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(c) Eye observations of the plates and the acid between them. The positive plates ought to show a rich dark brown colour, the negatives a dull slate-blue, and the space between ought to be quite clear and free from anything like solid matter. All the positives ought to be alike, and similarly all the negatives. If the cells show similarity in these respects they will probably be in good working order.

As to management, it is important to keep to certain simple rules, of which these are the chief:—(1) Never discharge below a potential difference of 1.85 (or in rapid discharge, 1.8) volt. (2) Never leave the cells discharged, if it be avoidable. (3) Give the cells a special full charging once a month. (4) Make a periodic examination of each cell, determining its E.M.F., density of acid, the condition of its plates and freedom from growth. Any incipient growth, however small, must be carefully watched. (5) If any cell shows signs of weakness, keep it off discharge till it has been brought back to full condition. See that it is free from any connexion between the plates which would cause short-circuiting; tne frame or support which carries the plates sometimes gets covered by a conducting layer. To restore the cell, two methods can be adopted. In private installations it may be disconnected and charged by one or two cells reserved for the purpose; or, as is preferable, it may be left in circuit, and a cell in good order put in parallel with it. This acts as a "milking'' cell, not only preventing the faulty one from discharging, but keeping it supplied mith a charging current till its potential difference (P.D.) is normal. Every battery attendant should be provided with a hydrometer and a voltmeter. The former enables him to determine from time to time the density of the acid in the cells; instruments specially constructed for the purpose are now easily procurable, and it is desirable that one be provided for every 20 or 25 cells. The voltmeter should read up to about 3 volts and be fitted with a suitable connector to enable contacts to be made quickly with any desired cell. A portable glow lamp should also be available, so that a full light can be thrown into any cell; a frosted bulb is rather better than a clear one for this purpose. He must also have some form of wooden scraper to remove any growth from the plates. The scraping must be done gently, with as little other disturbance as possible. By the ordinary operations which go on in the cell, small portions of the plates become detached. It is important that these should fall below the plates, lest they short-circuit the cell, and therefore sufficient space ought to be left between the bottom of the plates and the floor of the cell for these "scalings'' to accumulate without touching the plates. It is desirable that they be disturbed as little as possible till their increase seriously encroaches on the free space. It sometimes happens that brass nuts or bolts, &c., are dropped into a cell; these should be removed at once, as their partial solution would greatly endanger the negative plates. The level of the liquid must be kept above the top of the plates. Experience shows the advisability of using distilled water for this purpose. It may sometimes be necessary to replenish the solution with some dilute acid, but strong acid must never be added.

The chief faults are buckling, growth, sulphating and disintegration. Buckling of the plates generally follows excessive discharge, caused by abnormal load or by accidental short-circuiting. At such times asymmetry in the cell is apt to make some part of the plate take much more than its share of the current. That part then expands unduly, as explained later, and curvature is produced. The only remedy is to remove the plate, and press it back into shape as gently as possible. Growth arises generally from scales from one part falling on some other—say, on the negative. In the next charging the scale is reduced to a projecting bit of lead, which grows still further because other particles rest on it. The remedy is, gently to scrape off any incipient growth. Sulphating, the formation of a white hard surface on the active material, is due to neglect or excessive discharge. It often yields if a small quantity of sulphate of soda be added to the liquid in the cell. Disintegration is due to local action, and there is no ultimate remedy. The end can be deferred by care in working, and by avoiding strains and excessive discharge as much as possible.

Accumulators in repose.—-Accumulators contain only three active substances—-spongy lead on the negative plate, spongy lead peroxide on the positive, and dilute sulphuric acid between

TABLE

Substance. Colour. Density. Specific Resistance. Lead . . . . slate blue 11.3 0.0000195 ohm Peroxide of lead dark brown 9.28 5.6 to 6.8 '' Sulphuric acid after charge clear liquid 1.210 1.37 '' Sulphuric acid after discharge '' '' 1.170 1.28 '' Sulphuric acid below in pores . . . '' '' 1.03 8.0 '' Sulphate of lead white 6.3 non-conductor.

them. Sulphate of lead is formed on both plates during discharge and brought back to lead and lead peroxide again during charge, and there is a consequent change in the strength of acid during every cycle. The chief properties of these substances are shown in Table II.

The curve in fig. 9 shows the relative conductivity (reciprocal of resistance) of all the strengths of sulphuric acid solutions, and by its aid and the figures in the preceding table, the specific resistance of any given strength can be determined.

Fig 9 The lead accumulator is subject to three kinds of local action. First and chiefly, local action on the positive plate, because of the contact between lead peroxide and the lead grid which supports it. In carelessly made or roughly handled cells this may be a very serious matter. It would be so, in all circumstances if the lead sulphate formed on the exposed lead grid did not act as a covering for it. It explains why Plante found "repose'' a useful help in "forming,'' and also why positive plates slowly disintegrate; the lead support is gradually eaten through. Secondly, local action on the negative plate when a more electro-negative metal settles on the lead. This often arises when the original paste or acid contains metallic impurities. Similar impurity is also introduced by scraping copper wire, &c., near a battery. Thirdly, local action due to the acid varying in strength in different parts of a plate. This may arise on either plate and is set up because two specimens of either the same lead or the same peroxide give an E.M.F. when placed in acids of different strengths. J. H. Gladstone and W. Hibbert found that the E.M.F. depends on the difference of strength. With two head plates, a maximum of about quarter volt was obtained, the lead in the weaker acid being positive. With two peroxide plates the maximum voltage was about 0.64, the plate in stronger acid being positive to that in weaker. The electromotive force

FIG. 10. of a cell depends chiefly on the strength of the acid, as may be seen from fig. 10 taken from Gladstone and Hibbert's paper (Journ. Inst. Elec. Eng., 1892).The observations with very strong acid were difficult to obtain, though even that with 98% acid marked X is believed to be trustworthy. C. Heim (Elek. Zeit, 1889), F. Streintz (Ann. Phys. Chem. xlvi. p. 449) and F. Dolezalek (Theory of Lead Accumulators, p. 55) have also given tables.

It is only necessary to add to these results the facts illustrated by the following diffusion curves, in order to get a complete clue to the behaviour of an accumulator in active work. Fig. 11 shows the rate of diffusion from plates soaked in 1.175 acid and then placed in distilled water. It is from a paper by L. Duncan and H. Wiegand (Elec. World, N.Y., 1889), who were the first to show the importance of diffusion. About one half the acid diffused out in 30 minutes, a good illustration of the slowness of this process. The rate of diffusion is much the same for both positive and negative plates; but slower for discharged plates than for charged ones. Discharge affects the rate of diffusion on the lead plate more than on the peroxide plate. This is in accordance with the density values given in Table I. For while lead sulphate is formed in the pores of both plates, the consequent expansions (and obstructions) are different; 100 volumes of lead form 290 volumes of sulphate (a threefold

FIG. 11.

expansion), and 100 volumes of peroxide form 186 volumes of sulphate (a twofold expansion). The influence of diffusion on the electromotive force is illustrated by fig. 12. A cell was prepared with 20% acid. It also held a porous pot containing stronger acid, and into this the positive plate was suddenly transferred from the general body of liquid. The E.M.F. rose by diffusion of stronger acid into the pores. Curve I. in fig. 12 shows the rate of rise when the porous pot contained 34% acid; curve II. was obtained with the stronger (58%) acid (Gladstone and Hibbert, Phil. Mag., 1890). Of these two curves the first is more useful, because its conditions are nearer those which occur in practice.

At the end of a discharge it is a common thing for the plates to be standing in 25% acid, while inside the pores the acid may not exceed 8% or 10%. If the discharge be stopped, we have conditions somewhat like fig. 12, and the E.M.F. begins to rise. In one minute it has gone up by about 0.08 volt, &c.

Fig. 12.

Charge and Discharge.—-The most important practical questions concerning an accumulator are:—its maximum rate of working; its capacity at various discharge rates; its efficiency; and its length of life. Apart from mechanical injury all these depend primarily on the way the cell is made, and then on the method of charging and discharging. For each type and size of cell there is a normal maximum discharging current. Up to this limit any current may be taken; beyond it, the cell may suffer if discharge be continued for any appreciable time. The most important point to attend to is the voltage at which discharge shall cease. The potential difference at terminals must not fall below 1.80 volt during discharge at ordinary rates (10 hours) or 1.75 to 1.70 volt for 1 or 2 hour rate. The reason underlying the figures is simple. These voltages indicate that the acid in the pores is not being renewed fast enough, and that if the discharge continue the chemical action will change: sulphate will not be formed in situ for want of acid. Any such change in action is fatal to reversibility and therefore to life and constancy in capacity. To illustrate: when at slow discharge rates the voltage is 1.80 volt, the acid in the pores has weakened to a mean value of about 2.5% (see fig. 11), which is quite consistent with some part of the interior being practically pure water. With high discharge rates, something like 0.1 volt may be lost in the cells, by ordinary ohmic fall, so that a voltage reading of 1.73 means an E.M.F. of a little over 1.8 volt, and a very weak density of the acid inside the pores. Guided by these figures, an engineer can determine what ought to be the permissible drop in terminal volts for any given working conditions. Messrs W. E. Ayrton, C. G. Lamb, E. W. Smith and M. W. Woods were the first to trace the working of a cell through varied conditions (Journ. Inst. Elec. Eng., 1890), and a brief resume of their results is given below.

They began by charging and discharging between the limits of 2.4 and 1.6 volts.

Fig. 13 shows a typical discharge curve. Noteworthy points are:—(1) At the beginning and at the end there is a rapid fall in P.D., with an intermediate period of fairly uniform value. (2) When the

Fig. 13.

P.D. reaches 1.6 volt the fall is so rapid that there is no advantage in continuing the action. When the P.D. had fallen to 1.6 volt the cell was automatically switched into a charging circuit, and with a current of 9 amperes yielded the curve in fig. 14. Here again there is a rapid variation in P.D. (in these cases a rise) at the beginning and end of the operation. The cells were now carried through the same cycle several times, giving almost identical values for each cycle. After some days, however, they became more and more difficult to charge, and the return on discharge was proportionately less. It became impossible to charge up to a P.D. of 2.4 volts, and finally the capacity fell away to half its first value. Examination showed that the plates were badly scaled, and that some of the scales had partially connected the plates. These scales were cleared away and the experiments resumed, limiting the fall of P.D. to 1.8 volt. The

Fig. 14.

difficulties then disappeared, showing that discharge to 1.6 volt caused injury that did not arise at a limit of 1.8. Before describing the new results it will be useful to examine these two cases in the light of the theory of E.M.F. already given.

(a) Fall in E.M.F. at beginning of discharge.—At the moment when previous charging ceases the pores of the positive plate contain strong acid, brought there by the charging current. There is consequently a high E.M.F. But the strong acid begins to diffuse away at once and the E.M.F. falls rapidly. Even if the cell were not discharged this fall would occur, and if it were allowed to rest for thirty minutes or so the discharge would have begun with the dotted line (fig. 13). (b) Final rapid fall.—-The pores being clogged by sulphate the plugs cannot get acid by diffusion, and when 5% is reached the fall in E.M.F. is disproportionately large (see fig. 10). If discharge be stopped, there is an almost instantaneous diffusion inwards and a rapid rise in E.M.F. (c) The rise in E.M.F. at beginning and end of the charging is due to acid in the pores being strengthened, partly by diffusion, partly by formation of sulphuric acid from sulphate, and partly by electrolytic carrying of strong acid to the positive plate. The injurious results at 1.6 volt arise because then the pores contain water. The chemical reaction is altered, oxide or hydrate is formed, which will partially dissolve, to be changed to sulphate when the sulphuric acid subsequently diffuses in. But formed in this way it will not appear mixed with the active masses in the electrolytic paths, but more or less alone in the pores. In this position it will more or less block the passage and isolate some of the peroxide. Further, when forming in the narrow passage its disruptive action will tend to force off the outer layers. It is evident that limitation of P.D. to 1.8 volt ought to prevent these injuries, because it prevents exhaustion of acid in the plugs.

Fig. 15 shows the results obtained by study of successive periods of rest, the observations being taken between the limits of 2.4 and 1.8 volts. Curves A and B show the state and capacity at the beginning. After a 10 days' rest the capacity was smaller, but repeated cycles

Fig. 15.

of work brought it back to C and D. A second rest (10 days), followed by many cycles, then gave E and F. After a third rest (16 days) and many cycles, G and H were obtained. After a fourth rest (16 days) the first discharge gave I and the first charge J. Repeated cycles brought the cells back to K and L. Curves M and N show first cycle after a fifth rest (16 days); O and P show the final restoration brought about by repeated cycles of work. The numbers given by the integration of some of these curves are stated in Table III.

TABLE III.

Capacity and Efficiency under Various Conditions of Working. Discharge. Charge. Efficiency. Experiment. Ampere- Watt Ampere- Watt Quan- Energy. hours. hours. hours. hours. tity. —————————————————————————————————— Normal cycle 102 201.7 104.5 230.7 97.2 87.4 Restoration after 1st rest 100 179 103.8 228.2 96.8 85.8 Restoration after 2nd rest 91 176.7 103.8 228.2 96.8 85.8 Restoration after 3rd rest 82.6 161.3 86.2 190.5 95.8 84.7 Discharge immediately 56.5 110.5 86.2 190.5 65.5 581 after rest . 56.5 110.5 71.1 158.3 79.6 69.6 Restoration after 8 cycles 80 156.9 83.8 184.6 95.5 85 ————————————————————————————————————

The table shows that the efficiency in a normal cycle may be as high as 87.4%; that during a rest of sixteen days the charged

1 This discharge is here compared with the charge that preceded the rest; in the next line the same discharge is compared with the charge following the rest.

accumulator is so affected that about 30% of its charge is not available, and in subsequent cycles it shows a diminished capacity and efficiency; and that by repeated charges and discharges the capacity may be partially restored and the efficiency more completely so. These changes might be due to—(a) leakage or short-circuit, (b) some of the active material having fallen to the bottom of the cell or (c) some change in the active materials. (a) is excluded by the fact that the subsequent charge is smaller, and (b) by the continued increase of capacity during the cycles that follow the rest. Hence the third hypothesis is the one which must be relied upon. The change in the active materials has already been given. The formation of

FIG. 16.

lead sulphate by local action on the peroxide plate and by diract action of acid on spongy metal on the lead plate explains the loss of energy shown in curve M, fig. 15, while the fact that it is probably formed, not in the path of the regular currents, but on the wall of the grid (remote from the ordinary action), gives a probable explanation of the subsequent slow recovery. The action of the acid on the lead during rest must not be overlooked.

We have seen that capacity diminishes as the discharge rate increases; that is, the available output increases as the current diminishes. R. E. B. Crompton's diagram illustrating this fact is given in fig. 16. At the higher rates the consumption of acid is too rapid, diffusion cannot maintain its strength in the pores, and the fall comes so much earlier.

The resistance varies with the condition of the cell, as shown by the curves in fig. 17. It may be unduly increased by long or narrow lugs, and especially by dirty joints between the lugs. It is interesting to note that it increases at the end of both charge and discharge, and

Fig. 17.

much more for the first than the second. Now the composition of the active materials near the end of charge is almost exactly the same as at the beginning of discharge, and at first sight there seems nothing to account for the great fall in resistance from 0.0115 to 0.004 ohm; that is, to about one-third the value. There is, however, one difference between charging and discharging—-namely, that due to the strong acid near the positive, with a corresponding weaker acid near the negative electrode. The curve of conductivity for sulphuric acid shows that both strong and weak acid have much higher resistances than the liquid usually employed in accumulators, and it is therefore reasonable to suppose that local variations in strength of acid cause the changes in resistance. That these are not due to the constitution of the plugs is shown by the fact that, while the plugs are almost identical at end of discharge and beginning of charge, the resistance falls from 0.0055 to 0.0033 ohm.

While a current flows through a cell, heat is produced at the rate of C2RX0.24 calories (water-gram-degree) per second. As a consequence the temperature tends to rise. But the change of temperature actually observed is much greater during charge, and much less during discharge, than the foregoing expression would suggest; and it is evident that, besdies the heat produced according to Joule's law, there are other actions which warm the cell during charge and cool it during discharge. Duncan and Wiegand loc. cit.), who first observed the thermal changes, ascribe the chief influence to the electrochemical addition of H2SO4 to the liquid during charge and its removal during discharge. Fig. 18 gives some results obtained by Ayrton, Lamb, &c. This elevation of temperature (due to electrolytic strengthening of acid and local action) is a measure of the energy lost in a cycle, and ought to be minimized as much as possible.

Fig. 18.

Chemistry.—-The chemical theory adopted in the foregoing pages is very simple. It declares that sulphate of lead is formed on both plates during discharge, the chemical action being reversed in charging. The following equations express the experimental results.

Condition before

+ plate Liquid - plate x. PbO2 + y. H2SO4 + z. Pb n. H2O

After

+ plate Liquid - plate (x-p). PbO2 (y-2p). H2SO4 (z-p). Pb { }+{ }+{ p. PbSO4 (n+2p). H2O p. PbSO4

During charge, the substances are restored to their original condition: the equation is therefore reversed. An equation of this general nature was published by Gladstone and Tribe in 1882, when Oley first suggested the "sulphate', theory, which was based on very numerous analyses. Confirmation was given by E. Frankland in 1883, E. Reynier 1884, A. P. P. Crova and P. Garbe 1885, C. Heim and W. F. Kohlrausch 1889, W. E. Ayrton, &c., with G. H. Robertson 1890, C. H. J. B. Liebenow 1897, F. Dolezalek 1897, and M. Mugdan 1899. Yet there has been, as Dolezalek says, an incomprehensible unwillingness to accept the theory, though no suggested alternative could offer good verifiable experimental foundation. Those who seek a full discussion will find it in Dolezalek's Theory of the Lead Accumulator. We shall take it that the sulphate theory is proved, and apply it to the conditions of charge and discharge.

From the chemical theory it will be obvious that the acid in the pores of both plates will be stronger during charge than that outside. During discharge the reverse will be the case. Fig. 19 shows a curve

Fig. 19.

of potential difference during charge, with others showing the concurrent changes in the percentage of PbO2 and the density of acid. These increase almost in proportion to the duration of the current, and indicate the decomposition of sulphate and liberation of sulphuric acid. There are breaks in the P.D. curve at A, B, C, D where the current was stopped to extract samples for analysis, &c. The fall in E.M.F. in this short interval is noteworthy; it arises from the diffusion of stronger acid out of the pores. The final rise of pressure is due to increase in resistance and the effect of stronger acid in the pores, this last arising partly from reduced sulphate and partly from the electrolytic convection of SO4 (see also Dolezalek, Theory, p. 113) . Fig. 20 gives the data for discharge. The percentage of PbO2 and the density here fall almost in proportion to the duration of the current. The special feature is the rapid fall of voltage at the end.

Several suggestions have been made about this phenomenon. The writer holds that it is due to the exhaustion of the acid in the pores. Plante, and afterwards Gladstone and Tribe, found a possible cause in the formation of a film of peroxide on the spongy lead. E. J. Wade has suggested a sudden readjustment of the spongy mass into a complex sulphate. To rebut these hypotheses it is only necessary to say that the fall can be deferred for a long time by pressing fresh acid into the pores hydrostatically (see Liebenow, Zeits. fur Elektrochem., 1897, iv. 61), or by working at a higher temperature. This increases the diffusion inwards of strong acid, and like the increase due to hydrostatic pressure maintains the E.M.F. The other suggested causes of the fall therefore fail. Fig. 20 also shows that when the discharge current was stopped at points A, B, C, D to extract samples, the voltage immediately rose, owing to inward diffusion of stronger acid. The inward diffusion of fresh acid also accounts for the recuperation found after a rest which follows either complete discharge or a partial discharge at a very rapid rate. If the discharge be complete the recuperation refers only to the electromotive force; the pressure falls at once on closed circuit. If discharge has been rapid, a rest will enable the cell to resume work because it brings fresh acid into the active regions.

Fig. 20.

As to the effect of repose on a charged cell, Gladstone and Tribe's experiments showed that peroxide of lead lying on its lead supoort suffers from a local action, which reduces one molecule of PbO2 to sulphate at the same time that an atom of the grid below it is also changed to sulphate. There is thus not only a loss of the available peroxide, but a corrosion of the grid or plate. It is through this action that the supports gradually give way. On the negative plate an action arises between the finely divided lead and the sulphuric acid, with the result that hydrogen is set free— Pb + H2SO4 = PbSO4 + H2. This involves a diminution of available spongy lead, or loss of capacity, occasionally with serious consequences. The capacity of the lead plate is reduced absolutely, of course, but its relative value is more seriously affected. In the discharge it gets sulphated too much, because the better positive keeps up the E.M.F. too long. In the succeeding charge, the positive is fully charged before the negative, and the differences between them tend to increase in each cycle.

Kelvin and Helmholtz have shown that the E.M.F. of a voltaic cell oan be calculated from the energy developed by the chemical action. For a dyad gram equivalent (= 2 grams of hydrogen, 207 grams of lead, &c.), the equation connecting them is E = H/46000 + T dE/dT, here E is the E.M.F. in volts, H is the heat developed by a dyad equivalent of the reacting substances, T is the absolute temperature, and dE/dT is the temperature coefficient of the E.M.F. If the E.M.F. does not change with temperature, the second term is zero. The thermal values for the various substances formed and decomposed are -For PbO2, 62400; for PbSO4, 216210; for H2SO4, 192920; and for H2O, 68400 calories. Writing the equation in its simplest form for strong acid, and ignoring the temperature coefficient term,

PbO2 + 2 H2SO4 + Pb = 2PbSO4 + 2 H2O -62440 - 385840 + 432420 + 136720 leaving a balance of 120860 calories. Dividing by 46000 gives 2.627 volts. The experimental value in strong acid, according to Gladstone and Hibbert, is 2.607 volts, a very close approximation. For other strengths of acid, the energy will be less by the quantity of heat evolved by dilution of the acid, because the chemical action must take the H2SO4 from the diluted liquid. The dotted curve in fig. 10 indicates the calculated E.M.F. at various points when this is taken into account. The difference between it and the continuous curve must, if the chemical theory be correct, depend on the second term in the equation. The figure shows that the observed E.M.F. is above the theoretical for all strengths from 100 down to 5%. Below 5 the position is reversed. The question remains, Can the temperature coefficient be obtained? This is difficult, because the value is so small, and it is not easy to secure a good cycle of observations. Streintz has given the following values:— E 1.9223 1.9828 2.0031 2.0084 2.0105 2.078 2.2070 dE/dT.106 140 228 335 285 255 130 73 Unpublished experiments by the writer give dE/dT. 106 = 350 for anid of density 1.156. With stronger acid, a true cycle could not be obtained. Taking Streintz's value, 335 for 25% acid, the second term of the equation is TdE/dT = 290 X .000335 = 0.0971 volt. The first term gives 88800 calories = 1.9304 volt. Adding the second term, 1.9304 + 0.0971 = 2.2075 volts. The observed value is 2.030 volts (see fig. 10), a remarkably good agreement. This calculation and the general relation shown in fig. 10 render it highly probable that, if the temperature coefficient were known for all strengths of acid, the result would be equally good. It is worth observing that the reversal of relationship between the observed and calculated curves, which takes place at 5% or 6%, suggests that the chemistry must be on the point of altering as the acid gets weak, a conclusion which has been already arrived at on purely chemical grounds. The thermodynamical relations are thus seen to confirm very strongly the chemical and physical analyses.1

Accumulators in Central Stations.—-As the efficiency of accumulators is not generally higher than 75%, and machines must be used to charge them, it is not directly economical to use cells alone for public supply. Yet they play an important and an increasing part in public work, because they help to maintain a constant voltage on the mains, and can be used to distribute the load on the running machinery over a much greater fraction of the day. Used in parallel with the dynamo, they quickly yield current when the load increases, and immediately begin to charge when the load diminishes, thus largely reducing the fluctuating stress on dynamo and engine for sudden variations in load. Their use is advantageous if they can be charged and discharged at a time when the steam plant would otherwise be working at an uneconomical load.

Fig. 21.

Regulation of the potential difference is managed in various ways. More cells may be thrown in as the discharge proceeds, and taken out during charge; but this method often leads to trouble, as some cells get unduly discharged, and the unity of the battery is disturbed. Sometimes the number of cells is kept fixed for supply, but the P.D. they put on the mains is reduced during charge by employing regulating cells in opposition. Both these plans have proved unsatisfactory, and the battery is now preferably joined across the mains in parallel with the dynamo. The cells take the peaks of the load and thus relieve the dynamo and engine of sudden changes, as shown in fig. 21. Here the line current (shown by the erratic curve) varied spasmodically from 0 to 375 amperes, yet the dynamo current varied from 100 to 150 amperes only (see line A). At the same time the line voltage (535 volts normal) was kept nearly constant. In the late evening the cells became exhausted and the dynamo charged them. Extra voltage was required at the end of a "charge,' and was provided by a "booster.'' Originally a booster was an auxiliary dynamo worked in series with the chief machine, and driven in any convenient way. It has

1 For the discussion of later electrolytic theories as apolied to accumulators, see Dolezalek, Theory of the Lead Accumulator.

developed into a machine with two or more exciting coils, and having its armature in series with the cells (see fig. 22). The exciting coils act in opposition; the one carrying the main current sets up an E.M.F. in the same direction as that of the cells, and helps the cells to discharge as the load rises. When the load is small, the voltage on the mains is highest and the shunt exciting current greatest. The booster E.M.F. now acts with the dynamo and against the cells, and causes them to take a full charge. Even this arrangement did not suffice to keep the line voltage as constant as seemed desirable in some cases, as where lighting and traction work were put on the same plant. Fig. 23 is a diagram of a complex booster which gives very good regulation. The booster B has its armature in series with the accumulators A, and is kept running in a given direction at a constant speed by means of a shunt-wound motor (not shown), so that the E.M.F. induced in the armature depends on the excitation. This is made

Fig. 22. to vary in value and in direction by means of four independent enciting coils, C1, C2, C3, C4. The last is not essential, as it merely compensates for the small voltage drop in the armature. It is obvious that the excitation C3 will be proportionate to the difference in voltage between the battery and the mains, and it is arranged that battery volts and booster volts shall equal the volts on the mains. Under this excitation there is no tendency for the battery to charge or discharge. But any additional excitation leads to strong currents one way or the other. Excitation C1 rises with the load on the line, and gives an E.M.F. helping the battery to discharge most when the load is greatest. C2 is dependent on the bus-bar voltage, and is greatest when the generator load is small: it opposes C1 and therefore excites the booster to charge the battery. The exact generator load at which the booster shall reverse its E.M.F. from a charging to a discharging value is adjusted by the resistance R2 in series with C2. A similar resistance R6 allows the excitation of C3 to be adjusted. Very remarkable regulation can be obtained by reversible boosters of this type. In traction and lighting stations it is quite possible to keep the variation of bus-bar pressure within 2% of the normal value, although the load may momentarily vary from a few amperes up to 200 or 300.

J. B. Entz has introduced an auxiliary device which enables him to use a much more simple booster. The Entz booster has no series coil and only one shunt coil, the direction and value of excitation due to this being controlled by a carbon regulator, it having two arms, the resistance of each of which can be varied by pressure due to the magnet- izing action of a solenoid. The main current from the generator passes through the solenoid and causes one or other of the two carbon arms to have the less

FIG. 23.

resistance. This change in resistance determines the direction of the exciter field current, and therefore the direction of the boost. A photograph of the switchboard at Greenock where this booster is in use shows the voltmeter needle as if it had been held rigid, although the exposure lasted 90 minutes. On the same photograph the ammeter needle does not appear, its incessant and large movements preventing any picture from being formed.

Alkaline Accumulators.—Owing to the high electro-chemical equivalent of lead, a great saving in weight would be secured by using almost any other metal. Unfortunately no other metal and its compounds can resist the acid. Hence inventors have been incited to try alkaline liquids as electrolytes. Many attempts have been made to construct accumulators in this way, though with only moderate success. The Lalande-Chaperon, Desmazures, Waddell-Ent2 and Edison are the chief cells. T. A. Edison's cell has been most developed, and is intended for traction work. He made the plates of very thin sheets of nickel-plated steel, in each of which 24 rectangular holes were stamped, leaving a mere framework of the metal. Shallow rectangular pockets of perforated nickel-steel were fitted in the holes and then burred over the framework by high pressures. The pockets contained the active material. On the positive plate this consisted of nickel peroxide mixed with flake graphite, and on the negative plate of finely divided iron mixed with graphite. Both kinds of active material were prepared in a special way. The graphite gives greater conductivity. The liquid was a 20% solution of caustic potash. During discharge the iron was oxidized, and the nickel reduced to a lower state of oxidation. This change was reversed during charge. Fig. 24 shows the general features.

Fig. 24.—Edison Accumulator.

The chief results obtained by European experts showed that the E.M.F. was 1.33 volt, with a transient higher value following charge. A cell weighing 17.8 lb. had a resistance of 0.0013 ohm, and an output at 60 amperes of 210 watt-hours, or at 120 amperes of 177 watt-hours. Another and improved cell weighiog 12.7 lb. gave 14.6 watt-hours per pound of cell at a 20-ampere rate, and 13.5 watt-hours per pound at a 60 ampere rate. The cell could be charged and discharged at almost any rate. A full charge could be given in 1 hour, and it would stand a discharge rate of 200 amperes (Journ. Inst. Elec. Eng., 1904, pp. 1-36).

Subsequently Edison found some degree of falling-off in capacity, due to an enlargement of the positive pockets by pressure of gas. Most of the faults have been overcome by altering the form of the pocket and replacing the graphite by a metallic conductor in the form of flakes.

REFERENCES.—-G. Plante, Recherches sur L'electricite (Paris, 1879); Gladstone and Tribe, Chemistry of Secondary Batteries (London, 1884); Reynier, L'Accumulateur voltaique (Paris, 1888); Heim, Die Akkumulatoren (Berlin, 1889); Hoppe, Die Akk. fur Elektricitat (Berlin, 1892); Schoop, Handbuch fur Akk. (Stuttgart, 1898): Sir E. Frankland, "Chemistry of Storage Batteries,'' Proc. Roy. Soc., 1883; Reynier, Jour. Soc. Franc. de Phys., 1884; Heim, "U. d. Einfluss der Sauredichte auf die Kapazitat der Akk.,'' Elek. Zeits., 1889; Kohlrausch and Heim, "Ergebnisse von Versuchen an Akk. fur Stationsbetrieb,'' Elek. Zeits., 1889; Darrieus, Bull. Soc. Intern. des Elect., 1892; F. Dolezalek, The Theory of the Lead Accumulator (London, 1906); Sir D. Salomons, Management of accumulators (London, 1906) E. J. Wade, Secondary Batteries (London, 1901); L. Jumau, Les Accumulateurs electriques (Paris, 1904). (W. HT.)

ACCURSIUS Ital. ACCORSO), FRANCISCUS (1182-1260), Italian jurist, was born at Florence about 1182. A pupil of Azo, he first practised law in his native city, and was afterwards appointed professor at Bologna, where he had great success as a teacher. He undertook the great work of arranging into one body the almost innumerable comments and remarks upon the Code, the Institutes and Digests, the confused dispersion of which among the works of different writers caused much obscurity and contradiction. This compilation, bearing the title Glossa ordinaria or magistralis, but usually known as the Great Gloss, though written in barbarous Latin, has more method than that of any preceding writer on the subject. The best edition of it is that of Denis Godefroi (1549-1621), published at Lyons in 1589, in 6 vols. folio. When Accursius was employed in this work, it is said that, hearing of a similar one proposed and begun by Odoiced, another lawyer of Bologna, he feigned indisposition, interrupted his public lectures, and shut himself up, till with the utmost expedition he had accomplished his design. Accursius was greatly extolled by the lawyers of his own and the immediately succeeding age, and he was even called the idol of jurisconsults, but those of later times formed a much lower estimate of his merits. There can be no doubt that he disentangled the sense of many laws with much skill, but it is equally undeniable that his ignorance of history and antiquities often led him into absurdities, and was the cause of many defects in his explanations and commentaries. He died at Bologna in 1260. His eldest son Franciscus (1225-1293), who also filled the chair of law at Bologna, was invited to Oxford by King Edward I., and in 1275 or 1276 read lectures on law in the university.

ACCUSATION (Lat. accusatio, accusare, to challenge to a causa, a suit or trial at law), a legal term signifying the charging of another with wrong-doing, criminal or otherwise. An accusation which is made in a court of justice during legal proceedings is privileged (see PRIVILEGE), though, should the accused have been maliciously prosecuted, he will have a right to bring an action for malicious prosecution. An accusation made outside a court of justice would, if the accusation were false, render the accuser liable to an action for defamation of character, while, if the accusation be committed to writing, the writer of it is liable to indictment, whether the accusation be made only to the party accused or to a third person, A threat or conspiracy to accuse another of a crime or of misconduct which does not amount to a crime for the purpose of extortion is in itself indictable.

ACCUSATIVE (Lat. accusativus, sc. casus, a translation of the Gr. aitiatike ptosis, the case concerned with cause and effect, from aiti'a, a cause), in grammar, a case of the noun, denoting primarily the object of verbal action or the destination of motion.

ACE (derived through the Lat. as, from the Tarentine form of the Gr. eis) the number one at dice, or the single point on a die or card; also a point in the score of racquets, lawn-tennis, tennis and other court games.

ACELDAMA (according to Acts i. 19, "the field of blood''), the name given to the field purchased by Judas Iscariot with the money he received for the betrayal of Jesus Christ. A different version is given in Matthew xxvii. 8, where Judas is said to have cast down the money in the Temple, and the priests who had paid it to have recovered the pieces, with which they bought "the potter's field, to bury strangers in.'' The MS. evidence is greatly in favour of a form Aceldamach. This would seem to mean "the field of thy blood,'' which is unsuitable. Since, however, we find elsewhere one name appearing as both Sirach and Sira (ch = aleph), Aceldamach may be another form of an original Aceldama (aleph kamatz mem shvah daleth lamedh tzareh qoph patach heth), the "field of blood.'' A. Klostermann, however, takes the ch to be part of the Aramaic root demach, "to sleep,'; the word would then mean "field of sleep'' or cemetery (Probleme im Aposteltexte, 1-8, 1883), an explanation which fits in well with the account in Matthew xxvii. The traditional site (now Hak el-Dum), S. of Jerusalem on the N.E. slope of the "Hill of Evil Counsel'' (Jebel Deir Abu Tor), was used as a burial place for Christian pilgrims from the 6th century A.D. till as late, apparently, as 1697, and especially in the time of the Crusades. Near it there is a very ancient charnelhouse, partly rock-cut, partly of masonry, said to be the work of Crusaders.

ACENAPHTHENE, C12H10, a hydrocarbon isolated from the fraction of coal-tar boiling at 260 deg. -270 deg. by M. P. E. Berthelot, who, in conjunction with Bardy, afterwards synthesized it from a-ethyl naphthalene (Ann. Chem. Phys., 1873, Yol. xxix.). It forms white needles (from alcohol), melts at 95 deg. and boils at 278 deg. . Oxidation gives naphthalic acid (1.8 naphthalene dicathoxylic acid).

Acenaphthalene, C12 H8, a hydrocarbon crystallizing in yellow tables and obtained by passing the vapour of acenaphthene over heated litharge. Sodium amalgam reduces it to acenaphthone; chromic acid oxidizes it to naphthalic acid.

ACEPHALI (from a'-, privative, and kefale, head), a term applied to several sects as having no head or leader; and in particular to a strict monophysite sect that separated itself, in the end of the 5th century, from the rule of the patriarch of Alexandria (Peter Mongus), and remained "without king or bishop'' till they were reconciled by Mark I. (799-819).1 The term is also used to denote clerici vagrantes, i.e. clergy without title or benefice, picking up a living anyhow (cf. Hinschius i. p. 64). Certain persons in England during the reign of King Henry I. were called Acephali because they had no lands by virtue of which they could acknowledge a superior lord. The name is also given to certain legendary races described by ancient naturalists and geographers as having no heads, their mouths and eyes being in their breasts, generally identified with Pliny's Blemmyae.

ACEPHALOUS, headless, whether literally or metaphorically, leaderless. The word is used literally in biology; and metaphorically in prosody or grammar for a verse or sentence with a beginning wanting. In zoology, the mollusca are divided into cephalous and acephalous (Acephala), according as they have or have not an organized part of their anatomy as the seat of the brain and special senses. The Acephala, or Lamellibranchiata (q.v.), are commonly known as bivalve shell-fish. In botany the word is used for ovaries not terminating in a stigma. Acephalocyst is the name given by R. T. H. Laennec to the hydatid, immature or larval tapeworm.

ACERENZA (anc. Aceruntia), a town of the province of Potenza, Italy, the seat of an archbishop, 15 1/2 m. N.E. of the station of Pietragalla, which is 9 m. N.W. of Potenza by rail, 2730 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1901) 4499. Its situation is one of great strength, and it has only one entrance, on the south. It was occupied as a colony at latest by the end of the Republic, and its importance as a fortress was specially appreciated by the Goths and Lombards in the 6th and 7th centuries. It has a fine Norman cathedral, upon the gable of which is one of the best extant busts of Julian the Apostate.

ACEROSE (from Lat. acus, needle, or acer, sharp), needle-shaped, a term used in botany (since Linnaeus) as descriptive of the leaves, e.g., of pines. From Lat. aeus, chaff, comes also the distinct meaning of "mixed with chaff.''

ACERRA, a town and episcopal see of Campania, Italy, in the province of Caserta, 9 m. N.E. from Naples by rail. Pop. (1901) 16,443. The town lies on the right bank of the Agno, which divides the province of Naples from that of Caserta, 90 ft. above the sea, in a fertile but somewhat marshy district, which in the middle ages was very malarious. The ancient name (Acerrae) was also borne by a town in Umbria and another in Gallia Transpadana (the latter now Pizzighettone on the Adda, 13 m. W.N.W. of Cremona). It became a city with Latin rights in 332 B.C. and later a municipium. It was destroyed by Hannibal in 216 B.C., but restored in 210; in 90 B.C. it served as the Roman headquarters in the Social war, and was successfully held against the insurgents. It received a colony under Augustus, but appears to have suffered much from floods of the river Clams. Under the Empire we hear no more of it, and no traces of antiquity, beyond inscriptions, remain.

ACERRA, in Roman antiquity, a small box or pot for holding incense, as distinct from the turibulum (thurible) or censer in which incense was burned. The name was also given by the Romans to a little altar placed near the dead, on which incense was offered every day till the burial. In ecclesiastical Latin the term acerra is still applied to the incense boats used in the Roman ritual.

ACETABULUM, the Latin word for a vinegar cup, an ancient Roman vessel, used as a liquid measure (equal to about half a gill); it is also a word used technically in zoology, by analogy for certain cup-shaped parts, e.g. the suckers of a mollusc, the socket of the thigh-bone, &c.; and in botany for the receptacle of Fungi.

ACETIC ACID (acidum aceticum), CH3.CO2H, one of the most important organic acids. It occurs naturally in the juice of

1 See Gibbon, ch. xlvii. (vol. v. p. 129 in Pury's ed.).

many plants, and as the esters of n-hexyl and n-octyl alcohols in the seeds of Heracleum giganteum, and in the fruit of Heracleum sphondylium, but is generally obtained, on the large scale, from the oxidation of spoiled wines, or from the destructive distillation of wood. In the former process it is obtained in the form of a dilute aqueous solution, in which also the colouring matters of the wine, salts, &c., are dissolved; and this impure acetic acid is what we ordinarily term vinegar (q.v.). Acetic acid (in the form of vinegar) was known to the ancients, who obtained it by the oxidation of alcoholic liquors. Wood-vinegar was discovered in the middle ages. Towards the close of the 18th century, A. L. Lavoisier showed that air was necessary to the formation of vinegar from alcohol. In 1830 J. B. A. Dumas converted acetic acid into trichloracetic acid, and in 1842 L. H. F. Melsens reconverted this derivative into the original acetic acid by reduction with sodium amalgam. The synthesis of trichloracetic acid from its elements was accomplished in 1843 by H. Kolbe; this taken in conjunction with Melsens's observation provided the first synthesis of acetic acid. Anhydrous acetic acid—glacial acetic acid—is a leafy crystalline mass melting at 16.7 deg. C., and possessing an exceedingly pungent smell. It boils at 118 deg. , giving a vapour of abnormal specific gravity. It dissolves in water in all proportions with at first a contraction and afterwards an increase in volume. It is detected by heating with ordinary alcohol and sulphuric acid, which gives rise to acetic ester or ethyl acetate, recognized by its fragrant odour; or by heating with arsenious oxide, which forms the pungent and poisonous cacodyl oxide. It is a monobasic acid, forming one normal and two acid potassium salts, and basic salts with iron, aluminium, lead and copper. Ferrous and ferric acetates are used as mordants; normal lead acetate is known in commerce as sugar of lead (q.v.); basic copper acetates are known as verdigris (q.v.).

Pharmacology and Therapeutics.—-Glacial acetic acid is occasionally used as a caustic for corns. The dilute acid, or vinegar, may be used to bathe the skin in fever, acting as a pleasant refrigerant. Acetic acid has no valuable properties for internal administration. Vinegar, however, which contains about 5% acetic acid, is frequently taken as a cure for obesity, but there is no warrant for this application. Its continued employment may, indeed, so injure the mucous membrane of the stomach as to interfere with digestion and so cause a morbid and dangerous reduction in weight.

The acetates constitute a valuable group of medicinal agents, the potassium salt being most frequently employed. After absorption into the blood, the acetates are oxidized to carbonates, and therefore are remote alkalies, and are administered whenever it is desired to increase the alkalinity of the blood or to reduce the acidity of the urine, without exerting the disturbing influence of alkanes upon the digestive tract. The citrates act in precisely similar fashion, and may be substituted. They are somewhat more pleasant but more expensive.

ACETO-ACETIC ESTER, C6H10O3 or CH3.CO.CH2.COOC2H5, a chemical substance discovered in 1863 by A. Geuther, who showed that the chief product of the action of sodium on ethyl acetate was a sodium compound of composition C6H9O3Na, which on treatment with acids gave a colourless, somewhat oily liquid of composition C6H10O3. E. Frankland and B. F. Duppa in 1865 examined the reaction and concluded that Geuther's sodium salt was a derivative of the ethyl ester of acetone carboxylic acid and possessed the constitution CH6CO.CHNa.COOC2H5. This view was not accepted by Geuther, who looked upon his compound C6H10O3 as being an acid. J. Wislicenus also investigated the reaction very thoroughly and accepted the Frankland-Duppa formula (Annalen, 1877, 186, p. 163; 1877, 190, p. 257).

The substance is best prepared by drying ethyl acetate over calcium chloride and treating it with sodium wire, which is best introduced in one operation; the liquid boils and is then heated on a water bath for some hours, until the sodium all dissolves. After the reaction is completed, the liquid is acidified with dilute sulphuric acid (1:5) and then shaken with salt solution, separated from the salt solution, washed, dried and fractionated. The portion boiling betbeen 175 deg. and 185 deg. C. is redistilled. The yield amounts to about 30% of that required by theory.

A. Ladenburg and J. A. Wanklyn have shown that pure ethyl acetate free from alcohol will not react with sodium to produce aceto-acetic ester. L. Claisen, whose views are now accepted, studied the reactions of sodium ethylate and showed that if sodium ethylate be used in place of sodium in the above reaction the same result is obtained. He explains the reactions

/ONa CH3.C==O + NaOC2H5 = CH3.C-OC2H5, OC2H5 OC2H5

this reaction being followed by

/ONa H CH3.C-OC2H5 + CH.COOC2H5 = 2 C2 H5OH + OC2H5 H/ CH3.C(ONa):CH.COOC2H5;

and on acidification this last substance gives aceto-acetic ester. Aceto-acetic ester is a colourless liquid boiling at 181 deg. C.; it is slightly soluble in water, and when distilled undergoes some decomposition forming dehydracetic acid C8H8O4. It undoubtedly contains a keto-group, for it reacts with hydrocyanic acid, hydroxylamine, phenylhydrazine and ammonia; sodium bisulphite also combines with it to form a crystalline compound, hence it contains the grouping CH 3/0.CO-. J. Wislicenus found that only one hydrogen atom in the—CH2- group is directly replaceable by sodium, and that if the sodium be then replaced by an alkyl group, the second hydrogen atom in the group can be replaced in the same manner. These alkyl substitution products are important, for they lead to the synthesis of many organic compounds, on account of the fact that they can be hydrolysed in two different ways, barium hydroxide or dilute sodium hydroxide solution giving the so-called ketone hydrolysis, whilst concentrated sodium hydroxide gives the acid

Ketone hydrolysis:- CH3.CO.C(XY).CO2C2H5 -> CH3.CO.CH(XY) + C2H5OH + CO2; Acid hydrolysis:- CH3.CO.C(XY).CO2C2H5 -> CH3.CO2H + C2H5OH + CH(XY).COOH;

(where X and Y = alkyl groups).

Both reactions occur to some extent simultaneously. Acetoacetic ester is a most important synthetic reagent, having been used in the production of pyridines (q.v.), quinolines (q.v.), pyrazolones, furfurane (q.v.), pyrrols (q.v.), uric acid (q.v.), and many complex acids and ketones.

For a discussion as to the composition, and whether it is to be regarded as possessing the "keto', form CH3.CO.CH2.COOC2H6 or the "enol'' form CH3.C(OH): CH.COOC2H5, see ISOMERISM, and also papers by J. Wislicenus (Ann., 1877, 186, p. 163; 1877, 190, p. 257), A. Michael (Journ. Prak. Chem., 1887, [2] 37, p. 473), L. Knorr (Ann., 1886, 238, p. 147), W. H. Perkin, senr. (Journ. of Chem. Soc., 1892, 61, p. 800) and J. U. Nef (Ann., 1891, 266, p. 70; 1892, 270, pp. 289, 333; 1893, 276, p. 212).

ACETONE, or DIMETHYL KETONE, CH3.CO.CH3, in chemistry, the simplest representative of the aliphatic ketones. It is present in very small quantity in normal urine, in the blood, and in larger quantities in diabetic patients. It is found among the products formed in the destructive distillation of wood, sugar, cellulose, &c., and for this reason it is always present in crude wood spirit, from which the greater portion of it may be re-covered by fractional distillation. On the large scale it is prepared by the dry distillation of calcium acetate (CH3CO2)2Ca = CaCO3 + CH3COCH3. E. R. Squibb (Journ. Amer. Chem. Soc., 1895, 17, p. 187) manufactures it by passing the vapour of acetic acid through a rotating iron cylinder containing a mixture of pumice and precipitated barium carbonate, and kept at a temperature of from 500 deg. C. to 600 deg. C. The mixed vapours of acetone, acetic acid and water are then led through a condensing apparatus so that the acetic acid and water are first condensed, and then the acetone is condensed in a second vessel. The barium carbonate used in the process acts as a contact substance, since the temperature at which the operation is carried out is always above the decomposition point of barium acetate. Crude acetone may be purified by converting it into the crystalline sodium bisulphite compound, which is separated by filtration and then distilled with sodium

CH3 / OH CH3 2 C + Na2CO3 = 2 CO + 2 Na2SO3 + CH3/ SO3Na CH3/ CO2 + H2O

It is then dehydrated and redistilled.

Acetone is largely used in the manufacture of cordite (q.v.) For this purpose the crude distillate is redistilled over sulphuric acid and then fractionated.

Acetone is a colourless mobile liquid of pleasant smell, boiling at 56.53 deg. C., and has a specific gravity 0.819 (0 deg. /4 deg. C.). It is readily soluble in water, alcohol, ether, &c. In addition to its application in the cordite industry it is used in the manufacture of chloroform (q.v.) and sulphonal, and as a solvent. It forms a hydrazone with phenyl hydrazine, and an oxime with hydroxylamine. Reduction by sodium amalgam converts it into isopropyl alcohol; oxidation by chromic acid gives carbon dioxide and acetic acid. With ammonia it reacts to form di- and triacetoneamines. It also unites directly with hydrocyanic acid to form the nitrile of a-oxyisobutyric acid.

By the action of various reagents such as lime, caustic potash, hydrochloric acid, &c., acetone is converted into condensation products, mesityl oxide C6H10O, phorone C9H14O, &c., being formed. On distillation with sulphuric acid, it is converted into mesitylene C9H12 (symmetrical trimethyl benzene). Acetone has also been used in the artificial production of indigo. In the presence of iodine and an alkali it gives iodoform. Acetone has been employed medicinally in cases of dyspnoea. With potassium iodide, glycerin and water, it forms the preparation spirone, which has been used as a spray inhalation in paroxysmal sneezing and asthma.

ACETOPHENONE, or PHENYL-METHYL KETONE, C8H8O or C6H5CO.CH3, in chemistry, the simplest representative of the class of mixed aliphatic-aromatic ketones. It can be prepared by distilling a mixture of dry calcium benzoate and acetate, Ca(O2CC6H5)2 + (CH3CO2)2Ca = 2CaCO3 + 2 C6H5CO.CH3, or by condensing benzene with acetyl chloride in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride (C. Friedel and J. M. Crafts), C6H6+CH3COCl == HCl + C6H5COCH3. It crystallizes in colourless plates melting at 20 deg. C. and bolling at 202 deg. C.; it is insoluble in water, but readily dissolves in the ordinary organic solvents. It is reduced by nascent hydrogen to the secondary alcohol C6H5.CH.OH.CH3 phenyl-methyl-carbinol, and on oxidation forms benzoic acid. On the addition of phenylhydrazine it gives a phenylhydrazone, and with hydroxylamine furnishes an

C6H5 C=N.OH CH3/

melting at 59 deg. C. This oxime undergoes a peculiar rearrangement when it is dissolved in ether and phosphorus pentachloride is added to the ethereal solution, the excess of ether distilled off and water added to the residue being converted into the isomeric substance acetanilide, C6H5NHCOCH3, a behaviour shown by many ketoximes and known as the Beckmann change (see Berichte, 1886, 19, p. 988). With sodium ethylate in ethyl acetate solution it forms the sodium derivative of benzoyl acetone, from which benzoyl acetone, C6H5.CO.CH2.CO.CH3, can be obtained by acidification with acetic acid. When heated with the halogens, acetophenone is substituted in the aliphatic portion of the nucleus; thus bromine gives phenacyl bromide, C6H6CO.CH2Br. Numerous derivatives of acetophenone have been prepared, one of the most important being orthoaminoacetophenone, NH2.C6H4.CO.CH3, which is obtained by boiling orthoaminophenylpropiolic acid with water. It is a thick yellowish oil bolling between 242 deg. C. and 250 deg. C. It condenses with acetone in the presence of caustic soda to a quinoline. Acetonyl-aeeto phenone, C6H5 . CO . CH2 . CH2. CO . CH3, is produced by condensing phenacyl bromide with sodium acetoacetate with subsequent elimination of carbon dioxide, and on dehydration gives aa-phenyl-methyl-furfurane. Oxazoles (q.v.) are produced on condensing phenacyl bromide with acid-amides (M. Lewy, Berichte, 1887, 20, p. 2578). K. L. Paal has also obtained pyrrol derivatives by condensing acetophenone-aceto- acetic-ester with substances of the type NH2R.

ACETYLENE, klumene or ethine, a gaseous compound of carbon and hydrogen, represented by the formula C2H2.

Physical properties.

It is a colourless gas, having a density of 0.92. When prepared by the action of water upon calcium carbide, it has a very strong and penetrating odour, but when it is thoroughly purified from sulphuretted and phosphuretted hydrogen, which are invariably present with it in minute traces, this extremely pungent odour disappears, and the pure gas has a not unpleasant ethereal smell. It can be condensed into the liquid state by cold or by pressure, and experiments by G. Ansdell show that if the gas be subjected to a pressure of 21.53 atmospheres at a temperature of 0 deg. C., it is converted into the liquid state, the pressure needed increasing with the rise of temperature, and decreasing with the lowering of the temperature, until at—82 deg. C. it becomes liquid under ordinary atmospheric pressure. The critical point of the gas is 37 C., at which temperature a pressure of 68 atmospheres is required for liquefaction. The properties of liquid and solid acetylene have been investigated by D. Mcintosh (Jour Chem. Soc., Abs., 1907, i. 458). A great future was expected from its use in the liquid state, since a cylinder fitted with the necessary reducing valves would supply the gas to light a house for a considerable period, the liquid occupying about 1/400 the volume of the gas, but in the United States and on the continent of Europe, where liquefied acetylene was made on the large scale, several fatal accidents occurred owing to its explosion under not easily explained conditions. As a result of these accidents M. P. E. Berthelot and L. J. G. Vieille made a series of valuable researches upon the explosion of acetylene under various conditions. They found that if liquid acetylene in a steel bottle be heated at one point by a platinum wire raised to a red heat, the whole mass decomposes and gives rise to such tremendous pressures that no cylinder would be able to withstand them. These pressures varied from 71,000 to 100,000 lb. per square inch. They, moreover, tried the effect of shock upon the liquid, and found that the repeated dropping of the cylinder from a height of nearly 20 feet upon a large steel anvil gave no explosion, but that when the cylinder was crushed under a heavy blow the impact was followed, after a short interval of time, by an explosion which was manifestly due to the fracture of the cylinder and the ignition of the escaping gas, mixed with air, from sparks caused by the breaking of the metal. A similar explosion will frequently follow the breaking in the same way of a cylinder charged with hydrogen at a high pressure. Continuing these experiments, they found that in acetylene gas under ordinary pressures the decomposition brought about in one portion of the gas, either by heat or the firing in it of a small detonator, did not spread far beyond the point at which the decomposition started, while if the acetylene was compressed to a pressure of more than 30 lb. on the square inch, the decomposition travelled throughout the mass and became in reality detonation. These results showed clearly that liquefied acetylene was far too dangerous for general introduction for domestic purposes, since, although the occasions would be rare in which the requisite temperature to bring about detonation would be reached, still, if this point were attained, the results would be of a most disastrous character. The fact that several accidents had already happened accentuated the risk, and in Great Britain the storage and use of liquefied acetylene are prohibited.

When liquefied acetylene is allowed to escape from the cylinder in which it is contained into ordinary atmospheric pressure, some of the liquid assumes the gaseous condition with such rapidity as to cool the remainder below the temperature of -90 deg. C., and convert it into a solid snow-like mass.

Solubility of acetylene.

Acetylene is readily soluble in water, which at normal temperature and pressure takes up a little more than its own volume of the gas, and yields a solution giving a purple-red precipitate with ammoniacal cuprous chloride and a white precipitate with silver nitrate, these precipitates consisting of acetylides of the metals. The solubility of the gas in various liquids, as given by different observers,

100 Volumes of Volumes of Acetylene. Brine absorb 5 Water '' 110 Alcohol '' 600 Paraffin '' 150 Carbon disulphide '' 100 Fusel oil '' 100 Benzene '' 400 Chloroform '' 400 Acetic acid '' 600 Acetone '' 2500

It will be seen from this table that where it is desired to collect and keep acetylene over a liquid, brine, i.e. water saturated with salt, is the best for the purpose, but in practice it is found that, unless water is agitated with acetylene, or the gas bubbled through, the top layer soon gets saturated, and the gas then dissolves but slowly. The great solubility of acetylene in acetone was pointed out by G. Claude and A. Hess, who showed that acetone will absorb twenty-five times its own volume of acetylene at a temperature of 15 deg. C. under atmospheric pressure, and that, providing the temperature is kept constant, the liquid acetone will go on absorbing acetylene at the rate of twenty-five times its own volume for every atmosphere of pressure to which the gas is subjected.

At first it seemed as if this discovery would do away with all the troubles connected with the storage of acetylene under pressure, but it was soon found that there were serious difficulties still to be overcome. The chief trouble was that acetone expands a small percentage of its own volume while it is absorbing acetylene; therefore it is impossible to fill a cylinder with acetone and then force in acetylene, and still more impracticable only partly to fill the cylinder with acetone, as in that case the space above the liquid would be filled with acetylene under high pressure, and would have all the disadvantages of a cylinder containing compressed acetylene only. This difficulty was overcome by first filling the cylinder with porous briquettes and then soaking them with a fixed percentage of acetone, so that after allowing for the space taken up by the bricks the quantity of acetone soaked into the brick will absorb ten times the normal volume of the cylinder in acetylene for every atmosphere of pressure to which the gas is subjected, whilst all danger of explosion is eliminated.

This fact having been fully demonstrated, acetylene dissolved in this way was exempted from the Explosives Act, and consequently upon this exemption a large business has grown up in the preparation and use of dissolved acetylene for lighting motor omnibuses, motor cars, railway carriages, lighthouses, buoys, yachts, &c., for which it is particularly adapted.

Poisonous properties.

Acetylene was at one time supposed to be a highly poisonous gas, the researches of A. Bistrow and O. Liebreich having apoarently shown that it acts upon the blood in the same way as carbon monoxide to form a stable compound. Very extensive experiments, however, made by Drs N. Grehant, A. L. Brociner, L. Crismer, and others, all conclusively show that acetylene is much less toxic than carbon monoxide, and indeed than coal gas.

Chemical properties.

When acetylene was first introduced on a Commercial scale grave fears were entertained as to its safety, it being represented that it had the power of combining with certain metals, more especially copper and silver, to form acetylides of a highly explosive character, and-that even with coal gas, which contains less than 1%, such copper compounds had been known to be formed in cases where the gas-distributing mains were composed of copper, and that accidents had happened from this cause. It was therefore predicted that the introduction of acetylene on a large scale would be followed by numerous accidents unless copper and its alloys were rigidly excluded from contact with the gas. These fears have, however, fortunately proved to be unfounded, and ordinary gas fittings can be used with perfect safety with this gas.

Acetylene has the property of inflaming spontaneously when brought in contact with chlorine. If a few pieces of carbide be dropped into saturated chlorine water the bubbles of gas take fire as they reach the surface, and if a jet of acetylene be passed up into a bottle of chlorine it takes fire and burns with a heavy red flame, depositing its carbon in the form of soot. If chlorine be bubbled up into a jar of acetylene standing over water, a violent explosion, attended with a flash of intense light and the deposition of carbon, at once takes place. When the gas is kept in a small glass holder exposed to direct sunlight, the surface of the glass soon becomes dimmed, and W. A. Bone has shown that when exposed for some time to the sun's rays it undergoes certain polymerization changes which lead to the deposition of a film of heavy hydrocarbons on the surface of the tube. It has also been observed by L. Cailletet and later by P. Villard that when allowed to stand in the presence of water at a low temperature a solid hydrate is formed.

The polymerization of acetylene.

Acetylene is readily decomposed by heat, polymerizing under its influence to form an enormous number of organic compounds; indeed the gas, which can itself be directly prepared from its constituents, carbon and hydrogen, under the influence of the electric arc, can be made the starting point for the construction of an enormous number of different organic compounds of a complex character. In contact with nascent hydrogen it bunds up ethylene; ethylene acted upon by sulphuric acid yields ethyl sulphuric acid; this can again be decomposed in the presence of water to yield alcohol, and it has also been proposed to manufacture sugar from this body. Picric acid can also be obtained from it by first treating acetylene with sulphuric acid, converting the product into phenol by solution in potash and then treating the phenol with fuming nitric acid.

Endothermic nature of acetylene.

Acetylene is one of those bodies the formation of which is attended with the disappearance of heat, and it is for this reason termed an "endothermic'' compound, in contradistinction to those bodies which evolve heat in their formation, and which are called "exothermic.'' Such endothermic bodies are nearly always found to show considerable violence in their decomposition, as the heat of formation stored up within them is then liberated as sensible heat, and it is undoubtedly this property of acetylene gas which leads to its easy detonation by either heat or a shock from an explosion of fulminating mercury when in contact with it under pressure. The observation that acetylene can be resolved into its constituents by detonation is due to Berthelot, who started an explosive wave in it by firing a charge of 0.1 gram of mercury fulminate. It has since been shown, however, that unless the gas is at a pressure of more than two atmospheres this wave soon dies out, and the decomposition is only propagated a few inches from the detonator. Heated in contact with air to a temperature of 480 deg. C., acetylene ignites and burns with a flame, the appearance of which varies with the way in which it is brought in contact with the air. With the gas in excess a heavy lurid flame emitting dense volumes of smoke results, whilst if it be driven out in a sufficiently thin sheet, it burns with a flame of intense brilliancy and ulmost perfect whiteness, by the light of which colours can be judged as well as they can by daylight. Having its ignition point below that of ordinary gas, it can be ignited by any red-hot carbonaceous matter, such as the brightly glowing end of a cigar. For its complete combustion a volume of acetylene needs approximately twelve volumes of air, forming as products of combustion carbon dioxide and water vapour. When, however, the air is present in much smaller ratio the combustion is incomplete, and carbon, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and water vapour are produced. This is well shown by taking a cylinder one-half full of acetylene and one-half of air; on applying a light to the mixture a lurid flame runs down the cylinder and a cloud of soot is thrown up, the cylinder also being thickly coated with it, and often containing a ball of carbon. If now, after a few moments' interval to allow some air to diffuse into the cylinder, a taper again be applied, an explosion takes place, due to a mixture of carbon monoxide and air. It is probable that when a flame is smoking badly, distinct traces of carbon monoxide are being produced, but when an acetylene flame burns properly the products are as harmless as those of coal gas, and, light for light, less in amount. Mixed with air, like every other combustible gas, acetylene forms an explosive mixture. F. Clowes has shown that it has a wider range of explosive proportions when mixed with air than any of the other combustible gases, the limiting percentages being as

Acetylene . . . . . . . 3 to 82 Hydrogen . . . . . . . 5 to 72 Carbon monoxide . . . . 13 to 75 Ethylene . . . . . . . 4 to 22 Methane . . . . . . . . 5 to 13

Methods of production.

The methods which can be and have been employed from time to time for the formation of acetylene in small quantities are exceedingly numerous. Before the commercial production of calcium carbide made it one of the most easily obtainable gases, the processes which were most largely adopted for its preparation in laboratories were:-first, the decomposition of ethylene bromide by dropping it slowly into a boiling solution of alcoholic potash, and purifying the evolved gas from the volatile bromethylene by washing it through a second flask containing a boiling solution of alcoholic potash, or by passing it over moderately heated soda lime; and, second, the more ordinarily adopted process of passing the products of incomplete combustion from a Bunsen burner, the flame of which had struck back, through an ammoniacal solution of cuprous chloride, when the red copper acetylide was produced. This on being washed and decomposed with hydrochloric acid yielded a stream of acetylene gas. This second method of production has the great drawback that, unless proper precautions are taken to purify the gas obtained from the copper acetylide, it is always contaminated with certain chlorine derivatives of acetylene. Edmund Davy first made acetylene in 1836 from a compound produced during the manufacture of potassium from potassium tartrate and charcoal, which under certain conditions yielded a black compound decomposed by water with considerable violence and the evolution of acetylene. This compound was afterwards fully investigated by J. J. Berzelius, who showed it to be potassium carbide. He also made the corresponding sodium compound and showed that it evolved the same gas, whilst in 1862 F. Wohler first made calcium carbide, and found that water decomposed it into lime and acetylene. It was not, however, until 1892 that the almost simultaneous discovery was made by T. L. Willson in America and H. Moissan in France that if lime and carbon be fused together at the temperature of the electric furnace, the lime is reduced to calcium, which unites with the excess of carbon present to form calcium carbide.

Manufacture of calcium carbide.

The cheap production of this material and the easy liberation by its aid of acetylene at once gave the gas a position of commercial importance. In the manufacture of calcium carbide in the electric furnace, lime and anthracite of the highest possible degree of purity are employed. A good working mixture of these materials may be taken as being 100 parts by weight of lime with 68 parts by weight of carbonaceous material. About 1.8 lb. of this is used up for each pound of carbide produced. The two principal processes utilized in making calcium carbide by electrical power are the ingot process and the tapping process. In the former, the anthracite and lime are ground and carefully mixed in the right proportions to suit the chemical actions involved. The arc is struck in a crucible into which the mixture is allowed to flow, partially filling it. An ingot gradually builds up from the bottom of the crucible, the carbon electrode being raised from time to time automatically or by hand to suit the diminution of resistance due to the shortening of the arc by the rising ingot. The crucible is of metal and considerably larger than the ingot, the latter being surrounded by a mass of unreduced material which protects the crucible from the intense heat. When the ingot has been made and the crucible is full, the latter is withdrawn and another substituted. The process is not continuous, but a change of crucibles only takes two or three minutes under the best conditions, and only occurs every ten or fifteen hours. The essence of this process is that the coke and lime are only heated to the point of combination, and are not "boiled'' after being formed. It is found that the ingot of calcium carbide formed in the furnace, although itself consisting of pure crystalline calcium carbide, is nearly always surrounded by a crust which contains a certain proportion of imperfectly converted constituents, and therefore gives a lower yield of acetylene than the carbide itself. In breaking up and sending out the carbide for commercial work, packed in air-tight drums, the crust is removed by a sand blast. A statement of the amount made per kilowatt hour may be misleading, since a certain amount of loss is of necessity entailed during this process. For instance, in practical working it has been found that a furnace return of 0.504 lb. per kilowatt hour is brought down to 0.406 lb. per kilowatt hour when the material has been broken up, sorted and packed in air-tight drums. In the tapping process a fixed crucible is used, lined with carbon, the electrode is nearly as big as the crucible and a much higher current density is used. The carbide is heated to complete liquefaction and tapped at short intervals. There is no unreduced material, and the process is considerably simplified, while less expensive plant is required. The run carbide, however, is never so rich as the ingot carbide, since an excess of lime is nearly always used in the mixture to act as a flux, and this remaining in the carbide lowers its gas-yielding power. Many attempts have been made to produce the substance without electricity, but have met with no commercial success.

Properties of calcium carbide.

Calcium carbide, as formed in the electric furnace, is a beautiful crystalline semi-metallic solid, having a density of 2.22, and showing a fracture which is often shot with iridescent colours. It can be kept unaltered in dry air, but the smallest trace of moisture in the atmosphere leads to the evolution of minute quantities of acetylene and gives it a distinctive odour. It is infusible at temperatures up to 2000 deg. C., but can he fused in the electric arc. When heated to a temperature of 245 deg. C. in a stream of chlorine gas it becomes incandescent, forming calcium chloride and liberating carbon, and it can also be made to burn in oxygen at a dull red heat, leaving behind a residue of calcium carbonate. Under the same conditions it becomes incandescent in the vapour of sulphur, yielding calcium sulphide and carbon disulphide; the vapour of phosphorus will also unite with it at a red heat. Acted upon by water it is at once decomposed, yielding acetylene and calcium hydrate. Pure crystalline calcium carbide yields 5.8 cubic feet of acetylene per pound at ordinary temperatures, but the carbide as sold commercially, being a mixture of the pure crystalline material with the crust which in the electric furnace surrounds the ingot, yields at the best 5 cubic feet of gas per pound under proper conditions of generation. The volume of gas obtained; however, depends very largely upon the form of apparatus used, and while some will give the full volume, other apparatus will only yield, with the same carbide, 3 3/4 feet.

Impurities.

The purity of the carbide entirely depends on the purity of the material used in its manufacture, and before this fact had been fully grasped by manufacturers, and only the purest material obtainable employed, it contained notable quantities of compounds which during its decomposition by water yielded a somewhat high portion of impurities in the acetylene generated from it. Although at the present time a marvellous improvement has taken place all round in the quality of the carbide produced, the acetylene nearly always contains minute traces of hydrogen, ammonia, sulphuretted hydrogen, phosphuretted hydrogen, silicon hydride, nitrogen and oxygen, and sometimes minute traces of carbon monoxide and dioxide. The formation of hydrogen is caused by small traces of metallic calcium occasionally found free in the carbide, and cases have been known where this was present in such quantities that the evolved gas contained nearly 20% of hydrogen. This takes place when in the manufacture of the carbide the material is kept too long in contact with the arc, since this overheating causes the dissociation of some of the calcium carbide and the solution of metallic calcium in the remainder. The presence of free hydrogen is nearly always accompanied by silicon hydride formed by the combination of the nascent hydrogen with the silicon in the carbide. The ammonia found in the acetylene is probably partly due to the presence of magnesium nitride in the carbide.

On decomposition by water, ammonia is produced by the action of steam or of nascent hydrogen on the nitride, the quantity formed depending very largely upon the temperature at which the carbide is decomposed. The formation of nitrides and cyanamides by actions of this kind and their easy conversion into ammonia is a useful method for fixing the nitrogen of the atmosphere and rendering it available for manurial purposes. Sulphuretted hydrogen, which is invariably present in commercial acetylene, is formed by the decomposition of aluminium sulphide. A. Mourlot has shown that aluminium sulphide, zinc sulphide and cadmium sulphide are the only sulphur compounds which can resist the heat of the electric furnace without decomposition or volatilization, and of these aluminium sulphide is the only one which is decomposed by water with the evolution of sulphuretted hydrogen. In the early samples of carbide this compound used to be present in considerable quantity, but now rarely more than 1/10 % is to be found. Phosphuretted hydrogen, one of the most important impurities, which has been blamed for the haze formed by the combustion of acetylene under certain conditions, is produced by the action of water upon traces of calcium phosphide found in carbide. Although at first it was no uncommon thing to find 1/2% of phosphuretted hydrogen present in the acetylene, this has now been so reduced by the use of pure materials that the quantity is rarely above 0.15%, and it is often not one-fifth of that amount.

Generation of acetylene from carbide.

In the generation of acetylene from calcium carbide and water, all that has to be done is to bring these two compounds into contact, when they mutually react upon each other with the formation of lime and acetylene, while, if there be sufficient water present, the lime combines with it to form calcium hydrate.

Calcium carbide. Water. Acetylene. Lime. CaC2 + H2O = C2H2 + CaO Lime. Water. Calcium hydrate. CaO + H2O = Ca(HO)2

The decomposition of the carbide by water may be brought about either by bringing the water slowly into contact with an excess of carbide, or by dropping the carbide into an excess of water, and these two main operations again may be varied by innumerable ingenious devices by which the rapidity of the contact may be modified or even eventually stopped. The result is that although the forms of apparatus utilized for this purpose are all based on the one fundamental principle of bringing about the contact of the carbide with the water which is to enter into double decomposition with it, they have been multiplied in number to a very large extent by the methods employed in order to ensure control in working, and to get away from the dangers and inconveniences which are inseparable from a too rapid generation.

Generators.

In attempting to classify acetylene generators some authorities have divided them into as many as six different classes, but this is hardly necessary, as they may be divided into two main classes—-first, those in which water is brought in contact with the carbide, the carbide being in excess during the first portion of the operation; and, second, those in which the carbide is thrown into water, the amount of water present being always in excess. The first class may again be subdivided into generators in which the water rises in contact with the carbide, in which it drips upon the carbide, and in which a vessel full of carbide is lowered into water and again with-drawn as generation becomes excessive. Some of these generators are constructed to make the gas only as fast as it is consumed at the burner, with the object of saving the expense and room which would be involved by a storage-holder. Generators with devices for regulating and stopping at will the action going on are generally termed "automatic.'' Another set merely aims at developing the gas from the carbide and putting it into a storageholder with as little loss as possible, and these are termed "non-automatic.'' The points to be attained in a good generator are:—

1. Low temperature of generation. 2. Complete decomposition of the carbide. 3. Maximum evolution of the gas. 4. Low pressure in every part of the apparatus. 5. Ease in charging and removal of residues. 6. Removal of all air from the apparatus before generation of the gas. When carbide is acted upon by water considerable heat is evolved; indeed, the action develops about one-twentieth of the heat evolved by the combustion of carbon. As, however, the temperature developed is a function of the time needed to complete the action, the degree of heat attained varies with every form of generator, and while the water in one form may never reach the boiling-point, the carbide in another may become red-hot and give a temperature of over 800 deg. C. Heating in a generator is not only a source of danger, but also lessens the yield of gas and deteriorates its quality. The best forms of generator are either those in which water rises slowly in contact with the carbide, or the second main division in which the carbide falls into excess of water.

Purification

It is clear that acetylene, if it is to be used on a large scale as a domestic illuminant, must undergo such processes of purification as will render it harmless and innocuous to health and property, and the sooner it is recognized as absolutely essential to purify acetylene before consuming it the sooner will the gas acquire the popularity it deserves. The only one of the impurities which offers any difficulty in removal is the phosphuretted hydrogen. There are three substances which can be relied on more or less to remove this compound, and the gas to be purified may be passed either through acid copper salts, through bleaching powder or through chromic acid. In experiments with those various bodies it is found that they are all of them effective in also ridding the acetylene of the ammonia and sulphuretted hydrogen, provided only that the surface area presented to the gas is sufficiently large. The method of washing the gas with acid solutions of copper has been patented by A. Frank of Charlottenburg, who finds that a concentrated solution of cuprous chloride in an acid, the liquid being made into a paste with kieselguhr, is the most effective. Where the production of acetylene is going on on a small scale this method of purification is undoubtedly the most convenient one, as the acid present absorbs the ammonia, and the copper salt converts the phosphuretted and sulphuretted hydrogen into phosphates and sulphides. The vessel, however, which contains this mixture has to be of earthenware, porcelain or enamelled iron on account of the free acid present; the gas must be washed after purification to remove traces of hydrochloric acid, and care must be taken to prevent the complete neutralization of the acid by the ammonia present in the gas. The second process is one patented by Fritz Ullmann of Geneva, who utilizes chromic acid to oxidize the phosphuretted and sulphuretted hydrogen and absorb the ammonia, and this method of purification has proved the most successful in practice, the chromic acid being absorbed by kieselguhr and the material sold under the name of "Heratol.''

The third process owes its inception to G. Lunge, who recommends the use of bleaching powder. Dr P. Wolff has found that when this is used on the large scale there is a risk of the ammonia present in the acetylene forming traces of chloride of nitrogen in the purifying-boxes, and as this is a compound which detonates with considerable local force, it occasionally gives rise to explosions in the purifying apparatus. If, however, the gas be first passed through a scrubber so as to wash out the ammonia this danger is avoided. Dr Wolff employs purifiers in which the gas is washed with water containing calcium chloride, and then passed through bleaching-powder solution or other oxidizing material.

When acetylene is burnt from a 000 union jet burner, at all ordinary pressures a smoky flame is obtained, but on the pressure being increased to 4 inches a magnificent flame results, free from smoke, and developing an illuminating value of 240 candles per 5 cubic feet of gas consumed. Slightly higher values have been obtained, but 240 may be taken as the average value under these conditions.

Burners.

When acetylene was first introduced as a commercial illuminant in England, very small union jet nipples were utilized for its consumption, but after burning for a short time these nipples began to carbonize, the flame being distorted, and then smoking occurred with the formation of a heavy deposit of soot. While these troubles were being experienced in England, attempts had been made in America to use acetylene diluted with a certain proportion of air which permitted it to be burnt in ordinary flat flame nipples; but the danger of such admixture being recognized, nipples of the same class as those used in England were employed, and the same troubles ensued. In France, single jets made of glass were first employed, and then P. Resener, H. Luchaire, G. Ragot and others made burners in which two jets of acetylene, coming from two tubes placed some little distance apart, impinged and splayed each other out into a butterfly flame. Soon afterwards, J. S. Billwiller introduced the idea of sucking air into the flame at or just below the burner tip, and at this juncture the Naphey or Dolan burner was introduced in America, the principle employed being to use two small and widely separated jets instead of the two openings of the union jet burner, and to make each a minute bunsen, the acetylene dragging in from the base of the nipple enough air to surround and protect it while burning from contact with the steatite. This class of burner forms a basis on which all the later constructions of burner have been founded, but had the drawback that if the flame was turned low, insufficient air to prevent carbonization of the burner tips was drawn in, owing to the reduced flow of gas. This fault has now been reduced by a cage of steatite round the burner tip, which draws in sufficient air to prevent deposition.

Oxy-acetylene blowpipe. When acetylene was first introduced on a commercial scale attempts were made to utilize its great heat of combustion by using it in conjunction with oxygen in the oxyhydrogen blowpipe. It was found, however, that when using acetylene under low pressures, the burner tip became so heated as to cause the decomposition of some of the gas before combustion, the jet being choked up by the carbon which deposited in a very dense form; and as the use of acetylene under pressures greater than one hundred inches of water was prohibited, no advance was made in this direction. The introduction of acetylene dissolved under pressure in acetone contained in cylinders filled with porous material drew attention again to this use of the gas, and by using a special construction of blowpipe an oxy-acetylene flame is produced, which is far hotter than the oxy-hydrogen flame, and at the same time is so reducing in its character that it can be used for the direct autogenous welding of steel and many minor metallurgical processes.

REFERENCES.—-F. H. Leeds and W. A. Butterfield, Calcium Carbide and Acetylene (1903); F. Dommer, L'Acetylene et ses applications (1896); V. B. Lewes, Acetylene (1900); F. Liebetanz, Calcium-carbid und Acetylen (1899); G. Pelissier, L'Eclairage a l'acetylene (1897); C. de Perrodil, Le carbure de calcium et l'acetylene (1897). For a complete list of the various papers and memoirs on Acetylene, see A. Ludwig's Fuhrer durch die gesammte Calcium carbid-und-Acetylen-Literatur, Berlin. (V. B. L.)

ACHAEA, a district on the northern coast of the Peloponnese, stretching from the mountain ranges of Erymanthus and Cyllene on the S. to a narrow strip of fertile land on the N., bordering the Corinthian Gulf, into which the mountain Panachaicus projects. Achaea is bounded on the W. by the territory of Elis, on the E. by that of Sicyon, which, however, was sometimes included in it. The origin of the name has given rise to much speculation; the current theory is that the Achaeans (q.v.) were driven back into this region by the Dorian invaders of the Peloponnese. Another Achaea, in the south of Thessaly, called sometimes Achaea Phthiotis, has been supposed to be the cradle of the race. In Roman times the name of the province of Achaea was given to the whole of Greece, except Thessaly, Epirus, and Acarnania. Herodotus (i. 145) mentions the twelve cities Of Achaea; three met as a religious confederacy in the temple of Poseidon Heliconius at Helice; for their later history see ACHAEAN LEAGUE. During the middle ages, after the Latin conquest of the Eastern Empire, Achaea was a Latin principality, the first prince being William de Champlitte (d. 1209). It survived, with various dismemberments, until 1430, when the last prince, Centurione Zaccaria, ceded the remnant of it to his son-in-law, Theodorus II., despot of Mistra. In 1460 it was conquered, with the rest of the Morea, by the Turks. In modern times the coast of Achaea is mainly given up to the currant industry; the currants are shipped from Patras, the second town of Greece, and from Aegion (Vostitza).

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