories in a series of thirty-two volumes (with his brother John S. C. Abbott), and the Young Christian,—-all of which had enormous circulations.
His sons, Benjamin Vaughan Abbott (1830-1890), Austin Abbott (1831-1896), both eminent lawyers, Lyman Abbott (q.v.), and Edward Abbott (1841-1908), a clergyman, were also well-known authors. See his Young Christian, Memorial Edition, with a Sketch of the Author by one of his sons, i.e. Edward Abbott (New York, 1882), with a bibliography of his works.
ABBOTT, JOHN STEVENS CABOT (1805-1877), American writer, was born in Brunswick, Maine, on the 18th of September 1805. He was a brother of Jacob Abbott, and was associated with him in the management of Abbott's Institute, New York City, and in the preparation of his series of brief historical biographies. He is best known, however, as the author of a partisan and unscholarly, but widely popular and very readable History of Napoleon Bonaparte (1855), in which the various elements and episodes in Napoleon's career are treated with some skill in arrangement, but with unfailing adulation. Dr Abbott graduated at Bowdoin College in 1825, prepared for the ministry at Andover Theological Seminary, and between 1830 and 1844, when he retired from the ministry, preached successively at Worcester, Roxbury and Nantucket, Massachusetts. He died at Fair Haven, Connecticut, on the 17th of June 1877. He was a voluminous writer of books on Christian ethics, and of histories, which now seem unscholarly and untrustworthy, but were valuable in their time in cultivating a popular interest in history. In general, except that he did not write juvenile fiction, his work in subject and style closely resembles that of his brother, Jacob Abbott.
ABBOTT, LYMAN (1835- ), American divine and author, was born at Roxbury, Massachusetts, on the 18th of December 1835, the son of Jacob Abbott. He graduated at the University of New York in 1853, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1856; but soon abandoned the legal profession, and, after studying theology with his uncle, J. S. C. Abbott, was ordained a minister of the Congregational Church in 1860. He was pastor of a church in Terre Haute, Indiana, in 1860-1865, and of the New England Church in New York City in 1865—1869. From 1865 to 1868 he was secretary of the American Union (Freedman's) Commission. In 1869 he resigned his pastorate to devote himself to literature. He was an associate editor of Harper's Magazine, was editor of the Illustrated Christian Weekly, and was co-editor (1876-1881) of The Christian Union with Henry Ward Beecher, whom he succeeded in 1888 as pastor of Plymouth Church, Brooklyn. From this pastorate he resigned ten years later. From 1881 he was editor-in-chief of The Christian Union, renamed The Outlook in 1893; this periodical reflected his efforts toward social reform, and, in theology, a liberality, humanitarian and nearly unitarian. The latter characteristics marked his published works also.
His works include Jesus of Nazareth (1869); Illustrated Commentary on the New Testament (4 vols., 1875); A Study in Human Nature (1885); Life of Christ (1894); Evolution of Christianity (Lowell Lectures, 1896); The Theology of an Evolutionist (1897); Christianity and Social Problems (1897); Life and Letters of Paul, (1898); The Life that Really is (1899); Problems of Life (1900); The Rights of Man (1901); Henry Ward Beecher (1903); The Christian Ministry (1905); The Personality of God (1905); Industrial Problems (1905); and Christ's Secret of Happiness (1907). He edited Sermons of Henry Ward Beecher (2 vols., 1868).
ABBOTTADAD, a town of British India, 4120 ft. above sealevel, 63 m. from Rawalpindi, the headquarters of the Hazara district in the N.W. Frontier Province, called after its founder, Sir James Abbott, who settled this wild district after the annexation of the Punjab. It is an important military cantonment and sanatorium, being the headquarters of a brigade in the second division of the northern army corps. In 1901 the population of the town and cantonment was 7764.
ABBREVIATION (Lat. brevis, short), strictly a shortening; more particularly, an "abbreviation'' is a letter or group of letters, taken from a word or words, and employed to represent them for the sake of brevity. Abbreviations, both of single words and of phrases, having a meaning more or less fixed and recognized, are common in ancient writings and inscriptions (see PALAEOGRAPHY and DIPLOMATIC), and very many are in use at the present time. A distinction is to be observed between abbreviations and the contractions that are frequently to be met with in old manuscripts, and even in early printed books, whereby letters are dropped out here and there, or particular collocations of letters represented by somewhat arbitrary symbols. The commonest form of abbreviation is the substitution for a word of its initial letter; but, with a view to prevent ambiguity, one or more of the other letters are frequently added. Letters are often doubled to indicate a plural or a superlative.
I. CLASSICAL ABBREVIATIONS.—-The following list contains a selection from the abbreviations that occur in the writings and inscriptions of the Romans:—
A. A. Absolvo, Aedilis, Aes, Ager, Ago, Aio, Amicus, Annus, Antiquo, Auctor, Auditor, Augustus, Aulus, Aurum, Aut. A.A. Aes alienum, Ante audita, Apud agrum, Aurum argentum. AA. Augusti. AAA. Augusti tres. A.A.A.F.F. Auro argento acre flando feriundo.1 A.A.V. Alter ambove. A.C. Acta causa, Alins civis. A.D. Ante diem; e.g. A.D.V. Ante diem quintum. A.D.A. Ad dandos agros. AEO. Aedes, Aedilis, Aedilitas. AEM. and AIM. Aemilius, Aemilia. AER. Aerarium. AER.P. Aere publico. A.F. Acture fide, Auli filius. AG. Ager, Ago, Agrippa. A.G. Ammo grato, Aulus Gellius. A.L.AE. and A.L.E. Arbitrium litis aestimandae. A.M. and A.MILL. Ad milliarium. AN. Aniensis, Annus, Ante. ANN. Annales, Anni, Annona. ANT. Ante, Antonius. A.O. Alii omnes, Amico optimo. AP. Atppius, Apud. A.P. Ad pedes, Aedilitia potestate. A.P.F. Auro (or argento) publico feriundo. A.P.M. Amico posuit monumentum, Annorum plus minus. A.P.R.C. Anno post Romam conditam. ARG. Argentum. AR.V.V.D.D.Aram votam volens dedicavit, Arma votiva dono dedit. AT A tergo. Also A TE. and A TER. A.T.M.D.O. Aio te mihi dare oportere. AV. Augur, Augustus, Aurelius. A.V. Annos vixit. A.V.C. Ab urbe condita. AVG. Augur, Augustus. AVGG. Augusti (generally of two). AVGGG. Augusti tres. AVT.PR.R. Auctoritas provinciae Romanorum. B. B. Balbius, Balbus, Beatus, Bene, Beneficiarius, Beneficium, Bonus, Brutus, Bustum. B.for V. Berna Bivus, Bixit. B.A. Bixit anos, Bonis auguriis, Bonus amabilis. BB.or B.B. Bene bene, i.e. optime, Optimus. B.D. Bonae deae, Bonum datum. B.DD. Bonis deabus. B.D.S.M. Bene de se merenti. B.F. Bona femina, Bona fides, Bona fortuna, Bonum factum. B.F. Bona femina, Bona filia. B.H. Bona hereditaria, Bonorum heres. B.I. Bonum judicium. B.I.I. Boni judicis judicium. B.M. Beatae memoriae, Bene merenti. B.N. Bona nostra, Bonum nomen. BN.H.I. Bona hic invenies. B.P. Bona paterna, Bonorum potestas, Bonum publicum. B.Q. Bene quiescat, Bona quaesita. B.RP.N. Boho reipublicae natus. BRT. Britannicus. B.T. Bonorum tutor, Brevi tempore. B.V. Bene vale, Bene vixit, Bonus vir. B.V.V. Balnea vina Venus. BX. Bixit, for vixit. C. C. Caesar, Cains, Caput, Causa, Censor, Civis, Conors, Colonia, Comitialis (dies), Condemno, Consul, Cum, Curo, Custos. C. Caia, Centuria, Cum, the prefix Con. C.B. Civis bonus, Commune bonum, Conjugi benemerenti, Cui bono. C.C. Calumniae causa, Causa cognita, Conjugi carissimae, Consilium cepit, Curiae consulto. C.C.C. Calumniae cavendae causa. C.C.F. Caesar (or Caius) curavit faciendum, Cains Caii filius. CC.VV. Clarissimi viri. C.D. Caesaris decreto, Cains Decius, Comitialibus diebus. CES. Censor, Censores. CESS. Censores. C.F. Causa fiduciae, Conjugi fecit, Curavit faciendum. C.H. Custos heredum, Custos hortorum. C.I. Caius Julius, Consul jussit, Curavit judex. . CL. Clarissimus, Claudius, Clodius, Colonia. CL.V. Clarissimus vir, Clypeum vovit. C.M. Caius Marius, Causa mortis. CN. Cnaeus. COH. Coheres, Conors. COL. Collega, Collegium, Colonia, Columna. COLL. Collega, Coloni, Coloniae. COM. Comes, Comitium, Comparatum. CON. Conjux, Consensus, Consiliarius, Consul, Consularis. COR. Cornelia (tribus), Cornelius, Corona, Corpus. COS. Consiliarius, Consul, Consulares. COSS. Consules. C.P. Carissimus or Clarissimus puer, Civis publicus, Curavit ponendum. C.R. Cains Rufus, Civis Romanus, Curavit reficiendum. CS. Caesar, Communis, Consul. C.V. Clarissimus or Consularis vir. CVR. Cura, Curator, Curavit, Curia. D. D. Dat, Dedit, &c., De, Decimus, Decius, Decretum, Decurio, Deus, Dicit, &c., Dies, Divus, Dominus, Domus, Donum. D.C. Decurio coloniae, Diebus comitialibus, Divus Caesar. D.D. Dea Dia, Decurionum decreto, Dedicavit, Deo dedit, Dono dedit. D.D.D. Datum decreto decurionum, Dono dedit dedicavit. D.E.R. De ea re. DES. Designatus. D.I. Dedit imperator, Diis immortalibus, Diis inferis. D.l.M. Deo invicto Mithrae, Diis inferis Manibus. D.M. Deo Magno, Dignus memoria, Diis Manibus, Dolo malo. D.O.M. Deo Optimo Maximo. D.P.S. Dedit proprio sumptu, Deo perpetuo sacrum, De pecunia sua. E. E. Ejus, Eques, Erexft, Ergo, Est, Et, Etiam, Ex. EG. Aeger, Egit, Egregius. E.M. Egregiae memoriae, Ejusmodi, Erexit monumentum. EQ.M. Equitum magister. E.R.A. Ea res agitur. F. F. Fabius, Facere, Fecit, &c., Familia, Fastus (dies), Felix, Femina, Fides, Filius, Flamen, Fortuna, Frater, Fuit, Functus. F.C. Faciendum curavit, Fidei commissume, Fiduciae causa. F.D. Fidem dedit, Flamen Dialis, Fraude donavit. F.F.F. Ferro flamma fame, Fortior fortuna fato. FL. Filius, Flamen, Flaminius, Flavius. F.L. Favete linguis, Fecit libens, Felix liber. FR. Forum, Fronte, Frumentarius. F.R. Forum Romanum. G. G. Gaius (=Caius), Gallia, Gaudium, Gellius, Gemma, Gens, Gesta, Gratia. G.F. Gemma fidelis (applied to a legion). So G.P.F. Gemma pia fidelis. GL. Gloria. GN. Genius, Gens, Genus, Gnaeus (=Cnaeus). G.P.R. Genro populi Romani. H. H. Habet, Heres, Hic, Homo, Honor, Hora. HER. Heres, Herennius. HER. and HERC. Hercules. H.L. Hac lege, Hoc loco, Honesto loco. H.M. Hoc monumentum, Honesta mulier, Hora mala. H.S.E. Hic sepultus est, Hic situs est. H.V. Haec urbs, Hic vivit, Honeste vixit, Honestus vir. I. I. Immortalis, Imperator, In, Infra, Inter, Invictus, Ipse, Isis, Judex, Julius, Junius, Jupiter, Justus. IA. Jam, Intra. I.C. Julius Caesar, Juris Consultum, Jus civile. ID. Idem, Idus, Interdum. l.D. Inferis diis, Jovi dedicatnm, Jus dicendum, Jussu Dei. I.D.M. Jovi deo magno. I.F. In foro, In fronte. I.H. Jacet hic, In honestatem, Justus homo. IM. Imago, Immortalis, Immunis, Impensa. IMP. Imperator, Imperium. I.O.M. Jovi optimo maximo. I.P. In publico, Intra provinciam, Justa persona. I.S.V.P. Impensa sua vivus posuit. K. K. Kaeso, Caia, Calumnia, Caput, Carus, Castra. K., KAL. and KL. Kalendae. L. L. Laelius, Legio, Lex, Libens, Liber, Libra, Locus, Lollius, Lucius, Ludus. LB. Libens, Liberi, Libertus. L.D.D.D. Locus datus decreto decurionum. LEG. Legatus, Legio. LIB. Liber, Liberalitas, Libertas, Libertus, Librarius. LL. Leges, Libentissime, Liberti. L.M. Libens merito, Locus monumenti. L.S. Laribus sacrum, Libens solvit, Locus sacer. LVD. Ludus. LV.P.F. Ludos publicos fecit. M. M. Magister, Magistratus, Magnus, Manes, Marcus, Marins, Marti, Mater, Memoria, Mensis, Miles, Monumentum, Mortuus, Mucius, Mulier. M'. Manius. M.D. Magno Deo, Manibus diis, Matri deum, Merenti dedit. MES. Mensis. MESS. Menses. M.F. Mala fides, Marci filius, Monumentum fecit. M.I. Matri Idaeae, Matii Isidi, Maximo Jovi. MNT. and MON. Moneta. M.P. Male positus, Monumentum posuit. M.S. Manibus sacrum, Memoriae sacrum, Manu scriptum. MVN. Municeps, or municipium; so also MN., MV. and MVNIC. M.V.S. Marti ultori sacrum, Merito votum solvit. N. N. Natio, Natus, Nefastus (dies), Nepos, Neptunus, Nero, Nomen, Non, Nonae, Noster, Novus, Numen, Numerius, Numerus, Nummus. NEP. Nepos, Neptunus. N.F.C. Nostrae fidei commissum. N.L. Non licet, Non liquet, Non longe. N.M.V. Nobilis memoriae vir. NN. Nostri. NN., NNO. and NNR. Nostrorum. NOB. Nobilis. NOB., NOBR. and NOV. Novembris. N.P. Nefastus primo (i.e. priore parto diei), Non potest. O. O. Ob, Officium, Omnis, Oportet, Optimus, Opus, Ossa. OB. Obiit, Obiter, Orbis. O.C.S. Ob cives servatos. O.H.F. Omnibus honoribus functus. O.H.S.S. Ossa hic sita sunt. OR. Hora, Ordo, Ornamentum. O.T.B.Q. Ossa tua bene quiescant. P. P. Pars, Passus, Pater, Patronus, Pax, Perpetuus, Pes, Pius, Plebs, Pondo, Populus, Post, Posuit, Praeses, Praetor, Primus, Pro, Provincia, Publicus, Publius, Puer. P.C. Pactum conventum, Patres conscripti, Pecunia constituta, Ponendum curavit, Post consulatum, Potestate censoria. P.F. Pia fidelis, Pius felix, Promissa fides, Publii filius. P.M. Piae memoriae, Pius minus, Pontifex maximus. P.P. Pater patratus, Pater patriae, Pecunia publica, Praepositus, Primipilus, Propraetor. PR. Praeses, Praetor, Pridie, Princeps. P.R. Permissu reipublicae, Populus Romanus. P.R.C. Post Romam conditam. PR.PR. Praefectus praetorii, Propraetor. P.S. Pecunia sua, Plebiscitum, Proprio sumptu, Publicae saluti. P.V. Pia victrix, praefectus urbi, Praestantissimus vir. Q. Q. Quaestor, Quando, Quantus, Que, Qui, Quinquennalis, Quintus, Quirites. Q.D.R. Qua de re. Q.I.S.S. Quae infra scripta sunt; so Q.S.S.S. Quae supra, &c. QQ. Quaecunque, Quinquennalis, Quoque. Q.R. Quaestor reipublicae. R. R. Recte, Res, Respublica, Retro, Rex, Ripa, Roma, Romanus, Rufus, Rursus. R.C. Romana civitas, Romanus civis. RESP. and RP. Respublica. RET.P. and RP. Retro pedes. S. S. Sacrum, Scriptus, Semis, Senatus, Sepultus, Servius, Servus, Sextus, Sibi, Sine, Situs, Solus, Solvit, Sub, Suus. SAC. Sacerdos, Sacrificium, Sacrum. S.C. Senatus consultum. S.D. Sacrum diis, Salutem dicit, Senatus decreto, Sententiam S.D.M. Sacrum diis Manibus, Sine dolo malo. SER. Servius, Servus. S.E.T.L. Sit ei terra levis. SN. Senatus, Sententia, Sine. S.P. Sacerdos perpetua, Sine pecunia, Sua pecunia. S.P.Q.R. Senatus populusque Romanus. S.S. Sanctissimus senatus, Supra scripture. S.V.B.E.E.Q.V. Si vales bene est, ego quidem valeo. T. T. Terminus, Testamentum, Titus, Tribunus, Tu, Turma, Tutor. TB., TI. and TIB. Tiberius. TB., TR. and TRB. Tribunus. T.F. Testamentum fecit, Titi filius, Titulum fecit, Titus Flavius. TM. Terminus, Testamentum, Thermae. T.P. Terminum posuit, Tribunicia potestate, Tribunus plebis. TVL. Tullius, Tunus. V. V. Urbs, Usus, Uxor, Vale, Verba, Vestalis, Vester, Vir, Vivus, Vixit, Volo, Votum. VA. Veterano assignatus, Vixit annos. V.C. Vale conjux, Vir clarissimus, Vir consularis. V.E. Verum etiam, Vir egregius, Visum est. V.F. Usus fructus, Verba fecit, Vivus fecit. V.P. Urbis praefectus, Vir perfectissimus, Vivus posuit. V.R. Urbs Roma, Uti rogas, Votum reddidit. II. MEDIEVAL ABBREVIATIONS.—Of the different kinds of abbreviations in use in the middle ages, the following are examples:— A.M. Ave Maria. B.P. Beatus Paulus, Beatus Petrus. . CC. Carissimus (atso plur. Carissimi), Clarissimus, Circum. D. Deus, Dominicus, Dux. D.N.PP. Dominus hoster Papa. U.F. Felicissimus, Fratres, Pandectae (prob. for Gr. II). I.C. or I.X. Jesus Christus. I.D.N. In Dei nomine. KK. Karissimus (or-mi). MM. Magistri, Martyres, Matrimonium, Meritissimus. O.S.B. Ordinis Sancti Benedicti. PP. Papa, Patres, Piissimus. R.F. Rex Francorum. R.P.D. Reverendissimus Pater Dominus. S.C.M. Sacra Caesarea Majestas. S.M.E. Sancta Mater Ecclesia. S.M.M. Sancta Mater Maria. S.R.I. Sanctum Romanum Imperium. S.V. Sanctitas Vestra, Sancta Virgo. V. Venerabilis, Venerandus. . V.R.P. Vestra Reverendissima Paternitas. III. ABBREVIATIONS NOW IN USE.—The import of these will often be readily understood from the connexion in which they occur. There is no occasion to explain here the common abbreviations used for Christian names, books of Scripture, months of the year, points of the compass, grammatical and mathematical terms, or familiar titles, like "Mr,'' &c. The ordinary abbreviations, now or recently in use, may be conveniently classified under the following headings:- I. ABBREVIATED TITLES AND DESIGNATIONS. A.A. Associate of Arts. A.B. Able-bodied seaman; (in America) Bachelor of Arts. A.D.C. Aide-de-Camp. A.M. (Artium Magister), Master of Arts. A.R.A. Associate of the Royal Academy. A.R.I.B.A. Associate of the Royal Institution of British Architects. A.R.S.A. Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy. B.A. Bachelor of Arts. Bart. Baronet. B.C.L. Bachelor of Civil Law. B.D. Bachelor of Divinty. B.LL. Bachelor of Laws. B.Sc. Bachelor of Science. C. Chairman. C.A. Chartered Accountant. C.B. Companion of the Bath. C.E. Civil Engineer. C.I.E. Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire. C.M. (Chirurgiae Magister), Master in Surgery. C.M.G. Companion of St Michael and St George. C.S.I. Companion of the Star of India. D.C.L. Doctor of Civil Law. D.D. Doctor of Divinity. D.Lit. or Litt. D. Doctor of Literature. D.M. Doctor of Medicine (Oxford). D.Sc. Doctor of Science. D.S.O. Distinguished Service Order. Ebor. (Eboracensis) of York.2 F.C.S. Fellow of the Chemical Society. F.D. (Fidei Defensor), Defender of the Faith. F.F.P.S. Fellow of the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons (Glasgow) F.G.S. Fellow of the Geological Society. F.K.Q.C.P.I. Fellow of King and Queen's College of Physicians in Ireland. F.L.S. Fellow of the Linnaean Society. F.M. Field Marshal. F.P.S. Fellow of the Philological Society. F.R.A.S. Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society. F.R C.P. Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians. F.R.C.P.E. Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. F.R.C.S. Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons. F.R.G.S. Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. F.R.H.S. Fellow of the Royal Horticultural Society. F.R.Hist.Soc. Fellow of the Royal Historical Society. F.R.I.B.A. Fellow of the Royal Institution of British Architects. F.R.S. Fellow of the Royal Society. F.R.S.E. Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. F.R.S.L. Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature. F.S.A. Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. F.S.S. Fellow of the Statistical Society. F.Z.S. Fellow of the Zoological Society. G.C.B. Knight Grand Cross of the Bath. G.C.H. Knight Grand Cross of Hanover. G.C.I.E. Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire. G.C.M.G. Knight Grand Cross of St Michael and St George. G.C.S.I. Knight Grand Commander of the Star of india. G.C.V.O. Knight Grand Commander of the Victorian Order. H.H. His or Her Highness. H.I.H. His or Her Imperial Highness. H.I.M. His or Her Imperial Majesty. H.M. His or Her Majesty. H.R.H. His or Her Royal Highness. H.S.H. His or Her Serene Highness. J. Judge. J.C.D. (Juris Canonici Doctor, or Juris Civilis Doctor), Doctor of Canon or Civil Law. J.D. (Juris utriusque Doctor), Doctor of Civil and Canon Law. J.P. Justice of the Peace. K.C. King's Counsel. K.C.B. Knight Commander of the Bath. K.C.I.E. Knight Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire. K.C.M.G. Knight Commander of St Michael and St George. K.C.S.I. Knight Commander of the Star of India. K.C.V.O. Knight Commander of the Victorian Order. K.G. Knight of the Garter. K.P. Knight of St Patrick. K.T. Knight of the Thistle. L.A.H. Licentiate of the Apothecaries' Hall. L.C.C. London County Council, or Councillor. L.C.J. Lord Chief Justice L.J. Lord Justice. L.L.A. Lady Literate in Arts. LL.B. (Legum Baccalaureus), Bachelor of Laws. LL.D. (Legum Doctor), Doctor of Laws. LL.M. (Legum Magister), Master of Laws. L.R.C.P. Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians. L.R.C.S. Licentiate of the Royal College of Surgeons. L.S.A. Licentiate of the Apothecaries' Society. M.A. Master of Arts. M.B. (Medicinae Baccalaureus), Bachelor of Medicine M.C. Member of Congress. M.D. (Medicinae Doctor), Doctor of Medicine. M.Inst.C.E. Member of the Institute of Civil Engineers. M.P. Member of Parliament. M.R. Master of the Rolls. M.R.C.P. Member of the Royal College of Physicians. M.R.C.S. Member of the Royal College of Surgeons. M.R.I.A. Member of the Royal Irish Academy. Mus.B. Bachelor of Music. Mus.D. Doctor of Music. M.V.O. Member of the Victorian Order. N.P. Notary Public. O.M. Order of Merit. P.C. Privy Councillor. Ph.D. (Philosophiae Doctor), Doctor of Philosophy. P.P. Parish Priest. P.R.A. President of the Royal Academy. R. (Rex, Regina), King, Queen. R. & I. Rex et Imperator. R.A. Royal Academician, Royal Artillery. R.A.M. Royal Academy of Music. R.E. Royal Engineers. Reg. Prof. Regius Professor. R.M. Royal Marines, Resident Magistrate. R.N. Royal Navy. S. or St. Saint. S.S.C. Solicitor before the Supreme Courts of Scotland. S.T.P. (Sacrosanctae Theologiae Professor), Professor of Sacred Theology. V.C. Vice-Chancellor, Victoria Cross. V.G. Vicar-General. V.S. Veterinary Surgeon. W.S. Writer to the Signet [in Scotland]. Equivalent to Attorney 2. ABBREVIATIONS DENOTING MONIES, WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES. ac. acre. lb. or lb. (libra), pound (weight). bar. barrel. m. or mi. mile, minute. bus. bushel. m. minim. c. cent. mo. month. c. (or cub.) ft. &c. cubic foot,&c. na. nail. cwt. hundredweight. oz. ounce. d. (denarius), penny. pk. peck. deg. degree. po. pole. dr. drachm or dram. pt. pint. dwt. pennyweight. q. (quadrans), farthing. f. franc. qr. quarter. fl. florin. qt. quart. ft. foot. ro. rood. fur. furlong. Rs.4 rupees. gal. gallon. s. or / (solidus), shilling. gr. grain. s. or sec. second. h. or hr. hour. sc. or scr. scruple. hhd. hogshead. sq. ft. &c, square foot, &c. in. inch. st. stone. kilo. kilometre. yd. yard. L.,3 L. ,2 or l. (libra), pound (money). 3. MISCELLANEOUS ABBREVIATIONS. A. Accepted. A.C. (Ante Christum), Before Christ. acc., a/c. or acct. Account. A.D. (Anno Domini), In the year of our Lord. A.E.I.O.U. Austriae est imperare orbi universo,5 or Alles Erdreich Ist Oesterreich Unterthan. Aet. or Aetat. (Aetatis, [anno]), In the year of his age. A.H. (Anno Hegirae), In the year of the Hegira (the Mohammedan era). A.M. (Anno Mundi), In the year of the world. A.M. (Ante meridiem), Forenoon. Anon. Anonymous. A.U.C. (Anno urbis conditae), In the year from the building of the city (i.e. Rome). A.V. Authorized version of the Bible. b. born. B.V.M. The Blessed Virgin Mary. B.C. Before Christ. c. circa, about. C. or Cap. (Caput), Chapter. C. Centigrade (or Celsius's) Thermometer. cent.6 (Centnim), A hundred, frequently L. 100. Cf. or cp. (Confer), Compare. Ch. or Chap. Chapter. C.M.S. Church Missionary Society. Co. Company, County. C.O.D. Cash on Delivery. Cr. Creditor. curt. Current, the present month. d. died. D.G. (Dei gratia), By the grace of God. Do. Ditto, the same. D.O.M. (Deo Optimo Maximo), To God the Best and Greatest. Dr. Debtor. D.V. (Deo volente), God willing. E.& O.E. Errors and omissions excepted. e.g. (Exempti gratia), For example. etc. or &c. (Et caetera), And the rest; and so forth. Ex. Example. F. or Fahr. Fahrenheit's Thermometer. fec. (Fecit), He made (or did) it. fl. Flourished. Fo. or Fol. Folio. f.o.b. Free on board. G.P.O. General Post Office. H.M.S. His Majesty's Ship, or Service. Ib. or Ibid. (Ibidem), In the same place. Id. (Idem), The same. ie. (Id est), That is. I.H.S. A symbol for "Jesus,', derived from the first three letters of the Greek (I E S); the correct origin was lost sight of, and the Romanized letters were then interpreted erroneously as standing for Jesus, Hominum Salvator, the Latin "h'' and Greek long "e'' being confused. I.M.D.G. (In majorem Dei gloriam), To the greater glory of God. Inf. (Infra), Below. Inst. Instant, the present month. I.O.U. I owe you. i.q. (Idem quod), The same as. k.t.l. (gr kai ta loipa) Et caetera, and the rest. L. or Lib. (Liber), Book. Lat. Latitude. l.c. (Loco citato), In the place cited. Lon. or Long. Longitude. L.S. (Locus sigilli), The place of the seal. Mem. (Memento), Remember, Memorandum. MS. Manuscript. MSS. Manuscripts. N.B. (Nota bene), Mark well; take notice. N.B. North Britain (i.e. Scotland). N.D. No date. nem. con. (Nemine contradicente), No one contradicting. No. (Numero), Number. N.S. New Style. N.T. New Testament. ob. (Obiit), Died. Obs. Obsolete. O.H.M.S. On His Majesty's Service. O.S. Old Style. O.S.B. Ordo Sancti Benedicti (Benedictines). O.T. Old Testament. P. Page. Pp. Pages. @ (Per), For; e.g. @ lb., For one pound. Pinx. (Pinxit), He painted it. P.M. (Post Meridiem), Afternoon. P.O. Post Office, Postal Order. P.O.O. Post Office Order. P.P.C. (Pour prendre conge), To take leave. P.R. Prize-ring. prox. (Proximo [mense]), Next month. P.S. Postscript. Pt. Part. p.t. or pro tem. (Pro tempore), For the time. P.T.O. Please turn over. Q., Qu., or Qy. Query; Question. q.d. (Quasi dicat), As if he should say: as much as to say. Q.E.D. (Quod erot demonstrandum), Which was to be demonstrated. Q.E.F. (Quod erat faciendum), Which was to be done. q.s. or quant. suff. (Quantum sufficit), As much as is sufficient. q.v. (Quod vide), Which see. R. or @. (Recipe), Take. sqrt. (=r. for radix), The sign of the square root. R.I.P. (Requiescat in pace!), May he rest in peace! R.S.V.P. (i Respondes s'il vous plait), please reply. sc. (Scilicet), Namely; that is to say. Sc. or Sculp. (Sculpsit), He engraved it. S.D.U.K. Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. seq. or sq., seqq. or sqq. (Sequens, sequenitia), The following. S.J. Society of Jesus. sp. (Sine prole), Without offspring. S.P.C.K. Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge S.P.G. Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. S.T.D. } S.T.B. }Doctor, Bachelor, Licentiate of Theology. S.T.L. } Sup. (Supra), Above. s.v. (Sub voce), Under the word (or heading). T.C.D. Trinity College, Dublin. ult. (Ultimo [mense]), Last month. U.S. United States. U.S.A. United States of America. v. (versus), Against. v. or vid: (Vide), See. viz. (Videlicet), Namely. Xmas. Christmas. This X is a Greek letter, corresponding to Ch.
See also Graevius's Thesaurus Antiquitatum (1694, sqq.); Nicolai's Tractatus de Sigils Veterum; Mommsen's Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (1863, sqq.); Natalis de Wailly's Paleographie (Paris, 1838); Alph. Chassant's Paleographie (1854), and Dictionnaire des Abreviations (3rd ed. 1866); Campelli, Duzionario di Abbreviature (1899).
1 Describing the function of the triumviri monetales.
2 An archbishop or bishop, in writing his signature, substitutes for his surname the name of his see; thus the prelates of Canterbury, York, Oxford, London, &c., subscribe themselves with their initials (Christian names only), followed by Cantuar., Ebor., Oxon., Londin. (sometimes London.), &c.
3 Characters, not properly abbreviations, are used in the same way; e.g. " deg. '' for "degrees, minutes, seconds'' (circular measure); @, @, @ for "ounces, drachms, scruples.'' @ is probably to be traced to the written form of the z in "oz.''
4 These forms (as well as $, the symbol for the American dollar) are placed before the amounts.
5It is given to Austria to rule the whole earth. The device of Austria, first adopted by Frederick III.
6"Per cent.'' is often signified by %, a form traceable to "100."
ABBREVIATORS, a body of writers in the papal chancery, whose business was to sketch out and prepare in due form the pope's bulls, briefs and consistorial decrees before these are written out in extenso by the scriptores. They are first mentioned in Extravagantes of John XXII. and of Benedict XII. Their number was fixed at seventy-two by Sixtus IV. From the time of Benedict XII. (1334-1342) they were classed as de Parco majori or Praesidentiae majoris, and de Parco minnori. The name was derived from a space in the chancery, surrounded by a grating, in which the officials sat, which is called higher or lower (major or minor) according to the proximity of the seats to that of the vice-chancellor. After the protonotaries left the sketching of the minutes to the abbreviators, those de Parco majori, who ranked as prelates, were the most important officers of the apostolic chancery. By Martin V. their signature was made essential to the validity of the acts of the chancery; and they obtained in course of time many important privileges. They were suppressed in 1908 by Pius X. and their duties were transferred to the protonotarii apostolici participantes. (See CURIA ROMANA.)
ABDALLATIF, or ABD-UL-LATIF (1162-1231), a celebrated physician and traveller, and one of the most voluminous writers of the East, was born at Bagdad in 1162. An interesting memoir of Abdallatif, written by himself, has been preserved with additions by Ibn-Abu-Osaiba (Ibn abi Usaibia), a contemporary. From that work we learn that the higher education of the youth of Bagdad consisted principally in a minute and careful study of the rules and principles of grammar, and in their committing to memory the whole of the Koran, a treatise or two on philology and jurisprudence, and the choicest Arabian poetry. After attaining to great proficiency in that kind of learning, Abdallatif applied himself to natural philosophy and medicine. To enjoythe society of the learned, he went first to Mosul (1189), and afterwards to Damascus. With letters of recommendation from Saladin's vizier, he visited Egypt, where the wish he had long cherished to converse with Maimonides, "the Eagle of the Doctors,'' was gratified. He afterwards formed one of the circle of learned men whom Saladin gathered around him at Jerusalem. He taught medicine and philosophy at Cairo and at Damascus for a number of years, and afterwards, for a shorter period, at Aleppo. His love of travel led him in his old age to visit different parts of Armenia and Asia Minor, and he was setting out on a pilgrimage to Mecca when he died at Bagdad in 1231. Abdallatif was undoubtedly a man of great knowledge and of an inquisitive and penetrating mind. Of the numerous works—mostly on medicine—-which Osaiba ascribes to bim, one only, his graphic and detailed Account of Egypt (in two parts), appears to be known in Europe. The manuscript, discovered by Edward Pococke the Orientalist, and preserved in the Bodleian Library, contains a vivid description of a famine caused, during the author's residence in Egypt, by the Nile failing to overflow its banks. It was translated into Latin by Professor White of Oxford in 1800, and into French, with valuable notes, by De Sacy in 1810.
ABD-AR-RAHMAN, the name borne by five princes of the Omayyad dynasty, amirs and caliphs of Cordova, two of them being rulers of great capacity.
ABD-AR-RAHMAN I. (756-788) was the founder of the branch of the family which ruled for nearly three centuries in Mahommedan Spain. When the Omayyads were overthrown in the East by the Abbasids he was a young man of about twenty years of age. together with his brother Yahya, he took refuge with Bedouin tribes in the desert. The Abbasids hunted their enemies down without mercy. Their soldiers overtook the brothers; Yahya was slain, and Abd-ar-rahman saved himself by fleeing first to Syria and thence to northern Africa, the common refuge of all who endeavoured to get beyond the reach of the Abbasids. In the general confusion of the caliphate produced by the change of dynasty, Africa had fallen into the hands of local rulers, formerly amirs or lieutenants of the Omayyad caliphs, but now aiming at independence. After a time Abd-ar-rahman found that his life was threatened, and he fled farther west, taking refuge among the Berber tribes of Mauritania. In the midst of all his perils, which read like stories from the Arabian Nights, Abd-ar-rahman had been encouraged by reliance on a prophecy of his great-uncle Maslama that he would restore the fortune of the family. He was followed in all his wanderings by a few faithful clients of the Omayyads. In 755 he was in hiding near Ceuta, and thence he sent an agent over to Spain to ask for the support of other clients of the family, descendants of the conquerors of Spain, who were numerous in the province of Elvira, the modern Granada. The country was in a state of confusion under the weak rule of the amir Yusef, a mere puppet in the hands of a faction, and was torn by tribal dissensions among the Arabs and by race conflicts between the Arabs and Berbers. It offered Abd-ar-rahman the opportunity he had falled to find in Africa. On the invitation of his partisans he landed at Almunecar, to the east of Malaga, in September 755. For a time he was compelled to submit to be guided by his supporters, who were aware of the risks of their venture. Yusef opened negotiations, and offered to give Abdar-rahman one of his daughters in marriage and a grant of land. This was far less than the prince meant to obtain, but he would probably have been forced to accept the offer for want of a better if the insolence of one of Yusef's messengers, a Spanish renegade, had not outraged a chief partisan of the Omayyad cause. He taunted this gentleman, Obeidullah by name, with being unable to write good Arabic. Under this provocation Obeidullah drew the sword. In the course of 756 a campaign was fought in the valley of the Guadalquivir, which ended, on the 16th of May, in the defeat of Yusef outside Cordova. Abdar-rahman's army was so ill provided that he mounted almost the only good war-horse in it; he had no banner, and one was improvised by unwinding a green turban and binding it round the head of a spear. The turban and the spear became the banner of the Spanish Omayyads. The long reign of Abd-arrahman I. was spent in a struggle to reduce his anarchical Arab and Berber subjects to order. They had never meant to give themselves a master, and they chafed under his hand, which grew continually heavier. The details of these conflicts belong to the general history of Spain. It is, however, part of the personal history of Abd-ar-rahman that when in 763 he was compelled to fight at the very gate of his capital with rebels acting on behalf of the Abbasids, and had won a signal victory, he cut off the heads of the leaders, filled them with salt and camphor and sent them as a defiance to the eastern caliph. His last years were spent amid a succession of palace conspiracies, repressed with cruelty. Abd-ar-rahman grew embittered and ferocious. He was a fine example of an oriental founder of a dynasty, and did his work so well that the Omayyads lasted in Spain for two centuries and a half.
ABD-AR-RAHMAN II. (822-852) was one of the weaker of the Spanish Omayyads. He was a prince with a taste for music and literature, whose reign was a time of confusion. It is chiefly memorable for having included the story of the "Martyrs of Cordova,'' one of the most remarkable passages in the religious history of the middle ages.
ABD-AR-RAHMAN III. (912-961) was the greatest and the most successful of the princes of his dynasty in Spain (for the general history of his reign see SPAIN, History). He ascended the throne when he was barely twenty-two and reigned for half a century. His life was so completely identified with the government of the state that he offers less material for biography than his ancestor Abd-ar-rahman I. Yet it supplies some passages which show the real character of an oriental dynasty even at its best. Abd-ar-rahman III. was the grandson of his predecessor, Abdallah, one of the weakest and worst of the Spanish Omayyads. His father, Mahommed, was murdered by a brother Motarrif by order of Abdallah The old sultan was so far influenced by humanity and remorse that he treated his grandson kindly. Abd-ar-rahman III. came to the throne when the country was exhausted by more than a generation of tribal conflict among the Arabs, and of strife between them and the Mahommedans of native Spanish descent. Spaniards who were openly or secretly Christians had acted with the renegades. These elements, which formed the bulk of the population, were not averse from supporting a strong ruler who would protect them against the Arab aristocracy. These restless nobles were the most serious of Abd-ar-rahman's enemies. Next to them came the Fatimites of Egypt and northern Africa, who claimed the caliphate, and who aimed at extending their rule over the Mahommedan world, at least in the west. Abd-ar-rahman subdued the nobles by means of a mercenary army, which included Christians. He repelled the Fatimites, partly by supporting their enemies in Africa, and partly by claiming the caliphate for himself. His ancestors in Spain had been content the the title of sultan. The caliphate was thought only to belong to the prince who ruled over the sacred cities of Mecca and Medina. But the force of this tradition had been so far weakened that Abd-ar-rahman could proclaim himself caliph on the 16th of January 929, and the assumption of the title gave him increased prestige with his subjects, both in Spain and Africa. His worst enemies were always his fellow Mahommedans. After he was defeated by the Christians at Alhandega in 939 through the treason of the Arab nobles in his army (see SPAIN, History) he never again took the field. He is accused of having sunk in his later years into the self-indulgent habits of the harem. When the undoubted prosperity of his dominions is quoted as an example of successful Mahommedan rule, it is well to remember that he administered well not by means of but in spite of Mahommedans. The high praise given to his administration may even excite some doubts as to its real excellence. We are told that a third of his revenue sufficed for the ordinary expenses of government, a third was hoarded and a third spent on buildings. A very large proportion of the surplus must have been wasted on the palace-town of Zahra, built three miles to the north of Cordova, and named after a favourite concubine. Ten thousand workmen are said to have been employed for twenty-five years on this wonder, of which no trace now remains. The great monument of early Arabic architecture in Spain, the mosque of Cordoya, was built by his predecessors, not by him. It is said that his harem included six thousand women. Abd-ar-rahman was tolerant, but it is highly probable that he was very indifferent in religion, and it is certain that he was a thorough despot. One of the most authentic sayings attributed to him is his criticism of Otto I. of Germany, recorded by Otto's ambassador, Johann, abbot of Gorze, who has left in his Vita an incomplete account of his embassy (in Pertz, Mon. Germ. Scriptores, iv. 355-377). He blamed the king of Germany for trusting his nobles, which he said could only increase their pride and leaning to rebellion. His confession that he had known only twenty happy days in his long reign is perhaps a moral tale, to be classed with the "omnia fui, et nil expedit'' of Septimius Severus.
In the agony of the Omayyad dynasty in Spain, two princes of the house were proclaimed caliphs for a very short time, Abd-ar-rahman IV. Mortada (1017), and Abd-ar-rahman V. Mostadir (1023-1024). Both were the mere puppets of factions, who deserted them at once. Abd-ar-rahman IV. was murdered in the year in which he was proclaimed, at Guadiz, when fleeing from a battle in which he had been deserted by his supporters. Abd-ar-rahman V. was proclaimed caliph in December 1023 at Cordova, and murdered in January 1024 by a mob of unemployed workmen, headed by one of his own cousins.
The history of the Omayyads in Spain is the subject of the Histoire des Musulmans d'Espagne, by R. Dozy (Leiden, 1861). (D. H.)
ABD-EL-AZIZ IV. (1880- ), sultan of Morocco, son of Sultan Mulai el Hasan III. by a Circassian wife. He was fourteen years of age on his father's death in 1894. By the wise action of Si Ahmad bin Musa, the chamberlain of El Hasan, Abd-el Aziz's accession to the sultanate was ensured with but little fighting. Si Ahmad became regent and for six years showed himself a capable ruler. On his death in 1900 the regency ended, and Abd-el-Aziz took the reins of government into his own hands, with an Arab from the south, El Menebhi, for his chief adviser. Urged by his Circassian mother, the sultan sought advice and counsel from Europe and endeavoured to act up to it. But disinterested advice was difficult to obtain, and in spite of the unquestionable desire of the young ruler to do the best for the country, wild extravagance both in action and expenditure resulted, leaving the sultan with depleted exchequer and the confidence of his people impaired. His intimacy with foreigners and his imitation of their ways were sufficient to rouse fanaticism and create dissatisfaction. His attempt to reorganize the finances by the systematic levy of taxes was hailed with delight, but the government was not strong enough to carry the measures through, and the money which should have been used to pay the taxes was employed to purchase firearms. Thus the benign intentions of Mulai Abdel-Aziz were interpreted as weakness, and Europeans were accused of having spoiled the sultan and of being desirous of spoiling the country. When British engineers were employed to survey the route for a railway between Mequinez and Fez, this was reported as indicating an absolute sale of the country. The fanaticism of the people was aroused, and a revolt broke out near the Algerian frontier. Such was the condition of things when the news of the Anglo-French Agreement of 1904 came as a blow to Abd-el-Aziz, who had relied on England for support and protection against the inroads of France. On the advice of Germany he proposed the assembly of an international conference at Algeciras in 1906 to consult upon methods of reform, the sultan's desire being to ensure a condition of affairs which would leave foreigners with no excuse for interference in the control of the country, and would promote its welfare, which Abd-el-Aziz had earnestly desired from his accession to power. The sultan gave his adherence to the Act of the Algeciras Conference, but the state of anarachy into which Morocco fell during the latter half of 1906 and the beginning of 1907 showed that the young ruler lacked strength sufficient to make his will respected by his turbulent subjects. In May 1907 the southern tribes invited Mulai Hafid, an elder brother of Abd-el-Aziz, and viceroy at Marrakesh, to become sultan, and in the following August Hafid was proclaimed sovereign there with all the usual formalities. In the meantime the murder of Europeans at Casablanca had led to the occupation of that port by France. In September Abd-el-Aziz arrived at Rabat from Fez and endeavoured to secure the support of the European powers against his brother. From France he accepted the grand cordon of the Legion of Honour, and was later enabled to negotiate a loan. His leaning to Christians aroused further opposition to his rule, and in January 1908 he was declared deposed by the ulema of Fez, who offered the throne to Hafid. After months of inactivity Abd-el-Aziz made an effort to restore his authority, and quitting Rabat in July he marched on Marrakesh. His force, largely owing to treachery, was completely overthrown (August 19th) when near that city, and Abd-el-Aziz fled to Settat within the French lines round Casablanca. In November he came to terms with his brother, and thereafter took up his residence in Tangier as a pensioner of the new sultan. He declared himself more than reconciled to the loss of the throne, and as looking forward to a quiet peaceful life. (See MOROCCO, History.)
ABD-EL-KADER (c. 1807-1883), amir of Mascara, the great opponent of the conquest of Algeria by France, was born near Mascara in 1807 or 1808. His family were sherifs or descendants of Mahomet, and his father, Mahi-ed-Din, was celebrated throughout North Africa for his piety and charity. Abd-el Kader received the best education attainable by a Mussulman of princely rank, especially in theology and philosophy, in horsemanship and in other manly exercises. While still a youth he was taken by his father on the pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina and to the tomb of Sidi Abd-el-Kader El Jalili at Bagdad—events which stimulated his natural tendency to religious enthusiasm. While in Egypt in 1827, Abd-el-Kader is stated to have been impressed, by the reforms then being carried out by Mehemet Ali with the value of European civilization, and the knowledge he then gained affected his career. Mahi-ed-Din and his son returned to Mascara shortly before the French occupation of Algiers (July 1830) destroyed the government of the Dey. Coming forward as the champion of Islam against the infidels, Abd-el-Kader was proclaimed amir at Mascara in 1832. He prosecuted the war against France vigorously and in a short time had rallied to his standard all the tribes of western Algeria. The story of his fifteen years' struggle against the French is given under ALGERIA. To the beginning of 1842 the contest went in favour of the amir; thereafter he found in Marshal Bugeaud an opponent who proved, in the end, his master. Throughout this period Abd-el-Kader showed himself a born leader of men, a great soldier, a capable administrator, a persuasive orator, a chivalrous opponent. His fervent faith in the doctrines of Islam was unquestioned, and his ultimate failure was due in considerable measure to the refusal of the Kabyles, Berber mountain tribes whose Mahommedanism is somewhat loosely held, to make common cause with the Arabs against the French. On the 21st of December 1847, the amir gave himself up to General Lamoriciere at Sidi Brahim. On the 23rd, his submission was formally made to the duc d'Aumale, then governor of Algeria. In violation of the promise that he would be allowed to go to Alexandria or St Jean d'Acre, on the faith of which he surrendered, Abd-el-Kader and his family were detained in France, first at Toulon, then at Pau, being in November 1848 transferred to the chateau of Amboise. There Abd-el-Kader remained until October 1852, when he was released by Napoleon III. on taking an oath never again to disturb Algeria. The amir then took up his residence in Brusa, removing in 1855 to Damascus. In July 1860, when the Moslems of that city, taking advantage of disturbances among the Druses of Lebanon, attacked the Christian quarter and killed over 3000 persons, Abd-el-Kader helped to repress the outbreak and saved large numbers of Christians. For this action the French government, which granted the amir a pension of L. 4000, bestowed on him the grand cross of the Legion of Honour. In 1865, he visited Paris and London, and was again in Paris at the exposition of 1867. In 1871, when the Algerians again rose in revolt, Abd-el-Kader wrote to them counselling submission to France. After his surrender in 1847 he devoted himself anew to theology and philosophy, and composed a philosophical treatise, of which a French translation was published in 1858 under the title of Rappel a l'intelligent. Avis a l'indifferent. He also wrote a book on the Arab horse. He died at Damascus on the 26th of May 1883.
See Commdt. J. Pichon, Abd el Kader, 1807—1883 (Paris ): Alex. Bellemare, Abd-el-Kader: sa vie politique et militaire (Paris, 1863); Col. C. H. Churchill, The Life of Abdel Kader (London, 1867).
ABDERA, an ancient seaport town on the south coast of Spain, between Malaca and New Carthage, in the district inhabited by the Bastuli. It was founded by the Carthaginians as a trading station, and after a period of decline became under the Romans one of the more important towns in the province of Hispania Baetica. It was situated on a hill above the modern Adra (q.v.). Of its coins the most ancient bear the Phoenician inscription abdrt with the head of Heracles (Melkarth) and a tunny-fish; those of Tiberius (who seems to have made the place a colony) show the chief temple of the town with two tunny-fish erect in the form of columns. For inscriptions relating to the Roman municipality see C.I.L. ii. 267.
ABDERA, a town on the coast of Thrace near the mouth of the Nestos, and almost opposite Thasos. Its mythical foundation was attributed to Heracles, its historical to a colony from Clazomenae in the 7th century B.C. But its prosperity dates from 544 B.C., when the majority of the people of Teos migrated to Abdera after the Ionian revolt to escape the Persian yoke (Herod. i. 168); the chief coin type, a gryphon, is identical with that of Teos; the coinage is noted for the beauty and variety of its reverse types. The town seems to have declined in importance after the middle of the 4th century. The air of Abdera was proverbial as causing stupidity; but among its citizens was the philosopher Democritus. The ruins of the town may still be seen on Cape Balastra; they cover seven small hills, and extend from an eastern to a western harbour; on the S.W. hills are the remains of the medieval settlement of Polystylon.
Mittheil. d. deutsch. Inst. Athens, xii. (1887), p. 161 (Regel); Mem. de l'Acad. des Inscriptions, xxxix. 211; K. F. Hermann, Ges. Abh. 90-111, 370 in.
ABDICATION (Lat. abdicatio, disowning, renouncing, from ab, from, and dicare, to declare, to proclaim as not belonging to one), the act whereby a person in office renounces and gives up the same before the expiry of the time for which it is held. In Roman law, the term is especially applied to the disowning of a member of a family, as the disinheriting of a son, but the word is seldom used except in the sense of surrendering the supreme power in a state. Despotic sovereigns are at liberty to divest themselves of their powers at any time, but it is otherwise with a limited monarchy. The throne of Great Britain cannot be lawfully abdicated unless with the consent of the two Houses of Parliament. When James II., after throwing the great seal into the Thames, fled to France in 1688, he did not formally resign the crown, and the question was discussed in parliament whether he had forfeited the throne or had abdicated. The latter designation was agreed on, for in a full assembly of the Lords and Commons, met in convention, it was resolved, in spite of James's protest, "that King James II. having endeavoured to subvert the constitution of the kingdom, by breaking the original contract between king and people, and, by the advice of Jesuits and other wicked persons, having violated the fundamental laws, and having withdrawn himself out of this kingdom, has abdicated the government, and that the throne is thereby vacant.'' The Scottish parliament pronounced a decree of forfeiture and deposition. Among the most memorable abdications of antiquity may be mentioned that of Sulla the dictator, 79 B.C., and that of the Emperor Diocletian, A.D. 305. The following is a list of the more important abdications of later
A.D. Benedict IX., pope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1048 Stephen II. of Hungary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1131 Albert (the Bear) of Brandenburg . . . . . . . . . . 1169 Ladislaus III. of Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1206 Celestine V., pope . . . . . . . . . . . . .Dec. 13, 1294 John Baliol of Scotland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1296 John Cantacuzene, emperor of the East . . . . . . . 1355 Richard II. of England . . . . . . . . . . Sept. 29, 1399 John XXIII., pope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1415 Eric VII; of Denmark and XIII. of Sweden . . . . . . 1439 Murad II., Ottoman Sultan . . . . . . . . .1444 and 1445 Charles V., emperor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1556 Christina of Sweden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1654 John Casimir of Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1618 James II. of England . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1688 Frederick Augustus of Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . 1704 Philip V. of Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1724 Victor Amadeus II. of Sardinia . . . . . . . . . . . 1730 Ahmed III., Sultan of Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . 1730 Charles of Naples (on accession to throne of Spain). 1759 Stanislaus II. of Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1795 Charles Emanuel IV. of Sardinia . . . . . . June 4, 1802 Charles IV. of Spain . . . . . . . . . . . .Mar. 19, 1808 Joseph Bonaparte of Naples . . . . . . . . . June 6, 1808 Gustavus IV. of Sweden . . . . . . . . . . .Mar. 29, 1809 Louis Bonaparte of Holland . . . . . . . . . July 2, 1810 Napoleon I., French Emperor. . . . . . . . .April 4, 1814, and June 22, 1815 Victor Emanuel of Sardinia . . . . . . . . .Mar. 13, 1821 Charles X. of France . . . . . . . . . . . . Aug. 2, 1830 Pedro of Brazil 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .April 7, 1831 Miguel of Portgual . . . . . . . . . . . . . May 26, 1834 William I. of Holland . . . . . . . . . . . Oct. 7, 1840 Louis Philippe, king of the French . . . . .Feb. 24, 1848 Louis Charles of Bavaria . . . . . . . . . .Mar. 21, 1848 Ferdinand of Austria . . . . . . . . . . . . Dec. 2, 1848 Charles Albert of Sardinia . . . . . . . . .Mar. 23, 1849 Leopold II. of Tuscany . . . . . . . . . . .July 21, 1859 Isabella II. of Spain . . . . . . . . . . . June 25, 1870 Amadeus I. of Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . Feb. 11, 1873 Alexander of Bulgaria . . . . . . . . . . . Sept. 7, 1886 Milan of Servia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Mar. 6, 1889
1 Pedro had succeeded to the throne of Portugal in 1826, but abdicated it at once in favour of his daughter.
ABDOMEN (a Latin word, either from abdere, to hide, or from a form adipomen, from adeps, fat), the belly, the region of the body containing most of the digestive organs. (See for anatomical details the articles ALIMENTARY CANAL, and ANATOMY, Superficial and Artistic.)
ABDOMINAL SURGERY.—-The diseases affecting this region are dealt with generally in the article DIGESTIVE ORGANS, and under their own names (e.g. APPENDICITIS). The term "abdominal surgery'' covers generally the operations which involve opening the abdominal cavity, and in modern times this field of work has been greatly extended. In this Encyclopaedia the surgery of each abdominal organ is dealt with, for the most part, in connexion with the anatomical description of that organ (see STOMACH, KIDNEY, LIVER, &c.); but here the general principles of abdominal surgery may be discussed.
Exploratory Laparotomy.—-In many cases of serious intra-abdominal disease it is impossible for the surgeon to say exactly what is wrong without making an incision and introducing his finger, or, if need be, his hand among the intestines. With due care this is not a perilous or serious procedure, and the great advantage appertaining to it is daily being more fully recognized. It was Dr Oliver Wendell Holmes, the American physiologist and poet, who remarked that one cannot say of what wood a table is made without lifting up the cloth; so also it is often impossible to say what is wrong inside the abdomen without making an opening into it. When an opening is made in such circumstances—-provided only it is done soon enough—the successful treatment of the case often becomes a simple matter. An exploratory operation, therefore, should be promptly resorted to as a means of diagnosis, and not left as a last resource till the outlook is well-nigh hopeless.
It is probable that if the question were put to any experienced hospital surgeon if he had often had cause to regret having advised recourse to an exploratory operation on the abdomen, his answer would be in the negative, but that, on the other hand, he had not infrequently had cause to regret that he had not resorted to it, post-mortem examination having shown that if only he had insisted on an exploratioui being made, some band, some adhesion, some tumour, some abscess might have been satisfactorily dealt with, which, left unsuspected in the dark cavity, was accountable for the death. A physician by himself is helpless in these cases.
Much of the rapid advance which has of late been made in the results of abdominal surgery is due to the improved relationship which exists between the public and the surgical profession. In former days it was not infrequently said, "If a surgeon is called in he is sure to operate.'' Not only have the public said this, but even physicians have been known to suggest it, and have indeed used the equivocal expression, the "apotheosis of surgery,'' in connexion with the operative treatment of a serious abdominal lesion. But fortunately the public have found out that the surgeon, being an honest man, does not advise operation unless he believes that it is necessary or, at any rate, highly advisable. And this happy discovery has led to much more confidence being placed in his decision. It has truly been said that a surgeon is a physician who can operate, and the public have begun to realize the fact that it is useless to try to relieve an acute abdominal lesion by diet or drugs. Not many years ago cases of acute, obscure or chronic affections of the abdomen which were admitted into hospital were sent as a matter of course into the medical wards, and after the effect of drugs had been tried with expectancy and failure, the services of a surgeon were called in. In acute cases this delay spoilt all surgical chances, and the idea was more widely spread that surgery, after all, was a poor handmaid to medicine. But now things are different. Acute or obscure abdominal cases are promptly relegated to the surgical wards; the surgeon is at once sent for, and if operation is thought desirable it is performed without any delay. The public have found that the surgeon is not a reckless operator, but a man who can take a broad view of a case in all its bearings. And so it has come about that the results of operations upon the interior of the abdomen have been improving day by day. And doubtless they will continue to improve.
A great impetus was given to the surgery of wounded, mortified or diseased pieces of intestine by the introduction from Chicago of an ingenious contrivance named, after the inventor, Murphy's button. This consists of a short nickel-plated tube in two pieces, which are rapidly secured in the divided ends of the bowel, and in such a manner that when the pieces are subsequently "married'' the adjusted ends of the bowel are securely fixed together and the canal rendered practicable. In the course of time the button loosens itself into the interior of the bowel and comes away with the alvine evacuation. In many other cases the use of the button has proved convenient and successful, as in the establishment of a permanent communication between the stomach and the small intestine when the ordinary gateway between these parts of the alimentary canal is obstructed by an irremovable malignant growth; between two parts of the small intestine so that some obstruction may be passed; betw:en smal' and large intestine. The operative procedure goes by the name of short-circuiting; it enables the contents of the bowel to get beyond an obstruction. In this way also a permanent working communication can be set up between the gallbladder, or a dilated bile-duct, and the neighbouring small intestine—-the last-named operation bears the precise but very clumsy name of choledocoduodenostomy. By the use of Murphy's ingenious apparatus the communication of two parts can be secured in the shortest possible space of time, and this, in many of the cases in which it is resorted to, is of the greatest importance. But there is this against the method—-that sometimes ulceration occurs around the rim of the metal button, whilst at others the loosened metal causes annoyance in its passage along the alimentary canal. Some surgeons therefore prefer to use a bobbin of decalcified bone or similar soft material, while others rely upon direct suturing of the parts. The last-named method is gradually increasing in popularity, and of course, when time and circumstances permit, it is the ideal method of treatment. The cause of death in the case of intestinal obstruction is usually due to the blood being poisoned by the absorption of the products of decomposition of the fluid contents of the bowel above the obstruction. It is now the custom, therefore, for the surgeon to complete his operation for the relief of obstruction by drawing out a loop of the distended bowel, incising and evacuating it, and then carefully suturing and returning it. The surgeon who first recognized the lethal effect of the absorption of this stagnant fluid—-or, at any rate, who first suggested the proper method of treating it—-was Lawson Tait of Birmingham, who on the occurrence of grave symptoms after operating on the abdomen gave small, repeated doses of Epsom salts to wash away the harmful liquids of the bowel and to enable it at the same time to empty itself of the gas, which, by distending the intestines, was interfering with respiration and circulation.
Amongst still more recent improvements in abdominal surgery may be mentioned the placing of the patient in the sitting position as soon as practicable after the operation, and the slow administration of a hot saline solution into the lower bowel, or, in the more desperate cases, of injecting pints of this "normal saline'' fluid into the loose tissue of the armpit. Hot water thus administered or injected is quickly taken into the blood, increasing its volume, diluting its impurities and quenching the great thirst which is so marked a symptom in this condition.
Gunshot wounds of the Abdomen.—-If a revolver bullet passes through the abdomen, the coils of intestine are likely to be traversed by it in several places. If the bullet be small and, by chance, surgically clean, it is possible that the openings may tightly close up behind it so that no leakage takes place into the general peritoneal cavity. If increasing collapse suggests that serious bleeding is occurring within the abdomen, the cavity is opened forthwith and a thorough exploration made. When it is uncettain lf the bowel has been traversed or not, it is well to wait before opening the abdomen, due preparation being made for performing that operation on the first appearance of symptoms indicative of perforation having occurred. Small perforating wounds of the bowel are treated by such suturing as the circumstances may suggest, the interior of the abdominal cavity being rendered as free from septic micro-organisms as possible. It is by the malign influence of such germs that a fatal issue is determined in the case of an abdominal wound, whether inflicted by firearms or by a pointed weapon. If aseptic procedure can be promptly resorted to and thoroughly carried out, abdominal wounds do well, but these essentials cannot be obtained upon the field of battle. When after an action wounded men come pouring into the field-hospital, the many cannot be kept waiting whilst preparations are being made for the thorough carrying out of a prolonged aseptic abdominal operation upon a solitary case. Experience in the South African war of 1899-1902 showed that Mauser bullets could pierce coils of intestine and leave the soldiers in such a condition that, if treated by mere "expectancy,'' more than 50% recovered, whereas if operations were resorted to, fatal septic peritonitis was likely to ensue. In the close proximity of the fight, where time, assistants, pure water, towels, lotions and other necessaries for carrying out a thoroughly aseptic operation cannot be forthcoming, gunshot wounds of the abdomen had best not be interfered with.