Ten MSS. exist, of which the chief are (1-2) Copenhagen, Royal Library, Old Royal Collection, No. 2296, of 12th to 13th cents.; No. 718, of 15th cent.; (3) Leyden University, Voss. Lat. 123, of 11th cent.; (4) Rome, Vatican Library, 2010; (5) Vienna, Hofu. Staatsbibliothek, 413, of 13th cent.; (6) Wolfenbuttel, Ducal Library, Gud. 83, of 15th cent.
There are 15 editions of the Historia, in whole or part; the first published at Copenhagen, 1579 (the first of the Libellus or Descriptio Ins. Aquil. appeared at Stockholm in 1615), the best at Hanover, 1846 (by Lappenberg, in Scriptores Rerum Germanicarum; reissued by L. Weiland, 1876), and at Paris, 1884 (in Migne's Patrologia Latina, cxlvi.). There are also three German versions, and one Danish; the best is by J. C. M. Laurent (and W. Wattenbach) in Geschichtsschreiber d. deutsch. Vorzeit, part vii. (1850 and 1888) . See also J. Asmussen, De fontibus Adami Bremensis, 1834; Lappenberg in Pertz, Archiv, vi, 770; Aug. Bernard, De Adamo Bremensi (Paris, 1895); Beazley, Dawn of Modern Geography, ii. 514-548 (1901).
ADAM (or ADAN) DE LE HALE (died c. 1288), French trouvere, was born at Arras. His patronymic is generally modernized to La Halle, and he was commonly known to his contemporaries as Adam d'Arras or Adam le Bossu, sometimes simply as Le Bossu d'Arras. His father, Henri de le Hale, was a well-known Citizen of Arras, and Adam studied grammar, theology and music at the Cistercian abbey of Vaucelles, near Cambrai. Father and son had their share in the civil discords in Arras, and for a short time took refuge in Douai. Adam had been destined for the church, but renounced this intention, and married a certain Marie, who figures in many of his songs, rondeaux, motets and jeux-partis. Afterwards he joined the household of Robert II., count of Artois; and then was attached to Charles of Anjou, brother of Charles IX., whose fortunes he followed in Egypt, Syria, Palestine and Italy. At the court of Charles, after he became king of Naples, he wrote his Jeu de Robin et Marion, the most famous of his works. He died between 1285 and 1288. Adam's shorter pieces are accompanied by music, of which a transcript in modern notation, with the original score, is given in Coussemaker's edition. His Jeu de Robin et Marion is cited as the earliest French play with music on a secular subject. The pastoral, which tells how Marion resisted the knight, and remained faithful to Robert the shepherd, is based on an old chanson, Robin m'aime, Robin m'a. It consists of dialogue varied by refrains already current in popular song. The melodies to which these are set have the character of folk-music, and are more spontaneous and melodious than the more elaborate music of his songs and motets. A modern adaptation, by Julien Tiersot, was played at Arras by a company from the Paris Opera Comique on the occasion of a festival in 1896 in honour of Adam de le Hale. His other play, Le jeu Adan or Le jeu de la Feuillee (c. 1262), is a satirical drama in which he introduces himself, his father and the citizens of Arras with their peculiarities. His works include a Conge, or satirical farewell to the city of Arras, and an unfinished chanson de geste in honour of Charles of Anjou, Le roi de Sicile, begun in 1282; another short piece, Le jeu du pelerin, is sometimes attributed to him.
The only MS. which contains the whole of Adam's work is the La Valliere MS. (No. 25,566) in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, dating from the latter half of the 13th century. Many of his pieces are also contained in Douce MS. 308, in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. His OEuvres completes (1872) were edited by E. de Coussemaker. See also an article by Paulin Paris in the Histoire litteraire de La France (vol. xx. pp. 638-675); G. Raynaud, Recueil des motets francais des XIIe et XIIIe siecles (1882); Canchons et Partures des . . . Adan delle Hale (Halle, 1900), a critical edition by Rudolf Berger; an edition of Adam's two jeux in Monmerque and Michel's Theatre francais au moyen age (1842); E. Langlois, Le jeu de Robin et Marion (1896), with a translation in modern French; A. Guesnon, La Satire a Arras au XIIIe, siecle (1900); and a full bibliography of works on the subject in No. 6 of the Bibliotheque de bibliographies critiques, by Henri Guy.
ADAM, ALEXANDER (1741-1809), Scottish writer on Roman antiquities, was born on the 24th of June 1741, near Forres, in Morayshire. From his earliest years he showed uncommon diligence and perseverance in classical studies, notwithstanding many difficulties and privations. In 1757 he went to Edinburgh, where he studied at the university. His reputation as a classical scholar secured him a post as assistant at Watson's Hospital and the headmastership in 1761. In 1764 he became private tutor to Mr Kincaid, afterwards Lord Provost of Edinburgh, by whose influence he was appointed (in 1768) to the rectorship of the High School on the retirement of Mr Matheson, whose substitute he had been for some time before. From this period he devoted himself entirely to the duties of his office and to the preparation of his numerous works on classical literature. His popularity and success as a teacher are strikingly illustrated by the great increase in the number of his pupils, many of whom subsequently became distinguished men, among them being Sir Walter Scott, Lord Brougham and Jeffrey. He succeeded in introducing the study of Greek into the curriculum of the school, notwithstanding the opposition of the university headed by Principal Robertson. In 1780 the university of Edinburgh conferred upon him the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws. He died on the 18th of December 1809, after an illness of five days, during which he occasionally imagined himself still at work, his last words being, "It grows dark, boys, you may go.'' Dr Adam's first publication was his Principles of Latin and English Grammar (1772), which, being written in English instead of Latin, brought down a storm of abuse upon him. This was followed by his Roman Antiquities (1791), A Summary of Geography and History (1794) and a Compendious Dictionary of the Latin Tongue (1805). The MS. of a projected larger Latin dictionary, which he did not live to complete, lies in the library of the High School. His best work was his Roman Antiquities, which has passed through a large number of editions and received the unusual compliment of a German translation.
See An Account of the Life and Character of A. A., by A. Henderson (1810).
ADAM, SIR FREDERICK (1781—1853), British general, was the son of the Rt. Hon. W. Adam of Blair-Adam, lord-lieutenant of Kinross-shire. He was gazetted an ensign at the age of fourteen and was subsequently educated at Woolwich. He became captain in 1799, and served with the Coldstream Guards in Egypt (1801). In 1805, having purchased the intermediate steps of promotion, he obtained command of the 21st Foot, with which regiment he served in the Mediterranean from 1805 to 1813, taking part in the battle of Maida in 1806. In 1813 he accompanied the British corps sent to Catalonia, in which he commanded a brigade. He fought a gallant action at Biar (April 12, 1813), and on the following day won further distinction at Castalla. In the action of Ordal, on the 12th of September, Adam received two severe wounds. He returned to England to recover, and was made a major-general in 1814. At Waterloo, Adam's brigade, of which the 52nd under Colborne (see SEATON, LORD) formed part, shared with the Guards the honour of repulsing the Old Guard. For his services he was made a K.C.B., and received also Austrian and Russian orders. During the long peace which followed, Sir Frederick Adam was successively employed at Malta, in the Ionian Islands as lord high commissioner (1824-1831) and from 1832 to 1837 as governor of Madras. He became K.C.M.G. in 1820, G.C.M.G. four years later, lieutenant-general in 1830, a privy councillor in 1831, G.C.B. in 1840, and full general in 1846. He died suddenly on the 17th of August 1853.
ADAM, JULIETTE (1836— ), Freneh writer, known also by her maiden name of Juliette Lamber, was born at Verberie (Oise) on the 4th of October 1836. She has given an account of her childhood, rendered unhappy by the dissensions of her parents, in Le roman de mon enfance et de ma jeunesse (Eng. trans., London and New York, 1902). In 1852 she married a doctor named La Messine, and published in 1858 her Idees antiproudhoniennes sur l'amour, la femme et le mariage, in defence of Daniel Stern (Mme. d'Agoult) and George Sand. On her husband's death she married in 1868 Antoine Edmond Adam (1816—1877), prefect of police in 1870, and subsequently life-senator; and she established a salon which was frequented by Gambetta and the other republican leaders against the conservative reaction of the 'seventies. In the same interest she founded in 1879 the Nouvelle Revue, which she edited for the first eight years, and in the administration of which she retained a preponderating influence until 1899. She wrote the notes on foreign politics, and was unremitting in her attacks on Bismarck and in her advocacy of a policy of revanche. Mme. Adam was also generally credited with the authorship of papers on various European capitals signed "Paul Vasili,'' which were in reality the work of various writers. The most famous of her numerous novels is Paienne (1883). Her reminiscences, Mes premieres armes litteraires et politiques (1904) and Mes sentiments et nos idees avant 1870 (1905), contain much interesting gossip about her distinguished contemporaries.
ADAM, LAMBERT SIGISBERT (1700-1759), French sculptor, known as Adam l'aine, was born in Nancy, son of Jacob Sigisbert Adam, a sculptor of little repute. Adam was thirty-seven when, on his election to the Academy, he exhibited at the Salon the model of the group of "Neptune and Amphitrite'' for the centre of the fountain at Versailles, and thereafter found much employment in the decoration of the royal residences. Among his more important works are "Nymphs and Tritons,'' "The Triumph of Neptune stilling the Waves,'' "Hunter with Lion in his Net,'' a relief for the chapel of St Adelaide, "The Seine and the Marne'' in stone for St Cloud, "Hunting'' and "Fishing,'' marble groups for Berlin, "Mars embraced by Love'' and "The enthusiasm of Poetry.'' Adam restored with much ability the twelve statues (Lycomedes) found in the so-called Villa of Marius at Rome, and was elected a member of the Academy of St Luke. Several of his most important works were executed for Frederick the Great in Prussia.
His brother, also a sculptor, NICOLAS SEBASTIEN ADAM (1705-1778), known as Adam le jeune, born in Nancy, worked under equal encouragement. His first work of importance was his "Prometheus chained, devoured by a Vulture,', executed in plaster in 1738, and carved in marble in 1763 as his "reception piece'' when he was elected into the Academy. He produced the reliefs of the "Birth'' and "Agony of Christ'' for the Oratory in Paris, but his chief works are the "Mausoleum of Cardinal de Fleury'' and, in particular, the tomb of Catherine Opalinska, queen of Poland (wife of King Stanislaus), at Nancy.
A third brother, FRANCOIS GASPARD BALTHASAR ADAM (1710-1761), born in Nancy, became the first sculptor of Frederick the Great and the head of the atelier of sculpture founded by that monarch, and passed the greater part of his life in Berlin. His chief works adorn the gardens and palaces of Sans Souci and Potsdam.
The work of the brothers Adam was too ornate in style to win the approval of the school that immediately followed them, and found its principal opponents in Bouchardon and Pigalle.
See Dussieux, Artistes francais a l'etranger (Paris, 1855, 8vo); Archives de l'art francais, documents, vol. i. pp. 117-180, chiefly for; works executed for the king of Prussia; Mariette, Abecedario; Emile de la Chavignerie and Auvray, Dictionnaire general des artistes de l'ecole francaise (Paris, 1882), mainly for works executed; Lady Dilke, French Architects and Sculptors of the 18th century (London, 4to, 1900).
ADAM, MELCHIOR (d. 1622), German divine and biographer, was born at Grotkau in Silesia after 1550, and educated in the college of Brieg, where he became a Protestant. In 1598 he went to Heidelberg, where he held various scholastic appointments. He wrote the biographies of a number of German scholars of the 16th century, mostly theologians, which were published in Heidelberg and Frankfort (5 vols., 1615—1620). He dealt with only twenty divines of other countries. All his divines are Protestants. His industry as a biographer is commended by P. Bayle, who acknowledges his obligations to Adam's labours; and his biographies, though they have faults, are still useful.
ADAM, PAUL (1862- ), French novelist, was born in Paris on the 7th of December 1862. He was prosecuted for his first novel, Chair molle (1885), but was acquitted. He collaborated with Jean Moreas in Le the chez Miranda (1886), and with Moreas and Gustave Kahn he founded the Symboliste, coming forward as one of the earliest defenders of symbolism. Among his numerous novels should be noted Le mystere des foules (2 vols., 1895), a study in Boulangism, Lettres de Malaisie (1897), a fantastic romance of imaginary future politics. In 1899 he began a novel-sequence, giving the history of the Napoleonic campaigns, the restoration and the government of Louis Philippe, comprising La force (1899), L'enfant d'Austerlitz (1901), La ruse (1902), and Au soleil de Juillet (1903). In 1900 he wrote a Byzantine romance, Basile et Sophia.
ADAM, ROBERT (1728—1792), British architect, the second son of William Adam of Maryburgh, in Fife, and the most celebrated of four brothers, John, Robert, James and William Adam, was born at Kirkcaldy in 1728. For few famous men have we so little biographical material, and contemporary references to him are sparse. He certainly studied at the university of Edinburgh, and probably received his first instruction in architecture from his father, who gave proofs of his own skill and taste in the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary (now demolished). His mother was the aunt of Dr W. Robertson, the first English historian of Charles V., and in 1750 we find Robert Adam living with her in Edinburgh, and making one of the brilliant literary coterie which adorned it at that period. Somewhere between 1750 and 1754 he visited Italy, where he spent three years studying the remains of Roman architecture. There he was struck with the circumstance that practically nothing bad survived of the Greek and Roman masterpieces except public buildings, and; that the private palaces, which Vitruvius and Pliny esteemed so highly, had practically vanished. One example of such work. however, was extant in the ruins of Diocletian's palace at Spalato in Dalmatia, and this he visited in July 1757, taking with him the famous French architect and antiquary, C. L. Clerisseau, and two experienced draughtsmen, with whose assistance, after being arrested as a spy, he managed in five weeks to accumulate a sufficient number of measurements and careful plans and surveys to produce a restoration of the entire building in a fine work which he published in 1764, The Ruins of the Palace of Diocletian, &c. Considering the shortness of the time occupied and the obstacles placed in his way by the Venetian governor and the population of the place, the result was amazing. The influence of these studies was apparent directly and indirectly in much of his subsequent work, which, indeed, was in great measure founded upon them.
After his return to England he seems to have come rapidly to the front, and in 1762 he was appointed sole architect to the king and the Board of Works. Six years later he resigned this office, in which he was succeeded by his brother James,—-who however, held the office jointly with another,—-and entered parliament as member for the county of Kinross. In 1768 he and his three brothers leased the ground fronting the Thames, upon which the Adelphi now stands, for L. 1200 on a ninety-nine years' lease, and having obtained, with the assistance of Lord Bute, the needful act of parliament, proceeded, in the teeth of public opposition, to erect the ambitious block of buildings which is imperishably associated with their name, indicating its joint origin by the title Adelphi, from the Greek adelfoi, the Brothers. The site presented attractive possibilities. A steep hill led down Buckingham Street to the river-side, and the plan was to raise against it, upon a terrace formed of massive arches and vaults and facing the river, a dignified quarter of fine streets and stately buildings, suggestive of the Spalato ruins. In spite of many difficulties, pecuniary and otherwise (the undertaking was completed from the proceeds of a lottery), money was raised and the work pushed on; in five years the Adelphi terrace stood complete, and the fine houses were eagerly sought after by artists and men of letters. Splendid, however, as the terrace and its houses are, both in conception and execution, the underground work which upholds them is perhaps more remarkable still. The vast series of arched vaults has been described by a modern writer as a very town, which, during the years that they were open, formed subterranean streets leading to the river and its wharves. In many places the arches stand in double tiers. In time these "streets'' obtained a bad name as the haunt of suspicious characters, and they have long been enclosed and let as cellars. Between 1773 and 1778 the brothers issued a fine series of folio engravings and descriptions of the designs for many of their most important works, which included several great public buildings and numberless large private houses; a fine volume was published in 1822. For the remaining years of Robert's life the practice of the firm was the most extensive in the country; his position was unquestioned, and when he died in 1792 he was laid to rest in Westminster Abbey almost as a matter of course.
The art of Robert Adam was extraordinarily many-sided and prolific, and it is difficult to give a condensed appreciation of it. As an architect he was strongly under Roman and Italian influences, and his style and aims were exotic rather than native. But this does not detract from their merit, nor need it diminish our estimate of his genius. It was, indeed, the most signal triumph of that genius that he was able so to mould and adapt classical models as to create a new manner of the highest charm and distinction. Out of simple curvilinear forms, of which he principally preferred the oval, he evolved combinations of extraordinary grace and variety, and these entered into every detail of his work. In his view the architect was intimately concerned with the furniture and the decorations of a building, as well as with its form and construction, and this view he carried rigorously into practice, and with astonishing success. Nothing was too small and unimportant for him—summer-houses and dog-kennels came as readily to him as the vast facades of a terrace in town or a great country house. But he never permitted minute details to obscure the main lines of a noble design. Whatever care he might have expended upon the flowing curves of a moulding or a decoration, it was strictly kept in its place; it contributed its share and no more to the total effect. He made a distinct step forward in giving shape to the idea of imparting the unity of a single imposing structure to a number of private houses grouped in a block which is so characteristic a feature of modern town building, and though at times he failed in the breadth of grasp needful to carry out such an idea on a large scale, he has left us some fine examples of what can be accomplished in this direction. A delightful but theoretically undesirable characteristic of his work is the use of stucco. Upon it he moulded delicate forms in subtle and beautiful proportions. His "compo'' was used so successfully that the patent was infringed: many of his moulds still exist and are in constant use. That most difficult feature, the column, he handled with enthusiasm and perfect mastery; he studied and wrote of it with minute pains, while his practice showed his graslp of the subject by all avoidance of bare imitation of the classic masters who first brought it to perfection. His work might be classic in form, but it was independently developed by himself. It would be impossible here to give a list of the innumerable works which he executed. In London, of course, the Adelphi stands pre-eminent; the screen and gate of the Admiralty and part of Fitzroy Square are by him, Portland Place, and much of the older portion of Finsbury Circus, besides whole streets of houses in the west end. There are the famous country houses of Lord Mansfield at Caen Wood, Highgate and Luton Hoo, and decorations and additions to many more.
Robert Adam—with, there is reason to suspect, some help from his brother James—has left as deep and enduring a mark upon English furniture as upon English architecture. Down to his time carving was the dominant characteristic of the mobiliary art, but thenceforward the wood-worker declined in importance. French influence disposed Robert Adam to the development of painted furniture with inlays of beautiful exotic woods, and many of his designs, especially for sideboards, are extremely attractive, mainly by reason of their austere simplicity. Robert Adam was no doubt at first led to turn his thoughts towards furniture by his desire to see his light, delicate, graceful interiors, with their large sense of atmosphere and their refined and finished detail, filled with plenishings which fitted naturally into his scheme. His own taste developed as he went on, but he was usually extremely successful, and cabinetmakers are still reproducing his most effective designs. In his furniture he made lavish use of his favourite decorative motives—-wreaths and paterae, the honeysuckle, and that fan ornament which he used so constantly. Thus an Adam house is a unique product of English art. From facade to fire-irons, from the chimneys to the carpets, everything originated in the same order of ideas, and to this day an Adam drawing-room is to English what a Louis Seize room is to French art. In nothing were the Adams more successful than in mantelpieces and doors. The former, by reason of their simplicity and the readiness with which the "compo'' ornaments can be applied and painted, are still made in cheap forms in great number. The latter were most commonly executed in a rich mahogany and are now greatly sought after. The extent to which the brothers worked together is by no means clear—indeed, there is an astonishing dearth of information regarding this remarkable family, and it is a reproach to English art literature that no biography of Robert Adam has ever been published. John Adam succeeded to his father's practice as an architect in Edinburgh. James Adam studied in Rome, and eventually was closely associated with Robert; William is variously said to have been a banker and an architect. (J. P.-B.)
ADAM, WILLIAM (1751—1839), British lawyer and politician, eldest son of John Adam of Blair-Adam, Kinross-shire, and nephew of the architect noticed above, was born on the 2nd of August 1751, studied at the universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, and passed at the Scottish bar in 1773. Soon afterwards he removed to England, where he entered parliament in 1774, and in 1782 was called to the common law bar. He withdrew from parliament in 1795, entered it again in 1806 as representative of the united counties of Clackmannan and Kinross, and continued a member, with some interruptions, till 1811. He was a Whig and a supporter of the policy of Fox. At the English bar he obtained a very considerable practice. He was successively attorney and solicitor-general to the prince of Wales, one of the managers of the impeachment of Warren Hastings, and one of the counsel who defended the first Lord Melville when impeached. During his party's brief tenure of office in 1806 he was chancellor of the duchy of Cornwall, and was afterwards a privy councillor and lord-lieutenant of Kinrossshire. In 1814 he became a baron of Exchequer in Scotland, and was chief commissioner of the newly established jury-court for the trial of civil causes, from 1815 to 1830, when it was merged in the permanent supreme tribunal. He died at Edinburgh on the 17th of February 1839.
ADAMANT (from Gr. adamas, untameable), the modern diamond (q.v.), but also a name given to any very hard substance. The Greek word is used by Homer as a personal epithet, and by Hesiod for the hard metal in armour, while Theophrastus applies it to the hardest crystal. By an etymological confusion with the Lat. adamare, to have an attraction for, it also came to be associated with the loadstone; but since the term was displaced by "diamond'' it has had only a figurative and poetical use.
ADAMAWA, a country of West Africa, which lies roughly between 6 deg. and 11 deg. N., and 11 deg. and 15 deg. E., about midway between the Bight of Biafra and Lake Chad. It is now divided between the British protectorate of Nigeria (which includes the chief town Yola, q.v.) and the German colony of Cameroon. This region is watered by the Benue, the chief affluent of the Niger, and its tributary the Faro. Another stream, the Yedseram, flows north-east to Lake Chad. The most fertile parts of the country are the plains near the Benue, about 800 ft. above the sea. South and east of the river the land rises to an elevation of 1600 ft., and is diversified by numerous hills and groups of mountains. These ranges contain remarkable rock formations, towers, battlements and pinnacles crowning the hills. Chief of these formations is a gigantic pillar some 450 ft. high and 150 ft. thick at the base. It stands on the summit of a high conical hill. Mount Alantika, about 25 miles south-south-east of Yola, rises from the plain, an isolated granite mass, to the height of 6000 ft. The country, which is very fertile and is covered with luxuriant herbage, has many villages and a considerable population. Durra, ground-nuts, yams and cotton are the principal products, and the palm and banana abound. Elephants are numerous and ivory is exported. In the eastern part of the country the rhinoceros is met with, and the rivers swarm with crocodiles and with a curious mammal called the ayu, bearing some resemblance to the seal.
Adamawa is named after a Fula Emir Adama, who in the early years of the 19th century conquered the country. To the Hausa and Bornuese it was previously known as Fumbina (or South-land). The inhabitants are mainly pure negroes such as the Durra, Batta and Dekka, speaking different languages, and all fetish-worshippers. They are often of a very low type, and some of the tribes are cannibals. Slave-trading was still active among them in the early years of the 20th century. The Fula (q.v.), who first came into the country about the 15th century as nomad herdsmen, are found chiefly in the valleys, the pagan tribes holding the mountainous districts. There are also in the country numbers of Hausa, who are chiefly traders, as well as Arabs and Kanuri from Bornu. The emir of Yola, in the period of Fula lordship, claimed rights of suzerainty over the whole of Adamawa, but the country, since the subjection of the Fula (e. 1900), has consisted of a number of small states under the control of the British and Germans. Garua on the upper Benne, 65 m. east of Yola, is the headquarters of the German administration for the region and the chief trade centre in the north of Adamawa. Yoko is one of the principal towns in the south of the country, and in the centre is the important town of Ngaundere. After Heinrich Barth, who explored the country in 1851, the first traveller to penetrate Adamawa was the German, E. R. Flegel (1882). It has since been traversed by many expeditions, notably that of Baron von Uechtritz and Dr Siegfried Passarge (1893—1894).
An interesting account of Adamawa, its peoples and history, is given by Heinrich Barth in his Travels in North and Central Africa (new edition, London, 1890), and later information is contained in S. Passarge's Adamawa (Berlin, 1895). (See also CAMEROON and NIGERIA, and the bibliographies there given.)
ADAMITES, or ADAMIANS, a sect of heretics that flourished in North Africa in the 2nd and 3rd centuries. Basing itself probably on a union of certain gnostic and ascetic doctrines, this sect pretended that its members were re-established in Adam's state of original innocency. They accordingly rejected the form of marriage, which, they said, would never have existed but for sin, and lived in absolute lawlessness, holding that, whatever they did, their actions could be neither good nor bad. During the middle ages the doctrines of this obscure sect, which did not itself exist long, were revived in Europe by the Brethren and Sisters of the Free Spirit.
ADAMNAN, or ADOMNAN (c. 624-704), Irish saint and historian, was born at Raphoe, Donegal, Ireland, about the year 624. In 679 he was elected abbot of Hy or Iona, being ninth in succession from the founder, St Columba. While on a mission to the court of King Aldfrith of Northumberland in 686, he was led to adopt the Roman rules with regard to the time for celebrating Easter and the tonsure, and on his return to Iona he tried without success to enforce the change upon the monks. He died on the 23rd of September 704. Adamnan wrote a Life of St Columba, which, though abounding in fabulous matter, is of great interest and value. The best editions are those published by W. Reeves (1857, new edit. Edinburgh, 1874) and by J. T. Fowler (Oxford, 1894). Adamnan's other well-known work, De Locis Sanctis (edited by P. Geyer, Itinera Hierosolymitana saeculi, iii.-viii., &c., 1898; vol. 39 of Bienna Corpus Script. Ecc. Latin) was based, according to Bede, on information received from Arculf, a French bishop, who, on his return from the Holy Land, was wrecked on the west coast of Britain, and was entertained for a time at Iona. This was first published at Ingolstadt in 1619 by J. Gretser, who also defended Baronius' acceptance of Arculf's narrative against Casaubon. An English translation by G. J. R. Macpherson, Arculfus' Pilgrimage in the Holy Land. was published by the Pilgrim's Text Society (London, 1889).
For full bibliography see U. Chevalier, Repert de sources Historiques (1903), p. 40.
ADAMS, ANDREW LEITH (1827-1882), Scottish naturalist and palaeontologist, the second son of Francis Adams of Banchory, Aberdeen, was born on the 21st of March 1827, and was educated to the medical profession. As surgeon in the Army Medical Department from 1848 to 1873, he utilized his opportunities for the study of natural history in India and Kashmir, in Egypt, Malta, Gibraltar and Canada. His observations on the fossil vertebrata of the Maltese Islands led him eventually to give special study to fossil elephants, on which he became an acknowledged authority. In 1872 he was elected F.R.S. In 1873 he was chosen professor of zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin, and in 1878 professor of natural history in Queen's College, Cork, a post which he held until the close of his life. He died at Queenstown on the 29th of July 1882.
PUBLICATIONS.—Notes of a Naturalist in the Nile Valley and Malta (London, 1870); other works of travel; Monograph on the British Fossil Elephants (Palaeontographical Soc.), (London, 1877-1881).
ADAMS, CHARLES FRANCIS (1807-1886), American diplomatist, son of John Quincy Adams, and grandson of John Adams, was born in Boston on the 18th of August 1807. His father, having been appointed minister to Russia, took him in 1809 to St Petersburg, where he acquired a perfect familiarity with French, learning it as his native tongue. After eight years spent in Russia and England, he attended the Boston Latin School for four years, and in 1825 graduated at Harvard. He lived two years in the executive mansion, Washington, during his father's presidential term, studying law and moving in a society where he met Webster, Clay, Jackson and Randolph. Returning to Boston, he devoted ten years to business and study, and wrote for the North American Review. He also undertook the management of his father's pecuniary affairs, and actively supported him in his contest in the House of Representatives for the right of petition and the anti-slavery cause. In 1835 he wrote an effective and widely read political pamphlet, entitled, after Edmund Burke's more famous work, An Appeal from the New to the Old Whigs. He was a member of the Massachusetts general court from 1840 to 1845, sitting for three years in the House of Representatives and for two years in the Senate; and in 1846-1848 he edited a party Journal, the Boston Whig. In 1848 he was prominent in politics as a "Conscience Whig,'' presiding over the Buffalo Convention which formed the Free Soil party and nominated Martin van Buren for president and himself for vice-president. He was a Republican member of the Thirty-Sixth Congress, which assembled on the 5th of December 1859, and during the second session, from the 3rd of December 1860 to the 4th of March 1861, he represented Massachusetts in the Congressional Committee of Thirty-three at the time of the secession of seven of the Southern states. His selection by the chairman of this committee, Thomas Corwin, to present to the full committee certain propositions agreed upon by two-thirds of the Republican members, and his calm and able speech of the 31st of January 1861 in the House, served to make him conspicuous before congress and the country. Together with William H. Seward, he stood for the Republican policy of concession; and, while he was criticized severely and charged with inconsistency in view of his record as a "Conscience Whig,'' he was of the same mind as President Lincoln, willing to concede non-essentials, but holding rigidly to the principle, properly understood, that there must be no extension of slavery. He believed that as the Republicans were the victors they ought to show a spirit of conciliation, and that the policy of righteousness was likewise one of expediency, since it would have for its result the holding of the border slave states with the North until the 4th of March, when the Republicans could take possession of the government at Washington. With the incoming of the new administration Secretary Seward secured for Adams the appointment of minister to Great Britain. So much sympathy was shown in England for the South that his path was beset with difficulties; but his mission was to prevent the interference of Great Britain in the struggle; and while the work of Lincoln, Seward and Sumner, and the cause of emancipation, tended to this end, the American minister was insistent and unyielding, and knew how to present his case forcibly and with dignity. He laboured with energy and discretion to prevent the sailing of the "Alabama''; and, when unsuccessful in this, he persistently urged upon the British government its responsibility for the destruction of American merchant vessels by the privateer. In his own diary he shows that underneath his calm exterior were serious trouble and keen anxiety; and, in fact, the strain which he underwent during the Civil War made itself felt in later years. Adams was instrumental in getting Lord John Russell to stop the "Alexandra,'' and it was his industry and pertinacity in argument and remonstrance that induced Russell to order the detention in September 1863 of the two ironclad rams intended for the Confederate States. Adams remained in England until May 1868. His last important work was as a member, in 1871—1872, of the tribunal of arbitration at Geneva which disposed of the "Alabama'' claims. His knowledge of the subject and his fairness of mind enabled him to render his country and the cause of international arbitration valuable service. He died at Boston on the 21st of November 1886.
He edited the works of John Adams (10 vols.. 1850-1856), and the Memoirs of John Quincy Adams (12 vols., 1874-1877). See the excellent biography (Boston, 1900), in the "American Statesmen Series,'' by his son, Charles Francis Adams, Jr. (J. F. R.)
ADAMS, HENRY (1838— ), American historian, son of Charles Francis Adams and grandson of John Quincy Adams, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on the 16th of February 1838. He graduated at Harvard in 1858, and from 1861 to 1868 was private secretary to his father. From 1870 to 1877 he was assistant professor of history at Harvard and from 1870 to 1876 was editor of the North American Review. He is considered to have been the first (in 1874-1876) to conduct historical seminary work in the United States. His great work is his History of the United States (1801 to 1817) (9 vols., 1889—1891), which is incomparably the best work yet published dealing with the administrations of Presidents Jefferson and Madison. It is particularly notable for its account of the diplomatic relations of the United States during this period, and for its essential impartiality. Adams also published: Life of Albert Gallatin (1879), John Randolph (1882) in the "American Statesmen Series,'' and Historical Essays (1891); besides editing Documents Relating to New England Federalism (1877), and the Writings of Albert Gallatin (3 volumes, 1879). In collaboration with his elder brother Charles Francis Adams, Jr., he published Chapters of Erie and Other Essays (1871), and, with H. C. Lodge, Ernest Young and J. L. Laughlin, Essays in Anglo-Saxon Law (1876).
His elder brother, JOHN QUINCY ADAMS (1833-1894), a graduate of Harvard (1853), practised law, and was a Democratic member for several terms of the Massachusetts general court. In 1872 he was nominated for vice-president by the Democratic faction that refused to support Horace Greeley.
Another brother, CHARLES FRANCIS ADAMS, Jr. (1835- ), born in Boston on the 27th of May 1835, graduated at Harvard in 1856, and served on the Union side in the Civil War, receiving in 1865 the brevet of brigadier-general in the regular army. He was president of the Union Pacific railroad from 1884 to 1890, having previously become widely known as an authority on the management of railways. In 1900-1901 he was president of the American Historical Association. Among his writings are: Railroads, Their Origin and Problems (1878); Three Episodes of Massachusetts History (1892); a biography of his father, Charles Francis Adams (1900); Lee at Appomattox and Other Papers (1902); Theodore Lyman and Robert Charles Winthrop, Jr., Two Memoirs (1906); and Three Phi Beta Kappa Addresses (1907).
Another brother, BROOKS ADAMS (1848— ), born in Quincy, Massachusetts, on the 24th of June 1848, graduated at Harvard in 1870, and until 1881 practised law. His writings include: The Emancipation of Massachusetts (1887); The Law of Civilization and Decay (1895); America's Economic Supremacy (1900); and The New Empire (1902).
ADAMS, HENRY CARTER (1852— ), American economist, was born at Davenport, Iowa, on the 31st of December 1852. He was educated at Iowa College and Johns Hopkins University, of which latter he was fellow and lecturer (1880—1882). He was afterwards a lecturer in Cornell University, and in 1887 became professor of political economy and finance in the university of Michigan. He also became statistician to the Interstate Commerce Committee and was in charge of the transportation department in the 1900 census. His principal works are The State in Relation to Industrial Action (1887); Taxation in the United States, 1787 to 1816 (1884); Public Debts (1887); The Science of Finance (1888); Economics and Jurisprudence (1897).
ADAMS, HERBERT (1858- ), American sculptor, was born at West Concord, Vermont, on the 28th of January 1858. He was educated at the Worcester (Massachusetts) Institute of Technology, and at the Massachusetts Normal Art School, and in 1885-1890 he was a pupil of Antonin Mercie in Paris. In 1890-1898 he was an instructor in the art school of Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, New York. In 1906 he was elected vice-president of the National Academy of Design, New York. He experimented successfully with some polychrome busts and tinted marbles, notably in the "Rabbi's Daughter'' and a portrait of Miss Julia Marlowe, the actress; and he is at his best in his portrait busts of women, the best example being the study, completed in 1887, of Miss A. V. Pond, whom he afterwards married. Among his other productions are a fountain for Fitchburg, Massachusetts (1888); a number of works for the Congressional Library, Washington, including the bronze doors ("Writing'') begun by Olin Warner, and the statue of Professor Joseph Henry; memorial tablets for the Boston State House; a memorial to Jonathan Edwards, at Northampton, Mass.; statues of Richard Smith, the type-founder, in Philadelphia, and of William Ellery Channing, in Boston (1902); and the Vanderbilt memorial bronze doors for St Bartholomew's Church, New York.
ADAMS, HERBERT BAXTER (1850-1901), American historian and educationalist, was born at Shutesbury (near Amherst), Massachusetts, on the 16th of April 1850. He graduated at Amherst, at the head of his class, in 1872; and between 1873 and 1876 he studied political science, history and economics at Gottingen, Berlin and Heidelberg, Germany, receiving the degree of Ph.D.at Heidelberg in 1876, with the highest honours (summa cum lande). From 1876 almost until his death he was connected with the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, being in turn a fellow, an associate in history (1878—1883), an associate professor (1883—1891) and after 1891 professor of American and institutional history, In addition he was lecturer on history in Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts, in 1878-1881, and for many years took an active part in Chautauqua work. In 1884, also, he was one of the founders of the American Historical Association, of which he was secretary until 1900. In 1882 he founded the "Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science,'' and at the time of his death some forty volumes had been issued under his editorship. After 1887 he also edited for the United States Bureau of Education the series of monographs entitled "Contributions to American Educational History,'' he himself preparing the College of William and Mary (1887), and Thomas Jefferson and the University of Virginia (1888). It was as a teacher, however, that Adams rendered his most valuable services, and many American historical scholars owe their training and to a considerable extent their enthusiasm to him. He died at Amherst, Massachusetts, on the 30th of July 1901.
In addition to the monographs mentioned above, he published: Maryland's Influence in Founding a National Commonwealth (1877); Methods of Historical Study (1884); Maryland's Influence upon Land Cessions to the United States (1885); and the Life and Writings of Jared Sparks (2 vols., Boston, 1893), his most important work.
See Herbert B. Adams: Tributes of Friends (Baltimore, 1902), extra volume (xxiii.) of "Studies in Historical and Political Science.''
ADAMS, JOHN (1735-1826), second president of the United States of America, was born on the 30th of October 1735 in what is now the town of Quincy, Massachusetts. His father, a farmer, also named John, was of the fourth generation in descent from Henry Adams, who emigrated from Devonshire, England, to Massachusetts about 1636; his mother was Susanna Boylston Adams. Young Adams graduated from Harvard College in 1755, and for a time taught school at Worcester and studied law in the office of Rufus Putnam. In 1758 he was admitted to the bar. From an early age he developed the habit of writing descriptions of events and impressions of men. The earliest of these is his report of the argument of James Otis in the superior court of Massachusetts as to the constitutionality of writs of assistance. This was in 1761, and the argument inspired him with zeal for the cause of the American colonies. Years afterwards, when an old man, Adams undertook to write out at length his recollections of this scene; it is instructive to compare the two accounts. John Adams had none of the qualities of popular leadership which were so marked a characteristic of his second cousin, Samuel Adams; it was rather as a constitutional lawyer that he influenced the course of events. He was impetuous, intense and often vehement, unflinchingly courageous, devoted with his whole soul to the cause he had espoused; but his vanity, his pride of opinion and his inborn contentiousness were serious handicaps to him in his political career. These qualities were particularly manifested at a later period—-as, for example, during his term as president. He first made his influence widely felt and became conspicuous as a leader of the Massachusetts Whigs during the discussions with regard to the Stamp Act of 1765. In that year he drafted the instructions which were sent by the town of Braintree to its representatives in the Massachusetts legislature, and which served as a model for other towns in drawing up instructions to their representatives; in August 1765 he contributed anonymously four notable articles to the Boston Gazette (republished separately in London in 1768 as A Dissertation on the Canon and Feudal Law), in which he argued that the opposition of the colonies to the Stamp Act was a part of the never-ending struggle between individualism and corporate authority; and in December 1765 he delivered a speech before the governor and council in which he pronounced the Stamp Act invalid on the ground that Massachusetts being without representation in parliament, had not assented to it. In 1768 fee removed to Boston, Two years later, with that degree of moral courage which was one of his distinguishing characteristics, as it has been of his descendants, he, aided by Josiah Quincy, Jr., defended the British soldiers who were arrested after the "Boston Massacre,'' charged with causing the death of four persons, inhabitants of the colony. The trial resulted in an acquittal of the officer who commanded the detachment, and most of the soldiers; but two soldiers were found guilty of manslaughter. These claimed benefit of clergy and were branded in the hand and released. Adams's upright and patriotic conduct in taking the unpopular side in this case met with its just reward in the following year, in the shape of his election to the Massachusetts House of Representatives by a vote of 418 to 118.
John Adams was a member of the Continental Congress from 1774 to 1778. In June 1775, with a view to promoting the union of the colonies, he seconded the nomination of Washington as commander-in-chief of the army. His influence in congress was great, and almost from the beginning he was impatient for a separation of the colonies from Great Britain. On the 7th of June 1776 he seconded the famous resolution introduced by Richard Henry Lee (q.v.) that "these colonies are, and of a right ought to be, free and independent states,'' and no man championed these resolutions (adopted on the 2nd of July) so eloquently and effectively before the congress. On the 8th of June he was appointed on a committee with Jefferson, Franklin, Livingston and Sherman to draft a Declaration of Independence; and although that document was by the request of the committee written by Thomas Jefferson, it was John Adams who occupied the foremost place in the debate on its adoption. Before this question had been disposed of, Adams was placed at the head of the Board of War and Ordnance, and he also served on many other important committees.
In 1778 John Adams sailed for France to supersede Silas Deane in the American commission there. But just as he embarked that commission concluded the desired treaty of alliance, and soon after his arrival he advised that the number of commissioners be reduced to one. His advice was followed and he returned home in time to be elected a member of the convention which framed the Massachusetts constitution of 1780, still the organic law of that commonwealth. With James Bowdoin and Samuel Adams, he formed a sub-committee which drew up the first draft of that instrument, and most of it probably came from John Adams's pen. Before this work had been completed he was again sent to Europe, having been chosen on the 27th of September 1779 as minister plenipotentiary for negotiating a treaty of peace and a treaty of commerce with Great Britain. Conditions were not then favourable for peace, however; the French government, moreover, did not approve of the choice, inasmuch as Adams was not sufficiently pliant and tractable and was from the first suspicious of Vergennes; and subsequently Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John Jay and Henry Laurens were appointed to co-operate with Adams. Jefferson, however, did not cross the Atlantic, and Laurens took little part in the negotiations. This left the management of the business to the other three. Jay and Adams distrusted thc good faith of the French government. Outvoting Franklin, they decided to break their instructions, which required them to "make the most candid confidential communications on all subjects to the ministers of our generous ally, the king of France; to undertake nothing in the negotiations for peace or truce without their knowledge or concurrence; and ultimately to govern yourself by their advice and opinion''; and, instead, they dealt directly with the British commissioners, without consulting the French ministers. Throughout the negotiations Adams was especially determined that the right of the United States to the fisheries along the British-American coast should be recognized. Political conditions in Great Britain, at the moment, made the conclusion of peace almost a necessity with the British ministry, and eventually the American negotiators were able to secure a peculiarly favourable treaty. This preliminary treaty was signed on the 30th of November 1782. Before these negotiations began, Adams had spent some time in the Netherlands. In July 1780 he had been authorized to execute the duties previously assigned to Henry Laurens, and at the Hague was eminently successful, securing there recognition of the United States as an independent government (April 19, 1782), and negotiating both a loan and, in October 1782, a treaty of amity and commerce, the first of such treaties between the United States and foreign powers after that of February 1778 with France.
In 1785 John Adams was appointed the first of a long line of able and distinguished American ministers to the court of St James's. When he was presented to his former sovereign, George III. intimated that he was aware of Mr Adams's lack of confidence in the French government. Replying, Mr Adams admitted it, closing with the outspoken sentiment: "I must avow to your Majesty that I have no attachment but to my own country''—a phrase which must have jarred upon the monarch's sensibilities. While in London Adams published a work entitled A Defence of the Constitution of Government of the United States (1787). In this work he ably combated the views of Turgot and other European writers as to the viciousness of the frame-work of the state governments. Unfortunately, in so doing, he used phrases savouring of aristocracy which offended many of his countrymen,—-as in the sentence in which he suggested that "the rich, the well-born and the able'' should be set apart from other men in a senate. Partly for this reason, while Washington had the vote of every elector in the first presidential election of 1789, Adams received only thirty-four out of sixty-nine. As this was the second largest number he was declared vice-president, but he began his eight years in that office (1789— 1797) with a sense of grievance and of suspicion of many of the leading men. Differences of opinion with regard to the policies to be pursued by the new government gradually led to the formation of two well-defined political groups—-the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans—and Adams became recognized as one of the leaders, second only to Alexander Hamilton, of the former.
In 1796, on the refusal of Washington to accept another election, Adams was chosen president, defeating Thomas Jefferson; though Alexander Hamilton and other Federalists had asked that an equal vote should be cast for Adams and Thomas Pinckney, the other Federalist in the contest, partly in order that Jefferson, who was elected vice-president, might be excluded altogether, and partly, it seems, in the hope that Pinckney should in fact receive more votes than Adams, and thus, in accordance with the system then obtaining, be elected president, though he was intended for the second place on the Federalist ticket. Adams's four years as chief magistrate (1797—1801) were marked by a succession of intrigues which embittered all his later life; they were marked, also, by events, such as the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts, which brought discredit on the Federalist party. Moreover, factional strife broke out within the party itself; Adams and Hamilton became alienated, and members of Adams's own cabinet virtually looked to Hamilton rather than to the president as their political chief. The United States was, at this time, drawn into the vortex of European complications, and Adams, instead of taking advantage of the militant spirit which was aroused, patriotically devoted himself to securing peace with France, much against the wishes of Hamilton and of Hamilton's adherents in the cabinet. In 1800, Adams was again the Federalist candidate for the presidency, but the distrust of him in his own party, the popular disapproval of the Alien and Sedition Acts and the popularity of his opponent, Thomas Jefferson, combined to cause his defeat. He then retired into private life. On the 4th of July 1826, on the fiftieth anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence, he died at Quincy. Jefferson died on the same day. In 1764 Adams had married Miss Abigail Smith (1744-1818), the daughter of a Congregational minister at Weymouth, Massachusetts. She was a woman of much ability, and her letters, written in an excellent English style, are of great value to students of the period in which she lived. President John Quincy Adams was their eldest son.
AUTHORITIES.—C. F. Adams, The Works of John Aadms, with Life (10 vols., Boston, 1850-1856); John and Abigail Adams, Familiar Letters during thc Revolution (Boston, 1875); J. T. Morse, John Adams (Boston, 1885: later edition, 1899), in the "American Statesmen Series''; and Mellen Chamberlain, John Adams, the Statesman of the Revolution; with other Essays and Addresses (Boston, 1898). (E. CH.)
ADAMS, JOHN COUCH (1819—1892), British astronomer, was born at Lidcot farmhouse, Laneast, Cornwall, on the 5th of June 1819. His father, Thomas Adams, was a tenant farmer; his mother, Tabitha Knill Grylls, inherited a small estate at Badharlick. From the village school at Laneast he went, at the age of twelve, to Devonport, where his mother's cousin, the Rev. John Couch Grylls, kept a private school. His promise as a mathematician induced his parents to send him to the university of Cambridge, and in October 1839 he entered as a sizar at St John's College. He graduated B.A. in 1843 as the senior wrangler and first Smith's prizeman of his year. While still an undergraduate he happened to read of certain unexplained irregularities in the motion of the planet Uranus, and determined to investigate them as soon as possible, with a view to ascertaining whether they might not be due to the action of a remote undiscovered planet. Elected fellow of his college in 1843, he at once proceeded to attack the novel problem. It was this: from the observed perturbations of a known planet to deduce by calculation, assuming only Newton's law of gravitation, the mass and orbit of an unknown disturbing body. By September 1845 he obtained his first solution, and handed to Professor Challis, the director of the Cambridge Observatory, a paper giving the elements of what he described as "the new planet.''
On the 21st of October 1845 he left at Greenwich Observatory, for the information of Sir George Airy, the astronomer-royal, a similar document, still preserved among the archives. A fortnight afterwards Airy wrote asking for information about a point in the solution. Adams, who thought the query unessential, did not reply, and Airy for some months took no steps to verify by telescopic search the results of the young mathematician's investiation. Meanwhile, Leverrier, on the 10th of November 1845, presented to the French Academy a memoir on Uranus, showing that the existing theory failed to account for its motion. Unaware of Adams's work, he attempted a like inquiry, and on the 1st of June 1846, in a second memoir, gave the position, but not the mass or orbit, of the disturbing body whose existence was presumed. The longitude he assigned differed by only 1 deg. from that predicted by Adams in the document which Airy possessed. The latter was struck by the coincidence, and mentioned it to the Board of Visitors of the Observatory, James Challis and Sir John Herschel being present. Herschel, at the ensuing meeting of the British Association early in September, ventured accordingly to predict that a new planet would shortly be discovered. Meanwhile Airy had in July suggested to Challis that the planet should be sought for with the Cambridge equatorial. The search was begun by a laborious method at the end of the month. On the 8th and 12th of August, as afterwards appeared, the planet was actually observed; but owing to the want of a proper star-map it was not then recognized as planetary. Leverrier, still ignorant of these occurrences, presented on the 31st of August 1846 a third memoir, giving for the first time the mass and orbit of the new body. He communicated his results by letter to Dr Gane, of the Berlin Observatory, who at once examined the suggested region of the heavens. On the 23rd of September he detected near the predicted place a small star unrecorded in the map, and next evening found that it had a proper motion. No doubt remained that "Leverrier's planet'' had been discovered. On the announcement of the fact, Herschel and Challis made known that Adams had already calculated the planet's elements and position. Airy then at length published an account of the circumstances, and Adams's memoir was printed as an appendix to the Nautical Almanac. A keen controversy arose in France and England as to the merits of the two astronomers. In the latter country much surprise was expressed at the apathy of Airy; in France the claims made for an unknown Englishman were resented as detracting from the credit due to Leverrier's achievement. As the indisputable facts became known, the world recognized that the two astronomers had independently solved the problem of Uranus, and ascribed to each equal glory. The new planet, at first called Leverrier by F. Arago, received by general consent the neutral name of Neptune. Its mathematical prediction was not only an unsurpassed intellectual feat; it showed also that Newton's law of gravitation, which Airy had almost called in question, prevailed even to the utmost bounds of the solar system.
The honour of knighthood was offered to Adams when Queen Victoria visited Cambridge in 1847; but then, as on a subsequent occasion, his modesty led him to decline it. The Royal Society awarded him its Copley medal in 1848. In the same year the members of St John's College commemorated his success by founding in the university an Adams prize, to be given biennially for the best treatise on a mathematical subject. In 1851 he became president of the Royal Astronomical Society. His lay fellowship at St John's College came to an end in 1852, and the existing statutes did not permit of his re-election. But Pembroke College, which possessed greater freedom, elected him in the following year to a lay fellowship, and this he held for the rest of his life. In 1858 he became professor of mathematics at St Andrews, but lectured only for a session, when he vacated the chair for the Lowndean professorship of astronomy and geometry at Cambridge. Two years later he succeeded Challis as director of the Observatory, where he resided until his death.
Although Adams's researches on Neptune were those which attracted widest notice, the work he subsequently performed in relation to gravitational astronomy and terrestrial magnetism was not less remarkable. Several of his most striking contributions to knowledge originated in the discovery of errors or fallacies in the work of his great predecessors in astronomy. Thus in 1852 he published new and accurate tables of the moon's parallax, which superseded J. K. Burckhardt's, and supplied corrections to the theories of M. C. T. Damoiseau, G. A. A. Plana and P. G. D. de Pontecoulant. In the following year his memoir on the secular acceleration of the moon's mean motion partially invalidated Laplace's famous explanation, which had held its place unchallenged for sixty years. At first, Leverrier, Plana and other foreign astronomersi controverted Adams's result; but its soundness was ultimately established, and its fundamental importance to this branch of celestial theory has only developed further with time. For these researches the Royal Astronomical Society awarded him its gold medal in 1866. The great meteor shower of 1866 turned his attention to the Leonids, whose probable path and period had already been discussed by Professor H. A. Newton. Using a powerful and elaborate analysis, Adams ascertained that this cluster of meteors, which belongs to the solar system, traverses an elongated ellipse in 33 1/4 years, and is subject to definite perturbations from the larger planets, Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. These results were published in 1867. Ten years later, when Mr. G. W. Hill of Washington expounded a new and beautiful method for dealing with the problem of the lunar motions, Adams briefly announced his own unpublished work in the same field, which, following a parallel course had confirmed and supplemented Hill's. In 1874-1876 he was president of the Royal Astronomical Society for the second time, when it fell to him to present the gold medal of the year to Leverrier. The determination of the constants in Gauss's theory of terrestrial magnetism occupied him at intervals for over forty years. The calculations involved great labour, and were not published during his lifetime. They were edited by his brother, Professor W. Grylls Adams, and appear in the second volume of the collected Scientific Papers. Numerical computation of this kind might almost be described as his pastime. The value of the constant known as Euler's, and the Bernoullian numbers up to the 62nd, he worked out to an unimagined degree of accuracy. For Newton and his writings he had a boundless admiration; many of his papers, indeed, bear the cast of Newton's thought. He laboured for many years at the task of arranging and cataloguing the great collection of Newton's unpublished mathematical writings, presented in 1872 to the university by Lord Portsmouth, and wrote the account of them issued in a volume by the University Press in 1888. The post of astronomer-royal was offered him in 1881, but he preferred to pursue his peaceful course of teaching and research in Cambridge. He was British delegate to the International Prime Meridian Conference at Washington in 1884, when he also attended the meetings of the British Association at Montreal and of the American Association at Philadelphia. Five years later his health gave way, and after a long illness he died at the Cambridge Observatory on the 21st of January 1892, and was buried in St Giles's cemetery, near his home. He married in 1863 Miss Eliza Bruce, of Dublin, who survived him. An international committee was formed for the purpose of erecting a monument to his memory in Westminster Abbey; and there, in May 1895, a portrait medallion, by Albert Bruce Joy, was placed near the grave of Newton, and adjoining the memorials of Darwin and of Joule. His bust, by the same sculptor, stands opposite that of Sir John Herschel in the hall of St John's College, Cambridge. Herkomer's portrait is in Pembroke College; and Mogford's, painted in 1851, is in the combination room of St John's. Another bust, taken in his youth, belongs to the Royal Astronomical Society. A memorial tablet, with an inscription by Archbishop Benson, is placed in the Cathedral at Truro; and Mr Passmore Edwards erected a public institute in his honour at Launceston, near his birthplace.
The Scientific Papers of John Couch Adams, 4to, vol. i. (1896), and vol. ii. (1900), edited by William Grylls Adams and Ralph Allen Sampson, with a memoir by Dr J. W. L. Glaisher, were published by the Cambridge University Press. The first volume contains his previously published writings; the second those left in manuscript, including the substance of his lectures on the Lunar Theory. A collection, virtually complete, of Adams's papers regarding the discovery of Neptune was presented by Mrs Adams to the library of St John's College. A description of them by Professor Sampson was inserted in the Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society (vol. liv. p. 143). Consult: Month. Notices Roy. Astr. Soc., liii. 184; Observatory, xv. 174; Nature, xxxiv. 565, xlv. 301; Astr. Journal, No. 254; R. Grant, Hist. of Physical Astronomy, p. 168; Edinburgh Review, No. 381, p. 72.
ADAMS, JOHN QUINCY (1767-1848), eldest son of President John Adams, sixth president of the United States, was born on the 11th of July 1767, in that part of Braintree that is now Quincy, Massachusetts, and was named after John Quincy (1689—1767), his mother's grandfather, who was for many years a prominent member of the Massachusetts legislature. In 1778, and again in 1780, young Adams accompanied his father to Europe; studying in Paris in 1778-1779 and at the university of Leiden in 1780. In 1780, also, he began to keep that diary which forms so conspicuous a record of the doings of himself and his contemporaries. In 1781, at the age of fourteen, he accompanied Francis Dana (1743-1811), American envoy to Russia, as his private secretary; but Dana was not received by the Russian government, and in 1782 Adams joined his father at Paris, where he acted as "additional secretary'' to the American commissioners in the negotiation of the treaty of peace which concluded the War of American Independence. Instead of accompanying his father to London, he, of his own choice, returned to Massachusetts, graduated at Harvard College in 1787, three years later was admitted to practise at the bar and at once opened an office in Boston. A series of papers written by him in which he controverted some of Thomas Paine's doctrines in the Rights of Man, and later another series in which he ably supported the neutral policy of the administration toward France and England, led to his appointment by Wnshington as minister to the Netherlands in May 1794. There was little for him to do at the Hague, but in the absence of a minister at London, he transacted certain public business with the English foreign secretary. In 1796 Washington appointed him minister to Portugal, but before his departure thither his father John Adams became president and changed his destination to Berlin (1797). While there, he negotiated (1799) a treaty of amity and commerce with Prussia. On Thomas Jefferson's election to the presidency in 1800, the elder Adams recalled his son, who returned home in 1801. The next year, he was elected to the Massachusetts senate, and in 1803 was sent to Washington as a member of the Senate of the United States.
Up to this time, John Quincy Adams was regarded as belonging to the Federalist party, but he now found its general policy displeasing to him, was frowned upon, as the son of his father, by the followers of Alexander Hamilton, and found himself nearly powerless as an unpopular member of an unpopular minority. He was not now, and indeed never was, a strict party man. On the first important question that came before him in the Senate, the acquisition of Louisiana, he voted with the Republicans, regardless of the opposition of his own section. In December 1807 he warmly seconded Jefferson's suggestion of an embargo and vigorously urged instant action, saying: "The president has recommended the measure on his high responsibility. I would not consider, I would not deliberate; I would act!'' Within five hours the Senate had passed the Embargo Bill and sent it to the House. The support of a measure so unpopular in New England caused him to be hated by the Federalists there and cost him his seat in the Senate; his successor was chosen on the 3rd of June 1808, several months before the usual time of filling the vacancy, and five days later Adams resigned. In the same year he attended the Republican congressional caucus which nominated Madison for the presidency, and thus definitely joined the Republicans. From 1806 to 1809 Adams was professor of rhetoric and oratory at Harvard.
In 1809 President Madison sent Adams to Russia to represent the United States. He arrived at St Petersburg at the psychological moment when the tsar had made up his mind to break with Napoleon. Adams therefore met with a favourable reception and a disposition to further the interests of American commerce in every possible way. On the outbreak of the war between the United States and England in 1812, he was still at St Petersburg. In September of that year, the Russian government suggested that the tsar was willing to act as mediator between the two belligerents. Madison precipitately accepted this proposition and sent Albert Gallatin and James Bayard to act as commissioners with Mr Adams; but England would have nothing to do with it. In August 1814, however, these gentlemen, with Henry Clay and Jonathan Russell, began negotiations with English commissioners which resulted in the signature of the treaty of Ghent on the 24th of December of that year. After this Adams visited Paris, where he witnessed the return of Napoleon from Elba, and then went to London, where, with Henry Clay and Albert Gallatin, he negotiated (1815) a "Convention to Regulate Commerce and Navigation.'' Soon afterwards he became U.S. minister to Great Britain, as his father had been before him, and as his son, Charles Francis Adams, was after him. After accomplishing little in London, he returned to the United States in the summer of 1817 to become secretary of state in the cabinet of President Monroe.
As secretary of state, Adams played the leading part in two most important episodes—the acquisition of Florida and the promulgation of the Monroe Doctrine. Ever since the acquisition of Louisiana successive administrations had sought to include a part at least of Florida in that purchase. In 1819, after long negotiations, Adams succeeded in bringing the Spanish minister to the point of signing a treaty in which the Spaniards abandoned all claims to territory east of the Mississippi, and the United States relinquished all claim to what is now known as Texas. Before the Spanish government ratified the treaty in 1820, Mexico, including Texas, had thrown off allegiance to the mother country, and the United States had occupied Florida by force of arms. The Monroe Doctrine (q.v.) rightly bears the name of the president who in 1823 assumed the responsibility for its promulgation; but it was primarily the work of John Quincy Adams. The eight years of Monroe's presidency (1817-1825) are known as the "Era of Good Feeling.'' As his second term drew to a close, there was a great lack of good feeling among his official advisers, three of whom—Adams, secretary of state, Calhoun, secretary of war, and Crawford, secretary of the treasury—aspired to succeed him in his high office. In addition, Henry Clay and Andrew Jackson were also candidates. Calhoun was nominated for the Vice-presidency. Of the other four, Jackson received 99 electoral votes, Adams 84, Crawford 41, and Clay 37; as no one had a majority, the decision was made by the House of Representatives, which was confined in its choice to the three candidates who had received the largest number of votes. Clay, who was speaker of the House of Representatives, and had for years assumed a censorious attitude toward Jackson, cast his influence for Adams and thereby secured his election on the first ballot. A few days later Adams offered Clay the secretaryship of state, which was accepted. The wholly unjust and baseless charge of "bargain and corruption'' followed, and the feud thus created between Adams and Jackson greatly influenced the history of the United States.
Up to this point Adams's career had been almost uniformly successful, but his presidency (1825—1829) was in most respects a failure, owing to the virulent opposition of the Jacksonians; in 1828 Jackson was elected president over Adams. It was during his administration that irreconcilable differences developed between the followers of Adams and the followers of Jackson, the former becoming known as the National Republicans, who with the Anti-Masons were the precursors of the Whigs. In 1829 Adams retired to private life in the town of Quincy; but only for a brief period, for in 1830, largely by Anti-Masonic votes, he was elected a member of the national House of Representatives. On its being suggested to him that his acceptance of this position would degrade an ex-president, Adams replied that no person could be degraded by serving the people as a representative in congress or, he added, as a selectman of his town. His service in congress from 1831 until his death is, in some respects, the most noteworthy part of his career. Throughout he was conspicuous as an opponent of the extension of slavery, though he was never technically an abolitionist, and in particular he was the champion in the House of Representatives of the right of petition at a time when, through the influence of the Southern members, this right was, in practice, denied by that body. His prolonged fight for the repeal of the so-called "Gag Laws'' is one of the most dramatic contests in the history of congress. The agitation for the abolition of slavery, which really began in earnest with the establishment of the Liberator by William Lloyd Garrison in 1831, soon led to the sending of innumerable petitions to congress for the abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia, over which the Federal government had jurisdiction, and for other action by congress with respect to that institution. These petitions were generally sent to Adams for presentation. They aroused the anger of the proslavery members of congress, who, in 1836, brought about the passage of the first "Gag Rule,'' the Pinckney Resolution, presented by Henry L. Pinckney, of South Carolina. It provided that all petitions relating to slavery should be laid on the table without being referred to committee or printed; and, in substance, this resolution was re-adopted at the beginning of each of the immediately succeeding sessions of congress, the Patton Resolution being adopted in 1837, the Atherton Resolution, or "Atherton Gag,'' in 1838, and the Twenty-first Rule in 1840 and subsequently until repealed. Adams contended that these "Gag Rules'' were a direct violation of the First Amendment to the Federal Constitution, and refused to be silenced on the question, fighting for repeal with indomitable courage, in spite of the bitter denunciation of his opponents. Each year the number of anti-slavery petitions received and presented by him increased; perhaps the climax was in 1837, when Adams presented a petition from twenty-two slaves, and, when threatened by his opponents with censure, defended himself with remarkable keenness and ability. At each session, also, the majority against him decreased until in 1844 his motion to repeal the Twenty-first Rule was carried by a vote of 108 to 80 and his battle was won. On the 21st of February 1848, after having suffered a previous stroke of apoplexy, he fell insensible on the floor of the Representatives' chamber, and two days later died. Few men in American public life have possessed more intrinsic worth, more independence, more public spirit and more ability than Adams, but throughout his political career he was handicapped by a certain reserve, a certain austerity and coolness of manner, and by his consequent inability to appeal to the imaginations and affections of the people as a whole. He had, indeed, few intimate political or personal friends, and few men in American history have, during their lifetime, been regarded with so much hostility and attacked with so much rancour hy their political opponents.
AUTHORITIES.—J. T. Morse, John Quincy Adams (Boston, 1883; new edition, 1899); Josiah Quincy, Memoir of the Life of, John Quincy Adams (Boston, 1858); C. F. Adams (ed.), Memoirs of John Quincy Adams, comprising portions of his diary from 1795 to 1848 (12 vols., Philadelphia. 1874-1877). (E. CH.)
ADAMS, SAMUEL (1722—1803), American statesman, was born at Boston, Massachusetts, on the 27th of September 1722. He was a second cousin to the elder John Adams. His father, whose Christian name was also Samuel, was a wealthy and prominent citizen of Boston, who took an active part in the politics of the town, and was a member of the Caucus (or Caulker's) Club, with which the political term "caucus'' is said to have originated; his mother was Mary Fifield. Young Adams graduated from Harvard College in 1740, and three years later, on attaining the degree of A.M., chose for his thesis, "Whether it be Lawful to resist the Supreme Magistrate, if the Commonwealth cannot otherwise be preserved.'' Which side he took, and how the argument proceeded, is not known, but the subject was one which well forecasted his career. He began the study of law in response to his father's advice; he discontinued it in response to his mother's disapproval. He repeatedly failed in business, notably as manager of a malt-house, largely because of his incessant attention to politics; but in the Boston town-meeting he became a conspicuous example of the efficiency of that institution for training in statecraft. He has, indeed, been called the "Man of the Town Meeting.'' About 1748 he began to take an important part in the affairs of the town, and became a leader in the debates of a political club which he was largely instrumental in organizing, and to whose weekly publication, the Public Advertiser, he contributed numerous articles. From 1756 to 1764 he was one of the town's tax-collectors, but in this office he was unsuccessful, his easy business methods resulting in heavy arrears.
Samuel Adams first came into wider prominence at the beginning of the Stamp Act episode, in 1764, when as author of Boston's instructions to its representatives in the general court of Massachusetts he urged strenuous opposition to taxation by act of parliament. The next year he was for the first time elected to the lower house of the general court, in which he served until 1774, after 1766 as clerk. As James Otis's vigour and influence declined, Adams took a more and more prominent place in the revolutionary councils; and, contrary to the opinion of Otis and Benjamin Franklin, he declared that colonial representation in parliament was out of the question and advised against any form of compromise. Many of the Massachusetts revolutionary documents, including the famous "Massachusetts Resolves'' and the circular letter to the legislatures of the other colonies, are from his pen; but owing to the fact that he usually acted as clerk to the House of Representatives and to the several committees of which he was a member, documents were written by him which expressed the ideas of the committee as a whole. There can be no question, however, that Samuel Adams was one of the first, if not the first, of American political leaders to deny the legislative power of parliament and to desire and advocate separation from the mother country.
To promote the ends he had in view he suggested non-importation, instituted the Boston committees ofcorrespondence, urged that a Continental Congress be called, sought out and introduced into public service such allies as John Hancock, Joseph Warren and Josiah Quincy, and wrote a vast number of articles for the newspapers, especially the Boston Gazette, over a multitude of signatures. He was, in fact, one of the most voluminous and influential political writers of his time. His style is clear, vigorous and epigrammatic; his arguments are characterized by strength of logic, and, like those of other patriots, are, as the dispute advances, based less on precedent and documentary authorities and more on "natural right.'' Although he lacked oratorical fluency, his short speeches, like his writings, were forceful; his plain dress and unassuming ways helped to make him extremely popular with the common people, in whom he had much greater faith than his cousin John had; and, above all, he was an eminently successful manager of men. Shrewd, wily, adroit, unfailingly tactful, an adept in all the arts of the politician, he is considered to have done more than any other one man, in the years immediately preceding the War of Independence, to mould and direct public opinion in his community.
The intense excitement which followed the "Boston Massacre'' Adams skilfully used to secure the removal of the soldiers from the town to a fort in the harbour. He it was, also, who managed the proceedings of the "Boston Tea Party,'' and later he was moderator of the convention of Massachusetts towns called to protest against the Boston Port Bill. One of the objects of the expedition sent by Governor Thomas Gage to Lexington (q.v.) and Concord on April 18-19, 1775, was the capture of Adams and John Hancock, temporarily staying in Lexington, and when Gage issued his proclamation of pardon on June 12 he excepted these two, whose offences, he said, were "of too flagitious a Nature to admit of any other Consideration than that of condign Punishment.''
As a delegate to the Continental Congress, from 1774 to 1781, Samuel Adams continued vigorously to oppose any concession to the British government; strove for harmony among the several colonies in the common cause; served on numerous committees, among them that to prepare a plan of confederation; and signed the Declaration of Independence. But he was rather a destructive than a constructive statesman, and his most important service was in organizing the forces of revolution before 1775. In 1779 he was a member of the convention which framed the constitution of Massachusetts that was adopted in 1780, and is still, with some amendments, the organic law of the commonwealth and one of the oldest fundamental laws in existence. He was one of the three members of the sub-committee which actually drafted that instrument; and although John Adams is generally credited with having performed the principal part of that task, Samuel Adams was probably the author of most of the bill of rights. In 1788, Samuel Adams was a member of the Massachusetts convention to ratify the Constitution of the United States. When he first read that instrument he was very much opposed to the consolidated government which it provided, but was induced to befriend it by resolutions which were passed at a mass meeting of Boston mechanics or "tradesmen''—-his own firmest supporters—-and by the suggestion that its ratification should be accompanied by a recommendation of amendments designed chiefly to supply the omission of a bill of rights. Without his aid it is probable that the constitution would not have been ratified by Massachusetts. From 1789 to 1794 Adams was lieutenant-governor of his state, and from 1794 to 1797 was governor. After the formation of parties he became allied with the Democratic-Republicans rather than with the Federalists. He died on the 2nd of October 1803, at Boston.
AUTHORITIES.—Life, and Public Services of Samuel Adams (3 vols., Boston, 1863), by W. V. Wells, Adams's great-grandson—a valuable biography, containing a mass of information, but noticeably biassed: J. K. Hosmer's Samuel Adams (Boston, 1885), an excellent short biography in the "American Statesmen Series'': M. C. Tyler's Literary History of the American Revolution (2 vols.,New Vork, 1897): and H. A. Cushing (ed.), The Writings of Samuel Adams (4 vols., New York, 1904-1908). (E. CH.)
ADAMS, THOMAS (d. c. 1655), English divine, was, in 1612, "a preacher of the gospel at Willington,'' in Bedfordshire, where he is found until 1614, and whence issued his Heaven and Earth Reconciled, The Devil's Banquet and other works. In 1614-1615 he was at Wingrave, in Buckinghamshire, probably as vicar, and published a number of works in quick succession; in 1618 he held the preachership at St Gregory's, under St Paul's Cathedral, and was "observant chaplain'' to Sir Henry Montague, the lord chief justice of England. These bare facts we gather from epistles-dedicatory and epistles to the reader, and title-pages. These epistles show him to have been on the most friendly terms with some of the foremost men in state and church, though his ardent protestantism offended Laud and hindered his preferment. his "occasionally'' printed sermons, when collected in 1629, placed him beyond all comparison in the van of the preachers of England, and had something to do with shaping John Bunyan. He equals Jeremy Taylor in brilliance of fancies, and Thomas Fuller in wit. Robert Southey calls him "the prose Shakespeare of Puritan theologians.'' His numerous works display great learning, classical and patristic, and are unique in their abundance of stories, anecdotes, aphorisms and puns.
His worns were edited in J. P. Nichol's Puritan Divines, by J. Angus and T. Smith (3 vols. 8vo, 1862).
ADAMS, WILLIAM (d. 1620), English navigator, was born at Gillingham, near Chatham, England. When twelve years old he was apprenticed to the seafaring life, afterwards entering the British navy, and later serving the Company of Barbary merchants for a number of years as master and pilot. Attracted by the Dutch trade with India, he shipped as pilot major with a little fleet of five ships despatched from the Texel in 1598 by a company of Rotterdam merchants. The vessels, boats ranging from 75 to 250 tons and crowded with men, were driven to the coast of Guinea, where the adventurers attacked the island of Annabon for supplies, and finally reached the straits of Magellan. Scattered by stress of weather the following spring the "Charity,'' with Adams on board, and the "Hope,'' met at length off the coast of Chile, where the captains of both vessels lost their lives in an encounter with the Indians. In fear of the Spaniards, the remaining crews determined to sail across the Pacific. On this voyage the "Hope'' was lost, but in April 1600 the "Charity,'' with a crew of sick and dying men, was brought to anchor off the island of Kiushiu, Japan. Adams was summoned to Osaka and there examined by Iyeyasu, the guardian of the young son of Taiko Sama, the ruler, who had just died. His knowledge of ships and shipbuilding, and his nautical smattering of mathematics, raised him in the estimation of the shogun, and he was subsequently presented with an estate at Hemi near Yokosuka; but was refused permission to return to England. In 1611 news came to him of an English settlement in Bantam, and he wrote asking for help. In 1613 Captain John Saris arrived at Hirado in the ship "Clove'' with the object of establishing a trading factory for the East India Company, and after obtaining the necessary concessions from the shogun, Adams postponed his voyage home (permission for which had now been given him) in order to take a leading part, under Richard Cocks, in the organization of this new English settlement. He had already married a Japanese woman, by whom he had a family, and the latter part of his life was spent in the service of the English trading company, for whom he undertook a number of voyages to Siam in 1616, and Cochin China in 1617 and 1618. He died on the 16th of May 1620, some three years before the dissolution of the English factory. His Japanese title was Anjin Sama, and his memory was preserved in the naming of a street in Yedo, Anjin Cho (Pilot Street), and by an annual celebration on June 15 in his honour.
See England's Earliest Intercourse with Japan, by C. W. Hillary (1905; Letters written by the English Residents in Japan, ed. by N. Murakami (1900, containing Adams's Letters reprinted from Memorials of the Empire of Japan, ed. by T. Rundall, Hakluyt Society, 1850); Diary of Richard Cocks, with preface by N. Murakami (1899, reprinted from the Hakluyt Society ed. 1883); R. Hildreth's Japan (1835); J. Harris's Navigantium atque Itinerantium Bibliotheca (1764), i. 856; Voyage of John Saris, ed. by Sir E. M. Satow (Hakluyt Society, 1900); Asiatic Society of Japan Transactions, xxvi. (sec. 1898) pp. 1 and 194, where four more hitherto unpublished letters of Adams are given; Collection of State Papers; East Indies, China and Japan. The MS. of his logs written during his voyages to Siam and China is in the Bodleian Library at Oxford.
ADAMS, a township in the extreme N. of Berkshire county, N.W. Massachusetts, U.S.A., having an area of 23 sq. m. Pop. (1880) 5591; (1890) 9213; (1900) 11,134, of whom 4376 were foreign-born; (1910, census) 13,026. It includes a portion of the valley of the Hoosac river, extending to the Hoosac Range on the E., and on the W. to Mt. Williams (3040 ft.), and Grey'lock Mountain (3535 ft ), partly in Williamstown, and the highest point in the state. The valley portion is level and contains several settlement centres, the largest of which, a busy industrial village (manufactures of cotton and paper), bears the same name as the township, and is on a branch of the Boston and Albany railroad. The village is the nearest station to Greylock, which can be easily ascended, and affords fine views of the Hoosac and Housatonic valleys, the Berkshire Hills and the Green Mountains; the mountain has been a state timber reservation since 1898. The township's principal industry is the manufacture of cotton goods, the value of which in 1905 ($4,621,261) was 84.1% of the value of the township's total factory products; in 1905 no other place in the United States showed so high a degree of specialization in this industry. The township (originally "East Hoosuck'') was surveyed and defined in 1749. Fort Massachusetts, at one time within its bounds, was destroyed in 1746 by the French. An old Indian trail between the Hudson and Connecticut valley ran through the township, and was once a leading outlet of the Berkshire country. Adams was incorporated in 1778, and was named in honour of Samuel Adams, the revolutionary leader. Part of Adams was included in the new township of Cheshire in 1793, and North Adams was set off as a separate township in 1878.
ADAM'S APPLE, the movable projection, more prominent in males than females, formed in the front part of the throat by the thyroid cartilage of the larynx. The name was given from a legend that a piece of the forbidden fruit lodged in Adam's throat. The "Adam's apple'' is one of the particular points of attack in the Japanese system of self-defence known as jiu-jitsu.
ADAM'S BRIDGE, or RAMA'S BRIDGE, a chain of sandbanks extending from the island of Manaar, near the N.W. coast of Ceylon to the island of Rameswaram, off the Indian coast, and lying between the Gulf of Manaar on the S.W. and Palk Strait on the N.E. It is more than 30 m. long and offers a serious impediment to navigation. Some of the sandbanks are dry; and no part of the shoal has a greater depth than 3 or 4 ft. at high water, except three tortuous and intricate channels which have recently been dredged to a sufficient depth to admit the passage of vessels, so as to obviate the long journey round the island of Ceylon which was previously necessary. Geological evidence shows that this gap was once bridged by a continuous isthmus which according to the temple records was breached by a violent storm in 1480. Operations for removing the obstacles in the channel and for deepening and widening it were begun as long ago as 1838. A service of the British India Steam Navigation Company's steamers has been established between Negapatam and Colombo through Palk Strait and this narrow passage.