ADAM SCOTUS (d. 1180), theological writer, sometimes called Adam Anglicus or Anglo-Scotus, was born in the south of Scotland in the first half of the 12th century. About 1150 he was a Premonstratensian canon at St Andrews, and some twenty years later abbot and bishop of Candida Casa (Whithorn) in Galloway. He gained a European reputation for his writings, which are of mystico-ascetic type, and include an account of the Premonstratensian order, a collection of festival sermons, and a Soliloquia de instructione discipuli, formerly attributed to his contemporary, Adam of St Victor.
ADAMSON, PATRICK (1537—1592), Scottish divine, archbishop of St Andrews, was born at Perth. He studied philosophy, and took the degree of M.A. at St Andrews. After being minister of Ceres in Fife for three years, in 1566 he set out for Paris as tutor to the eldest son of Sir James Macgill, the clerk-general. In June of the same year he wrote a Latin poem on the birth of the young prince James, whom he described as serenissimus princeps of France and England. The French court was offended, and he was confined for six months. He was released only through the intercession of Queen Mary of Scotland and some of the principal nobility, and retired with his pupil to Bourges. He was in this city at the time of the massacre of St Bartholomew at Paris, and lived concealed for seven months in a public-house, the aged master of which, in reward for his charity to a heretic, was thrown from the roof. While in this "Sepulchre,', he wrote his Latin poetical version of the book of Job, and his tragedy of Herod in the same language. In 1572 or 1573 he returned to Scotland, and became minister of Paisley. In 1575 he was appointed by the General Assembly one of the commissioners to settle the jurisdiction and policy of the church; and the following year he was named, with David Lindsay, to report their proceedings to the earl of Morton, then regent. In 1576 his appointment as archbishop of St Andrews gave rise to a protracted conflict with the Presbyterian party in the Assembly. He had previously published a catechism in Latin verse dedicated to the king, a work highly approved even by his opponents, and also a Latin translation of the Scottish Confession of Faith. In 1578 he submitted himself to the General Assembly, which procured him peace for a little time, but next year fresh accusations were brought against him. He took refuge in St Andrews Castle, where "a wise woman,'' Alison Pearson, who was ultimately burned for witchcraft, cured him of a serious illness. In 1583 he went as James's ambassador to the court of Elizabeth, and is said to have behaved rather badly. On his return he took strong parliamentary measures against Presbyterians, and consequently, at a provincial synod held at St Andrews in April 1586, he was accused of heresy and excommunicated, but at the next General Assembly the sentence was remitted as illegal. In 1587 and 1588, however, fresh accusations were brought against him, and he was again excommunicated, though afterwards on the inducement of his old opponent, Andrew Melville, the sentence was again remitted. Meanwhile he had published the Lamentations of Jeremiah, and the book of Revelation in Latin verse, which he dedicated to the king, complaining of his hard usage. But James was unmoved by his application, and granted the revenue of his see to the duke of Lennox. For the rest of his life Adamson was supported by charity; he died in 1592. His recantation of Episcopacy (1590) is probably spurious. Adamson was a man of many gifts, learned and eloquent, but with grave defects of character. His collected works, prefaced by a fulsome panegyric, in the course of which it is said that "he was a miracle of nature, and rather seemed to be the immediate production of God Almighty than born of a woman,'' were produced by his son-in-law, Thomas Wilson, in 1619.
ADAMSON, ROBERT (1852-1902), Scottish philosopher, was born in Edinburgh on the 19th of January 1852. His father was a solicitor, and his mother was the daughter of Matthew Buist, factor to Lord Haddington. In 1855 Mrs Adamson was left a widow with small means, and devoted herself entirely to the education of her six children. Of these, Robert was successful from the first. At the end of his school career he entered the university of Edinburgh at the age of fourteen, and four years later graduated with first-class honours in mental philosophy, with prizes in every department of the faculty of Arts. He completed his university successes by winning the Tyndall-Bruce scholarship, the Hamilton fellowship (1872), the Ferguson scholarship (1872) and the Shaw fellowship (1873). After a short residence at Heidelberg (1871), where he began his study of German philosophy, he returned to Edinburgh as assistant first to Henry Calderwood and later to A. Campbell Fraser; he joined the staff of the Encyclopaedia Britannica (9th ed.) (1874) and studied widely in the Advocates' Library. In 1876 he came to England as successor to W. S. Jevons in the chair of logic and philosophy, at Owens College, Manchester. In 1883 he received the honorary degree of LL.D. In 1893 he went to Aberdeen, and finally in 1895 to the chair of logic at Glasgow, which he held till his death on the 5th of February 1902. His wife, Margaret Duncan, the daughter of a Manchester merchant, was a woman of kindred tastes, and their union was entirely happy.
It is matter for regret to the student that Adamson's active labours in the lecture room precluded him from systematic production. His writings consisted of short articles, of which many appeared in the Encyclopaedia Britannica (9th ed.) and in Mind, a volume on Kant and another on Fichte. At the time of his death he was writing a History of Psychology, and had promised a work on Kant and the Modern Naturalists. Both in his life and in his writings he was remarkable for impartiality. It was his peculiar virtue that he could quote his opponents without warping their meaning. From this point of view he would have been perhaps the first historian of philosophy of his time, had his professional labours been less exacting. Except during the first few years at Manchester, he delivered his lectures without manuscripts. In 1903, under the title The Development of Modern Philosophy and Other Essays, his more important lectures were published with a short biographical introduction by Prof. W. R. Sorley of Cambridge University (see Mind, xiii. 1904, p. 73 foll.). Most of the matter is taken verbatim from the note-book of one of his students. Under the same editorship there appeared, three years later, his Development of Greek Philosophy. In addition to his professional work, he did much administrative work for Victoria University and the university of Glasgow. In the organization of Victoria University he took a foremost part, and, as chairman of the Board of Studies at Owens College, he presided over the general academical board of the Victoria University. At Glasgow he was soon elected one of the representatives on the court, and to him were due in large measure the extension of the academical session and the improved equipment of the university.
Throughout his lectures, Adamson pursued the critical and historical method without formulating a constructive theory of his own. He felt that any philosophical advance must be based on the Kantian methods. It was his habit to make straight for the ultimate issue, disregarding half-truths and declining compromise. He left a hypothesis to be worked out by others; this done, he would criticize with all the rigour of logic, and with a profound distrust of imagination, metaphor and the attitude known as the will-to-believe. As he grew older his metaphysical optimism waned. He felt that the increase of knowledge must come in the domains of physical science. But this empirical tendency as regards science never modified his metaphysical outlook. He has been called Kantian and Neo-Kantian, Realist and Idealist (by himself, for he held that appearance and reality are co-extensive and coincident). At the same time, in his criticism of other views he was almost typical of Hegelian idealism. All processes of reasoning or judgment (i.e. all units of thought) are (1) analysable only by abstraction, and (2) are compound of deduction and induction, i.e. rational and empirical. An illustration of his empirical tendency is found in his attitude to the Absolute and the Self. The "Absolute'' doctrines he regarded as a mere disguise of failure, a dishonest attempt to clothe ignorance in the pretentious garb of mystery. The Self as a primary, determining entity, he would not therefore admit. He represented an empiricism which, so far from refuting, was actually based on, idealism, and yet was alert to expose the fallacies of a particular idealist construction (see his essay in Ethical Democracy, edited by Dr Stanton Coit).
ADAM'S PEAK, a mountain in Ceylon, about 45 miles E. from Colombo, in N. lat. 6 deg. 55', E. long. 80 deg. 30'. It rises steeply to a height of 7352 feet, and commands a magnificent prospect. Its conical summit terminates in an oblong platform, 74 ft. by 24, on which there is a hollow, resembling the form of a human foot, 5 ft. 4 in. by 2 ft. 6 in.; and this has been consecrated as the footprint of Buddha. The margin of this supposed footprint is ornamented with gems, and a wooden canopy protects it from the weather. It is held in high veneration by the Sinhalese, and numerous pilgrims ascend to the sacred spot, where a priest resides to receive their offerings and bless them on their departure. By the Mahommedans the impression is regarded as that of the foot of Adam, who here, according to their tradition, fulfilled a penance of one thousand years; while the Hindus claim it as that of their god Siva.
ADANA. (1) A vilayet in the S.E. of Asia Minor, which includes the ancient Cilicia. The mountain districts are rich in unexploited mineral wealth, and the fertile coast-plain, which produces cotton, rice, cereals, sugar and much fruit, and affords abundant pasturage, is well watered by the rivers that descend from the Taurus range. Imports and exports pass through Mersina (q.v.). (2) The chief town of the vilayet, situated in the alluvial plain about 30 m. from the sea in N. lat. 37 deg. 1', E. long. 35 deg. 18', on the right bank of the Seihan (Sihun, anc. Sarus), which is navigable by small craft as far as the town. Adana is connected with Tersus and Mersina by a railway built in 1887, and has a magnificent stone bridge, which carries the road to Missis and the east, and dates in parts from the time of Justinian, but was restored first in 743 A.D. and called Jisr al-Walid after the Omayyad caliph of that name, and again in 840 hy the Caliph Mutasim. There are, also, a ruined castle founded by Harun al-Rashid in 782, fine fountains, good buildings, river-side quays, cotton mills and an American mission with church and schools. Adana, which retains its ancient name, rose to importance as a station on the Roman military road to the East, and was at one time a rival of Tarsus. The town was largely rebuilt by Mansur in 758, and during subsequent centuries it often changed hands and suffered many vicissitudes. Its position, commanding the passage of the mountains to the north of Syria, rendered it important as a military station in the contest between the Egyptians and the Turks in 1832. After the defeat of the Turkish army at Konia it was granted to Ibrahim Pasha, and though the firman announcing his appointment named him only muhassil, or collector of the crown revenue, it continued to be held by the Egyptians till the treaty of July 1840 restored it to the Porte. The chief productions of the province are cotton, corn, sesame and wool, which are largely exported. The population of the town is greatly mixed, and, having a large element of nomads in it, varies much from time to time. At its maximum it reaches nearly 50,000. (D. G. H.)
ADANSON, MICHEL (1727-1806), French naturalist, of Scottish descent, was born on the 7th of April 1727, at Aix, in Provence. After leaving the College Sainte Barbe in Paris, he was employed in the cabinets of R. A. F. Reaumur and Bernard de Jussieu, as well as in the Jardin des Plantes. At the end of 1748 he left France on an exploring expedition to Senegal, which from the unhealthiness of its climate was a terra incognita to naturalists. His ardour remained unabated during the five years of his residence in Africa. He collected and described, in greater or less detail, an immense number of animals and plants; collected specimens of every object of commerce; delineated maps of the country; made systematic meteorological and astronomical observations; and prepared grammars and dictionaries of the languages spoken on the banks of the Senegal. After his return to Paris in 1754 he made use of a small portion of the materials he had collected in his Histoire naturelle du Senegal (Paris, 1757). This work has a special interest from the essay on shells, printed at the end of it, where Adanson proposed his universal method, a system of classification distinct from those of Buffon and Linnaeus. He founded his classification of all organized beings on the consideration of each individual organ. As each organ gave birth to new relations, so he established a corresponding number of arbitrary arrangements. Those beings possessing the greatest number of similar organs were referred to one great division, and the relationship was considered more remote in proportion to the dissimilarity of organs. In 1763 he published his Familles naturelles des plantes. In this work he developed the principle of arrangement above mentioned, which, in its adherence to natural botanical relations, was based on the system of J. P. Tournefort, and had been anticipated to some extent nearly a century before by John Ray. The success of this work was hindered by its innovations in the use of terms, which were ridiculed by the defenders of the popular sexual system of Linnaeus; but it did much to open the way for the establishment, by means principally of A. L. de Jussieu's Genera Plantarum (1789), of the natural method of the classification of plants. In 1774 Adanson submitted to the consideration of the Academy of Sciences an immense work, extending to all known beings and substances. It consisted of 27 large volumes of manuscript, employed in displaying the general relations of all these matters, and their distribution; 150 volumes more, occupied with the alphabetical arrangement of 40,000 species; a vocabulary, containing 200,000 words, with their explanations; and a number of detached memoirs, 40,000 figures and 30,000 specimens of the three kingdoms of nature. The committee to which the inspection of this enormous mass was entrusted strongly recommended Adanson to separate and publish all that was peculiarly his own, leaving out what was merely compilation. He obstinately rejected this advice; and the huge work, at which he continued to labour, was never published. He had been elected a member of the Academy of Sciences in 1759, and he latterly subsisted on a small pension it had conferred on him. Of this he was deprived in the dissolution of the Academy by the Constituent Assembly, and was consequently reduced to such a depth of poverty as to be unable to appear before the French Institute when it invited him to take his place among its members. Afterwards he was granted a pension sufficient to relieve his simple wants. He died at Paris after months of severe suffering, on the 3rd of August 1806, requesting, as the only decoration of his grave, a garland of flowers gathered from the fifty-eight families he had differentiated—"a touching though transitory image,'' says Cuvier, "of the more durable monument which he has erected to himself in his works.'' Besides the books already mentioned he published papers on the ship-worm, the baobab tree, the Adansonia digitata of Linnaeus, the origin of the varieties of cultivated plants, and gum-producing trees.
ADAPTATION (from Lat. adaptare, to fit to), a process of fitting, or modifying, a thing to other uses, and so altering its form or original purpose. In literature there may be, e.g., an adaptation of a novel for a drama, or in music an arrangement of a piece for two hands into one for four, &c. In biology, according to the doctrine of evolution, adaptation plays a prominent part as the process by which an organism or species of organisms becomes modified to suit the conditions of its life. Every change in a living organism involves adaptation; for in all cases life consists in a continuous adjustment of internal to external relations. Every living organism reacts to its environment; if the reaction is unfavourable, disability leading to ultimate extinction is the result. If the reaction is favourable, its result is called an adaptation. How far such adaptations are produced afresh in each generation, whether or no their effects are transmitted to descendants and so directly modify the stock, to what extent adaptations characteristic of a species or variety have come about by selection of individuals capable, in each generation, of responding favourably, or how far by the selection of individuals fortuitously suitable to the environment, or, how far, possibly by the inheritance of the responses to the environment, are problems of biology not yet definitely solved.
ADDA (anc. Addua), a river of North Italy. Its true source is in some small lakes near the head of the Fraele glen, but its volume is increased by the union with several smaller streams, near the town of Bormio, at the Raetian Alps. Thence it flows first S.W., then due W., through the fertile Valtellina (q.v.), passing Tirano, where the Poschiavino falls in on the right, and Sondrio, where is the junction with the Malero, right. It falls into the Lake of Como, at its northern end, and mainly forms that fake. On issuing from its south-eastern or Lecco arm, it crosses the plain of Lombardy, and finally, after a course of about 150 m., joins the Po, 8 m. above Cremona. The lower course of the Adda was formerly the boundary between the territories of Venice and of Milan; and on its banks several important battles have been fought, notably that of Lodi, where Napoleon defeated the Austrians in 1796. (W. A. B. C.)
ADDAMS, JANE (1860- ), American sociologist, was born at Cedarville, Illinois, on the 6th of September 1860. After graduating at Rockford (Illinois) Female Seminary (now Rockford College) in 1881, she spent several years in the study of economic and sociological questions in both Europe and America, and in 1889 with Miss Ellen Gates Starr established in Chicago, Illinois, the social settlement known as Hull House, of which she became the head-worker. The success of this settlement, which became a great factor for good in the city, was principally due to Miss Addams's rare executive skill and practical common-sense methods. Her personal participation in the life of the community is exemplified in her acceptance of the office of inspector of streets and alleys under the municipal government. She became widely known as a lecturer and writer on social problems and published Democracy and Social Ethics (1902), Newer Ideals of Peace (1907), and The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets (1909).
ADDAX, a genus of antelopes, with one species (A. nasomaculatus) from North Africa and Arabia. It is a little over 3 ft. high, yellowish white in colour, with a brown mane and a fringe of the same hue on the throat. Both sexes carry horns, which are ringed and form an open spiral. The addax is a desert antelope, and in habits probably resembles the gemsbuck. It is hunted by the Arabs for its flesh and to test the speed of their horses and greyhounds; it is during these hunting parties that the young are captured for menagerie purposes.
ADDER, a name for the common viper ( Vipera cevus), ranging from Wales to Saghalien island, and from Caithness to the north of Spain. The puff-adder (Bitis s. Echidna arietans) of nearly the whole of Africa, and the death-adder (Acanthophis antarcticus) from Australia to the Moluccas, are both very poisonous (see VIPER). The word was in Old Eng. noedre, later nadder or naddre; in the 14th century "a nadder'' was, like "a napron,'' wrongly divided into "an adder.'' It appears with the generic meaning of "serpent'' in the older forms of many Teutonic languages, cf. Old High Ger. natra; Goth. nadrs. It is thus used in the Old Eng. version of the Scriptures for the devil, the "serpent'' of Genesis.
ADDISON, JOSEPH (1672-1719), English essayist, poet and man of letters, eldest son of Lancelot Addison, later dean of Lichfield, was born at his father's rectory of Milston in Wiltshire, on the 1st of May 1672. After having passed through several schools, the last of which was the Charterhouse, he went to Oxford when he was about fifteen years old. He was first entered a commoner of Queen's College, but after two years was elected to a demyship of Magdalen College, having been recommended by his skill in Latin versification. He took his master's degree in 1693, and subsequently obtained a fellowship which he held until 1711. His first literary efforts were poetical, and, after the fashion of his day, in Latin. Many of these are preserved in the Musae Anglicanae (1691-1699), and obtained academic commendation from academic sources. But it was a poem in the third volume of Dryden's Miscellanies, followed in the next series by a translation of the fourth Georgic, which brought about his introduction to Tonson the bookseller, and (probably through Tonson) to Lord Somers and Charles Montagu. To both of these distinguished persons he contrived to commend himself by An Account of the Greatest English Poets (1694), An Address to King William (1695), after Namur, and a Latin poem entitled Pax Gulielmi (1697), on the peace of Ryswick, with the result that in 1699 he obtained a pension of L. 300 a year, to enable him (as he afterwards said in a memorial addressed to the crown) "to travel and qualify himself to serve his Majesty.'' In the summer of 1699 he crossed into France, where, chiefly for the purpose of learning the language, he remained till the end of 1700; and after this he spent a year in Italy. In Switzerland, on his way home, he was stopped by receiving notice that he was to attend the army under Prince Eugene, then engaged in the war in Italy, as secretary from the king. But his Whig friends were already tottering in their places; and in March 1702 the death of King William at once drove them from power and put an end to the pension. Indeed Addison asserted that he never received but one year's payment of it, and that all the other expenses of his travels were defrayed by himself. He was able, however, to visit a great part of Germany, and did not reach Holland till the spring of 1703. His prospects were now sufficiently gloomy: he entered into treaty, oftener than once, for an engagement as a travelling tutor; and the correspondence in one of these negotiations has been preserved. Tonson had recommended him as the best person to attend in this character Lord Hertford, the son of the duke of Somerset, commonly called "The Proud.'' The duke, a profuse man in matters of pomp, was economical in questions of education. He wished Addison to name the salary he expected; this being declined, he announced, with great dignity, that in addition to travelling expenses he would give a hundred guineas a year; Addison accepted the munificent offer, saying, however, that he could not find his account in it otherwise than by relying on his Grace's future patronage; and his Grace immediately intimated that he would look out for some one else. In the autumn of 1703 Addison returned to England.
The works which belong to his residence on the continent were the earliest that showed hm to have attained maturity of skill and genius. There is good reason for believing that his tragedy of Cato, whatever changes it may afterwards have suffered, was in great part written while he lived in France, that is, when he was about twenty-eight years of age. In the winter of 1701, amidst the stoppages and discomforts of a journey across Mt. Cenis, he composed, wholly or partly, his rhymed Letter from Italy to Charles Montagu. This contains some fine touches of description, and is animated by a noble tone of classical enthusiasm. While in Germany he wrote his Dialogues on Medals, which, however, were not published till after his death. These have much liveliness of style and something of the gay humour which the author was afterwards to exhibit more strongly; but they show little either of antiquarian learning or of critical ingenuity. In tracing out parallels between passages of the Roman poets and figures or scenes which appear in ancient sculptures, Addison opened the easy course of inquiry which was afterwards prosecuted by Spence; and this, with the apparatus of spirited metrical translations from the classics, gave the work a likeness to his account of his travels. This account, entitled Remarks on Several Parts of Italy, &c. (1705), he sent home for publication before his own return. It wants altogether the interest of personal narrative: the author hardly ever appears. The task in which he chiefly busies himsell is that of exhibiting the illustrations which the writings of the Latin poets, and the antiquities and scenery of Italy, mutually give and receive. Christian antiquities and the monuments of later Italian history had no interest for him.
With the year 1704 begins a second era in Addison's life, which extends to the summer of 1710, when his age was thirty-eight. This was the first term of his official career; and though very barren of literary performance, it not only raised him from indigence, but settled definitely his position as a public man. His correspondence shows that, while on the continent, he had been admitted to confidential intimacy by diplomatists and men of rank; immediately on his return he was enrolled in the Kit-Cat Club, and brought thus and otherwise into communication with the gentry of the Whig party. Although all accounts agree in representing him as a shy man, he was at least saved from all risk of making himself disagreeable in society, by his unassuming manners, his extreme caution and that sedulous desire to oblige, which his satirist Pope exaggerated into a positive fault. His knowledge and ability were esteemed so highly as to confirm the expectations formerly entertained of his usefulness in public business; and the literary fame he had already acquired soon furnished an occasion for recommending him to public employment. Though the Whigs were out of office, the administration which succeeded them was, in all its earlier changes, of a complexion so mixed and uncertain that the influence of their leaders was not entirely lost. Not long after Marlborough's great victory at Blenheim, it is said that Godolphin, the lord treasurer, expressed to Lord Halifax a desire to have the great duke's fame extended by a poetical tribute. Halifax seized the opportunity of recommending Addison as the fittest man for the duty; stipulating, we are told, that the service should not be unrewarded, and doubtless satisfying the minister that his protege possessed other qualifications for office besides dexterity in framing heroic verse. The Campaign (December 1704), the poem thus written to order, was received with extraordinary applause; and it is probably as good as any that ever was prompted by no more worthy inspiration. It has, indeed, neither the fiery spirit which Dryden threw into occasional pieces of the sort, nor the exquisite polish that would have been given by Pope, if he had stooped to make such uses of his genius; but many of the details are pleasing; and in the famous passage of the Angel, as well as in several others, there is even something of force and imagination.
The consideration covenanted for by the poet's friends was faithfully paid. A vacancy occurred by the death of another celebrated man, John Locke; and Addison was appointed one of the five commissioners of appeal in Excise. The duties of the place must have been as light for him as they had been for his predecessor, for he continued to hold it with all the appointments he subsequently received from the same ministry. But there is no reason for believing that he was more careless than other public servants in his time; and the charge of incompetency as a man of business, which has been brought so positively against him, cannot easily be true as to this first period of his official career. Indeed, the specific allegations refer exclusively to the last years of his life; and, if he had not really shown practical ability in the period now in question, it is not easy to see how he, a man destitute alike of wealth, of social or fashionable liveliness and of family interest, could have been promoted, for several years, from office to office, as he was, till the fall of the administration to which he was attached. In 1706 he became one of the under-secretaries of state, serving first under Sir Charles Hedges, who belonged to the Tory section of the government, and afterwards under Lord Sunderland, Marlborough's son-in-law, and a zealous follower of Addison's early patron, Somers. The work of this office, however, like that of the commissionership, must often have admitted of performance by deputy; for in 1707, the Whigs having become stronger, Lord Halifax was sent on a mission to the elector of Hanover; and, besides taking Vanbrugh the dramatist with him as king-at-arms, he selected Addison as his secretary. In 1708 Addison entered parliament, sitting at first for Lostwithiel, but afterwards for Malmesbury, which he represented from 1710 till his death. Here unquestionably he did fail. What part he may have taken in the details of business we are not informed; but he was always a silent member, unless it be true that he once attempted to speak and sat down in confusion. In 1708 Lord Wharton, the father of the notorious duke, having been named lord-lieutenant of Ireland, Addison became his secretary, receiving also an appointment as keeper of records. This event happened only about a year and a half before the dismissal of the ministry.
But there are letters showing that Addison made himself acceptable to some of the best and most distinguished persons in Dublin; and he escaped without having any quarrel with Swift, his acquaintance with whom had begun some time before.
In his literary history those years of official service are almost a blank, till we approach their close. Besides furnishing a prologue to Steele's comedy of The Tender Husband (1705), he admittedly gave him some assistance in its composition; he defended the government in an anonymous pamphlet on The Present State of the War (1707); he united compliments to the all-powerful Marlborough with indifferent attempts at lyrical poetry in his opera of Rosamond; and during the last few months of his tenure of office he contributed largely to the Tatler. His entrance on this new field nearly coincides with the beginning of a new period in his life. Even the coalition-ministry of Godolphin was too Whiggish for the taste of Queen Anne; and the Tories, the favourites of the court, gained, both in parliamentary power and in popularity out of doors, by a combination of lucky accidents, dexterous management and divisions and double-dealing among their adversaries. The real failure of the prosecution of Addison's old friend Sacheverell completed the ruin of the Whigs; and in August 1710 an entire revolution in the ministry had been completed. The Tory administration which succeeded kept its place till the queen's death in 1714, and Addison was thus left to devote four of the best years of his life, from his thirty-ninth year to his forty-third, to occupations less lucrative than those in which his time had recently been frittered away, but much more conducive to the extension of his own fame and to the benefit of English literature. Although our information as to his pecuniary affairs is very scanty, we are entitled to believe that he was now independent of literary labour. He speaks, in an extant paper, of having had (but lost) property in the West Indies; and he is understood to have inherited something from a younger brother, who had been governor of Madras. In 1711 he purchased, for L. 10,000, the estate of Bilton, near Rugby—the place which afterwards became the residence of Mr Apperley, better known by his assumed name of "Nimrod.''
During those four years he produced a few political writings. Soon after the fall of the ministry, he started the Whig Examiner in opposition to the Tory Examiner, then conducted by Prior, and afterwards the vehicle of Swift's most vehement invectives against the party he had once belonged to. These are certainly the most ill-natured of Addison's writings, but they are neither lively nor vigorous, and the paper died after five numbers (14th September to 12th October 1710). There is more spirit in his allegorical pamphlet, The Trial and Conviction of Count Tariff.
But from the autumn of 1710 till the end of 1714 his principal employment was the composition of his celebrated periodical essays. The honour of inventing the plan of such compositions, as well as that of first carrying the idea into execution, belongs to Richard Steele, who had been a schoolfellow of Addison at the Charterhouse, continued to be on intimate terms with him afterwards and attached himself with his characteristic ardour to the same political party. When, in April 1709, Steele published the first number of the Tatler, Addison was in Dublin, and knew nothing of the design. He is said to have detected his friend's authorship only by recognizing, in the sixth number, a critical remark which he remembered having himself communicated to Steele. Shortly afterwards he began to furnish hints and suggestions, assisted occasionally and finally wrote regularly. According to Mr Aitken (Life of Steele, i. 248), he contributed 42 out of the total of 271 numbers, and was part-author of 36 more. The Tatler exhibited, in more ways than one, symptoms of being an experiment. For some time the projector, imitating the news-sheets in form, thought it prudent to give, in each number, news in addition to the essay; and there was a want, both of unity and of correct finishing, in the putting together of the literary materials. Addison's contributions, in particular, are in many places as lively as anything he ever wrote; and his style, in its more familiar moods at least, had been fully formed before he returned from the continent. But, as compared with his later pieces, these are only what the painter's loose studies and sketches are to the landscapes which he afterwards constructs out of them. In his invention of incidents and characters, one thought after another is hastily used and hastily dismissed, as if he were putting his own powers to the test or trying the effect of various kinds of objects on his readers; his most ambitious flights, in the shape of allegories and the like, are stiff and inanimate; and his favourite field of literary criticism is touched so slightly, as to show that he still wanted confidence in the taste and knowledge of the Public.
The Tatler was dropped in January 1711, but only to be followed by the Spectator, which was begun on the 1st day of March, and appeared every week-day till the 6th day of December 1712. It had then completed the 555 numbers usually collected in its first seven volumes, and of these Addison wrote 274 to Steele's 236. He co-operated with Steele constantly from the very opening of the series; and they devoted their whole space to the essays. They relied, with a confidence which the extraordinary popularity of the work fully justified, on their power of exciting the interest of a wide audience by pictures and reflexions drawn from a field which embraced the whole compass of ordinary life and ordinary knowledge, no kind of practical themes being positively excluded except such as were political, and all literary topics being held admissible, for which it seemed possible to command attention from persons of average taste and information. A seeming unity was given to the undertaking, and curiosity and interest awakened on behalf of the conductors, by the happy invention of the Spectator's Club, for which Steele made the first sketch. The figure of Sir Roger de Coverley, however, the best even in the opening group, is the only one that was afterwards elaborately depicted; and Addison was the author of most of the papers in which his oddities and amiabilities are so admirably delineated. Six essays are by Steele, who gives Sir Roger's love-story, and one paper by Budgell describes a hunting party.
To Addison the Spectator owed the most natural and elegant, if not the most original, of its humorous sketches of human character and social eccentricities, its good-humoured satires on ridiculous features in manners and on corrupt symptoms in public taste; these topics, however, making up a department in which Steele was fairly on a level with his more famous co-adjutor. But Steele had neither learning, nor taste, nor critical acuteness sufficient to qualify him for enriching the series with such literary disquisitions as those which Addison insinuated so often into the lighter matter of his essays, and of which he gave an elaborate specimen in his criticism on Paradise Lost. Still farther beyond the powers of Steele were those speculations on the theory of literature and of the processes of thought analogous to it, which, in the essays "On the Pleasures of the Imagination,'' Addison prosecuted, not, indeed, with much of philosophical depth, but with a sagacity and comprehensiveness which we shall undervalue much unless we remember how little of philosophy was to be found in any critical views previously propounded in England. To Addison, further, belong those essays which (most frequently introduced in regular alternation in the papers of Saturday) rise into the region of moral and religious meditation, and tread the elevated ground with a step so graceful as to allure the reader irresistibly to follow; sometimes, as in the "Walk through Westminster Abbey,', enlivening solemn thought by gentle sportiveness; sometimes flowing on with an uninterrupted sedateness of didactic eloquence, and sometimes shrouding sacred truths in the veil of ingenious allegory, as in the "Vision of Mirza.'' While, in short, the Spectator, if Addison had not taken part in it, would probably have been as lively and humorous as it was, and not less popular in its own day, it would have wanted some of its strongest claims on the respect of posterity, by being at once lower in its moral tone, far less abundant in literary knowledge and much less vigorous and expanded in thinking. In point of style, again, the two friends resemble each other so closely as to be hardly distinguishable, when both are dealing with familiar objects, and writing in a key not rising above that of conversation. But in the higher tones of thought and composition Addison showed a mastery of language raising him very decisively, not above Steele only, but above all his contemporaries. Indeed, it may safely be said, that no one, in any age of English literature, has united, so strikingly as he did, the colloquial grace and ease which mark the style of an accomplished gentleman, with the power of soaring into a strain of expression nobly and eloquently dignified.
On the cessation of the Spectator, Steele set on foot the Guardian, which, started in March 1713, came to an end in October, with its 175th number. To this series Addison gave 53 papers, being a very frequent writer during the latter half of its progress. None of his essays here aim so high as the best of those in the Spectator; but he often exhibits both his cheerful and well-balanced humour and his earnest desire to inculcate sound principles of literary judgment. In the last six months of the year 1714, the Spectator received its eighth and last volume; for which Steele appears not to have written at all, and Addison to have contributed 24 of the 80 papers. Most of these form, in the unbroken seriousness both of their topics and of their manner, a contrast to the majority of his essays in the earlier volumes; but several of them, both in this vein and in one less lofty, are among the best known, if not the finest, of all his essays. Such are the "Mountain of Miseries''; the antediluvian novel of "Shalum and Hilpa''; the "Reflections by Moonlight on the Divine Perfections.''
In April 1713 Addison brought on the stage, very reluctantly, as we are assured, and can easily believe, his tragedy of Cato. Its success was dazzling; but this issue was mainly owing to the concern which the politicians took in the exhibition. The Whigs hailed it as a brilliant manifesto in favour of constitutional freedom. The Tories echoed the applause, to show themselves enemies of despotism, and professed to find in Julius Caesar a parallel to the formidable Marlborough. Even with such extrinsic aids, and the advantage derived from the established fame of the author, Cato could never have been esteemed a good dramatic work, unless in an age in which dramatic power and insight were almost extinct. It is poor even in its poetical elements, and is redeemed only by the finely solemn tone of its moral reflexions and the singular refinement and equable smoothness of its diction. That it obtained the applause of Voltaire must be ascribed to the fact that it was written in accordance with the rules of French classical drama.
The literary career of Addison might almost be held as closed soon after the death of Queen Anne, which occurred in August 1714, when he had lately completed his 42nd year. His own life extended only five years longer; and in this closing portion of it we are reminded of his more vigorous days by nothing but a few happy inventions interspersed in political pamphlets, and the gay fancy of a trifling poem on Kneller's portrait of George I.
The lord justices who, previously chosen secretly by the elector of Hanover, assumed the government on the queen's demise, were, as a matter of course, the leading Whigs. They appointed Addison to act as their secretary. He next held, for a very short time, his former office under the Irish lord-lieutenant; and, late in 1716, he was made one of the lords of trade. In the course of the previous year had occurred the first of the only two quarrels with friends, into which the prudent, good-tempered and modest Addison is said to have ever been betrayed. His adversary on this occasion was Pope, who, a few years before, had received, with an appearance of humble thankfulness, Addison's friendly remarks on his Essay on Criticism (Spectator, No. 253); but who, though still very young, was already very famous, and beginning to show incessantly his literary jealousies and his personal and party hatreds. Several little misunderstandings had paved the way for a breach, when, at the same time with the first volume of Pope's Iliad, there appeared a translation of the first book of the poem bearing the name of Thomas Tickell. Tickell, in his preface, disclaimed all rivalry with Pope, and declared that he wished only to bespeak favourable attention for his contemplated version of the Odyssey. But the simultaneous publication was awkward; and Tickell, though not so good a versifier as Pope, was a dangerous rival, as being a good Greek scholar. Further, he was Addison's under-secretary and confidential friend; and Addison, cautious though he was, does appear to have said (quite truly) that Tickell's translation was more faithful than the other. Pope's anger could not be restrained. He wrote those famous lines in which he describes Addison under the name of Atticus, and although it seems doubtful whether he really sent a copy to Addison himself, he afterwards went so far as to profess a belief that the rival translation was really Addison's own. Addison, it is pleasant to observe, was at the pains, in his Freeholder, to express hearty approbation of the Iliad of Pope, who, on the contrary, after Addison's death, deliberately printed his matchlessly malignant verses in the "Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot.'' In 1716 there was acted, with little success, Addison's comedy of The Drummer, or the Haunted House. It contributes very little to his fame. From September 1715 to June 1716 he defended the Hanoverian succession, and the proceedings of the government in regard to the rebellion, in a paper called the Freeholder, which he wrote entirely himself, dropping it with the 55th number. It is much better tempered, not less spirited and much more able in thinking than his Examiner. The finical man of taste does indeed show himself to be sometimes weary of discussing constitutional questions; but he aims many enlivening thrusts at weak points of social life and manners; and the character of the Fox-hunting Squire, who is introduced as the representative of the Jacobites, is drawn with so much humour and force that we regret not being allowed to see more of him.
In August 1716, when he had completed his 44th year, Addison married Charlotte, countess-dowager of Warwick, a widow of fifteen years' standing. She seems to have forfeited her jointure by the marriage, and to have brought her husband nothing but the occupancy of Holland House at Kensington. The assertion that the courtship was a long one is probably as erroneous as the contemporary rumour that the marriage was unhappy. Such positive evidence as exists tends rather to the contrary. What seems clear is, that, from obscure causes,—among which it is alleged a growing habit of intemperance was one—-Addison's health was shattered before he took the last, and certainly the most unwise, step in his ascent to political power.
For a considerable time dissensions had existed in the ministry; and these came to a crisis in April 1717, when those who had been the real chiefs passed into the ranks of the opposition. Townshend was dismissed, and Walpole anticipated dismissal by resignation. There was now formed, under the leadership of General Stanhope and Lord Sunderland, an administration which, as resting on court-influence, was nicknamed the "German ministry.'' Sunderland, Addison's former superior, became one of the two principal secretaries of state; and Addison himself was appointed as the other. His elevation to such a post had been contemplated on the accession of George I., and prevented, we are told, by his own refusal; and it is asserted, on the authority of Pope, that his acceptance now was owing only to the influence of his wife. Even if there is no ground, as there probably is not, for the allegation of Addison's inefficiency in the details of business, his unfitness for such an office in such circumstances was undeniable and glaring. It was impossible that a government, whose secretary of state could not open his lips in debate, should long face an opposition headed by Robert Walpole. The decay of Addison's health, too, was going on rapidly, being, we may readily conjecture, precipitated by anxiety, if no worse causes were at work. Ill-health was the reason assigned for retirement, in the letter of resignation which he laid before the king in March 1718, eleven months after his appointment. He received a pension of L. 1500 a year.
Not long afterwards the divisions in the Whig party alienated him from his oldest friend. The Peerage Bill, introduced in February 1719, was attacked, on behalf of the opposition, in a weekly paper called the Plebeian, written by Steele. Addison answered the attack in the Old VVhig, and this belum plusquam civile—as Johnson calls it—was continued, with increased acrimony, through two or three numbers. How Addison, who was dying, felt after this painful controversy we are not told directly; but the Old Whig was excluded from that posthumous collection of his works (1721-1726) for which his executor Tickell had received from him authority and directions. It is said that the quarrel in politics rested on an estrangement which had been growing for some years. According to a rather nebulous story, for which Johnson is the popular authority, Addison, or Addison's lawyer, put an execution for L. 100 in Steele's house by way of reading his friend a lesson on his extravagance. This well-meant interference seems to have been pardoned by Steele, but his letters show that he resented the favour shown to Tickell by Addison and his own neglect by the Whigs.
The disease under which Addison laboured appears to have been asthma. It became more violent after his retirement from office, and was now accompanied by dropsy. His deathbed was placid and resigned, and comforted by those religious hopes which he had so often suggested to others, and the value of which he is said, in an anecdote of doubtful authority, to have now inculcated in a parting interview with his step-son. He died at Holland House on the 17th of June 1719, six weeks after having completed his 47th year. His body, after lying in state, was interred in the Poets' Corner of Westminster Abbey.
Addison's life was written in 1843 by Lucy Aikin. This was reviewed by Macaulay in July of the same year. A more modern study is that m the "Men of Letters'' series by W. J. Courthope (1884). There is a convenient one-volume edition of the Spectator, by Henry Morley (Routledge, 1868), and another in 8 vols. (1897-1898) by G. Gregory Smith. Of the Tatler there is an edition by G. A. Aitken in 8 vols. (1898). A complete edition of Addison's works (based upon Hurd) is included in Bohn's British Classics. (W. S.; A. D.)
ADDISON'S DISEASE, a constitutional affection manifesting itself in an exaggeration of the normal pigment of the skin, asthenia, irritability of the gastro-intestinal tract, and weakness and irregularity of the heart's action: these symptoms being due to loss of function of the suprarenal glands. It is important to note, however, that Addison's Disease may occur without pigmentation, and pigmentation without Addison's Disease. The condition was first recognized by Dr Thomas Addison of Guy's Hospital, who in 1855 published an important work on The Constitutional and Local Effects of Diseases of the Suprarenal Capsules. Sir Samuel Wilks worked zealously in obtaining recognition for these observations in England, and Brown-Sequard in France was stimulated by this paper to investigate the physiology of these glands. Dr Trousseau, many years later, first called the condition by Addison's name. Dr Headlam Greenhow worked at the subject for many years and embodied his observations in the Croonian Lectures of 1875. But from this time on no further work was undertaken until the discovery of the treatment of myxoedema by thyroid extract, and the consequent researches into the physiology of the ductless glands. This stimulated renewed interest in the subject, and work was carried on in many countries. But it remained for Schafer and Oliver of University College, London, to demonstrate the internal secretion of the suprarenals, and its importance in normal metabolism, thereby confirming Addison's original view that the disease was due to loss of function of these glands. They demonstrated that these glands contain a very powerful extract which produces toxic effects when administered to animals, and that an active principle "adrenalin'' can be separated, which excites contraction of the small blood vessels and thus raises blood pressure. The latest views of this disease thus stand: (1) that it is entirely dependent on suprarenal disease, being the result of a diminution or absence of their internal secretion, or else of a perversion of their secretion; or (2) that it is of nervous origin, being the result of changes in or irritation of the large sympathetic plexuses in the abdomen; or else (3) that it is a combination of glandular inadequacy and sympathetic irritation.
The morbid anatomy shows (1) that in over 80% of the cases the changes in the suprarenals are those due to tuberculosis, usually beginning in the medulla and resulting in more or less caseation; and that this lesion is bilateral and usually secondary to tuberculous disease elsewhere, especially of the spinal column. In the remaining cases (2) simple atrophy has been noted, or (3) chronic interstitial inflammation which would lead to atrophy; and finally (4) an apparently normal condition of the glands, but the neighbouring sympathetic ganglia diseased or involved in a mass of fibrous tissue. Other morbid conditions of the suprarenals do not give rise to the symptoms of Addison's Disease.
The onset of the disease is extremely insidious, a slow but increasing condition of weakness being complained of by the patient. There is a feeble and irregular action of the heart resulting in attacks of syncope which may prove fatal. Blood pressure is extremely low. From time to time there may be severe attacks of nausea, vomiting or diarrhoea. The best known symptom, but one which only occurs after the disease has made considerable progress, is a gradually increasing pigmentation of the skin, ranging from a bronzy yellow to brown or even occasionally black. This pigmentation shows itself (1) over exposed parts, as face and hands; (2) wherever pigment appears normally, as in the axillae and round the nipples; (3) wherever pressure is applied, as round the waist; and (4) occasionally on mucous membranes, as in the mouth.
The patient's temperature is uqually somewhat subnormal. The disease is found in males far more commonly than in females, and among the lower classes more than the upper. But this latter fact is probably due to poor nourishment and bad hygienic conditions rendering the poorer classes more susceptible to tuberculosis.
The diagnosis, certainly in the early stages of the disease, and often in the later, is by no means easy. Pigmentation of the skin occurs in many conditions—-as in normal pregnancy, uterine fibroids, abdominal growths, certain cases of heart disease, exophthalmic goitre, &c., and after the prolonged use of certain drugs—-as arsenic and silver. But the presence of a low blood pressure with weakness and irritability of the heart and some of the preceding symptoms render the diagnosis fairly certain. The latest researches on the subject tend to indicate a more certain diagnosis in the effect on the blood pressure of administering suprarenal extract, the blood pressure of the normal subject being unaffected thereby, that of the man suffering from suprarenal inadequacy being markedly raised. The disease is treated by promoting the general health in every possible way; by diet; by tonics, especially arsenic and strychnine; by attention to the hygienic conditions; and always by the administration of one of the many preparations of the suprarenal gland extract.
"ADDRESS, THE'', an English parliamentary term for the reply of the Houses of Parliament (and particularly of the House of Commons) to the speech of the sovereign at the opening of a new parliament or session. There are certain formalities which distinguish this stage of parliamentary proceedings. The "king's speech'' itself is divided into three sections: the first, addressed to "My Lords and Gentlemen,'' touches on foreign affairs; the second, to the "Gentlemen of the House of Commons,'' has reference to the estimates; the third, to "My Lords and Gentlemen,'' outlines the proposed legislation for the session. Should the sovereign in person open parliament, he does so in the House of Lords in full state, and the speaker and members of the House of Commons are summoned there into the royal presence. The sovereign then reads his speech. If the sovereign is not present in person, the speech is read by commission. The Commons then return to their House, and an address in answer is moved in both Houses. The government of the day selects two of its supporters in each House to move and second the address, and when carrying out this honourable task they appear in levee dress. Previous to the session of 1890-1891, the royal speech was answered paragraph by paragraph, but "the address'' is now moved in the form of a single resolution, thanking the sovereign for his most gracious speech. The debate on the address is used as a means of ranging over the whole government policy, amendments being introduced by the opposition. A defeat on an amendment to the address is generally regarded by the government as a vote of no-confidence. After the address is agreed to it is ordered to be presented to the sovereign. The thanks of the sovereign for the address are then conveyed to the Lords by the lord steward of the household and to the Commons by the comptroller of the household.
ADELAER, or ADELER (Norwegian for "eagle''), the surname of honour given on his ennoblement to Kurt Sivertsen (1622-1675), the famous Norwegian-Danish naval commander. He was born at Brevig in Norway, and at the age of fifteen became a cadet in the Dutch fleet under van Tromp, after a few years entering the service of the Venetian Republic, which was engaged at the time in a war with Turkey. In 1645 he had risen to the rank of captain; and after sharing in various victories as commander of a squadron, he achieved his most brilliant success at the Dardanelles, on the 13th of May 1654, when, with his own vessel alone, he broke through the line of Turkish galleys, sank fifteen of them, and burned others, causing a loss to the enemy of 5000 men. The following day he entered Tenedos, and compelled the complete surrender of the Turks. On returning to Venice he was crowned with honours, and became admiral-lieutenant in 1660. Numerous tempting offers were made to him by other naval powers, and in 1661 he left Venice to return to the Netherlands. Next year he was induced, by the offer of a title and an enormous salary, to accept the command of the Danish fleet from Frederick III. Under Christian V. he took the command of the combined Danish fleets against Sweden, but died suddenly on the 5th of November 1675 at Copenhagen, before the expedition set out. When in the Venetian service, Adelaer was known by the name of Curzio Suffrido Adelborst (i.e. Dutch for "naval cadet'').
ADELAIDE (Ger. Adelheid) (931—999), queen of Italy and empress, was the daughter of Rudolph II. of Burgundy and of Bertha, daughter of Duke Burchard of Swabia. On the death of Rudolph in 937, his widow married Hugh, king of Italy, to whose son Lothair Adelaide was at the same time betrothed. She was married to him in 947; but after an unhappy union of three years Lothair died (November 22, 950). The young widow, remarkable for her character and beauty, was seized by Lothair's successor, Berengar II., margrave of Ivrea, who, angered probably at her refusal to marry his son Adalbert and thus secure his title to the Italian kingdom, kept her in close confinement at Como. After four months (August 951), she escaped, and took refuge at Canossa with Atto, count of Modena-Reggio (d. 981). Meanwhile Otto I., the German king, whose English wife Edgitha had died in 946, had formed the design of marrying her and claiming the Italian kingdom in her right, as a step towards the revival of the empire of Charlemagne. In September 951, accordingly, he appeared in Italy, Adelaide willingly accepted his invitation to meet him at Pavia and at the close of the year the fateful union was celebrated. From the first her part in German affairs was important. To her are ascribed the influences which led in 953 to the revolt of Ludolf, Otto's son by his first marriage, the crushing of which in the following year established Adelaide's power. On the 2nd of February 962 she was crowned empress at Rome by Pope John XII. immediately after her husband, and she accompanied Otto in 966 on his third expedition to Italy, where she remained with him for six years. After Otto I.'s death (May 7, 973), Adelaide exercised for some years a controlling influence over her son, the new emperor, Otto II. The causes of their subsequent estrangement are obscure, but it was possibly due to the empress's lavish expenditure in charity and church building, which endeared her to ecclesiastics but was a serious drain on the imperial finances. In 978 she left the court and lived partly in Italy, partly with her brother Conrad, king of Burgundy, by whose mediation she was ultimately reconciled to her son. In 983, shortly before his death, she was appointed his viceroy in Italy; and was successful, in concert with the empress Theophano, widow of Otto II., and Archbishop Willigis of Mainz, in defending the right of her infant grandson, Otto III., to the German crown against the pretensions of Henry the Quarrelsome, duke of Bavaria. In June 984 the infant king was handed over by Henry to the care of the two empresses; but the masterful will of Theophano soon obtained the upper hand, and until the death of the Greek empress, on the 15th of June 991, Adelaide had no voice in German affairs. She now assumed the regency, in concert with Bishop Willigis and a council of princes of the Empire, and held it until in 995 Otto was declared of age. In 996 the young king went to Italy to receive the imperial crown; and from this date Adelaide ceased to concern herself with worldly affairs, but devoted herself to pious exercises, to intimate correspondence with the abbots Majolus and Odilo of Cluny, and the foundation of churches and religious houses. She died on the 17th of December 999, and was buried in the convent of SS. Peter and Paul, her favourite foundation, at Salz in Alsace. She was proclaimed a saint by the grateful German clergy; but her name has never found a place in the Roman calendar. Like her daughter-in-law Theophano and other exalted ladies of this period, Adelaide possessed considerable literary attainments (literatissima erat), and her knowledge of Latin was of use to Otto I., who only learned the language late in life and remained to the end a poor scholar.
By the emperor Otto I. she had four children: Otto II. (d. 983), Mathilda, abbess of Quedlinburg (d. 999), Adelheid (Adelaide), abbess of Essen (d. 974), and Liutgard, who married Conrad II., duke of Franconia, and died in 955.
Adelaide's life (Vita or Epitaphium Adalheidae imperatricis) was written by St Odilo of Cluny. It is valuable only for the latter years of the empress, after she had retired from any active share in the world's affairs. The rest of her life is merely outlined, though her adventures in escaping from Berengar are treated in more detail. The best edition is in Duchesne, Bibliotheca Cluniacensis, pp. 353. 362., see Giov. Batt. Semeria, Vita politico-religiosa di s. Adeleida, &c. (Turin, 1842); Jul. Bentzinger, Das Leben der Kaiserin Adelheid ...weahrend der Regierung Ottos III., Inaug. Dissertation (Breslau, 1883); J. J. Dey, Hist. de s. Adelaide, &c. (Geneva, 1862); F. P. Wimmer, Kaiserin Adelheid, Gemahlin Ottos I. des Grossen (Regensb. 1889); Wattenbach, Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen (Stuttgart and Berlin, 1904). Further references in Chevalier, Repertoire des sources historiques (Paris, 1903).
ADELAIDE, the capital of South Australia. It is situated in the county to which it gives name, on the banks of the river Torrens, 7 m. from its mouth. Its site is a level plain, near the foot of the Mount Lofty range, in which Mount Lofty itself reaches 2334 ft. The broad streets of the city intersect at right angles. It is divided into North Adelaide, the residential, and South Adelaide, the business quarter. A broad strip of park lands lies between them, through which runs the river Torrens, crossed by five bridges and greatly improved by a dam on the west of the city. The banks are beautifully laid out. Broad belts of park lands surround both North and South Adelaide, and as the greater portion of these lands is planted with fine shady trees, this feature renders Adelaide one of the most attractive cities in Australasia. South Adelaide is bounded by four broad terraces facing north, south, east and west. The main thoroughfare, King William Street, runs north and south, passing through Victoria Square, a small park in the centre of the city. Handsome public buildings are numerous. Government House stands in grounds on the north side of North Terrace, with several other official buildings in the vicinity; but the majority are in King William Street. Here are the town hall, with the lofty Albert Tower, and the general post office, with the Victoria Tower—which, with the old and new Government offices, the Roman Catholic cathedral of St Francis Xavier and the court houses, surround Victoria Square. On North Terrace are the houses of parliament, and the institute, containing a public library and museum. Here is also Adelaide University, established by an act of 1874, and opened in 1876. The existing buildings were opened in 1882. Munificent gifts have from time to time assisted in the extension of its scope, as for example that of Sir Thomas Elder (d. 1897), who took a leading part in the foundation of the university. This gift, among other provisions, enabled the Elder Conservatorium of Music to be established, the building for which was opened in 1900. In 1903 a building for the schools of engineering and science was opened. The total number of students in the university approaches 1000. To the east of the university is the building in which the exhibition was held in commemoration of the jubilee of the colony in 1887. This building is occupied by the Royal Agricultural and Horticultural Society, a technical museum, &c. The school of mines and industries (1903) stands east of this again. The buildings of the numerous important commercial, social and charitable institutions add to the dignity of the city. The Anglican cathedral of St Peter (1878) is in North Adelaide. The Botanical Park, which has an area of 84 acres, lies on the south bank of the Torrens, on the east of the city. It includes the Zoological Garden, is beautifully laid out and forms one of the most attractive features of Adelaide. The city has a number of good statues, chief among which are copies of the Farnese Hercules (Victoria Square) and of Canova's Venus (North Terrace), statues of Queen Victoria and Robert Burns, Sir Thomas Elder's statue at the university, and a memorial (1905) over the grave of Colonel Light, founder of the colony, in Light Square. Adelaide is governed by a mayor and six aldermen elected by the whole body of the ratepayers, and is the only Australian city in which the mayor is so elected. The chief industries are the manufacture of woollen, earthenware and iron goods, brewing, starch-making, flour-milling and soap-boiling. Adelaide is also the central share market of Australia, for West Australian goldmines, for the silver-mines at Broken Hill, and for the coppermines at Wallaroo, Burra Burra and Moonta; while Port Adelaide, on the neighbouring shore of St Vincent Gulf, ranks as the third in the Commonwealth. Adelaide is the terminus of an extensive railway system, the main line of which runs through Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane to Rockhampton. In summer the climate is often oppressively hot under the influence of winds blowing from the interior, but the proximity of the sea on the one side and of the mountains on the other allows the inhabitants to avoid the excessive heat; at other seasons, however, the climate is mild and pleasant; with a mean annual rainfall of 20.4 ins. The vice-regal summer residence is at Marble Hill, on the Mount Lofty range. Adelaide was founded in 1836 and incorporated in 1843. It received its name at the desire of King William IV., in honour of Queen Adelaide. Round the city are many pleasant suburbs, connected with it by rail and tramways; the chief of these are Burnside, Beaumont, Unley, Mitcham, Goodwood, Plymton, Hindmarsh, Prospect, St Peters, Norwood and Kensington. Glenelg is a favourite watering-place. The population of the city proper was 39,240 in 1901; of the city and suburbs within a 10-miles radius, 162,261.
ADELARD (or AETHELARD) of Bath (12th century), English scholastic philosopher, and one of the greatest savants of medieval England. He studied in France at Laon and Tours, and travelled, it is said, through Spain, Italy, North Africa and Asia Minor, during a period of seven years. At a time when Western Europe was rich in men of wide knowledge and intellectual eminence, he gained so high a reputation that he was described by Vincent de Beauvais as Philosophus Anglorum. He lived for a time in the Norman kingdom of Sicily and returned to England in the reign of Henry I. From the Pipe Roll (31 Henry I. 1130) it appears that he was awarded an annual grant of money from the revenues of Wiltshire. The great interest of Adelard in the history of philosophy lies in the fact that he made a special study of Arabian philosophy during his travels, and, on his return to England, brought his knowledge to bear on the current scholasticism of the time. He has been credited with a knowledge of Greek, and it is said that his translation of Euclid's Elements was made from the original Greek. It is probable, however, from the nature of the text, that his authority was an Arabic version. This important work was published first at Venice in 1482 under the name of Campanus of Novara, but the work is always attributed to Adelard. Campanus may be responsible for some of the notes. It became at once the text-book of the chief mathematical schools of Europe, though its critical notes were of little value. His Arabic studies he collected under the title Perdifficiles Quaestiones Naturales, printed after 1472. It is in the form of a dialogue between himself and his favourite nephew, and was dedicated to Richard, bishop of Bayeux from 1113 to 1133. He wrote also treatises on the astrolabe (a copy of this is in the British Museum), on the abacus (three copies exist in the Vatican library, the library of Leiden University and the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris), translations of the Kharismian tables and an Arabic Introduction to Astronomy. His great contribution to philosophy proper was the De Eodem et Diverso (On Identity and Difference), which is in the form of letters addressed to his nephew. In this work philosophy and the world are personified as Philosophia and Philocosmia in conflict for the soul of man. Philosophia is accompanied by the liberal arts, represented as Seven Wise Virgins; the world by Power, Pleasure, Dignity, Fame and Fortune. The work deals with the current difficulties between nominalism and realism, the relation between the individual and the genus or species. Adelard regarded the individual as the really existent, and yet, from different points of view, as being himself the genus and the species. He was either the founder or the formulator of the doctrine of indifference, according to which genus and species retain their identity in the individual apart altogether from particular idiosyncrasies. For the relative importance of this doctrine see article SCHOLASTICISM.
See Jourdain, Recherches sur Les traductions d'Aristote (2nd ed., 1843); Haureau, Philosophie Scholastique (2nd ed., 1872), and works appended to art. SCHOLASTICISM.
ADELSBERG (Slovene Postojina), a market-town in Carniola, Austria, 30 m. S.S.W. of Laibach by rail, Pop. (1900) 3636, mostly Slovene. About a mile from the town is the entrance to the famous stalactite cavern of Adelsberg, the largest and most magnificent in Europe. The cavern is divided into four grottoes, with two lateral ramifications which reach to the distance of about a mile and a half from the entrance. The river Poik enters the cavern 60 ft. below its mouth, and is heard murmuring in its recesses. In the Kaiser-Ferdinand grotto, the third of the chain, a great ball is annually held on Whit-Monday, when the chamber is brilliantly illuminated. The Franz-Joseph-Elisabeth grotto, the largest of the four, and the farthest from the entrance, is 665 ft. in length, 640 ft. in breadth and more than 100 ft. high. Besides the imposing proportions of its chambers, the cavern is remarkable for the variegated beauty of its stalactite formations, some resembling transparent drapery, others waterfalls, trees, animals or human beings, the more grotesque being called by various fanciful appellations. These subterranean wonders were known as far back as 1213, but the cavern remained undiscovered in modern times until 1816, and it is only in still more recent times that its vast extent has been fully ascertained and explored. The total length of the passages is now estimated at over 5 1/2 m. The connexion with the Ottokar grotto was established in 1890. The Magdalene grotto, about an hour's walk to the north, is celebrated for the extraordinary subterranean amphibian, the proteus anguinus, first discovered there. It is about a foot in length, lives on snails and worms and is provided with both lungs and gills.
ADELUNG, JOHANN CHRISTOPH (1732-1806), German grammarian and philologist, was born at Spantekow, in Pomerania, on the 8th of August 1732, and educated at the public schools of Anklam and Klosterbergen, and the university of Halle. In 1759 he was appointed professor at the gymnasium of Erfurt, but relinquished this situation two years later and went to reside in a private capacity at Leipzig, where he devoted himself to philological researches. In 1787 he received the appointment of principal librarian to the elector of Saxony at Dresden, where he continued to reside until his death on the 10th of September 1806.
The writings of Adelung are very voluminous, and there is not one of them, perhaps, which does not exhibit some proofs of the genius, industry and erudition of the author. By means of his excellent grammars, dictionary and various works on German style, he contributed greatly towards rectifying the orthography, refining the idiom and fixing the standard of his native tongue. His German dictionary— Grammatisch-kritisches Worterbuch der hochdeutschen Mundart (1774-1786)—bears witness to the patient spirit of investigation which Adelung possessed in so remarkable a degree, and to his intimate knowledge of the history of the different dialects on which modern German is based. No man before Jakob Grimm (q.v.) did so much for the language of Germany. Shortly before his death he issued Mithridates, oder allgemeine Sprachenkunde (1806). The hint of this work appears to have been taken from a publication, with a similar title, published by Konrad von Gesner (1516-1565) in 1555; but the plan of Adelung is much more extensive. Unfortunately he did not live to finish what he had undertaken. The first volume, which contains the Asiatic languages, was published immediately after his death; the other two were issued under the superintendence of Johann Severin Vater (1771-1826). Of the very numerous works by Adelung the following may be noted: Directorium diplomaticum (Meissen, 1802); Deutsche Sprachlehre fur Schulen (Berlin, 1781), and the periodical, Magazin fur die deutsche Sprache (Leipzig, 1782-1784).
ADEMPTION (Lat. ademptio, from adimere, a taking away), in law, a revocation of a grant or bequest (see LEGACY.)
ADEN, a seaport and territory in Arabia, politically part of British India, under the governor of Bombay. The seaport is situated in 12 deg. 45' N. lat., and 45 deg. 4' E. long., on a peninsula near the entrance to the Red Sea, 100 m. E. of the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb. The peninsula of Aden consists chiefly of a mass of barren and desolate volcanic rocks, extending five miles from east to west, and three from its northern shore to Ras Sanailah or Cape Aden, its most southerly point; it is connected with the mainland by a neck of flat sandy ground only a few feet high; and its greatest elevation is Jebel Shamshan, 1776 ft. above the level of the sea. The town is built on the eastern coast, in what is probably the crater of an extinct volcano, and is surrounded by precipitous rocks that form an admirable natural defence. There are two harbours, an outer, facing the town, protected by the island of Sirah, but now partially choked with mud; and an inner, called Aden Back-bay, or, by the Arabs, Bandar Tawayih, on the western side of the peninsula, which at all periods of the year admits vessels drawing less than 20 ft. On the whole, Aden is a healthy place, although it suffers considerably from the want of good water, and the heat is often very intense. From time to time additional land on the mainland has been acquired by cession or purchase, and the adjoining island of Perim, lying in the actual mouth of the strait, was permanently occupied in 1857. Farther inland, and along the coast, most of the Arab chiefs are under the political control of the British government, which pays them regular allowances. The area of the peninsula is only 15 sq. m., but the total area of British territory is returned at 80 sq. m., including Perim (5 sq. m.), and that of the Aden Protectorate is about 9000 sq. m. The seaport of Aden is strongly fortified. Modern science has converted "Steamer Point'' into a seemingly impregnable position, the peninsula which the "Point'' forms to the whole crater being cut off by a fortified line which runs from north to south, just to the east of the coal wharfs. The administration is conducted by a political resident, who is also the military commandant. All food requires to be imported, and the water-supply is largely derived from condensation. A little water is obtained from wells, and some from an aqueduct 7 m. long, constructed in 1867 at a cost of L. 30,000, besides an irregular supply from the old reservoirs.
From its admirable commercial and military position, Aden early became the chief entrepot of the trade between Europe and Asia. It is the 'Arabia eudaimon of the Periplus. It was known to the Romans as Arabia Felix and Attanae, and was captured by them, probably in the year 24 B.C. In 1513 it was unsuccessfully attacked by the Portuguese under Albuquerque, but subsequently it fell into the hands of the Turks in 1538. In the following century the Turks themselves relinquished their conquests in Yemen, and the sultan of Sana established a supremacy over Aden, which was maintained until the year 1735, when the sheikh of Lahej, throwing off his allegiance, founded a line of independent sultans. In 1837 a ship under British colours was wrecked near Aden, and the crew and passengers grievously maltreated by the Arabs. An explanation of the outrage being demanded by the Bombay government, the sultan undertook to make compensation for the plunder of the vessel, and also agreed to sell his town and port to the English. Captain Haines of the Indian navy was sent to complete these arrangements, but the sultan's son refused to fulfil the promises that his father had made. A combined naval and miltary force was thereupon despatched, and the place was captured and annexed to British India on the 16th of January 1839. The withdrawal of the trade between Europe and the East, caused by the discovery of the passage round the Cape of Good Hope, and the misgovernment of the native rulers, had gradually reduced Aden to a state of comparative insignificance; but about the time of its capture by the British the Red Sea route to India was reopened, and commerce soon began to flow in its former channel. Aden was made a free port, and was chosen as one of the coaling stations of the Peninsular and Oriental Steamship Company. Its importance as a port of call for steamers and a coaling station has grown immensely since the opening of the Suez Canal. It also conducts a considerable trade with the interior of Arabia, and with the Somali coast of Africa on the opposite side of the Red Sea. The submarine cables of the Eastern Telegraph Company here diverge—on the one hand to India, the Far East and Australia, and on the other hand to Zanzibar and the Cape.
In 1839 the population was less than 1000, but in 1901 it had grown to 43,974. The gross revenue (1901-1902) was Rs. 37,25,915. There are three printing-presses, of which one is in the gaol and the other two belong to a European and a Parsee firm of merchants. The port is visited yearly by some 1300 steamers with a tonnage of 2 1/2 million tons. The principal articles of import are coffee, Cotton-piece goods, &c., grain, hides, coal, opium, cotton- twist and yarn. The exports are, in the main, a repetition of the imports. Of the total imports nearly one-third come from the east coast of Africa, and another third from Arabia. Of the total exports, nearly one-third again go to the east coast of Africa. The Aden brigade belongs to the western army corps of India.
ADENES (ADENEZ or ADANS), surnamed LE ROI, French trouvere, was born in Brabant about 1240. He owed his education to the kindness of Henry III., duke of Brabant, and he remained in favour at court for some time after the death (1261) of his patron. In 1269 he entered the service of Guy de Dampierre, afterwards count of Flanders, probably as roi des menestrels, and followed him in the next year on the abortive crusade in Tunis in which Louis IX. lost his life. The expedition returned by way of Sicily and Italy, and Adenes has left in his poems some very exact descriptions of the places through which he passed. The purity of his French and the absence of provincialisms point to a long residence in France, and it has been suggested that Adenes may have followed Mary of Brabant thither on her marriage with Philip the Bold. He seems, however, to have remained in the service of Count Guy, although he made frequent visits to Paris to consult the annals preserved in the abbey of St Denis. The poems written by Adenes are four: the Enfances Ogier, an enfeebled version of the Chevalerie Ogier de Danemarche written by Raimbert de Paris at the beginning of the century; Berte aus granspies, the history of the mother of Charlemagne, founded on well-known traditions which are also preserved in the anonymous Chronique de France, and in the Chronique rimee of Philippe Mousket; Bueves de Comarchis, belonging to the cycle of romance gathered round the history of Aimeri de Narbonne; and a long roman d'aventures, Cleomades, borrowed from Spanish and Moorish traditions brought into France by Blanche, daughter of Louis IX., who after the death of her Spanish husband returned to the French court. Adenes probably died before the end of the 13th century.
The romances of Adenes were edited for the Academie Imperiale et Royale of Brussels by A. Scheler and A. van Hasseh in 1874; Berte was rendered into modern French by G. Hecq (1897) and by R. Perie(1900); Cleomades, by Le Chevalier de Chatelain (1859). See also the edition of Berte by Paulin Paris (1832); an article by the same writer in the Hist. litt. de la France, vol. xx. pp. 679-718; Leon Gautier, Les epopees francaises, vol. iii., &c.
ADENINE, or 6-AMINO-PURIN, C5H5N5, in chemistry, a basic substance which has been obtained as a decomposition product of nuclein, and also from the pancreatic glands of oxen. It has been synthesized by E. Fischer (Berichte, 1897, 30, p. 2238) by heating 2.6.8-trichlorpurin with 10 times its weight of ammonia for six hours at 100 deg. C.; by this means 6-amino-2.8-dichlorpurin is obtained, which on reduction by means of hydriodic acid and phosphonium iodide is converted into adenine. In 1898 E. Fischer also obtained it from 8-oxy-2.6-dichlorpurin Berichte, 1898, 31, p. 104). It crystallizes in long needles; forms salts C5H5N5.2HI and (C5H5N5)2.H2SO4.2H2O, and is converted by nitrous acid into hypoxanthine or 6-oxypurin. On heating with hydrochloric acid at 180-200 deg. C. it is decomposed; the products of the reaction being glycocoll, ammonia, formic acid and carbon dioxide. Various methyl derivatives of adenine have been described by E. Fischer (Berichte, 1898, 31, on 104) and by M. Kruger (Zeit. fur physiol. Chemie, 1894, 18, p. 434). For the constitution of adenine see PURIN.
ADENOIDS, or ADENOID GROWTHS (from Gr. adenoeides, glandular), masses of soft, spongy tissue between the back of the nose and throat, occurring mostly in young children; blocking the air-way, they prevent the due inflation of the lungs and the proper development of the chest. The growths are apt to keep up a constant catarrh near the orifice of the ventilating tubes which pass from the throat to the ear, and so render the child dull of hearing or even deaf. They also give rise to asthma, and like enlarged tonsils—with which they are often associated— they impart to the child a vacant, stupid expression, and hinder his physical and intellectual development. They cause his voice to be "stuffy,'' thick, and unmusical. Though, except in the case of a cleft palate, they cannot be seen with the naked eye, they are often accompanied by a visible and suggestive granular condition of the wall at the back of the throat. Their presence may easily be determined by the medical attendant gently hooking the end of the index-finger round the back of the soft palate. If the tonsils are enlarged it is kinder to postpone this digital examination of the throat until the child is under the influence of an anaesthetic for operation upon the tonsils, and if adenoids are present they can be removed at the same time that the tonsils are dealt with. Though the disease is a comparatively recent discovery, the pioneer in its treatment being Meyer of Copenhagen, it has probably existed as long as tuberculosis itself, with which affection it is somewhat distantly connected. In the unenlightened days many children must have got well of adenoids without operation, and even at the present time it by no means follows that because a child has these postnasal vegetations he must forthwith be operated on. The condition is very similar to that of enlarged tonsils, where with time, patience and attention to general measures, operation is often rendered unnecessary. But if the child continues to breathe with his mouth open and to snore at night, if he remains deaf and dull, and is troubled with a chronic "cold in his head,'' the question of thorough exploration of the naso-pharynx and of a surgical operation should most certainly be considered. In recent years the comparatively simple operation for their removal has been very frequently performed, and, as a rule, with marked benefit, but this treatment should always be followed by a course of instruction in respiratory exercises; the child must be taught regularly to fill his lungs and make the tidal air pass through the nostrils. These respiratory exercises may be resorted to before operation is proposed, and in some cases they may render operative treatment unnecessary. Operations should not be performed in cold weather or in piercing east winds, and it is advisable to keep the child indoors for a day or two subsequent to its performance. To expose a child just after operating on his throat to the risks of a journey by train or omnibus is highly inadvisable. Although the operation is not a very painful one, it ought not to be performed upon a child except under the influence of chloroform or some other general anaesthetic. (F. O.*)
ADEPT (if used as a substantive pronounced adept, if as an adjective adept; from Lat. adeptus, one who has attained), completely and fully acquainted with one's subject, an expert. The word implies more than acquired proficiency, a natural inborn aptitude. In olden times an adept was one who was versed in magic, an alchemist, one who had attained the great secrets of the unknown.
ADERNO, a town of the province of Catania, Sicily, 22 m. N.W. of the town of that name. Pop. (1901) 25,859. It occupies the site of the ancient Adranon, which took its name from Adranos, a god probably of Phoenician origin, in Roman times identified with Vulcan, whose chief temple was situated here, and was guarded by a thousand huge gods; there are perhaps some substructures of this building still extant outside the town. The latter was founded about 400 B.C. by Dionysius I.; very fine remains of its walls are preserved. For a time it was the headquarters of Timoleon, and it was the first town taken by the Romans in the First Punic War (263 B.C..) In the centre of the modern town rises the castle, built by Roger I.; in the chapel are frescoes representing his granddaughter, Adelasia, who founded the convent of St Lucia in 1157, taking the veil. The columns in the principal church are of black lava.
See P. Russo, Illustrazione storica di Aderno (Adorno, 1897).
ADEVISM, a term introduced by Max Muller to imply the denial of gods (Sans. deva), on the analogy of Atheism, the denial of God. Max Muller used it particularly in connexion with the Vedanta philosophy for the correlative of ignorance or nescience (Gifford lectures, 1892, c. ix.).
ADHEMAR DE CHABANNES (c. 988-c. 1030), medieval historian, was born about 988 at Chabannes, a village in the French department of Haute-Vienne. Educated at the monastery of St Martial at Limoges, he passed his life as a monk, either at this place or at the monastery of St Cybard at Angouleme. He died about 1030, most probably at Jerusalem, whither he had gone on a pilgrimage. Adinemar's life was mainly spent in writing and transcribing chronicles, and his principal work is a history entitled Chronicon Aquitanicum et Francicum or Historia Francorum. This is in three books and deals with Frankish history from the fabulous reign of Pharamond, king of the Franks, to A.D. 1028. The two earlier books are scarcely more than a copy of the Gesta regum Francorum, but the third book, which deals with the period from 814 to 1028, is of considerable historical importance. This is published in the Monumenta Germaniac historica. Scriptores. Band iv. (Hanover and Berlin, 1826-1892). He also wrote Commemoratio abbatum Lemovicensium basilicae S. Martialis apostoli (848-1029) and Epistola ad Jordanum Lemovicensem episcopum et alios de apostolatu S. Martialis, both of which are published by J. P. Migne in the Patrologia Latinia, tome cxli. (Paris, 1844-1855).
See F. Arbellot, Etude historique et litteraire sur Ademar de Chabannes (Limoges, 1873); J. F. E. Castaigne, Dissertation sur le lieu de naissance et sur la famille du chroniqueur Ademar, moine de l'abbaye de St Cybard d'Angouleme (Angouleine, 1850).
ADHEMAR (ADEMAR, AIMAR, AELARZ) DE MONTEIL (d. 1098), one of the principal personages of the first crusade, was bishop of Puy en Velay from before 1087. At the council of Clermont in 1095 he showed great zeal for the crusade, and having been named apostolic legate by the pope, he accompanied Raymond IV., count of Toulouse, to the east. He negotiated with Alexis Comnenus at Constantinople, re-established at Nicaea some discipline among the crusaders, caused the siege of Antioch to be raised and died in that city of the plague on the 1st of August 1098.
See the article by C. Kohler in La Grande Encyclopedie; Bibliographie du Velay (1902), 640-650.
ADHESION (from Lat. adhaerere, to adhere), the process of adhering or clinging to anything. In a figurative sense, adhesion (like "adherent'') is used of any attachment to a party or movement; but the word is also employed technically in psychology, pathology and botany. In psychology Bain and others use it of association of ideas and action; in pathology an adhesion is an abnormal union of surfaces; and in botany "adhesion'' is used of dissimilar parts, e.g. in floral whorls, in opposition to "cohesion,'' which applies to similar parts, e.g. of the same whorl.
ADIAPHORISTS (Gr. adiaforos, indifferent). The Adiaphorist controversy among Lutherans was an issue of the provisional scheme of compromise between religious parties, pending a general council, drawn up by Charles V., sanctioned at the diet of Augsburg, 15th of May 1548, and known as the Augsburg Interim. It satisfied neither Catholics nor Protestants. As head of the Protestant party the young elector Maurice of Saxony negotiated with Melanchthon and others, and at Leipzig, on the 22nd of December 1548, secured their acceptance of the Interim as regards adiaphora (things indifferent), points neither enjoined nor forbidden in Scripture. This sanctioned jurisdiction of Catholic bishops, and observance of certain rites, while all were to accept justification by faith (relegating sola to the adiaphora.) This modification was known as the Leipzig Interim; its advocates were stigmatized as Adiaphorists. Passionate opposition was led by Melanchthon's colleague, Matth. Flacius, on the grounds that the imperial power was not the judge of adiaphora, and that the measure was a trick to bring back popery. From Wittenberg he fled, April 1549, to Magdeburg, making it the headquarters of rigid Lutheranism. Practically the controversy was concluded by the religious peace ratified at Augsburg (Sept. 25, 1555), which left princes a free choice between the rival confessions, with the right to impose either on their subjects; but much bitter internal strife was kept up by Protestants on the theoretical question of adiaphora; to appease this was one object of the Formula Concordiae, 1577. Another Adiaphorist controversy between Pietists and their opponents, respecting the lawfulness of amusements, arose in 1681, when Anton Reiser (1628-1686) denounced the opera as antichristian.
See arts. by J. Gottschick in A. Hauck's Realencyklopadie (1896); by Fritz in I. Goschler's Dict. Encyclop. de la Theol. Cath. (1858); other authorities in J. C. L. Gieseler, Ch. Hist. (N. York ed., 1868, vol. iv.); monograph by Erh. Schmid, Adiaphora, wissenschaftlich und historisch untersucht (1809), from the rigorist point of view.
ADIGE (Ger. Etsch, anc. Athesis), a considerable river in North Italy. The true source of the Adige is in some small lakes on the summit of the Reschen Scheideck Pass (4902 ft.), and it is swollen by several other streams, near Glurns, where the roads over the Ofen and the Stelvio Passes fall in. It thence flows east to Meran, and then south-east to Botzen, where it receives the Eisak (6 ft.), and becomes navigable. It then turns south-west, and, after receiving the Noce (right) and the Avisio (left), leaves Tirol, and enters Lombardy, 13 m. south of Rovereto. After traversing North Italy, in a direction first southerly and then easterly, it falls into the Adriatic at Porto Fossone, a few miles north of the mouth of the Po. The most considerable towns on its banks (south of Botzen) are Trent and Rovereto, in Tirol, and Verona and Legnago, in Italy. It is a very rapid river, and subject to sudden swellings and overflowings, which cause great damage to the surrounding country. It is navigable from the heart of Tirol to the sea. In Lombardy it has a breadth of 200 yds., and a depth of 10 to 16 ft., but the strength of the current renders its navigation very difficult, and lessens its value as a means of transit between Germany and Italy. The Adige has a course of about 220 m., and, after the Po, is the most important river in Italy. In Roman times it flowed, in its lower course, much farther north than at present, along the base of the Euganean hills, and entered the sea at Brondolo. In A.D. 587 the river broke its banks, and the main stream took its present course, but new streams opened repeatedly to the south, until now the Adige and the Po form conjointly one delta. (W. A. B. C.)
ADIPOCERE (from the Lat. adeps, fat, and cera, wax), a substance into which animal matter is sometimes converted, and so named by A. F. Fourcroy, from its resemblance to both fat and wax. When the Cimetiere des Innocens at Paris was removed in 1786-1787, great masses of this substance were found where the coffins containing the dead bodies had been placed very closely together. The whole body had been converted into this fatty matter, except the bones, which remained, but were extremely brittle. Chemically, adipocere consists principally of a mixture of fatty acids, glycerine being absent. Saponification with potash liberates a little ammonia (about 1%), and gives a mixture of the potassium salts of palmitic, margaric and oxymargaric acids. The insoluble residue consists of lime, &c., derived from the tissues. The artificial formation of adipocere has been studied; it appears that it is not formed from albuminous matter, but from the various fats in the body collecting together and undergoing decomposition.