ADIRONDACKS, a group of mountains in north-eastern New York, U.S.A., in Clinton, Essex, Franklin and Hamilton counties, often included by geographers in the Appalachian system, but pertaining geologically to the Laurentian highlands of Canada. They are bordered on the E. by Lake Champlain, which separates them from tho Green Mountains. Unlike the Appalachians, the Adirondacks do not form a connected range, but consist of many summits, isolated or in groups, arranged with little appearance of system. There are about one hundred peaks, ranging from 1200 to 5000 ft. in height; the highest peak, Mt. Marcy (called by the Indians Tahawus or "cloud-splitter''), is near the eastern part of the group and attains an elevation of 5344 ft. Other noted peaks are M'Intyre (5210 ft,), Haystack (4918), Dix (4916) and Whiteface (4871). These mountains, consisting of various sorts of gneiss, intrusive granite and gabbro, have been formed partly by faulting but mainly by erosion, the lines of which have been determined by the presence of faults or the presence of relatively soft rocks. Lower Palaeozoic strata lap up on to the crystalline rocks on all sides of the mountain group. The region is rich in magnetic iron ores, which though mined for many years are not yet fully developed. Other mineral products are graphite, garnet used as an abrasive, pyrite and zinc ore. The mountains form the water-parting between the Hudson and the St Lawrence rivers. On the south and south-west the waters flow either directly into the Hudson, which rises in the centre of the group, or else reach it through the Mohawk. On the north and east the waters reach the St Lawrence by way of Lakes George and Champlain, and on the west they flow directly into that stream or reach it through Lake Ontario. The most important streams within the area are the Hudson, Black, Oswegatchie, Grass, Raquette, Saranac and Ausable rivers. The region was once covered, with the exception of the higher summits, by the Laurentian glacier, whose erosion, while perhaps having little effect on the larger features of the country, has greatly modified it in detail, producing lakes and ponds, whose number is said to exceed 1300, and causing many falls and rapids in the streams. Among the larger lakes are the Upper and Lower Saranac, Big and Little Tupper, Schroon, Placid, Long, Raquette and Blue Mountain. The region known as the Adirondack Wilderness, or the Great North Woods, embraces between 5000 and 6000 sq. m. of mountain, lake, plateau and forest, which for scenic grandeur is almost unequalled in any other part of the United States. The mountain peaks are usually rounded and easily scaled, and as roads have been constructed over their slopes and in every direction through the forests, all points of interest may be easily reached by stage. Railways penetrate the heart of the region, and small steamboats ply upon the larger lakes. The surface of most of the lakes lies at an elevation of over 1500 ft. above the sea; their shores are usually rocky and irregular, and the wild scenery within their vicinity has made them very attractive to the tourist. The mountains are easily reached from Plattsburgh, Port Kent, Herkimer, Malone and Saratoga Springs. Every year thousands spend the summer months in the wilderness, where cabins, hunting lodges, villas and hotels are numerous. The resorts most frequented are in the vicinity of the Saranac and St Regis lakes and Lake Placid. In the Adirondacks are some of the best hunting and fishing grounds in the eastern United States. Owing to the restricted period allowed for hunting, deer and small game are abundant, and the brooks, rivers, ponds and lakes are well stocked with trout and black bass. At the head of Lake Placid stands Whiteface Mountain, from whose summit one of the finest views of the Adirondacks may be obtained. Two miles south-east of this lake, at North Elba, is the old farm of the abolitionist John Brown, which contains his grave and is much frequented by visitors. Lake Placid is the principal source of the Ausable river, which for a part of its course flows through a rocky chasm from 100 to 175 ft. deep and rarely over 30 ft. wide. At the head of the Ausable Chasm are the Rainbow Falls, where the stream makes a vertical leap of 70 ft. Another impressive feature of the Adirondacks is Indian Pass, a gorge about eleven miles long, between Mt. M'Intyre and Wallface Mountain. The latter is a majestic cliff rising vertically from the pass to a height of 1300 ft. Keene Valley, in the centre of Essex county, is another picturesque region, presenting a pleasing combination of peaceful valley and rugged hills. Though the climate during the winter months is very severe—the temperature sometimes falling as low as -42 deg. F.—it is beneficial to persons suffering from pulmonary troubles, and a number of sanitariums have been established. The region is heavily forested with spruce, pine and broad-leaved trees. Lumbering is an important industry, but it has been much restricted by the creation of a state forest preserve, containing in 1907, 1,401,482 acres, and by the purchase of large tracts for game preserves and recreation grounds by private clubs. The so-called Adirondack Park, containing over 3,000,000 acres, includes most of the state preserve and large areas held in private ownership.
For a description of the Adirondacks, see S. R. Stoddard, The Adirondacks Illustrated (24th ed., Glen Falls, 1894); and E. R. Wallace, Descriptive Guide to the Adirondacks (Syracuse, 1894). For geology and mineral resources consult the Reports of the New York State Geologist and the Bulletins of the New York State Museum.
ADIS ABABA ("the new flower''), the capital of Abyssinia and of the kingdom of Shoa, in 9 deg. 1' N., 38 deg. 56' E., 220 m. W. by S. of Harrar, and about 450 m. S.W. of Jibuti on the Gulf of Aden. Adis Ababa stands on the southern slopes of the Entotto range, at an altitude of over 8000 ft., on bare, grassy undulations, watered by small streams flowing S.S.E. to the Hawash. It is a large straggling encampment rather than a town, with few buildings of any architectural merit. The Gobi or royal enclosure completely covers a small hill overlooking the whole neighbourhood, while around it are the enclosures of the abuna and principal nobles, and the residences of the foreign ministers. The principal traders are Armenians and Hindus. About a mile north-east of the palace is the military camp. On the hills some five miles to the north, 1500 ft. above the camp, are the ruins of an old fortress, and the churches of St Raguel and St Mariam. The town is in telegraphic communication with Massawa, Harrar and Jibuti. It was founded by Menelek II. in 1892 as the capital of his kingdom in succession to Entotto, a deserted settlement some ten or twelve miles north of Adis Ababa.
ADJECTIVE (from the Lat. adjectivus, added), a word used chiefly in its grammatical sense of limiting or defining the noun to which it refers. Formerly grammarians used not to separate a noun from its adjective, or attribute, but spoke of them together as a noun-adjective. In the art of dyeing, certain colours are known as adjective colours, as they require mixing with some basis to render them permanent. "Adjective law'' is that which relates to the forms of procedure, as opposed to "substantive law,'' the rules of right administered by a court.
ADJOURNMENT (through the French from the Late Lat. adjurnare, to put off until or summon for another day), the act of postponing a meeting of any private or public body, particularly of parliament, or any business, until another time, or indefinitely (in which case it is an adjournment sine die.) The word applies also to the period during which the meeting or business stands adjourned.
ADJUDICATION (Lat. adjudicatio; adjudicare, to award), generally, a trying or determining of a case by the exercise of judicial power; a judgment. In a more technical sense, in English and American law, an adjudication is an order of the bankruptcy courts by which a debtor is adjudged bankrupt and his property vested in a trustee. It usually proceeds from a resolution of the creditors or where no composition or scheme of arrangement has been proposed by the debtor. It may be said to consummate bankruptcy, for not till then does a debtor's property actually vest in a trustee for division among the creditors, though from the first act of bankruptcy till adjudication it is protected by a receiving order. As to the effect which adjudication has on the bankrupt, see under BANKRUPTCY. The same process in Scots law is called sequestration. In Scots law the term "adjudication'' has quite a different meaning, being the name of that action by which a creditor attaches the heritable, i.e. the real, estate of his debtor, or his debtor's heir, in order to appropriate it to himself either in payment or security of his debt. The term is also applied to a proceeding of the same nature by which the holder of a heritable right, labouring under any defect in point of form, gets that defect supplied by decree of a court.
ADJUNCT (from Lat. ad, to, and jungere, to join), that which is joined on to another, not an essential part, and inferior to it in mind or function, but which nevertheless amplifies or modifies it. Adverbs and adjectives are adjuncts to the words they qualify. Learning, says Shakespeare, is an "adjunct to ourself'' (Love's Labour's Lost, IV. iii. 314). Twelve members of the Royal Academy of Sciences in Paris are called "adjuncts.''
ADJUSTMENT (from late Lat. ad-juxtare, derived from juxta. near, but early confounded with a supposed derivation from justus, right), regulating, adapting or settling; in commercial law, the settlement of a loss incurred at sea on insured goods. The calculation of the amounts to be made good to and paid by the several interests is a complicated matter. It involves much detail and arithmetic, and requires a full and accurate knowledge of the principles of the subject. Such adjustments are made by men called adjusters, who make the subject their profession. In Great Britain they are for the most part members of the Average Adjusters' Association (1870), a body which has done much careful work with a view to making and keeping the practice uniform and in accord with right principles. This association has gradually formulated, at their annual meetings, a body of practical rules which the individual members undertake to observe. (See AVERAGE and INSURANCE, Marine.)
ADJUTAGE (from Fr. ajutage, from ajouter, to join on; an older English form was "adjustage''), a mouthpiece or nozzle, so formed as to facilitate the outflow of liquids from a vessel or pipe. (See HYDRAULICS.)
ADJUTANT (from Lat. adjutare, to aid), a helper or junior in command, one who assists his superior, especially an officer who acts as an assistant to the officer commanding a corps of troops. In the British army the appointment of adjutant is held by a captain or lieutenant. The adjutant acts as staff officer to the commanding officer, issues his orders, superintends the work of the orderly room and the general administration of the corps, and is responsible for musketry duties and the training of recruits. Regular officers are appointed as adjutants to all units of the auxiliary forces. On the European continent the word is not restricted to the lower units of organization; for example, in Germany the Adjutantur includes all "routine'' as distinct from "general'' staff officers in the higher units, and the aides-decamp of royal persons and of the higher commanders are also styled adjutant-generals, flugel-adj utanten, &c . For the so-called adjutant bird see JABIRU.
ADJUTANT-GENERAL, an army official, originally (as indicated by the word) the chief assistant (Lat. adjuvare) staff-officer to a general in command, but now a distinct high functionary at the head of a special office in the British and American war departments. In England the second military member of the Army Council is styled adjutant-general to the forces. He is a general officer and at the head of his department of the War Office, which is charged with all duties relative to personnel. The adjutant-general of the United States army is one of the principal officers in the war department, the head of the bureau for army correspondence, with the charge of the records, recruiting, issue of commissions, &c. Individual American states also have their own adjutant-general, with cognate duties regarding the state militia. In many countries, such as Germany and Russia, the term has retained its original meaning of an officer on the personal staff, and is the designation of personal aides-de-camp to the sovereign.
By a looseness of translation, the superintendents of provinces, in the order of Jesuits, who act as officials under the superintendence of and auxiliary to the general, are sometimes called adjutants-general.
ADLER, FELIX (1851- ), American educationalist, was born at Alzey, Germany, on the 13th of August 1851. His father, a Jewish rabbi, emigrated to the United States in 1857, and the son graduated at Columbia College in 1870. After completing his studies at Berlin and Heidelberg, he became, in 1874, professor of Hebrew and Oriental Literature at Cornell University. In 1876 he established in New York City the Society for Ethical Culture, to the development and extension of which he devoted a great deal of time and energy, and before which he delivered a regular Sunday lecture. In 1902 he became professor of political and social ethics at Columbia University. He also acted as one of the editors of the International Journal of Ethics. Under his direction the Society for Ethical Culture became an important factor in educational reform in New York City, exercising through its technical training school and kindergarten (established in January 1878) a wide influence. Dr Adler also took a prominent part in philanthropic and social reform movements, such as the establishment of a system of district nursing, the erection of model tenement houses, and tenement house reform. He published Creed and Deed (1877), The Moral Instruction of Children (1892), Life and Destiny (1903), Marriage and Divorce (1905), and The Religion of Duty (1905).
ADMETUS, in Greek legend, son of Pheres, king of Pherae in Thessaly. By the aid of Apollo, who served him as a slave— either as a punishment for having slain the Cyclopes, or out of affection for his mortal master—he won the hand of Alcestis, the most beautiful of the daughters of Pelias, king of Iolcus. When Admetus was attacked by an illness that threatened to lead to his premature death, Apollo persuaded the Moerae (Fates) to prolong his life, provided any one could be found to die in his place. His parents refused, but Alcestis consented. She is said to have been rescued from the hands of Death by Heracles, who arrived upon the scene at an opportune moment; a later story represents her as cured of a dangerous illness by his skill.
Homer, Iliad, ii. 715; Apollodorus, i. 9; Euripides, Alcestis; Plutarch, Amatorius, 17; Dissel, Der Mythus von Admetos und Alkestis, progr. Brandenburg, 1882.
ADMINISTRATION (Lat. administrare, to serve), the performance or management of affairs, a term specifically used in law for the administration or disposal of the estate of a deceased person (see WILL OR TESTAMENT.) It is also used generally for "government,'' and specifically for "the government'' or the executive ministry, and in such connexions as the administration (administering or tendering) of the sacraments, justice, oaths, medicines, &c.
Letters of administration.—Upon the death of a person intestate or leaving a will to which no executors are appointed, or when the executors appointed by the will cannot or will not act, the Probate Division of the High Court is obliged to appoint an administrator who performs the duties of an executor. This is done by the court granting letters of administration to the person entitled. Grants of administration may be either general or limited. A general grant is made where the deceased has died intestate. The order in which general grants of letters will be made by the court is as follows: (1) The husband, or widow, as the case may be; (2) the next of kin; (3) the crown; (4) a creditor; (5) a stranger. Since the Land Transfer Act 1897, the administrator is the real as well as the personal representative of the deceased, and consequently when the estate to be administered consists wholly or mainly of reality the court will grant administration to the heir to the exclusion of the next of kin. In the absence of any heir or next of kin the crown is entitled to the personality as bona vacantia, and to the reality by escheat. If a creditor claims and obtains a grant he is compelled by the court to enter into a bond with two sureties that he will not prefer his own debt to those of other creditors. The more important cases of grants of special letters of administration are the following:—
Administration cum testamento annexo, where the deceased has left a will but has appointed no executor to it, or the executor appointed has died or refuses to act. In this case the court will make the grant to the person (usually the residuary legatee) with the largest beneficial interest in the estate.
Administration de bonis non administratis: this occurs in two cases—(a) where the executor dies intestate after probate without having completely administered the estate; (b) where an administrator dies. In the first case the principle of administration cum testamento is followed, in the second that of general grants in the selection of the person to whom letters are granted.
Administration durante minore aetate, when the executor or the person entitled to the general grant is under age.
Administration durante absentia, when the executor or administrator is out of the jurisdiction for more than a year.
Administration pendente lite, where there is a dispute as to the person entitled to probate or a general grant of letters the court appoints an administrator till the question has been decided.
ADMINISTRATOR, in English law, the person to whom the Probate Division of the High Court of Justice (formerly the ordinary or judge of the ecclesiastical court) acting in the sovereign's name, commits the administration (q.v.) of the goods of a person deceased, in default of an executor. The origin of administrators is derived from the civil law. Their establishment in England is owing to a statute made in the 31st year of Edward I. (1303). Till then no office of this kind was known besides that of executor; in default of whom, the ordinary had the disposal of goods of persons intestate, &c. (See also EXECUTORS, and, for intestate estates, INTESTACY.)
ADMINISTRATOR, in Scots law, is a person legally empowered to act for another whom the law presumes incapable of acting for himself, as a father for a pupil child.
ADMIRAL, the title of the general officer who commands a fleet, or subdivision of a fleet. The origin of the word is undoubtedly Arabic. In the 12th century the Mediterranean states which had close relations with the Moslem powers on the shores or in the islands of that sea, found the title amir or emir in combination with other words used to describe men in authority; the amir-al-mumenin—prince of the faithful—or al-bahr—commander of the sea. They took the substantive "amir'' and the article "al'' to form one word, "amiral'' or "ammiral'' or "almirante.'' The Spaniards made miramamolin, out of amiral-mumenin, in the same way. "Amiral,'' as the name of an eastern ruler, became familiar to the northern nations during the crusades. Layamon, writing in the early years of the 13th century, speaks of the "ammiral of Babilon,'' and the word was for long employed in this sense. As a naval title it was first taken by the French from the Genoese during the crusade of 1249. By the end of the 13th century it had come to be used in England as the name of the officer who commanded the Cinque Port ships. The English form "admiral'' arose from popular confusion with the Latin admirabilis. Such errors were naturally produced by the fantastic etymology of the middle ages. In Spain, Alphonso the Wise of Castile, in his code of laws, the Siete Partidas (Seven Divisions), accounts for the Spanish form "almirante'' by its supposed derivation from the Latin admirari, since the admiral is "to be admired'' for the difficulties and dangers he overcomes, and because he is the chief of those who see the wonders of the Lord in the deep—mirabilia ejus (sc. Domini) in profundo. Both in Spanish and in Elizabethan English the word has been applied to the flagship of an officer commanding a fleet or part of one. The Spanish almiranta is the ship of the second in command, and the capitana of the first. In this sense it is not uncommonly found in the narratives of Elizabethan voyages or campaigns, and it is so used by Milton in Paradise Lost—"the mast of some tall ammiral.''
As the title of an office it was borne by the great military, judicial and administrative officer known in France as grand amiral; in England as lord high admiral; in Spain as almirante mayor. His functions, which were wide, have been generally absorbed by the crown, or the state, and have been divided among judicial and administrative officials (see NAVY, History; ADMIRALTY ADMINISTRATION; and ADMIRALTY JURISDICTION.) The title of admiral is still borne as an hereditary honour by the descendants of Columbus, the dukes of Veraqua, in Spain. It is a purely honorific distinction representing the admiralship of the islands and Ocean Sea, conferred on the discoverer by the Catholic sovereigns, Ferdinand and Isabella.
In the staff of a modern navy the admirals correspond to the general officers in the army. Where, as in Russia, the grand admiralship is annexed to the crown, the highest rank is that of lieutenant admiral general. In Great Britain there is the rank of admiral of the fleet, corresponding to field-marshal. It is, however, little more than an honorary distinction. The three active ranks are those of admiral, vice-admiral and rear-admiral, corresponding to general, lieutenant-general and major-general in the army. They are found in all navies under very slightly varied forms. The only difference which is not one of mere spelling is in the equivalent for rear-admiral, which is contre amiral in French, and in other navies of the continent of Europe involves some slight variation of the word "contre'' (first used at the time of the French Revolution). The vice- and rear-admiral of Great Britain are again honorary titles, without the active functions, conferred in compliment on senior naval officers. "Admiral'' is also the name given to the chief of fishery fleets. On the banks of Newfoundland it was given to officials who had powers conferred by the state. In the case of an ordinary fishing-fleet in European waters, it is of private origin, and is of merely customary use.
AUTHORITIES.—Sir N. Harris Nicolas, History of the Royal Navy; La Ronciere, Histoire de la marine francarse; Youge, Geschiedenis van het Nederlandsche Zeewezen; C. Fernandez Duro, Historia de la Armada de Castilea. (D. H.)
ADMIRALTY ADMINISTRATION. 1. The Administrative System.—
That the navy (q.v.) is the only real defence of the British islands has been recognized by English people ever since the days of King Offa, who died in 796, leaving to his successors the admirable lesson that "he who would be secure on land must be supreme at sea.'' The truth of the lesson thus learnt is sanctioned by all the experience of English history, and parliament has repeatedly enforced the fact. The navy is the only force that can safeguard the British islands from hostile descents; it is the only force that can protect their vast sea-borne commerce and food supplies; by giving safety to the home country it sets British troops free for operations abroad, and makes their passage secure; and thus, as also by giving command of the sea, the fleet is the means by which the empire is guarded and has become a true imperial bond. It is natural for British admiralty administration to be taken here as the type of an efficient system.
The Board of Admiralty.
British naval administration is conducted by the Board of Admiralty, and the function of that board is the maintenance and expansion of the fleet in accordance with the policy of the government, and the supplying of it with trained officers and men; its distribution throughout the world; and its preservation in readiness and efficiency in all material and personal respects. The character of the Admiralty Board is peculiar to the British constitution, and it possesses certain features which distinguish it from other departments of the state. The business it conducts is very great and complex, and the machinery by which its work is done has grown with the expansion of that business. The whole system of naval administration has been developed historically, and is not the product of the organizing skill of one or a few individuals, but an organic growth possessing marked and special characteristics. The Admiralty Board derives its character from the fact that it represents the lord high admiral, and that its powers and operation depend much more upon usage than upon those instruments which actually give it authority, and which, it may be remarked, are not in harmony among themselves. The executive operations are conducted by a series of civil departments which have undergone many changes before reaching their present constitution and relation to the Board. The salient characteristic of the admiralty is a certain flexibility and elasticity with which it works. Its members are not, in a rigid sense, heads of departments. Subject to the necessary and constitutional supremacy of tho cabinet minister at their head, they are jointly and co-equally "commissioners for executing the office of high admiral of the United Kingdom, and of the territories thereunto belonging, and of high admiral of the colonies and other dominions.'' The members of the Board are in direct and constant communication with the first lord and with one another, as also with the civil departments which work under their control. It was enjoined by James I. that the principal officers and commissioners of the navy should be in constant communication among themselves, consulting and advising "by common council and argument of most voices,'' and should live as near together as could conveniently be, and should meet at the navy office at least twice a week. This system of intercommunication still exists in a manner which no system of minutes could give; and it may be remarked, as illustrative of the flexibility of the system, that a Board may be formed on any emergency by two lords and a secretary, and a decision arrived at then and there. Such an emergency board was actually constituted some years ago on board the admiralty yacht in order to deal on the instant with an event which had just occurred in the fleet. At the same time it must be remarked that, in practice, the first lord being personally responsible under the orders in council, the operations of the Board are dependent upon his direction.
The present system of administering the navy dates from the time of Henry VIII. The naval business of the country had so greatly expanded in his reign that we find the Admiralty and Navy Board reorganized or established; and it is worthy of remark that there existed at the time an ordnance branch, the navy not yet being dependent in that matter upon the War Department.1 The Navy Board administered the civil departments under the admiralty, the directive and executive duties of the lord high admiral remaining with the admiralty office. A little later the civil administration was vested in a board of principal officers subordinate to the lord high admiral, and we can henceforth trace the work of civil administration being conducted under the navy and victualling boards apart from, but yet subject to, the admiralty itself. This was a system which continued during the time of all the great wars, and was not abolished until 1832, when Sir James Graham, by his reforms, put an end to what appeared a divided control. Whatever may have been the demerits of that system, it sufficed to maintain the navy in the time of its greatest achievements, and through all the wars which were waged with the Spaniards, the Dutch and the French. The original authority for the present constitution of the Admiralty Board is found in a declaratory act (Admiralty Act 1690), in which it is enacted that "all and singular authorities, jurisdictions and powers which, by act of parliament or otherwise, had been lawfully vested'' in the lord high admiral of England had always appertained, and did and should appertain, to the commissioners for executing the office for the time being "to all intents and purposes as if the said commissioners were lord high admiral of England.'' The admiralty commission was dissolved in 1701, and reconstituted on the death of Prince George of Denmark, lord high admiral in 1709. From that time forward, save for a short period in 1827-1828, when the duke of Clarence was lord high admiral, the office has remained in commission.
A number of changes have been made since the amalgamation of the admiralty and the Navy Board by Sir James Graham in 1832 (see NAVY, History), but the general principle remains the same, and the constitution of the Admiralty Board and civil departments is described below. The Board consists of the first lord and four naval lords with a civil lord, who in theory are jointly responsible, and are accustomed to meet sometimes daily, but at all times frequently; and the system developed provides for the subdivision of labour, and yet for the co-ordinated exertion of effort. The system has worked well in practice, and has certainly won the approval and the admiration of many statesmen. Lord George Hamilton said, before the Royal Commission on Civil Establishments, 1887, that "It has this advantage, that you have all departments represented round a table, and that if it is necessary to take quick action, you can do in a few minutes that which it would take hours under another system to do''; and the report of the Royal Commission of 1889 remarked that "The constitution of the Board of Admiralty appears to us well designed, and to be placed under present regulations on a satisfactory footing.''
The special characteristics of the Admiralty Board which have been described are accompanied by a very peculiar and noteworthy feature, which is not without relation to the untrammelled and undefined operations of the admiralty. This feature arises from the discrepancy between the admiralty patent and the orders in council, for the admiralty is not administered according to the terms of the patent which invests it with authority, and its operations raise a singular point in constitutional law.
The legal origin of the powers exercised by the first lord and the Board itself is indeed curiously obscure. Under the patent the full power and authority are conferred upon "any two or more'' of the commissioners, though, in the patent of Queen Anne, the grant was to "any three or more of you.'' It was under the Admiralty Act 1832 that two lords received the necessary authority to legalize any action of the Board; but already, under an act of 1822, two lords had been empowered to sign so long as the Board consisted of six members. We therefore find that the legal authority of the Board under the patent is vested in the Board; but in the order in council of the 14th of January 1869 the sole responsibility of the first lord was officially laid down, and in the order in council of the 19th of March 1872 the first lord was made "responsible to your Majesty and to parliament for all the business of the admiralty.'' As a matter of fact, the authority of the first lord, independent of his colleagues, had existed in an undefined manner from ancient times. Before a select committee of the House of Commons in 1861 the duke of Somerset stated that he considered the first lord responsible, that he had always "acted under that impression,'' and that he believed "all former first lords were of this opinion''; while Sir James Graham said that "the Board of Admiralty could never work, whatever the patent might be, unless the first lord were supreme, and did exercise constantly supreme and controlling authority.'' It is not, therefore, surprising to find that there has been undoubtedly direct government without a Board. Thus, in the operations conducted against the French channel ports in 1803-1804, Lord Melville, then first lord, took steps of great importance without the knowledge of his colleagues, though he afterwards bowed to their views, which did not coincide with his own. Again, when Lord Gambier was sent to Copenhagen in 1807, he was instructed to obey all orders from the king, through the principal secretary of state for war, and in this way received orders to attack Copenhagen, which were unknown to all but the first lord. In a similar way the secretary of the admiralty was despatched to Paris in 1815 with instructions to issue orders as if from the Board of Admiralty when directed to do so by the foreign secretary who accompanied him, and these orders resulted in Napoleon's capture. These instances were cited, except the first of them, by Sir James Graham before the select committee of the House of Commons in 1861, in order to illustrate the elastic powers under the patent which enabled the first lord to take immediate action in matters that concerned the public safety. It is not surprising that this peculiar feature of admiralty administration should have attracted adverse criticism, and have led some minds to regard the Board as "a fiction not worth keeping up.''
Between 1860 and 1870 the sittings of the Board ceased to have the effective character they had once possessed. During the administration of Mr Childers,2 first lord from 1868 to 1871 in Mr Gladstone's cabinet, a new system was introduced by which the free intercommunication of the members of the Board was hampered, and its sittings were quite discontinued. The case of the "Captain'' led, however, to a return to the older practice. The "Captain'' was a low freeboard masted turret ship, designed by Captain Cowper Phipps Coles, R.N. Competent critics believed that she would be unsafe, and said so before she was built; but the admiralty of Lord Derby's cabinet of 1866 gave their consent to her construction. She was commissioned early in 1870, and capsized in the Bay of Biscay on the 7th of September of that year. Mr Childers, who was nominally responsible for allowing her to be commissioned, distributed blame right and left, largely upon men who had not approved of the ship at all, and had been exonerated from all share of responsibility for allowing her to be built. The disaster was justly held to show that a civilian first lord cannot dispense with the advantage of constant communication with his professional advisers. When Mr Childers retired from the admiralty in March 1871, his successor, Mr Goschen (Viscount Goschen), reverted to the original system. It cannot be said, however, that the question of ultimate responsibility is well defined. The duke of Somerset, Sir James Graham and Sir Charles Wood, afterwards Lord Halifax, held the view that the first lord was singly and personally responsible for the sufficiency of the fleet. Sir Arthur Hood expressed before the House of Commons committee in 1888 the view that the Board collectively were responsible; whilst Sir Anthony Hoskins assigned the responsibility to the first lord alone with certain qualifications, which is a just and reasonable view.
2. Admiralty Organization.—Under the organization which now exists, the Board of Admiralty consists of the first lord, the first and second naval lords, the additional naval lord and controller, the junior naval lord and the civil lord, who are commissioners for executing the office of lord high admiral, and with them are the parliamentary and financial secretary and the permanent secretary. As has been explained, the first lord is responsible under the orders in council to the crown and to parliament for all admiralty business. In the hands of the other lords and secretaries rest duties very carefully defined, and they direct the civil departments which are the machinery of naval administration. The first naval lord, the second naval lord and the junior naval lord are responsible to the first lord in relation to so much of the business concerning the personnel of the navy and the movements and condition of the fleet as is confided to them, and the additional naval lord or controller is responsible in the same way for the material of the navy; while the parliamentary secretary has charge of finance and some other business, and the civil lord of all shore works—i.e. docks, buildings, &c.—and the permanent secretary of special duties. The first lord of the admiralty is the cabinet minister through whom the navy receives its political direction in accordance with imperial policy. He is the representative of the navy in parliament, which looks to him for everything concerned with naval affairs. The members of the Board are his advisers; but if their advice is not accepted, they have no remedy except protest or resignation. It cannot be denied that the responsibility of the members of the Board, if their advice should be disregarded, must cease, and it is sufficiently obvious that the remedy of resignation will not always commend itself to those whose position and advancement depend upon the favour of the government. Something will be said a little later concerning the working of the system and the relation of the first lord to the Board in regard to the navy estimates. In addition to general direction and supervision, the first lord has special charge of promotions and removals from the service, and of matters relating to honours and rewards, as well as the appointments of flag officers, captains and other officers of the higher ranks. With him rests also the nomination for the major part to naval cadetships and assistant clerkships.
Apart from the first lord, the first naval lord is the most important officer of the Board of Admiralty. It seems to be unquestionable that Sir James Graham was right in describing the senior naval lord as his "first naval adviser.'' Theoretically, the first naval lord is responsible for the personnel of the fleet; but in practice he is necessarily concerned with the material also as soon as it is put into commission, and with the actual commissioning of it. It is correct to say that he is chiefly concerned with the employment of the fleet, though his advice has weight in regard to its character and sufficiency, and is always sought in relation to the shipbuilding programme. Broadly speaking, the first naval lord's duties and authority cover the fighting efficiency and employment of the fleet, and upon him and upon the controller the naval business of the country largely falls. He directs the operations of the admiral superintendent of naval reserves in regard to ships, the hydrographer, the director of naval ordnance, so far as the gunnery and torpedo training establishments are concerned, and the naval intelligence department, and he has charge of all matters relating to discipline. The mobilization of the fleet, both in regard to personnel and material, also falls to him, and among a mass of other business in his department are necessary preparations for the protection of trade and the fisheries. It will thus be seen that the first naval lord is the chief officer of the Board of Admiralty, and that the operations of the other members of the Board all have relation to his work, which is no other than preparation for war. It may here be remarked that it appears most necessary to change the naval lords frequently, so that there may always be in the Board some one who possesses recent touch with the service afloat.
The second naval lord may be regarded as the coadjutor of the first naval lord, with whose operations his duties are very closely related, though, like every other member of the Board, he is subordinate only to the first lord. The duties of the second naval lord are wholly concerned with the personnel of the fleet, the manning of the navy and mobilization. In his hands rests the direction of naval education, training and the affairs of the royal marine forces. The training establishments and colleges are in his hands. He appoints navigating officers and lieutenants to ships (unless they be to command), sub-lieutenants, midshipmen and cadets, engineer officers, gunners and boatswains, and supervises the management of the reserve. In his province is the mobilization of the personnel, including the coastguard and the royal naval reserve. Necessarily, the first and second naval lords work together, and upon occasion can replace each other.3
Most important are the duties that fall to the additional naval lord and controller. He has charge of everything that concerns the material of the fleet, and his operations are the complement of the work of the first naval lord. A great number of civil departments are directed by the controller, and his survey and supervision extend to the dockyards and building establishments of the fleet. He submits plans to the Board for new ships, and is responsible for carrying into effect its decisions in regard to all matters of construction and equipment. The building operations both in the dockyards and in private yards are therefore under his supervision. In regard to all these matters the director of naval construction and the engineer-in-chief are the heads of the civil departments that carry on the work. Again, the controller is responsible in regard to armament—both gunnery and torpedo—and it is the work of his department to see to all gunnery and torpedo fittings, and to magazines, shell-rooms and electric apparatus. The officer in immediate charge of this branch of the controller's work, under his direction, is the director of naval ordnance. In regard to work at the dockyards (q.v.) the controller is aided by the director of dockyards. He supervises this officer in preparing the programme of work done in the dockyards, the provision of the material required and its appropriation to particular work in accordance with the programme. Other officers who conduct great operations under the authority and responsibility of the controller are the director of stores, who maintains all necessary supplies of coal and stores at home and abroad, and examines the store accounts of ships, and the inspector of dockyard expense accounts, who has charge of the accounts of dockyard expenditure and seeing that outlay is charged as directed. In regard to the navy estimates, the controller, through his subordinates, is responsible for the preparation and administration of the votes for shipbuilding and naval armaments, except in regard to some sub-headings of the former, and thus in recent years for the expenditure of something like L. 15,000,000 or over.
The junior naval lord has in his hands the very important duties that are concerned with the transport, medical and victualling services, as well as the regulation of hospitals, the charge of coaling arrangements for the fleet and other duties that conduce to the practical efficiency of the navy. He also appoints chaplains, naval instructors, medical officers (except in special cases) and officers of the accountant branch. A vast business in regard to the internal economy of ships greatly occupies the junior lord. He has charge, for example, of uniforms, prize-money, bounties, naval savings banks, and pensions to seamen and marines and the widows of naval and marine officers. The work of the junior naval lord places under his direction the director of transports, the director-general of the medical department, the director of victualling, and, in regard to particular matters, the director of stores, the accountant- general, the chaplain of the fleet, and the Intelligence Department, so far as the junior lord's department is concerned.
The civil lord supervises, through the director of works, the Department of Works, dealing with admiralty buildings and works, construction and labour, contracts and purchases of building stores and land. He is also responsible for the civil staff of the naval establishments, except in regard to certain officials, and for duties connected with Greenwich Hospital, compassionate allowances, charitable funds, and business of like character. The accountant-general, in regard to these matters, is directed by him, and the director of Greenwich Hospital is under his authority.
The parliamentary and financial secretary is responsible for the finance of the department, the navy estimates and matters of expenditure generally, and is consulted in regard to all matters involving reference to the treasury. His position in regard to estimates and expenditure is very important, and the accountant- general is his officer, while he has financial control over the director of contracts. The financial secretary also examines proposals for new expenditure.
A most important official of the Board is the permanent secretary, whose office has been described as the "nerve-centre'' of the admiralty, since it is the channel through which papers for the lords of the admiralty pass for the intercommunication of departments and for the correspondence of the Board. The tradition of admiralty procedure largely rests with the permanent secretary, and it is most important that he should be chosen from one of the branches, and should have served in as many of them at possible, in order that he may possess a thorough knowledge of the theory and practice of the admiralty system. In addition to the secretarial duties of the permanent secretary's department, the permanent secretary has charge of the military, naval and legal branches, each under a principal clerk, the civil branch and the record office. The various branches deal with matters concerning the commissioning of ships and the distribution of the fleet, and the manning and discipline of the navy, with other associated matters, being the channels for the operations of the naval lords. It is a highly important function of the department of the permanent secretary to preserve the inter-related working of the various departments, and to keep unbroken the thread of administration when a new Board is constituted.
3. Business and Responsibility.—The manner in which the Admiralty Board conducts the great operations under its charge has been indicated. It would be impossible here to describe it in detail, though something concerning the civil departments, which are the machinery of naval administration, will be found below. It will, however, indicate the character of admiralty administration if we explain to some extent the conditions which surround the preparation of the estimates and the shipbuilding programme, the more so because this matter has been the battle-ground of critics and supporters of the admiralty. It has already been pointed out that the naval lords, if they dissent from the estimates that are presented, have no remedy but that of protest or resignation. Into the controversies that have arisen as to the responsibility of the several lords it is unnecessary to enter here. The Admiralty Board possesses, in fact, the character of a council, and its members can only be held responsible for their advice. It has even been contended that, in the circumstances, it should not be incumbent upon them to sign the navy estimates, and there have been instances in which the estimates have been presented to parliament without the signature of certain naval lords. It is in any case obvious, as has been explained above, that the ultimate responsibility must always rest with the first lord and the cabinet, by whom the policy of the country is shaped and directed. In the report of the Hartington Commission in 1890 (the chairman of which became 8th duke of Devonshire) to inquire into the civil and professional administration of the Naval and Military Departments, and the relation of these departments to each other and to the treasury, the following recommendation occurs: "On the first lord alone should rest the responsibility of deciding on the provision to be made for the naval requirements of the empire, and the existence of a council should be held in no degree to diminish that responsibility.''
Two conditions primarily rule the determination as to the strength of the navy. They are, the foreign policy of the Cabinet, and, on the ground of practical expediency, the amount of money available. "The estimates and strength of the navy,'' said Rear-Admiral Hotham before the select committee on the navy estimates, 1888, "are matters for the cabinet to determine.'' "Expense,'' said Sir Anthony Hoskins, "governs everything.'' The needs of the empire and financial considerations, as it is scarcely necessary to remark, may prove to be antithetical conditions governing the same problem, and in practice it follows that the Admiralty Board directs its operations in accordance with the views of the government, but limited by the public funds which are known to be available. Such considerations suggest a practical limitation of responsibility, so far as the several lords of the admiralty are concerned, but it may be presumed to be their duty individually or collectively to place their views before the first lord; and Lord George Hamilton told the select committee of 1888 that, if his colleagues should represent to him that a certain expenditure was indispensable for the efficiency of the service, he would recognize that all financial considerations should be put on one side. The commissioners reported that this was the only common-sense view of the matter, and that it was difficult to see on what other footing the control of navy expenditure, consistently with responsibility to parliament, could be placed.
Two practical considerations are bound up with the shipbuilding programme—the carrying forward of the work in hand and the new construction to be begun, since it is absolutely necessary that proper provision should be made for the employment and distribution of labour in the dockyards, and for the purchase of necessary materials. Through the director of naval construction and the director of dockyards, the controller is kept informed as to the progress of work and the amount of labour required, as also in regard to the building facilities of the yards. These matters, in a general way, must form a subject of discussion between the first naval lord and the controller, who will report on the subject to the first lord. The accountant-general, as the financial officer of the Board, will be called upon to place the proposed estimates upon a financial basis, and when the views of the cabinet are known as to the amount of money available, the several departments charged with the duty of preparing the various votes will proceed with that work. The financial basis alluded to is, of course, found in the estimates of the previous year, modified by the new conditions that arise. There has been in past times a haphazard character in our shipbuilding programmes, but with the introduction of the Naval Defence Act of 1889, which looked ahead and was not content with hand-to-mouth provision, a better state of things has grown up, and with a larger sense of responsibility, a policy characterized by something of continuity has been developed. Certainly the largest factor in the better state of things has been the growth of a strong body of public opinion as to the supreme value of the navy for national and imperial welfare.
Another important and related matter that comes before the Board of Admiralty is the character and design of ships. The naval members of the Board indicate the classes and qualities desired, and it is the practice that the sketch-design, presented in accordance with the instructions, is fully discussed by the first naval lord and the controller, and afterwards by the Board. The design then takes further shape, and when it has received the final sanction of the Board it cannot be altered without the sanction of the same authority. A similar procedure is found in the other business of the Admiralty Board, such as shore-works, docks and the preparation of offensive and defensive plans of warfare—the last being a very important matter that falls into the operations of the Naval Intelligence Department, which has been described, though not with perfect accuracy, and certainly in no large sense, as "the brain of the navy.'' That department is under the direction of the first naval lord.
The shipbuilding programme may be described as the cornerstone of the executive business of the admiralty, because upon it depends very largely the preparation of all the other votes relating to numbers, stores, victualling, clothing, &c. But if the Admiralty Board is responsible through the first lord for the preparation of the estimates, it is also charged with the business of supervising expenditure. In this matter the financial secretary plays a large part, and is directed to assist the spending department of the admiralty in their duty of watching the progress of their liabilities and disbursements. Some notes on admiralty finance will be found below (section 4). The shipbuilding votes set the larger machinery of the admiralty in motion. The executive departments, except in regard to the hulls and machinery of ships and the special requirements of the director of works, do not make purchases of stores, that work resting with the director of navy contracts. Most of the important executive and spending branches are in the department of the controller, and it will be well, while we are dealing with the material side of the navy, to describe briefly their character and duties. The civil branches of the navy tributary to the controller are those of the director of naval construction, the engineer-in-chief, the directors of naval ordnance, of dockyards and of stores, and the inspector of dockyard expense accounts. The first duty of the controller is, as has been explained, in relation to the design and construction of ships and their machinery, and the executive officials who have charge of that work are the director of naval construction and the engineer-in-chief, whose operations are closely interrelated. A vast administrative stride has been made in this particular branch of the admiralty. The work of design and construction now go forward together, and the admiralty designers are in close touch with the work in hand at the dockyards. This has been largely brought about by the institution, in 1883, of the royal corps of naval constructors, whose members interchange their duties between the designing of ships at the admiralty and practical work at the dockyards. It is through the director of naval construction that many of the spending departments are set in motion, since he is responsible both for the design of ships and for their construction. It deserves to be noticed, however, that a certain obscurity exists in regard to the relative duties of the director of naval construction and the director of dockyards touching constructive works in the yards. The former officer has also charge of all the work given out to contract, though it is the business of the dockyard officials to certify that the conditions of the contract have been fulfilled. In all this work the director of naval construction collaborates with the engineer-in-chief, who is an independent officer and not a subordinate, and whose procedure in regard to machinery closely resembles that adopted in the matter of contract-built ships.
The director of naval ordnance is another officer of the Controller's Department whose operations are very closely related to the duties of the director of naval construction, and the relation is both intimate and sustained, for in the Ordnance Department everything that relates to guns, gun-mountings, magazines, torpedo apparatus, electrical fittings for guns, and other electrical fittings is centred. A singular feature of this branch of administration is that the navy long since lost direct control of ordnance matters, through the duties connected with naval gunnery, formerly in the hands of the master-general of the ordnance, and those of the Board of Ordnance—a department common to the sea and land services—being vested in 1855 in the secretary of state for war. A more satisfactory state of things has grown up through the appointment of the director of naval ordnance, taking the place of the naval officer who formerly advised the director of artillery at the War Office. Expenditure on ordnance has also been transferred from the army to the navy estimates, and a Naval Ordnance Store Department has been created. It cannot be said that the condition is yet satisfactory, nor can it be until the navy has control of and responsibility for its own ordnance. The assistant-director of torpedoes is an officer instituted at the admiralty within recent years, and his duty is to assist the director of naval ordnance in all torpedo matters.
The director of dockyards replaced the surveyor of dockyards in 1885, at about which time the inspector of dockyard expense accounts was instituted. It is upon the director of dockyards (q.v.) that the responsibility of the controller devolves in regard to the management of dockyards and naval establishments at home and abroad, and to the performance of work in these establishments, ship and boat building, maintenance, repairs and refits. In this department the programme for work in the dockyards is prepared, as well as certain sections of the navy estimates.
We now come to the Stores Department, with the director of stores as its chief. This officer, about the year 1869, took over the storekeeping duties previously vested in the storekeeper- general. The Naval Store Department is charged with the custody and issue of naval, as distinguished from victualling and ordnance stores, to be used in naval dockyards and establishments for the building, fitting and repairing of warships. It has, however, no concern with stores that belong to the Department of Works. The business of the director of stores is also to receive and issue the stores for ships of all classes in commission and reserve, and he deals with a vast array of objects and materials necessary for the fleet, and with coals and coaling. He frames the estimates for his department, but his purchases are made through the director of navy contracts. In practice the main business of the Stores Department is to see to the provision of stores for the navy, and to the proper supply of these at all the establishments, and for this purpose its officials direct the movements of storeships, and arrange for the despatch of colliers, the director being charged to be "careful to provide for His Majesty's ships on foreign stations, and for the necessary supplies to foreign yards.'' Another important business of the director of stores is the examination of the store accounts of ships as well as some other accounts. Although the director of stores is really in the department of the controller, he is supervised in regard to the coaling of the fleet by the junior naval lord. The inspector of dockyard expense accounts has been alluded to. He is the officer charged with keeping a record of expenditure at the dockyards and of supervising expense accounts.
It may be useful to add a note concerning the spending of the money. Within the controller's department, as has been explained, are centred the more important spending branches of the admiralty. While the work of designing ships and preparing plans is in progress, the director of stores, the director of dockyards and other officials of that department concerned are making preparation for the work. The necessary stores, comprising almost every imaginable class of materials, are brought together, and the director of stores is specially charged to obtain accurate information in regard to requirements. He is not, however, a purchasing officer, that work being undertaken by the director of navy contracts, who is concerned with the whole business of supply, except in regard to hulls and machinery of ships built by contract, and the special requirements of the director of works. At the same time, the civil departments of the admiralty being held responsible for the administration of the votes they compile, it is their duty to watch the outlay of money, and to see that it is well expended, the accountant-general being directed to assist them in this work. The system is closely jointed and well administered, but it possesses a very centralized character, which interferes to some extent with flexible working, and with the progress of necessary repairs, especially in foreign yards. In so far as ships given out to contract are concerned (and the same is the case in regard to propelling machinery built by contract), the director of navy contracts plays no part, the professional business being conducted through the controller of the navy, who is advised thereon by the director of naval construction and the engineer-in-chief. The work conducted in private establishments is closely watched by the admiralty officials, and is thoroughly tested, but, mutatis mutandis, the system in regard to contract-built ships is practically the same as that which prevails in the dockyards.
4. Naval Finance: The Accountant-General's Department.— The subject of naval finance is one of great complexity and of vast importance. The large sums of money with which the admiralty deals in the way of both estimates and expenditure, amounting recently to about L. 30,000,000 annually, implies the existence of the great organization which is found in the department of the accountant-general of the navy. Under the authority of the first lord, the parliamentary and financial secretary is responsible for the finance of the admiralty in general, and for the estimates and the expenditure, the accounts and the purchases, and for all matters which concern the relations of the admiralty to the treasury and to other departments of the government; and in all the practical and advisory work the accountant-general is his officer, acting as his assistant, with the director of naval contracts who, under the several lords, is concerned with the business of purchase.
The organization of the accountant-general's department has undergone many changes, and the resulting condition is the outcome of various modifications which have had for their purpose to give to this officer a measure of financial control. There have been various views as to what the duties of the accountant- general should be. After the reorganization of the admiralty by Sir James Graham in 1832, the accountant-general was regarded as a recording and accounting officer, wholly concerned with receipt and expenditure. His duties were limited to the auditing of accounts, payments and expenditure generally. Owing to changes effected in 1869, which made the parliamentary secretary, assisted by the civil lord, responsible for finance at the admiralty, bringing the naval and victualling store departments into his charge. the accountant-general was invested with the power of criticizing these accounts financially, though he did not as yet possess any financial control, and the position was little changed by fresh rules made in 1876. It was not until 1880 that the powers of the accountant-general were enlarged in this direction. It was then ordered that he should be consulted before any expenditure which the estimates had not provided for was incurred, and before any money voted was applied to other purposes than those for which it was provided. The effect of this order was not happy, for the accountant-general could not undertake these duties without setting up friction with the departments whose accounts he criticized. It was contemplated by the admiralty in 1885 to make the accountant-general the assistant of the financial secretary, and to raise him to the position of a permanent officer of finance instead of being an officer of account invested with imperfect authority in the direction of control. A select committee of the House of Commons reported that the accountant-general possessed no financial control over the departments, and that there was an urgent need for establishing such a control. At the time the position of that officer did not enable him to exercise any sufficient general supervision over expenditure, and there was no permanent high official expressly charged with finance. Accordingly, after being submitted to a departmental committee, a fresh arrangement was made in November 1885, whereby the accountant-general, under the authority of the financial secretary, was given a direct share in the preparation of the estimates. His written concurrence was required before the final approval of the votes, and each vote was referred to him for his approval or observations, and he was to exercise a financial review of expenditure and to see that it was properly accounted for. He became, in fact, "the officer to be consulted on all matters involving an expenditure of naval funds.'' It was believed that economical administration would result; but much opposition was raised to the principle that was involved of submitting the proposals of responsible departments to the inexpert criticism of a financial authority. Mr Main, assistant accountant-general, stated before the Royal Commission on Civil Establishments, 1887, that the effect had been to develop a tendency to withhold information or to afford only partial information, as well as to cause friction when questions were raised affecting expenditure, accompanied by protests, even in those cases in which these questions were manifestly of a legitimate character. The result was discouraging, and in the opinion of Mr Main had done much to weaken financial control and to defeat the purpose of the order. It is unnecessary to detail the various changes that have been made by the institution of dockyard expense accounts in the department of the controller, and by various other alterations introduced. The treasury instituted an independent audit of store accounts which greatly affected the position of the accountant-general, and the Royal Commission on Civil Establishments reported that the Board of Admiralty were of opinion that they could dispense with the accountant- general's review altogether. The commission was, however, of opinion that the accountant-general should be the permanent assistant and adviser, on all matters involving the outlay of public money, of the financial secretary.
The operations of the accountant-general are now conducted in accordance with the order in council of the 18th of November 1885, and of an office memorandum issued shortly afterwards. He thus acts as deputy and assistant of the parliamentary and financial secretary, and works with a finance committee within the admiralty, of which the financial secretary is president and the accountant-general himself vice-president. The duties of the department are precisely defined as consisting in the criticism of the annual estimates as to their sufficiency before they are passed, and in advising the financial and parliamentary secretary as to their satisfying the ordinary conditions of economy. The accountant-general also reviews the progress of liabilities and expenditure, and in relation to dockyard expenditure he considers the proposed programme of construction as it affects labour, material and machinery. He further reviews current expenditure, or the employment of labour and material, as distinguished from cash payments of the yard, as well as proposals for the spending of money on new work or repairs of any kind for which estimates are currently proposed. The accountant-general's department has three principal divisions: the estimates division, the navy pay division, and the invoices and claims division. In the first of these is the ledger branch, occupied with the work of accounts under the several votes and sub-heads of votes, and with preparing the navy appropriation account, as well as the estimates and liabilities branch, in which the navy estimates are largely prepared after having been proposed and worked out in the executive departments of the admiralty. There are also ships' establishments and salaries branches. The navy pay division includes the full and half-pay branch and a registry section. There is also the seamen's pay branch, which audits ships' ledgers and wages, and has charge of all matters concerning the wages of seamen. The victualling audit is also in this branch, and is concerned with payments for savings in lieu of victualling and some other matters. Further, the navy pay division examines ships' ledgers, and is concerned with the service, characters, ages, &c., of men as well as with allotments and pensions The third division of the accountant-general's department, known as that of invoices and claims, conducts a vast amount of clerical work through many branches, and is concerned with the management of naval savings banks and matters touching prize-money and bounties.
The importance of this great department of the admiralty cannot be overrated. It is, in the first place, of supreme importance that the navy estimates should be placed upon a sound financial basis; and in practice the Board requires the concurrence of the accountant-general to the votes before they are approved, and thus in greater or less degree this officer is concerned in the preparation of every one of the votes. He does not concern himself with matters of larger policy outside the domain of finance, and it must be confessed that there appears to be something anomalous in his "review'' of naval expenditure. It is, however, a mark of the flexibility or elasticity of the admiralty system that in practice the operations of the accountant- general's department work easily, and that admiralty finance is recognized as having been placed upon a sound and efficient basis. There are important financial officers outside the accountant-general's department concerned with assisting the controller. The inspector of dockyard expense accounts, who is entirely in the controller's department, enables him to exercise careful supervision over expenditure and the distribution of funds to special purposes. This work, however, though highly important, is merely one part of the system of financial control. Within recent years the bonds have been considerably tightened, and the work is untainted by corruption. It is true that in exercising rigid supervision over expenditure the work has become more centralized than is desirable, and it is a mark of change within recent years that local officers have been in larger measure deprived of independent powers. This, indeed, is a necessary condition of financial control, or at least a condition which it is not easy to change where rigid control is necessary.
5. Mobilization of the Fleet.—By the mobilization of the fleet is meant the placing of naval resources upon a war footing, in readiness in all material and personal respects for hostile operations. A complete mobilization for purposes of practice in peace time would dislocate seafaring life in a manner which would be justifiable only by actual war. Thus no country in peace manoeuvres calls out all its naval reserves, or makes use of the auxiliary cruisers—merchant ships for which a subvention is paid, and which are constructed with a view to use in warfare. Experience has shown that when vessels are commissioned they are liable to numerous small breakdowns of their machinery if they are manned by crews who have no familiarity with them. Many accidents of this kind had occurred in the British navy at manoeuvres, though it could not be shown that the vessel was defective, or that the crew was either untrained or negligent. These experiments led the admiralty to adopt a new system in 1904, designed to obviate the risk that vessels would be crippled at a critical moment by want of acquaintance on the part of the crew with their machinery. Under this system all vessels which are considered to be available for war are divided into two classes:—first, those in full commission which constitute the different squadrons maintained at all times; and secondly, those which form the reserve and are kept in partial commission—or rather partially manned though in commission. These are kept at the home ports—Chatham, Portsmouth, Plymouth—in reserve squadrons under a flag-officer who will command them in war. Each vessel has a captain, a second in command, and a proportion of other officers including engineer, navigating and torpedo officers. Two-fifths of her full complement of crew are always on board, and they include the most skilled men needed for the proper management of the machinery of all kinds—more especially that of the torpedoes and guns. These vessels go to sea for periodical practice. When therefore line fleet must be mobilized for war it will only be necessary to fill up the number of trained men by the less skilled hands from the naval barracks occupied by the sailors not belonging to any particular ship, or from the naval reserve. All ranks of the navy are placed on a roster by which they successively serve in ships in full commission, are quartered in the naval barracks and drafted from them to the ships of the reserve, from which they return to the sea-going ships. It is calculated that there are always men enough in the barracks to complete the crews of a small squadron for emergency service without disturbing the regular routine of the peace establishment. The British admiralty may claim that though the machinery at its command in the past was not perfect it has commonly been able to send a squadron to sea more rapidly than any other power in Europe. Much depends on the arrangement of the stores as well as the disposition of the men. The introduction at the end of the 18th century of the businesslike practice of keeping the fittings of each ship together by themselves, did much to facilitate the rapid mobilization of a portion of the British fleet in 1790 which impressed all Europe. The prompt manning of a special service squadron in 1895 in consequence of the troubles then arising in connexion with the former South African Republic, showed that even before its plans for mobilization were completed the admiralty had its resources well in hand. (R. V. H.)
As regards the navies of countries other than Great Britain, their government is in the hands of ministers or departments variously constituted. The Russian admiralty is a highly organized bureau, divided into departments, and under the supreme control of a high admiral, usually a grand duke of the Imperial House. The German admiralty was, till 1872, a branch of the War Office, though governed by a vice-admiral under a naval prince of the reigning family. In 1872 it was severed from the War Office, though remaining an appanage thereof, and a general of the army was placed at its head. The French minister of marine, assisted by a permanent staff, controls the navy of France on a highly centralized system of administration; but the departments are well organized, and work well. The Italian fleet is governed on principles analogous to the French, but with a large admixture of the English representative element. The American system is worth describing in more detail.
United States Navy Department.
The president of the United States is commander-in-chief of the navy—a constitutional prerogative which he seldom asserts. The Navy Department is administered by a civilian secretary of the navy—a cabinet officer appointed by the president—who exercises general supervision. Next in authority is the assistant-secretary, also a civilian nominee, who acts as an assistant, and has, besides, certain specific duties, including general supervision of the marine corps, naval militia and naval stations beyond the continental limits of the United States. The details of administration are supervised by the chiefs of bureaus, of which there are eight. They are appointed by the president from the navy list for a period of four years, and have the rank of rear-admiral while serving in this capacity. They have direct control of the business and correspondence pertaining to their respective bureaus; and orders emanating from them have the same force as though issued by the secretary.
The bureau of navigation is the executive, or military, bureau, and as such promulgates and enforces the orders and regulations prescribed by the secretary; it has general direction of the procurement, education, assignment and discipline of the personnel. It also controls the movements of ships, including the authorization of manoeuvres and drills, such as target practice. The bureau of equipment has charge of all electrical appliances, compasses, charts and fuel, and generally all that relates to the equipment of vessels, exclusive of those articles that come naturally under the cognizance of other bureaus. It has charge of the naval observatory, where the Ephemeris is prepared annually, and of the hydrographic office, where charts, sailing directions, notices to mariners, &c., are issued. The bureau of ordnance has charge of the gun factory, proving ground, and torpedo station, and all naval magazines; all the details that pertain to the manufacture, tests, installation or storage of all offensive and defensive apparatus, including armour, ammunition hoists, ammunition rooms, &c., though much of the actual installation is performed by the bureau of construction after consultation with the bureau of ordnance. The bureau of construction and repair has charge of the designing, building and repairing of hulls of ships, including turrets, spars and many other accessories. It builds all boats, has charge of the docking of vessels and the care of ships in reserve. The chief of this bureau is usually a naval constructor. The bureau of steam engineering has charge of all that relates to the designing, building and repairing of steam machinery, and of all the steam connexions on board ship. The bureau of supplies and accounts procures and distributes provisions, clothing and supplies of the pay department afloat, and acts as the purchasing agent for all materials used at naval stations, except for the medical department and marine corps. It also has charge of the disbursement of money and keeping of accounts. The chief of this bureau is a pay officer. The bureau of medicine and surgery has charge of all naval hospitals, dispensaries and laboratories, and of all that pertains to the care of sick afloat and ashore. The chief of this bureau is a medical officer. The bureau of yards and docks has charge of construction and maintenance of wet and dry docks, buildings, railways, cranes, and generally all permanent constructions at naval stations. The chief of this bureau is often a civil engineer.
Under the cognizance of the secretary's office is the office of the judge-advocate-general, an officer selected by the president from the navy list for a term of four years, with the rank of captain while so serving. He is legal adviser to the department, and reviews the records of all courts and statutory boards. Under the cognizance of the assistant-secretary's office is the office of naval intelligence, which collates information on naval matters obtainable at home and abroad. The staff is composed of naval officers on shore duty, the senior in charge being usually a captain, and known as chief intelligence officer. Several boards are employed under the various bureaus, or directly as advisers to the secretary. Some are permanent in character, while others are composed of officers employed on other duty, and are convoked periodically or when required. The naval policy board is composed of officers of high rank, and meets once a month; its duties conform to those of the general staff in armies. The board of construction consists of the chiefs of bureaus of ordnance, equipment, construction and repair, steam engineering, and the chief intelligence officer. Its duty is to advise the secretary in all matters relating to the construction policy in detail. The general construction policy is suggested by the naval policy board. The board of inspection and survey is composed of representatives of all bureaus, who inspect vessels soon after commission and on return from a cruise, and report on the condition of the ship and efficiency of its personnel; it also conducts the official trials of new vessels. The boards for the examination of officers for promotion are composed of officers of the corps to which the candidate belongs and of medical officers. Every officer is examined professionally, morally and physically at each promotion. The Navy Department is located at Washington, D.C., and occupies a building together with the State and War Departments (the latter being charged solely with army affairs).
The personnel (see also under NAVY) is limited in number by law. The engineer corps was abolished in 1899, the then engineer-officers becoming line officers in their respective relative grades. Line officers are the military and executive branch, and are required besides to perform engineer duties. They are graduates of the Naval Academy. Vacancies occurring in the construction corps are filled from the graduates of the Naval Academy having the highest standing in scholarship, who are given a two years' graduate course, generally abroad, on being graduated from the Academy, and are then appointed assistant naval constructors. All other staff officers are appointed directly from civil life by the president, from candidates passing prescribed examinations. Each representative and delegate in Congress has authority to nominate a candidate for naval cadet whenever his congressional district has no representative in the Naval Academy. The candidate must be a resident of the district which the congressman represents, between fifteen and twenty years old, and must pass prescribed mental and physical examinations. The president is allowed ten representatives at the Academy at all times, appointed "at large,'' and one appointed from the District of Columbia.
The course of instruction at the Academy is four years, each comprising eight months' study, three months' practice cruise, and one month's furlough. At the expiration of four years, cadets are sent to cruising ships for two years' further instruction, and are then commissioned ensigns. After three years' further sea service, ensigns are promoted to lieutenants (junior grade). After this, promotion is dependent upon seniority alone, the senior officer in any grade being promoted to the lowest number in the next higher grade when a vacancy occurs in the higher grade, and not before. All officers are retired on three-fourths sea pay at the age of sixty-two, or whenever a board of medical officers certifies that an officer is not physically qualified to perform all duties of his grade. A few officers are allowed to retire voluntarily in certain circumstances, to stimulate promotion. Any officer on the retired list may be ordered by the secretary to such duty as he may be able to perform: this is a legal provision to provide for emergencies. Promotion in the staff corps is dependent upon seniority, though relative rank in the lower grades in some corps somewhat depends upon promotion of line officers of the same length of service, and accounts for the existence of staff officers in the same grade having different ranks. All sea-going officers, after commission, are required to spend three years at sea, and are then usually employed on shore-duty for a time, according to the needs of the service—short terms of shore-duty thereafter alternating with three-year cruises. This rule is adhered to as strictly as circumstances will permit. Shore-duty includes executive or distinctly professional duties in the Navy Department, under its bureaus, and at navy yards and stations; inspection of ordnance, machinery, dynamos, &c., under construction by private firms; duty on numerous temporary or permanent boards; instructors at the Naval Academy; recruiting duty; charge of branch hydrographic offices; inspection duty in the lighthouse establishment; at state nautical schools; as attaches with United States legations; and many others. Naval constructors (usually), civil engineers and professors of mathematics are continuously employed on shore-duty connected with their professions, the Naval Observatory, Nautical Almanac and the Naval Academy employing most of the last.
Warrant officers (boatswains, gunners, carpenters, sailmakers, warrant machinists and pharmacists) are appointed by the secretary, preference being given to enlisted men in the navy who have shown marked ability for the positions. They must be between twenty-one and thirty-five years of age, and pass an examination. After serving satisfactorily for one year under an acting appointment, they receive warrants that secure the permanency of their office. Ten years after appointment, boatswains, gunners, carpenters and sailmakers are eligible for examination for a commission as chief-boatswain, &c., and as such they rank with, but next after, ensigns. Mates are rated by the secretary from seamen or ordinary seamen. They have no relative rank, but take precedence of all petty officers. Their duties approximate to those of boatswains, though they seldom serve on large cruising vessels. Clerks to pay officers are appointed by the secretary on the nominations of the pay officers. They have no rank and are not promoted or retired. Their appointments are revoked when their services are no longer needed.