The following example of divergent acclimatization of the same race to hot and cold zones is very interesting, and will conclude our extracts from Spruce's valuable notes:—
One of the most singular cases connected with this subject that have fallen under my own observation, is the difficulty, or apparent impossibility, of acclimatizing the Red Indian in a certain zone of the Andes. Any person who has compared the physical characters of the native races of South America must be convinced that these have all originated in a common stirps. Many local differences exist, but none capable of invalidating this conclusion. The warmth yet shade-loving Indian of the Amazon; the Indian of the hot, dry and treeless coasts of Peru and Guayaquil, who exposes his bare head to the sun with as much zest as an African negro; the Indian of the Andes, for whom no cold seems too great, who goes constantly barelegged and often bare-headed, through whose rude straw hut the piercing wind of the paramos sweeps and chills the white man to the very bones;—all these, in the colour and texture cf the skin, the hair and other important features, are plainly of one and the same race.
Now there is a zone of the equatorial Andes, ranging between about 4000 and 6000 feet altitude, where the very best flavoured coffee is grown, where cane is less luxuriant but more saccharine than in the plains, and which is therefore very desirable to cultivate, but where the red man sickens and dies. Indians taken down from the sierra get ague and dysentery. Those of the plains find the temperature chilly, and are stricken down with influenza and pains in the limbs. I have seen the difficulty experienced in getting farms cultivated in this zone, on both sides of the Cordillera. The permanent residents are generally limited to the major-domo and his family; and in the dry season labourers are hired, of any colour that can be obtained—some from the low country, others from the highlands—for three, four, or five months, who gather in and grind the cane, and plant for the harvest of the following year; but the staff of resident Indian labourers, such as exists in the farms of the sierra, cannot be kept up in the Fungas, as these half-warm valleys are called. White men, who take proper precautions, and are not chronically soaked with cane-spirit, stand the climate perfectly, but the creole whites are still too much caballeros to devote themselves to agricultural work.
In what is now the republic of Ecuador, the only peopled portions are the central valley, between the two ridges of the Andes—height 7000 to 12,000 feet—and the hot plain at their western base; nor do the wooded slopes appear to have been inhabited, except by scattered savage hordes, even in the time of the Incas. The Indians of the highlands are the descendants of others who have inhabited that region exclusively for untold ages; and a similar affirmation may be made of the Indians of the plain. Now, there is little doubt that the progenitors of both these sections came from a temperate region (in North America); so that here we have one moiety acclimatized to endure extreme heat, and the other extreme cold; and at this day exposure of either to the opposite extreme (or even, as we have seen, to the climate of an intermediate zone) is always pernicious and often fatal. But if this great difference has been brought about in the red man, might not the same have happened to the white man? Plainly it might, time being given; for one cannot doubt that the inherent adaptability is the same in both, or (if not) that the white man possesses it in a higher degree.
The observations of Spruce are of themselves almost conclusive as to the possibility of Europeans becoming acclimatized in the tropics; and if it is objected that this evidence applies only to the dark-haired southern races, we are fortunately able to point to facts, almost equally well authenticated and conclusive, in the case of one of the typical Germanic races. In South Africa the Dutch have been settled and nearly isolated for over 200 years, and have kept themselves almost or quite free from native intermixture. They are still preponderatingly fair in complexion, while physically they are tall and strong. They marry young and have large families. The population, according to a census taken in 1798, was under 22,000. In 1865 it was near 182,000, the majority being of "Dutch, German or French origin, mostly descendants of original settlers.'' In more recent times, the conditions have been so greatly changed by immigration, that the later statistics cease to have a definite meaning with regard to acclimatization. We have here a population which doubled itself every twenty-two years; and the greater part of this rapid increase must certainly be due to the old European immigrants. In the Moluccas, where the Dutch have had settlements for 250 years, some of the inhabitants trace their descent to early immigrants; and these, as well as most of the people of Dutch descent in the east, are quite as fair as their European ancestors, enjoy excellent health, and are very prolific. But the Dutch accommodate themselves admirably to a tropical climate, doing much of their work early in the morning, dressing very lightly, and living a quiet, temperate and cheerful life. They also pay great attention to drainage and general cleanliness. In addition to these examples, it is obvious that the rapid increase of English-speaking populations in the United States and in Australia is far greater than can be explained by immigration, and shows two conspicuous examples of acclimatization.
On the whole, we seem justified in concluding that, under favourable conditions, and with a proper adaptation of means to the end in view, man may become acclimatized with at least as much certainty and rapidity (counting by generations rather than by years) as any of the lower animals. The greatest difficulty in his way is not temperature, but the presence of parasitic diseases to resist which his body has not been prepared, and modern knowledge is rapidly defining these dangers and the modes of avoiding them. (A. R. W.)
APPENDIX The task of collecting information as to animals which have become permanently naturalized away from their native haunts is anything but easy, as few regular records have been kept by acclimatizers. Moreover, recorders of local fauna have been almost unanimous in ignoring the introduced forms, except when they have had occasion to comment on the effects, real or supposed, of these immigrants on aboriginal faunas.
Mammals.—-It is unnecessary here to dwell upon the world-wide distribution of the two rats Mus rattus and M. decumanus, and of the house-mouse M. musculus; their introduction has always been involuntary. Similarly nearly all our domestic mammals except the sheep have become feral somewhere or other, whether by intentional liberation or by escape; but the smaller ones more than the larger, such as pigs, goats, dogs and cats. This has been especially the case in Hawaii and New Zealand; in America, Australia and Hawaii, horses and cattle are also feral. Feral pigs are numerous in New Zealand.
The domestic Indian buffalo (Bos bubalus) exists as a wild animal in North Australia; it is very liable to revert to a wild state, being little altered from its still-existing wild ancestor. A more curious case is that of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius), a beast only known in domestication, and that in arid countties; yet a number of these have become feral in the Spanish marshes, where they wade about like quadrupedal flamingoes.
The red deer (Cervus elaphus) is now widely distributed as a wild animal over New Zealand, where also the fallow-deer (C. dama) and the Indian sambar (C. aristotelis or unicolor) have been introduced locally. The sambar, or one or other of its subspecies, has also been naturalized in Mauritius, and in the Marianne Islands in the open Pacific.
The wide introduction of the rabbit, as a wild animal, is well known. Amounting to a serious pest in Australasian colonies, it is also established in the Falklands and Kerguelen; its presence in much of Europe is attributed to early acclimatization, as it seems anciently to have been confined to the Iberian peninsula.
The hare has been established in New Zealand and Barbadoes. Few other rodents have been designedly naturalized, but the North American grey squirrel (Sciurus einereus) appears to be established as a wild animal in Woburn Park, Bedfordshire, England, and may probably spread thence.
To check the increase of the rabbit, stoats, weasels and polecats (the last in the form of the domesticated ferret) were introduced into New Zealand on a very large scale in the last quarter of the 19th century. They have spread widely, and have not confined their depredations to the rabbits, so that the indigenous flightless birds have suffered largely.
Another carnivore of very similar habits, the Indian mongoose (Herpestus griseus or H. mungo), has been naturalized in Jamaica, whence it has been carried to other West Indian Islands, and in the Hawaiian group. It has also been tried, but unsuccessfully, in Australia. The first introduction into Jamaica took place in 1872, and ten years later the animal was credited with saving many thousands of pounds annually by its destruction of rats. But before an equal space of time had further elapsed, it had itself become a pest; the most recent information, however, is to the effect that its numbers are now on the decline, and that the disturbed faunal equilibrium is being readjusted.
The civets, being celebrated for their odoriferous secretion, are likely animals to have been naturalized. W. T. Blanford (Fauna of British India, "Mammals'') thinks that the presence of the Indian form, Viverricula malaccensis, in Socotra, the Comoro Islands and Madagascar is due to the assistance of man.
The common fox of Europe has been introduced into Australia, where it is destructive to the native fauna and to lambs.
Among primates, a Ceylonese monkey (Macacus pileatus) has been naturalized in Mauritius for centuries, the circumstances of introduction being unknown.
The Common Australian "opossum'' or phalanger (Trichosurus vulpecula) has been naturalized in New Zealand, although very destructive to fruit trees; the value of its fur being probably the motive. It is said that the pelage of the New Zealand specimens is superior, as might be expected from the colder climate.
Birds.—-The introduction of mammals has been largely influenced by economic conditions, when, indeed, it was not absolutely accidental and unavoidable; but in the case of birds it has been more gratuitous, so to speak, in many cases, and hence is looked upon with especial dislike by naturalists. The domestic birds have comparatively seldom become feral, doubtless, as C. Darvdn points out, from the reduction of their powers of flight in many cases. The guinea-fowl, however, has long been in this condition in Jamaica and St Helena, and the fowl in Hawaii and other Polynesian islands. The pheasant has been naturalized in the United States, New Zealand, Hawaii and St Helena. Its naturalization in western Europe is very ancient, but the race supposed to have been introduced by the Romans (Phasianus colchicus) has been much modified within the last century or two by the introduction of the ring-necked Chinese form (P. torquatus), which produces fertile hybrids with the old breed. Thus those acclimatized were usually, no doubt, of mixed blood, and further introductions of pure Chinese stock have tended to make the latter the dominant form, at any rate in the United States (where it is erroneously called Mongolian1) and in New Zealand. In Hawaii and St Helena the ring-neck appears to have been the only pheasant introduced pure, but in the former the Japanese race (P. versicolor) is also naturalized.
1 The true Mongolian pheasant (P. mongolicus), a very different bird, has recently been introduced into England.
The golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pietus) is locally established in the United States, as appear to be other pheasants of less common species. The Reeves' pheasant (P. reevesi) is at large on some English estates. Of the partridges, the continental red-leg (Caccabis rnfo) is established in England, and its ally, the Asiatic chukore (C. chukar), in St Helena, as is the Californian quail (Lophortyx californica ) in New Zealand and Hawaii. The latter, however, though thriving as an aviary bird, has failed at large in England, as did the bob-white (Ortyx virginianus) both there and in New Zealand.
The desirable character of the grouse as game-birds has led to many attempts at their acclimatization, but usually these have been unsuccessful; the red grouse (Lagopus scoticus), however, the only endemic British bird, is naturalized in some parts of Europe.
Of waterfowl, the Canada goose (Brantd eanadensis) is naturalized to a small extent in Britain, and also, to a less degree, the Egyptian goose (Chenalopex aegyptiacus); the latter bird also occurs wild in New Zealand. The modern presence of the black swan of Australia (Chenopis atrata) in New Zealand appears to be due to a natural irruption of the species about half a century ago as much as to acclimatization by man, if not more so.
Birds of prey are, unjustly enough, regarded with so little favour that few attempts have been made to naturalize them; the continental little owl (Athene noctua), however, has for some time been well established in England, where it has hardly, if ever, appeared naturally.
Pigeons have been very little naturalized; the tame bird has become feral locally in various countries, and the Chinese turtledove (Turtur chinensis) is established in Hawaii, as is the small East Indian zebra dove (Geopelia striata) in the Seychelles, and the allied Australian (G. tranquilla) in St Helena. There has also been very little naturalization of parrots, but the rosella parrakeet of Australia (Platycercus eximius) is being propagated by escaped captives in the north island of New Zealand, and its ally the mealy rosella (P. pallidiceps) is locally wild in Hawaii, the stock in this case having descended from a single pair intentionally liberated. Attempts to naturalize that well-known Australian grass-parrakeet the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) in England have so far proved abortive, and none of the species experimented with in Norfolk and Bedfordshire effected a settlement. The greyheaded love-bird (Agapornis cana) of Madagascar is established in the Seychelles. Some of the passerine birds have been the most widely distributed, especially the house-sparrow (Passer domesticus), which is now an integral, and very troublesome, part of the fauna in the Australasian States and in North America. It is, in fact, as notorious an example of over-successful acclimatization as the rabbit, but in Hutton and Drummond's recent work on the New Zealand animals (London, 1905) it is not regarded in this light, considering that some very common exotic birds were needed to keep down the insects, which it certainly did. Even in the United States also, it has been found a useful destroyer of weed-seeds. The house-sparrow is also feral in Argentina, some of the West Indian islands, Hawaii and the Andamans.
The allied tree-sparrow (P. montanus) has been locally naturalized in the United States; it is a more desirable bird, being less prolific and pugnacious, but it is expelled from towns by the house-sparrow.
The so-called Java sparrow (Munia orysivora), although a destructive bird to rice, has been widely distributed by accident or design, and is now found in several East Indian islands besides Java, in south China, St Helena, India, Zanzibar and the east African coast. An allied but much smaller weaver-finch, a form of the spice-bird (Munia nisoria punctata), is introduced and well distributed over the Hawaiian islands. The little rooibek of South Africa (Estrilda astrild) has been so long and well established in St Helena that it is known in the bird trade as the St Helena waxbill, and the brilliant scarlet weaver of Madagascar (Fondia madagascariensis) inhabits as an imported bird Mauritius, the Seychelles and even the remote Chagos Islands.
Returning to the true finches, the only one which can compete with the house-sparrow in the extent of its distribution by man is the goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis), now established all over New Zealand, as well as in Australia, the United States and Jamaica. It bears a good character, and is one of the marked successes of naturalization. The redpoll (Acanthis linaria), chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs) and greenfinch (Chloris chloris) are established in New Zealand, the last named being a pest there, as is also the cirl-bunting (Emberiza cirlus)—-the yellow-hammer (E. citrinella) being perhaps confused with this also.
Among starlings, the Indian mynah (generally the house mynah, Acridotheros tristis, but some other species seem to have been confused with this) has been naturalized in the Andamans, Seychelles, Reunion, Australia, Hawaii and parts of New Zealand. Its alleged destructiveness to the Hawaiian avifauna seems open to doubt.
The European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) is naturalized in New Zealand, Australia and to some extent in the United States. Thrushes have not been widely introduced, but the song-thrush and blackbird (Turdus musicus and Merula merula) are common in New Zealand; attempts were made, but unsuccessfully, to establish the latter in the United States. The so-called hedge-sparrow (Accentor modularis), really a member of this group, is one of the successful introductions into New Zealand. The robin (Erithacus rubecula) failed there.
Rooks (Corvus frugilegus) and the Australian "magpie'' or piping crow (Gymnorhina) are to be found in New Zealand, but only locally, especially the former.
Reptiles and Amphibians.—-Very little naturalization has been effected, or indeed apparently attempted, in regard to these groups, but the occurrence of the edible frog of the continent of Europe (Rana esculenta) as an introduced animal in certain British localities is well known. An Australian tree-frog (Hyla peronii) is naturalized in many parts of the north island of New Zealand.
Fish.—The instances of naturalization in this class are few, but important. The common carp (Cyprinus carpio), originally a Chinese fish, has for centuries been acclimatized in Europe, where indeed it is in places a true domestic creature, with definite variations. It is, however, quite feral also, and has been introduced into North America.
The Prussian carp (Carassius vulgaris) is established in New Zealand, and the nearly-allied goldfish, a domestic form (C. auratus) of Chinese origin, has been widely distributed as a pet, and is feral in some places.
The gourami (Osphromenus olfax) of the East Indies has been established in Mauritius and Cayenne, being a valuable foodfish.
The most important case of naturalization of fish is, however, the establishment of some Salmonidae in Tasmania and New Zealand. These are the common trout and sea-trout (Salmo fario and S. trutta); they attain a great size. So far, attempts to establish the true salmon in alien localities have been unsuccessful, but the American rainbow trout (S. irideus) has thriven in New Zealand, and the brook char of the same continent (S. fontinalis) inhabits at least one stream there to the exclusion of the common trout.
Invertebrates.—-Many insects and other invertebrates, mostly noxious, have been accidentally naturalized, and some have been deliberately introduced, like the honey-bee, now feral in Australasia and North America, and the humble-bee, imported into New Zealand to effect the fertilization of red clover.
The spread of the European house-fly has been deliberately encouraged in New Zealand, as wherever it penetrates the native flesh-fly, a more objectionable pest, disappears.
The wide distribution of three common cockroaches (Feriplaneta americana, Blatta orientalis and Ectobia germanica) is well known, but these are chiefly house-insects.
The common small white butterfly of Europe (Pontia or Pieris rapae) is now established in North America; and the march of the jigger, or foot-infesting flea (Sarcopsylla penetrans) of tropical America, across Africa, has taken place in quite recent years.
The Romans are credited with having purposely introduced the edible snail (Helix pomatia) into England, and the common garden snail and slugs (Helix aspersa, Limax agrestis and Arion hortensis) have been unwittingly established in New Zealand. In that country, also, the earthworms of Europe are noticed to replace native forms as the ground is broken.
General Remarks.—A great deal has been said about the upsetting of the balance of nature by naturalization, and as to the ill-doing of exotic forms. But certain considerations should be borne in mind in this connexion. In the first place, naturalization experiments fail at least as often as they succeed, and often quite inexplicably. Thus, the linnet and partridge have failed to establish themselves in New Zealand. This may ultimately throw some light on the disappearance of native forms; for these have at times declined without any assignable cause.
Secondly, native forms often disappear with the clearing off of the original forest or other vegetation, in which case their recession is to a certain extent unavoidable, and the fauna which has established itself in the presence of cultivation is needed to replace them.
Thirdly, the ill effect of introduced forms on existing ones may often be due rather to the spread of disease and parasites than to actual attack; thus, in Hawaii the native birds have been found suffering from a disease which attacks poultry. And the recession of the New Zealand earthworms and flies before exotic forms probably falls under this category. As man cannot easily avoid introducing parasites, and must keep domestic animals and till the land, a certain disturbance in aboriginal faunas is absolutely unavoidable. Under certain circumstances, however, the native animals may recover, for in some cases they even profit by man's advent, and at times themselves become pests, like the Kea parrot (Nestor notabilis), which attacks sheep in New Zealand, and the bobolink or rice-bird (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) in North America. Finally, it should never be forgotten that the worst enemies of declining forms have been collectors who have not given these species the chance of recovering themselves. (F. FN.)
ACCOLADE (from Ital. accolata, derived from Lat. collum, the neck), a ceremony anciently used in conferring knighthood; but whether it was an actual embrace (according to the use of the modern French word accolade), or a slight blow on the neck or cheek, is not agreed. Both these customs appear to be of great antiquity. Gregory of Tours writes that the early kings of France, in conferring the gilt shoulder-belt, kissed the knights on the left cheek; and William the Conqueror is said to have made use of the blow in conferring the honour of knighthood on his son Henry. At first it was given with the naked fist, a veritable box on the ear, but for this was substituted a gentle stroke with the flat of the sword on the side of the neck, or on either shoulder as well. In Great Britain the sovereign, in conferring knighthood, still employs this latter form of accolade.
"Accolade'' is also a technical term in music-printing for a sort of brace joining separate staves; and in architecture it denotes a form of decoration on doors and windows.
ACCOLTI, BENEDETTO (1415-1466), Italian jurist and historian, was born at Arezzo, in Tuscany, of a noble family, several members of which were distinguished like himself for their attainments in law. He was for some time professor of jurisprudence in the university of Florence, and on the death of the celebrated Poggio, in 1459, became chancellor of the Florentine republic. He died at Florence. In conjunction with his brother Leonardo, he wrote in Latin a history of the first crusade, entitled De Fello a Christianis contra Barbaros gesto pro Ghristi Sepulehro et Iudaea recuperandis libri tres (Venice, 1432, translated into Italian, 1543, and into French, 1620), which, though itself of little interest, is said to have furnished Tasso with the historic basis for his Jerusalem Delivered. Another work of Accolti's-De Praestantia Virorum sui Aevi—was published at Parma in 1689. His brother Francesco (1418-1483) was also a distinguished jurist, and was the author of Conrilia seu responsa (Pisa, 1481); Commentaria super lib. ii. decretalium (Bologna, 1481); Gommentaria (Pavia, 1493); de Balneis Puleolanis (1475).
ACCOLTI, BERNARDO (1465—1536), Italian poet, born at Arezzo, was the son of Benedetto Accolti. Known in his own day as l'Unico Aretino, he acquired great fame as a reciter of impromptu verse. He was listened to by large crowds, composed of the most learned men and the most distinguished prelates of the age. Among others, Cardinal Bombo has left on record a testimony to his extraordinary talent. His high reputation with his contemporaries seems scarcely justified by the poems he published, though they give evidence of brilliant fancy. It is probable that he succeeded better in his extemporary productions than in those which were the fruit of deliberation. His works, under the title Virginia, Comedia, Capitoli e Strambotti di Messer Bernardo Accolti Aretino, were published at Florence in 1513, and have been several times reprinted.
ACCOLTI, PIETRO (1455—1532), brother of the preceding, known as the cardinal of Ancona, was born in Florence on the 15th of March 1455, and died at Rome on the 12th of December 1532 (Ciaconi, Vitae Pontificum, 1677, iii. 295). He was made bishop of Ancona, in 1505, and cardinal on the 17th of March 1511, by Julius II. He was abbreviator under Leo X., and in that capacity drew up in 1520 the bull against Luther (L. Cardella, Memorie Storiche de' Cardinali, 1793, iii. 450). He held successively the suburban sees of Albano and Sabina, also the sees of Cadiz, Maillezais, Arras and Cremona, and was made archbishop of Ravenna, 1524, by Clement VII.
F. Cristofori (Storia dei Cardinali, 1888) and others have confused him with his nephew BENEDETTO (1497-1549), son of Michaele; who followed him in several of his preferments, was made cardinal, 1527, by Clement VII., and is known as a writer in behalf of papal claims and as a Latin poet.
ACCOMMODATION (Lat. accommodare, to make fit, from ad, to, cum, with, and modus, measure), the process of fitting, adapting, adjusting or supplying with what is needed (e.g. housing).
In theology the term "accommodation'' is used rather loosely to describe the employment of a word, phrase, sentence or idea, in a context other than that in which it originally occurred; the actual wording of the quotation may be modified to a greater or lesser extent. Such accommodation, though sometimes purely literary or stylistic, generally has the definite purpose of instruction, and is frequently used both in the New Testament and in pulpit utterances in all periods as a means of producing a reasonably accurate impression of a complicated idea in the minds of those who are for various reasons unlikely to comprehend it otherwise. There are roughly three main kinds. (1) A later Biblical passage quotes from an earlier, partly as a literary device, but also with a view to demonstration. Sometimes it is plain that the writer deliberately "accommodates'' a quotation (cf. John xviii. 8, 9 with xvii. 12). But New Testament quotations of Old Testament predictions are often for us accommodations—-striking or forced as the case may be —while the New Testament writer, "following the exegetical methods current among the Jews of his time, Matthew ii. 15, 18, xxvi. 31, xxvii. 9'' (S. R. Driver in Zechariah in Century Bible, pp. 259, 271), puts them forward as arguments. To say that he is merely "describing a New Testament fact in Old Testament phraseology'' may be true of the result rather than of his design. (2) Much beeides in the Bible—parable, metaphor, &c.—has been called an "accommodation,'' or divine condescension to human weakness. (3) German 18th-century rationalism (see APOLOGETICS) held that the Biblical writers made great use of conscious accommodation—intending moral commonplaces when they seemed to be enunciating Christian dogmas. Another expression for this, used, e.g., by J. S. Semler, is "economy,'' which also occurs in the kindred sense of "reserve'' (or of Disciplina Arcani—a modern term for the supposed early Catholic habit of reserving esoteric truths). Isaac Williams on Reserve in Religious Teaching, No. 80 of Tracts for the Times, made a great sensation; see R. W. Church's comments in The Oxford Movement. Strictly, accommodation (2) or (3) modifies, in form or in substance, the content of religious belief; reserve, from prudence or cunning, withholds part. "Economy'' is used in both senses.
ACCOMMODATION BILL. An accommodation bill, as its name implies, is a bill of exchange accepted and sometimes endorsed without any receipt of value in order to afford temporary pecuniary aid to the person accommodated. (See BILL OF EXCHANGE.)
ACCOMPANIMENT (i.e. that which "accompanies''), a musical term for that part of a vocal or instrumental composition added to support and heighten the principal vocal or instrumental part; either by means of other vocal parts, single instruments or the orchestra. The accompaniment may be obbligato or ad libitum, according as it forms an essential part of the composition or not. The term obbligato or obbligato accompaniment is also used for an independent instrumental solo accompanying a vocal piece. Owing to the early custom of only writing the accompaniment in outline, by means of a "figured bass,'' to be filled in by the performer, and to the changes in the number, quality and types of the instruments of the orchestra, "additional'' accompaniments have been written for the works of the older masters; such are Mozart's "additional'' accompaniments to Handel's Messiah or those to many of the elder Bach's works by Robert Franz. In common parlance any support given, e.g. by the piano, to a voice or instrument is loosely called an accompaniment, which may be merely "vamped'' by the introduction of a few chords, or may rise to the dignity of an artistic composition. In the history of song the evolution of the art side of an accompaniment is important, and in the higher forms the vocal and instrumental parts practically constitute a duet, in which the instrumental part may be at least as important as that of the voice.
ACCOMPLICE (from Fr. complice, conspirator, Lat. complex, a sharer, associate, complicare, to fold together; the ac- is possibly due to confusion with "accomplish,'' to complete, Lat. complere, to fill up), in law, one who is associated with another or others in the commission of a crime, whether as principal or accessory. The term is chiefly important where one of those charged with a crime turns king's evidence in the expectation of obtaining a pardon for himself. Accordingly, as his evidence is tainted with self-interest, it is a rule of practice to direct a jury to acquit, where the evidence of an accomplice is not corroborated by independent evidence both as to the circumstances of the offence and the participation of the accused in it. An accomplice who has turned king's evidence usually receives a pardon, but has no legal right to exemption from punishment till he has actually received it.
ACCORAMBONI, VITTORIA (1557—1585), an Italian lady famous for her great beauty and accomplishments and for her tragic history. She was born in Rome of a family belonging to the minor noblesse of Gubbio, which migrated to Rome with a view to bettering their fortunes. After refusing several offers of marriage for Vittoria, her father betrothed her to Francesco Peretti (1573), a man of no position, but a nephew of Cardinal Montalto, who was regarded as likely to become pope. Vittoria was admired and worshipped by all the cleverest and most brilliant men in Rome, and being luxurious and extravagant although poor, she and her husband were soon plunged in debt. Among her most fervent admirers was P. G. Orsini, duke of Bracciano, one of the most powerful men in Rome, and her brother Marcello, wishing to see her the duke's wife, had Peretti murdered (1581). The duke himself was suspected of complicity, inasmuch as he was believed to have murdered his first wife, Isabella de' Medici. Now that Vittoria was free he made her an offer of marriage, which she willingly accepted, and they were married shortly after. But her good fortune aroused much jealousy, and attempts were made to annul the marriage; she was even imprisoned, and only liberated through the interference of Cardinal Carlo Borromeo. On the death of Gregory XIII., Cardinal Montalto, her first husband's uncle, was elected in his place as Sixtus V. (1585); he vowed vengeance on the duke of Bracciano and Vittoria, who, warned in time, fled first to Venice and thence to Salo in Venetian territory. Here the duke died in November 1585, bequeathing all his personal property (the duchy of Bracciano he left to his son by his first wife) to his widow. Vittoria, overwhelmed with grief, went to live in retirement at Padua, where she was followed by Lodovico Orsini, a relation of her late husband and a servant of the Venetian republic, to arrange amicably for the division of the property. But a quarrel having arisen in this connexion Lodovico hired a band of bravos and had Vittoria assassinated (22nd of December 1585). He himself and nearly all his accomplices were afterwards put to death by order of the republic.
About Vittoria Accoramboni much has been written, and she has been greatly maligned by some biographers. Her story formed the basis of Webster's drama, The Tragedy of Paolo Giordano Ursini (1612), and of Ludwig Tieck's novel, Vittoria Accoramboni (1840); it is told more accurately in D. Gnoli's volume, Vittoria Accoramboni (Florence, 1870), and an excellent sketch of her life is given in Countess E. Martinengo-Cesaresco's Lombard Studies (London, 1902). (L. V.*)
ACCORD (from Fr. accorder, to agree), in law, an agreement between two parties, one of whom has a right of action against the other, to give and accept in substitution for such Iight any good legal consideration. Such an agreement when executed discharges the cause of action and is called Accord and Satisfaction.
ACCORDION (Fr. aeeordeoni Ger. Handharmonica, Ziehharmonica), a small portable reed wind instrument with keyboard, the smallest representative of the organ family, invented in 1829 by Damian, in Vienna.
The accordion consists of a bellows of many folds, to which is attached a keyboard with from 5 to 50 keys. The keys on being depressed, while the bellows are being worked, open valves admitting the wind to free reeds, consisting of narrow tongues of metal riveted some to the upper, some to the lower board of the bellows, having their free ends bent, some inwards, some outwards. Each key produces two notes, one from the inwardly bent reed when the bellows are compressed, the other from the outwardly bent reed by suction (as in the American organ; see HARMONIUM) when the bellows are expanded. The pitch of the note is determined by the length and thickness of the reeds, reduction of the length tending to sharpen the note, while reduction of the thickness lowers it. The right hand plays the melody on the keyboard, while the left works the bellows and manipulates the two or three bass harmony keys, which sound the simple chords of the tonic and dominant. The archetype of the accordion is the cheng (q.v.), or Chinese organ, between which and the harmonium it forms a connecting link structurally, although not invented for some thirty years after the harmonium. The timbre of the accordion is coarse and devoid of beauty, but in the hands of a skilful performer the best instruments are not entirely without artistic merit. Improvements in the construction of the accordion produced the concertina (q.v.), melodion and melophone. las Accordion in kurzer Zeit richtig spielen zu erlernen (Wien, 1834). See also FREE REED VIBRATOR. (K. S.)
ACCORSO (ACCURSIUS), MARIANOELO (c. 1490-1544), Italian critic, was born at Aquila, in the kingdom of Naples. He was a great favourite with Charles V., at whose court he resided for thirty-three years, and by whom he was employed on various foreign missions. To a perfect knowledge of Greek and Latin he added an intimate acquaintance with several modern languages. In discovering and collating ancient manuscripts, for which his travels abroad gave him special opportunities, he displayed uncommon diligence. His work entitled Diatribae in Ausonium, Solinum et Ovidium (1524) is a monument of erudition and critical skill. He was the first editor of the Letters of Gassiodorus, with his Treatise on the Soul (1538); and his edition of Ammianus Marcellinus (1533) contains five books more than any former one. The affected use of antiquated terms, introduced by some of the Latin writers of that age, is humorously ridiculed by him, in a dialogue in which an Oscan, a Volscian and a Roman are introduced as interlocutors (1531). Accorso was accused of plagiarism in his notes on Ausonius, a charge which he most solemnly and energetically repudiated.
ACCOUNT (through O. Fr. acont, Late Lat. comptum, computare, to calculate), counting, reckoning, especially of moneys paid and received, hence a statement made as to the receipt and payment of moneys; also any statement as to acts or conduct, or quite simply any narrative report of events, &c. A further sense-development is that of esteem, consideration.
As a stock-exchange term "account'' is used in several senses. (1) The periodical settlements occurring, in London, monthly for British government and a few other first-class securities, and fortnightly for all others. The settlement extends over four days in mining shares and three days in other securities. The first day is the carry-over, "contango,'' or making-up, day, on which speculative commitments are carried over, or continued: that is, the bulls, who have bought stock for the rise, arrange the rate of interest that they have to give on their stock to a moneylender, or bear, who will pay for it or take it in for them; and the bears, who have sold for the fall, arrange the rate that they receive from the bulls or, if the stock is scarce and oversold, the backwardation or rate that they have to pay to holders of the stock who will lend it them to enable them to complete their bargains. On the second day, called ticket-day or name day, a ticket giving the name and address of the ultimate buyer and the firm which will pay for the stock is passed through the various intermediaries to the ultimate seller, so that the actual transfer of the stock can be made directly. In the mining market the passing of names takes two days. On the last day, account day, pay day or settling day, cheques are paid to meet speculative differences, or against the delivering of stock. (2) The period between two settlements. A nineteen-day account is one in which nineteen days elapse between one pay-day and another. (3) The volume or condition of commitments. A speculator is said to have a large account open when he has dealt heavily either for the rise or fall. A bull account exists in a stock or group of stocks when it or they have been bought for the rise by a Iarge number of operators; in the contrary case, when there have been heavy sales for the fall, a bear account is developed.
ACCOUNTANT-GENERAL, formerly an officer in the English Court of Chancery, who received all moneys lodged in court, and by whom they were deposited in bank and disbursed. The office was abolished by the Chancery Funds Act 1872, and the duties transferred to the paymaster-general (q.v.).
ACCOUNTANTS. The term "accountant'' is one to which, of late years, its original meaning has been more generally attributed—-that of an expert in the science of book-keeping. It is sometimes adopted by book-keepers, but this is an erroneous application of the term; it properly describes those competent to design and control the systems of accounts required for the record of the multifarious and rapid transactions of trade and finance. It assumes the possession of a wide knowledge of the principles upon which accountancy is based, which may be shortly described as constituting a science by means of which all mercantile and financial transactions, whether in money or in money's worth, including operations completed and engagements undertaken to be fulfilled at once or in a future, however remote, may be recorded; and this science comprises a knowledge of the methods of preparing statistics, whether relating to finance or to any transactions or circumstances which can be stated by numeration, and of ascertaining or estimating on correct bases the cost of any operation whether in money, in commodities, in time, in life or in any wasting property. Generally, accountancy may be described as being the science by means of which all operations, as far as they are capable of being shown in figures, are accurately recorded and their results ascertained and stated.
The origin of the profession of accountancy in Great Britain is difficult to trace; auditors of accounts were naturally of very early existence, being mentioned as officers of importance in the statutes of Westminster in the reign of Edward I. The art of accountancy on a scientific principle must certainly have been understood in Italy before 1495, when Friar Luca dal Borgo published at Venice his treatise on book-keeping; but the first known English book on the science was published in London by John Gouge or Gough in 1543. It is described as A Profitable Treatyce called the Instrument or Boke to learn to knowe the good order of the kepyng of the famouse reconynge, called in Latin, Dare and Habere, and, in Englyshe, Debitor and Creditor. A short book of instruction was also published in 1588 by John Mellis of Southwark, in which he says, "I am but the renuer and reviver of an auncient old copie printed here in London the 14 of August 1543: collected, published, made, and set forth by one Hugh Oldcastle, Scholemaster, who, as appeareth by his treatise, then taught Arithmetike, and this booke in Saint Ollaves parish in Marko Lane.'' John Melfis refers to the fact that the principle of accounts he explains (which is a simple system of double entry) is "after the forme of Venice.'' The very interesting and able book described as The Merchants Mirrour, or directions for the perfect ordering and keeping af his accounts formed by way of Debitor and Creditor, after the (so termed) Italian manner, by Richard Dafforne, accountant, published in 1635, contains many references to early books on the science of accountancy. In a chapter in this book, headed "Opinion of Book-keeping's Antiquity,'' the author states, on the authority of another writer, that the form of book-keeping referred to had then been in use in Italy about two hundred years, "but that the same, or one in many parts very like this, was used in the time of Julius Caesar, and in Rome long before.'' He gives quotations of Latin book-keeping terms in use in ancient times, and refers to "ex Oratione Ciceronis pro Roscio Comaedo''; and he adds: "That the one side of their booke was used for Debitor, the other for Creditor, is manifest in a certaine place, Naturalis Historiae Plinii, lib. 2, cap. 7, where hee, speaking of Fortune, saith thus:
Huic Omnia Expensa. Huic Omnia Feruntur accepta et in tota Ratione mortalium sola Utramque Paginam facit.'' An early Dutch writer appears to have suggested that double-entry book-keeping was even in existence among the Greeks, pointing to scientific accountancy having been invented in remote times.
There were several editions of Richard Dafforne's book printed—-the second edition having been published in 1636, the third in 1656, and another was issued in 1684. The book is a very complete treatise on scientific accountancy, it was beautifully prepared and contains elaborate explanations; the numerous editions tend to prove that the science was highly appreciated in the 17th century. From this time there has been a continuous supply of literature on the subject, many of the authors styling themselves accountants and teachers of the art, and thus proving that the professional accountant was then known and employed. Very early in the 18th century the services of an accountant practising in the city of London were made use of in the course of an investigation into the transactions of a director of the South Sea Company, who had been dealing in the company's stock. During this investigation the accountant appears to have examined the books of at least two firms of merchants. His report is described Observations made upon examining the books of Sawbridge and Company, by Charles Snell, Writing Master and Accountant in Foster Lane, London.
In 1799, when Holden's Triennial Directory of London, Westminster and Southwark was first published, 11 individuals and firms were therein described as accountants; in the same directory, for the period 1809-1811, the number had risen to 24; and in that for 1822—1824, there were 73 firms of practising accountants recorded.
The earliest English books dealing with scientific book-keeping were written at a time when the English and Dutch were very actively engaged in foreign trade, in succession to the Italian merchants of the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries; but it was not until the beginning of the 19th century that, in consequence of the adoption of improved methods of manufacture and transit, resulting from the application of water and steam power to manufactures and methods of conveyance which largely increased the trade of Great Britain, the profession of an accountant became one which men of scientific knowledge and capacity adopted for their business career. Corporations and companies were formed to carry out large operations previously either left to the state or not undertaken, and for the development of trades and manufactures which were becoming less profitable when carried on by hand labour and with limited capital; and, for these, the services of public accountants were necessarily required to devise systems of accounts and methods of control, and to enable the results of the various transactions carried on to be ascertained with the least waste of power or chance of loss by negligence or fraud. The large number of companies formed in 1843 and 1844, when a great amount of capital was invested in railways and extensive speculation resulted, also added to the demand for the services of professional accountants. The Companies' Clauses Consolidation Act 1845 made provision for the audit of the accounts of companies regulated by act of parliament, and gave some extensive powers to the auditors, who are now, to a very large extent, selected from among professional accountants. The Companies Act of 1862 led to a large extension of the business of accountants, both as auditors and liquidators of companies; and the acts relating to bankruptcy passed between the years 1831 and 1883 added to the work devolving on professional accountants. The Companies Act 1879, which affected banking companies, made provision for the audit of their accounts, and it has been found desirable, in most cases, to appoint professional accountants to this duty. The experience and professional knowledge of trained accountants have, in fact, been utilized by their appointment as auditors in the majority of joint-stock companies, whether manufacturing, banking, trading or created for any other purpose. Until the Companies Act 1900 was passed there was no general obligation upon limited companies to have auditors; this act not only requires that auditors shall be appointed in all cases, but provides for their remuneration, and to a limited extent defines their rights and duties. The legislature evidently did not find it easy to formulate at all clearly the duties of auditors, and it seems reasonable to suppose that any general definition will prove an impossibility, as the work which auditors undertake must vary very widely, and depends largely upon the scope of the operations the accounts of which are to be examined.
The duties of practising accountants cover a very wide area: they act as trustees, liquidators, receivers and managers of businesses, the owners of which are in default or their affairs in liquidation, both under the direction of the courts and by appointment of creditors and others; they are largely engaged as arbitrators, umpires and referees in differences relating to matters of account or finance; they prepare the accounts of executors and trustees, and the necessary statements of affairs in cases of bankruptcy, both of firms and companies; they prepare accounts for prosecutions in cases of fraud and misconduct; and they are constantly called upon to unravel and properly state the accounts of complicated transactions. Their services are commonly required to certify the profits of businesses intended to be sold, either privately or to companies by means of a published prospectus; and, in cases of compulsory purchases of businesses by railway companies and public bodies, the statements of the profits of the businesses to be acquired are generally made by them. In a very large number of financial operations they are called upon to give advice and prepare accounts, and in few business matters requiring arithmetical calculations or involving the investigation of figures, and particularly where a considerable acquaintanceship with the principles of law is needed, are their services not utilized.
One of the most important duties undertaken by accountants is the audit of accounts, and this duty has, of late years, been widely extended. Originally, auditors were appointed to examine and vouch statements of receipts and payments; but the provisions made in acts of parliament in relation to audit, and the requirements of most articles of association of limited companies, put much graver responsibilities on auditors, who are now generally required to certify to the accuracy of balance sheets and of revenue and other accounts, the performance of which duties involves far more knowledge of accounts than was once required. The efficiency, in most cases, of audits conducted by skilled accountants has led the public to attach exceptional value to their audit certificates, and to demand extensive knowledge and ability in the conduct of the audit of the accounts of public companies. One other requirement which is generally regarded as indispensable, is that the work of audit should be very expeditiously performed; for it is easy to understand that, were the presentation of the accounts of a company and the distribution of dividends materially delayed in consequence of the audit, much inconvenience would result, while the value of the criticism of the accounts of business operations would be much deteriorated if it could not be made very shortly after the accounts were closed. In these circumstances, in the cases of large concerns with wide ramifications and numerous transactions, it is necessary that auditors should have the help of trained assistants, and thus the personal examination of details by the auditor himself is, to a large extent, rendered unnecessary and the cost of audit materially reduced. This delegation of duty by auditors is generally well understood, and is in accordance with the requirements of those concerned; but there has been a tendency of late years to enlarge the responsibilities of auditors to an extent which, if persisted in, might render it dangerous for men of reputation and means to accept the duties.
While the number of practising accountants has of late years been steadily increasing and their services are correspondingly appreciated, the necessity for controlling those exercising the profession and for improving its status has naturally become apparent. The first important steps in this direction were taken by the accountants in Scotland—the Society of Accountants in Edinburgh being incorporated by royal charter in 1854; similar societies in Glasgow and Aberdeen being also incorporated by charter in 1855 and 1867. The Institute of Accountants was formed in London in 1870, but did not receive a royal charter until the 11th May 1880, when all the then existing accountants' societies and institutes in England were incorporated as the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales, and means were provided by which all the then practising accountants in these countries could claim membership thereof. In the year 1885 the Society of Accountants and Auditors was incorporated, but has obtained no charter; this body, while numbering among its members a considerable number of practising accountants in the United Kingdom, also includes treasurers and accountants to cities and boroughs in England, as well as clerks to chartered and other accountants. A large proportion of its members also consists of accountants practising abroad. In 1888 an Institute of Chartered Accountants was formed in Ireland, and a great many institutes and societies have been formed in the British colonies and in the United States, some of which have local charters. It is curious to note, however, that, outside the United Kingdom, it was only in the British colonies that associations of practising accountants existed, until, in 1895, an Institute of Accountants (Nederlands Instituut van Accountants) was founded in Utrecht for Dutch accountants; when, although the principles of accountancy have been well understood and practised in Holland since the 16th century, and probably earlier, it was found necessary to borrow the words "accountant'' and "accountancy'' from the English language to convey to the Dutch an idea of the meaning of the terms. Three others have since been formed, the Nederlandsche Academie van Accountants (1902); the Nationale Organisatie van Accountants (1903); and the Nederlandsche Bond van Accountants (1902). Sweden has a society, Svenska Revisorsamfundet, formed in 1899; Belgium, the Chambre Syndicate des Experts Comptables, founded in 1903. In South America, accountants have acquired a certain status in Argentina, Uruguay and Peru.
In the United States the organization of professional accountants is of quite recent growth. The first society formed in America was "The New York State Society of Certified Public Accountants,'' and shortly afterwards (in 1896) the New York state legislature passed an act authorizing the State university to confer the degree of certified public accountant (C.P.A.) on the members of the society, while requiring all subsequent entrants to pass an examination. This degree, however, can be obtained, like other university degrees, without being a member of the society. Other states, notably Pennsylvania, Maryland, California, Illinois, Washington and New Jersey, have followed the example of New York. In 1903 the various state societies formed themselves into a federation. There is also an independent society of practising accountants, the American Association of Public Accountants, with objects similar to those of the federation, but steps have been taken to bring about an amalgamation between the two in order to form one central society to look after their common interests, without, however, interfering with the individual organization of the various state societies.
See R. Brown, History of Accounting and Accountants (Edinburgh), 1905, the most comprehensive book upon the subject; also G. W. Haskins, Accountancy, its Past and Present (U.S.A., 1900); S. S. Dawson, Accountant's Compendium; G. Lisle, Accounting in Theory and Practice (1899); F. W. Pixley, Auditors and their Liabilities (1901). The professional periodicals, The Accountant (vol. i., 1877); Accountant's Journal (vol. i., 1883-1884); The Accountants' Magazine (vol. i., 1897); Incorporated Accountants' Journal (vol. i., 1889-1890); Accountics (U.S.A., vol. i., 1897) may also be consulted, and also the Year-books of the Society of Accountants and Auditors, and of the Institute of Chartered Accountants. (J. G. GR.)
ACCOUTREMENT (a French word, probably derived from a and coustre or coutre, an old word meaning one who has charge of the vestments in a church), clothing, apparel; a term used especially, in the plural, of the military equipment of a soldier other than his arms and clothing.
ACCRA, a port on the Gulf of Guinea in 5 deg. 31' N., 0 deg. 12' W., since 1876 capital of the British Gold Coast colony. Population about 20,000, including some 150 Europeans. Accra is about 80 m. E. of Cape Coast (q.v.), the former capital of the colony. The name is derived from the Fanti word Nkran (an ant), by which designation the tribe inhabiting the surrounding district was formerly known. The town grew up around three forts established in close proximity—St James (British), Crevecoeur (Dutch) and Christiansborg (Danish). The last named was ceded to Britain in 1850, Crevecoeur not till 1871. Fort St James is now used as a signal station, lighthouse and prison. Accra preserves the distinctions of James Town, Ussher Town and Christiansborg, indicative of its tripartite origin. Ussher Town represents Crevecoeur, the fort being renamed after H. T. Ussher, administrator of the Gold Coast (1867-1872). The sea frontage extends about three miles; there is, however, no harbour, and steamers have to lie about a mile out, goods and passengers being landed in surf boats. The streets formerly consisted largely of mud hovels, but since a great fire in 1894, which destroyed large parts of James Town and Ussher Town, more substantial buildings have been erected. Christiansborg, the finest of the three forts, is the official residence of the governor of the colony. Westwards of the landing-place, where is the customs house, lies James Town. Beyond the fort are various public buildings leading to Otoo Street, the main thoroughfare, which runs two miles in a straight line to Christiansborg. This street contains a fine stone church built in 1895 for the use of the Anglican community, a branch of the Bank of British West Africa, telegraph offices and the establishments of the principal trading firms. In Victoriaborg, a suburb of Ussher Town, are the residences of the principal officials, and here a racecourse has been laid out. (Accra is almost the only point along the Gold Coast where horses thrive.) Behind the town is rolling grass land, which gives place to the highlands of Aquapim and Akim. At Aburi in the Aquapim hills, 26 m. N. by E. of Accra, are the government sanatorium and botanical gardens.
Accra, the first town in the Gold Coast colony to be raised (July 1, 1896) to the rank of a municipality, is governed by a town council with power to raise and spend money. The council consists in equal proportions of nominated and elected members, no racial distinctions being made. Accra is connected by cable with Europe and South Africa, and is the sea terminus of a railway serving the districts N.E., where are flourishing cocoa plantations.
ACCRETION (from Lat. ad, to, and crescere, to grow), an addition to that which already exists; increase in any substance by the addition of particles from the outside. In law, the term is used for the increase of property caused by gradual natural additions, as on a river bank or seashore.
ACCRINGTON, a market town and municipal borough in the Accrington parliamentary division of Lancashire, England, 208 m. N.W. by N. from London, and 23 m. N. by W. from Manchester, on the Lancashire and Yorkshire railway. Pop. (1891) 38,603; (1901) 43,122. It lies in a deep valley on the Hindburn, a feeder of the Calder. Cotton spinning and printing works, cotton-mill machinery works, dye-works and chemical manufactures, and neighbouring collieries maintain the industrial population. The church of St James dates from 1763, and the other numerous places of worship and public buildings are all modern. The borough is under a mayor, 8 aldermen and 24 councillors. Area 3427 acres.
Accrington (Akerenton, Alkerington, Akerington) was granted by Henry de Lacy to Hugh son of Leofwine in Henry II.'s reign, but came again into the hands of the Lacys, and was given by them about 1200 to the monks of Kirkstall, who converted it into a grange. It again returned, however, to the Lacys in 1287, was granted in parcels, and like their other lands became merged in the duchy of Lancaster. In 1553 the commissioners of chantries sold the chapel to the inhabitants to be continued as a place of divine service. In 1836 Old and New Accrington were merely straggling villages with about 5000 inhabitants. By 1861 the population had grown to 17,688, chiefly owing to its position as an important railway junction. A charter of incorporation was granted in 1878. The date of the original chapel is unknown, but it was probably an oratory which was an offshoot of Kirkstall Abbey. Ecclesiastically the place was dependent on Altham till after the middle of the 19th century.
ACCUMULATION (from Lat. accumulare, to heap up), strictly a piling-up of anything; technically, in law, the continuous adding of the interest of a fund to the principal, for the benefit of some person or persons in the future. Previous to 1800, this accumulation of property was not forbidden by English law, provided the period during which it was to accumulate did not exceed that forbidden by the law against perpetuities, viz. the period of a life or lives in being, and twenty-one years afterwards. In 1800, however, the law was amended in consequence of the eccentric will of Peter Thellusson (1737—1797), an English merchant, who directed the income of his property, consisting of real estate of the annual value of about L. 5000 and personal estate amounting to over L. 600,000, to be accumulated during the lives of his children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren, living at the time of his death, and the survivor of them. The property so accumulated, which, it is estimated, would have amounted to over L. 14,000,000, was to be divided among such descendants as might be alive on the death of the survivor of those lives during which the accumulation was to continue. The bequest was held valid (Thellusson v. Woodford, 1798, 4 Vesey, 237). In 1856 there was a protracted lawsuit as to who were the actual heirs. It was decided by the House of Lords (June 9, 1859) in favour of Lord Rendlesham and Charles Sabine Augustus Thellusson. Owing, however, to the heavy expenses, the amount inherited was not much larger than that originally bequeathed.
To prevent such a disposition of property in the future, the Accumulations Act 1800 (known also as the "Thellusson Act'') was passed, by which it was enacted that no property should be accumulated for any longer term than either (1) the life of the settlor; or (2) the term of twenty-one years from his death; or (3) during the minority of any person living or en ventre sa mere at the time of the death of the grantor; or (4) during the minority of any person who, if of full age, would be entitled to the income directed to be accumulated. The act, however, did not extend to any provision for payment of the debts of the grantor or of any other person, nor to any provision for raising portions for the children of the settlor, or any person interested under the settlement, nor to any direction touching the produce of timber or wood upon any lands or tenements. The act was extended to heritable property in Scotland by the Entail Amendment Act 1848, but does not apply to property in Ireland. The act was further amended by the Accumulations Act 1892, which forbids accumulations for the purpose of the purchase of land for any longer period than during the minority of any person or persons who, if of full age, would be entitled to receive the income. (See also TRUST and PERPETUITY.)
ACCUMULATOR, the term applied to a number of devices whose function is to store energy in one form or another, as, for example, the hydraulic accumulator of Lord Armstrong (see HYDRAULICS, sec. 179). In the present article the term is restricted to its use in electro-technology, in which it describes a special type of battery. The ordinary voltaic cell is made by bringing together certain chemicals, whose reaction maintains the electric currents taken from the cell. When exhausted, such cells can be restored by replacing the spent materials, by a fresh "charge'' of the original substances. But in some cases it is not necessary to get rid of the spent materials, because they can be brought back to their original state by forcing a reverse current through the cell. The reverse current reverses the chemical action and re-establishes the original conditions, thus enabling the cell to repeat its electrical work. Cells which can thus be "re-charged'' by the action of a reverse current are called accumulators because they "accumulate'' the chemical work of an electric current. An accumulator is also known as a "reversible battery,'' "storage battery'' or "secondary battery.'' The last name dates from the early days of electrolysis. When a liquid like sulphuric acid was electrolysed for a moment with the aid of platinum electrodes, it was found that the electrodes could themselves produce a current when detached from the primary battery. Such a current was attributed to an "electric polarization'' of the electrodes, and was regarded as having a secondary nature, the implication being that the phenomenon was almost equivalent to a storage of electricity. It is now known that the platinum electrodes stored, not electricity, but the products of electro-chemical decomposition. Hence if the two names, secondary and storage cells, are used, they are liable to be misunderstood unless the interpretation now put on them be kept in mind. "Reversible battery'' is an excellent name for accumulators.
Sir W. R. Grove first used "polarization'' effects in his gas battery, but R. L. G. Plante (1834-1889) laid the foundation of modern methods. That he was clear as to the function of an accumulator is obvious from his declaration that the lead-sulphuric acid cell could retain its charge for a long time, and had the power d'emmagasiner ainsi le travail chimique de la pile voltaique: a phrase whose accuracy could not be excelled. Plante began his work on electrolytic polarization in 1859, his object being to investigate the conditions under which its maximum effects can be produced. He found that the greatest storage and the most useful electric effects were obtained by using lead plates in dilute sulphuric acid. After some "forming'' operations described below, he obtained a cell having a high electromotive force, a low resistance, a large capacity and almost perfect freedom from polarization.
The practical value of the lead-peroxide-sulphuric-acid cell arises largely from the fact that not only are the active materials (lead and lead peroxide, PbO2) insoluble in the dilute acid, but that the sulphate of lead formed from them in the course of discharge is also insoluble. Consequently, it remains fixed in the place where it is formed; and on the passage of the charging current, the original PbO2 and lead are reproduced in the places they originally occupied. Thus there is no material change in the distribution of masses of active material. Lastly, the active materials are in a porous, spongy condition, so that the acid is within reach of all parts of them.
Plante carefully studied the changes which occur in the formation, charge and discharge of the cell. In forming, he placed two sheets of lead in sulphuric acid, separating them by narrow strips of caoutchouc (fig. 1). When a charging current is sent through the cell, the hydrogen liberated at one plate escapes, a small quantity possibly being spent in reducing the surface film of oxide generally found on lead. Some of the oxygen is always fixed on the other (positive) plate, forming a surface film of peroxide. After a few minutes the current is reversed so that the first plate is peroxidized, and the peroxide previously formed on the second plate is reduced to metallic lead in a spongy state. By repeated reversals, the surface of each plate is alternately peroxidized and reduced to metallic lead. In successive oxidations, the action penetrates farther into the plate, furnishing each time a larger quantity of spongy PbO2 on one plate and of spongy lead on the other. It follows that the duration of the successive charging currents also increases. At the beginning. a few minutes suffice; at the end, many hours are required.
Fig. 1 After the first six or eight cycles, Plante allowed a period of repose before reversing. He claimed that the PbO2 formed by reversal after repose was more strongly adherent, and also more crystalline than if no repose were allowed. The following figures show the relative amounts of oxygen absorbed by a given plate in successive charges (between one charge and the next the plate stood in repose for the time stated, then was reduced, and again charged as anode):-
Separate periods of Charge. Relative amount of Repose. Peroxide formed. . . First 1.0 18 hours Second 1.57 2 days Third 1.71 4 days Fourth 2.14 2 days Fifth 2.43
and so on for many days (Gladstone and Tribe, Chemistry of Secondary Batteries). Seeing that each plate is in turn oxidized and then reduced, it is evident that the spongy lead will increase at the same rate on the other plate of the cell. The process of "forming'' thus briefly described was not continued indefinitely, but only till a fair proportion of the thickness of the plates was converted into the spongy material, PbO2 and Pb respectively. After this, reversal was not permitted, the cell being put into use and always charged in a given direction. If the process of forming by reversal be continued, the positive plate is ultimately all converted into PbO, and falls to pieces.
Plante made excellent cells by this method, yet three objections were urged against them. They required too much time to "form''; the spongy masses (PbO2 more especially) fell off for want of mechanical supoort, and the separating strips of caoutchouc were not likely to have a long life. The first advance was made by C. A. Faure (1881), who greatly shortened the time required for "forming'' by giving the plates a preliminary coating of red lead, whereby the slow precess of biting into the metal was avoided. At the first charging, the red lead on the + electrode is changed to PbO2, while that on the - etectrode is reduced to spongy lead. Thus one continuous operation, lasting perhaps sixty hours, takes the place of many reversals, which, with periods of repose, last as much as three months.
Fig. 2 Tudor positive plate.
Faure used felt as a separating membrane, but its use was soon abolished by methods of construction due to E. Volckmar, J. S. Sellon, J. W. Swan and others. These inventors put the paste not on to plates of lead, but into the holes of a grid, which, when carefully designed, affords good mechanical support to the spongy masses, and does away with the necessity for felt, &c. They are more satisfactory, however, as supporters or spongy lead than of the peroxide, since at the point of contact in the latter case the acid gives rise to a local action, which slowly destroys the grid. Disintegration follows sooner or later, though the best makers are able to defer the failure for a fairly long time. Efforts have been made by A. Tribe, D. G. Fitzgerald and others to dispense whin a supporting grid for the positive plate, but these attempts have not yet been successful enough to enable them to compete with the other forms.
For many years the battle between the "Plante'' type and the Faure or "pasted'' type has been one in which the issue was doubtful, but the general tendency is towards a mixed type at the present time. There are many good cells, the value of all resting on the care exercised during the manufacture and also in the choice of pure materials. Increasing emphasis is laid on the purity of the water used to replace that lost by evaporation, distilled water generally being specified. The following descriptions will give a good idea of modern practice.
The "chloride cell'' has a Plante positive with a pasted negative. For the positive a lead casting is made, about 0.4 inch thick pierced by a number of circular holes about half an inch in diameter. Into each of these holes is thrust a roll or rosette of lead ribbon, which has been cut to the right breadth (equal to the thickness of the plate), then ribbed or gimped, and finally coiled into a rosette. The rosettes have sufficient spring to fix themselves in the holes of the lead plate, but are keyed in position by a hydraulic press. The plates are then "formed'' by passing a current for a long time. In a later pattern a kind of discontinuous longitudinal rib is put in the ribbon, and increases the capacity and life by strengthening the mass
Fig. 3.—Tudor negative plate. without interfering with the diffusion of acid. The negative plate was formerly obtained by reducing pastilles of lead chloride, but by a later mode of construction it is made by casting a grid with thin vertical ribs, connected horizontally by small bars of triangular section. The bars on the two faces are "staggered,'' that is, those on one face are not opposite those on the other. The grid is pasted with a lead oxide paste and afterwards reduced; this is known as the "exide'' negative.
The larger sizes of negative plate are of a "box'' type, formed by riveting together two grids and filling the intervening space
Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6 with paste. A feature of the "chloride'' cells is the use of separators made of thin sheets of specially prepared wood, These prevent short circuits arising from scales of active material or from the formation of "trees'' of lead which sometimes grow across in certain forms of battery.
The Tudor cell has positives formed of lead plates cast in one piece with a large surface of thin vertical ribs, intersected at intervals by horizontal ribs to give the plates strength to withstand buckling in both directions (fig. 2). The thickness of the plates is about 0.4 inch, and the developed surface is about eight times that of a smooth plate of the same size. A thoroughly adherent and homogeneous coating of peroxide of lead is formed on this large surface by an improved Plante process. The negative plate (fig. 3) is composed of two grids riveted together to form a shallow box; the outer surfaces are smooth sheets pierced with many small holes. The space between them is intersected by ribs and pasted (before riveting).
Many of the E.P.S. ceils, made by the Electrical Power Storage Company, are of the Faure or pasted type, but the Plante formation is used for the positives of two kinds of cell. The paste for the positive plates is a mixture of red lead with sulphuric acid; for the negative plates, litharge is substituted for red lead. Figs. 4 and
5 roughly represent the grids employed for the negative and positive plates respectively of a type used for lighting. Fig. 6 is the cross section of the casting used for the Plante positive of the larger cells for rapid discharge. Finer indentations on the side expose a large surface. Fig. 7 shows a complete cell.
The Hart cell, as used for lighting, is a combination of the Plante and Faure (pasted) types. The plates hang by side lugs on glass slats, and are separated by three rows of glass tubes 3/8 inch diameter (fig. 8). The tubes rest in grooved teak wood blocks placed at the bottom of the glass boxes. The blocks also serve as base for a skeleton framework of the same material which surrounds and supports the section. Of course the wood has to be specially treated to withstand the acid. A special non-corrosive terminal is used. A coned bolt draws the lug ends of adjacent cells together, fitting in a corresponding tapered hole in the lugs, and thus increasing the contact area. The positive and negative tapers being different, a cell cannot be connected up in the wrong way.
FIG. 8.—Hart Accumulator.
In America, in addition to some of the cells already described, there are types which are not found in England. Two may be described. The Gould cell is of the Plante type. A special effort is made to reduce local and other deleterious action by starting with perfectly homogeneous plates. They are formed from sheet lead blanks by suitable machines, which gradually raise the surface into a series of ribs and grooves. The sides and middle of the blank are left untouched and amply suffice to distribute the current over the surface of the plate. The grooves are very fine, and when the active material is formed in them by electro-chemical action, they hold it very securely.
The Hatch cell has its positive enclosed in an envelope. A very shallow porous tray (made of kaolin and silica) is filled with red lead paste, an electrode of rolled sheet lead is placed on its surface, and over this again is placed a second porous tray filled with paste. The whole then looks like a thin earthenware box with the lug of the electrode projecting from one end. The negatives consist of sheet lead covered by active material. On assembling the plates, each negative is held between two positive "boxes,'' the outsides of which have protecting vertical ribs. These press against the active material on the negative plates, and help to keep it in position. At the same time, the clearance between the ribs allows room for acid to circulate freely between the negative plate and the outer face of the positive envelope. Diffusion of the acid through this envelope is easy, as it is very porous and not more than 1/32 inch thick.
Traction Cells.—-Attempts to run tramcars by accumulators have practically all failed, but traction cells are employed for electric broughams and light vehicles for use in towns. There are no large deviations in manufacture except those imposed by limited space, weight and vibration. The plates are generally thinner and placed closer together. The Plante positive is not used so much as in lighting types. The acid is generally a little stronger in order to get a higher electromotive force (E.M.F.). To prevent the active material from being shaken out of the grids, corrugated and perforated ebonite separators are placed between the plates. The "chloride'' traction cell uses a special variety of wood separator: the "exide'' type of plate is used for both positive and negative. Cells are now made to run 3000 or more miles before becoming useless. The specific output can be made as high as 10 or 11 watt-hours per pound of cell, but this involves a chance of shorter life. The average working requirement for heavy vehicles is about 50 watt-hours per 1000 lb. per mile.
Ignition Cells for motor cars are made on the same lines as traction cells, though of smaller capacity. As a rule two cells are put up in ebonite or celluloid boxes and joined in series so as to give a 4-volt battery, the pressure for which sparking coils are generally designed. The capacity ranges from 20 to 100 ampere-hours, and the current for a single cylinder engine will average one to one and a half amperes during the running intervals.
General Features.—The tendency in stationary cells is to allow plenty of space below the plates, so that any active material which falls from the plates may collect there without risk of short-circuit, &c. More space is allowed between the plates, which means that (a) there is more acid within reach, and (b) a slight buckling is not so dangerous, and indeed is not so likely to occur. The plates are now generally made thicker than formerly, so as to secure greater mechanical rigidity. At the same time, the manufacturers aim at getting the active materials in as porous a state as possible.
The figures with regard to specific output are difficult to classify. It would be most interesting to give the data in the form of watt-hours per pound of active material, and then to compare them with the theoretical values, but such figures are impossible in the nature of the case except in very special instances. For many purposes, long life and trustworthiness are more important than specific output. Except in the case of traction cells, therefore, the makers have not striven to reduce weight to its lowest values. Table I. shows roughly the weight of given types of cells for a given output in ampere hours.
TABLE I. Capacity in ampere-hours if Type of cell. discharged in Weight of cell. 9 hrs. 6 hrs. 3 hrs. 1 hr. Ordinary light- ing . . . . . 200 182 153 101 100 pounds '' '' 420 380 300 210 200 pounds '' '' 1200 1080 880 600 670 pounds Central station and High Rate 3500 3100 2500 1700 2000 pounds '' '' 6000 5400 4400 3000 3200 pounds Traction . . . 220 185 155 125 40 pounds '' . . . .. 440 .. .. 90 pounds
Influence of Temperature on Capacity.—-These figures are true only at ordinary temperatures. In winter the capacity is diminished, in summer it is increased. The differences are due partly to change of liquid resistance but more especially to the difference in the rate at which acid can diffuse into or out of the pores: obviously this is greater at higher temperatures. The increase in capacity on warming is appreciable, and may amount to as much as 3% per degree centigrade (Gladstone and Hibbert, Journ. Inst. Elec. Eng. xxi. 441; Helm, Electrician, NOV. 1901, i. 55; Liagre, L'Eclairage electrique, 1901,xxix. 150). Notwithstanding these results, it is not advisable to warm accumulators appreciably. At higher temperatures, local action is greatly increased and deterioration becomes more rapid. It is well, however, to avoid low winter temperatures.
Working of accumulators.—Whatever the type of cell may be, it is important to attend to the following working requirements—(1) The cells must be fully equal to the maximum demand, both in discharge rate and capacity. (2) All the cells in one series ought to be equal in discharge rate and capacity. This involves similarity of treatment. (3) The cells are erected on strong wooden stands. Where floor space is too expensive, they can be erected in tiers; but, if possible, this should be avoided. They ought to lie in rows, so arranged that it is easy to get to one side (at least) of every cell, for examination and testing, and if need be to detach and remove it or its plates. Where a second tier is plaeed over the first, sufficient clearance space must be allowed for the plates to be lifted out of the lower boxes. The cells are insulated by supporting them on glass or mushroom-shaped oil insulators. If the containing vessels are made of glass, it it desirable to put them in wooden trays which distribute the weight between the vessel and insulators. To prevent acid spray from filling the air of the room, a glass plate is arranged over each cell. The positive and negative sections are fixed in position with insulating forks or tubes, and the positive terminal of one cell is joined to the negative of the next by burning or bolting. If the latter method is adopted, the surfaces ought to be very clean and well pressed home. The joint ought to be covered by vaseline or varnish. When this has been done, examination ought to be made of each cell to see that the plates are evenly spaced, that the separators (glass tubes or ebonite forks between the plates) are in position and vertical, and that there are no scales or other adventitious matter connecting the plates. The floor of the cell ought to be quite clear; if anything lies there it must be removed. (4) To mix the solution a gentle stream of sulphuric acid must be poured into the water (not the other way, lest too great heating cause an accident). It is necessary to stir the whole as the mixing proceeds and to arrange that the density is about 1190, or according to the recommendation of the maker. About five volumes of water ought to be taken to one volume of acid. After mixing, allow to cool for two or three hours. The strong acid ought to be free from arsenic, copper and other similar impurities. The water ought to be as pure as can be obtained, distilled water being best; rain water is also good. If potable water be employed, it will generally be improved by boiling, which removes some of the lime held in solution. The impurity in ordinary drinking water is very slight; but as all cells lose by evaporation and require additions of water from time to time, there is a tendency for it to increase. The acid must not be put into the cells till everything is ready for charging. (5) A shunt-wound or separately-excited dynamo being ready and running so as to give at will 2.6 or 2.7 volts per cell, the acid is run into the cells. As soon as this is done, the dynamo must be switched on and charging commenced. The positive terminal of the dynamo must be joined to the positive terminal of the battery. If necessary, the + end of the machine must be found by a trial cell made of two plain lead sheets in dilute acid. It is important also to maintain this first charging operation for a long time without a break. Twelve hours is a minimum time, twenty-four not too much. The charging is not even then complete, though a short interval is not so injurious as in the earlier stage. The full charge required varies with the cells, but in all types a full and practically continuous first charge is imperatively necessary. During the early part of this charge the density of the acid may fall; but after a time ought to increase, and finally reach the value desired for permanent working. Towards the end of the "formation'' vigilant observation must be exercised. It is important to notice whether any cells are appreciably behind the others in voltage, density or gassing. Such cells may be faulty, and in any case they must be charged and tended till their condition is like that of the others. They ought not to go on the discharge circuit till this is assured. The examination of the cells before passing them as ready for discharge includes:—-(a) Density of acid as shown by the hydrometer. (b) Voltage. This may be taken when charging or when idle. In the first case it ought to be from 2.4 to 2.6 volts, according to conditions. In the second ease it ought to be just over 2 volts, provided that the observation is not taken too soon after switching in the charging current. For about half an hour after that is done, the E.M.F. has a transient high value, so that, if it be desired to get the proper E.M.F. of the cell, the observation must be taken thirty minutes after the charging ceases.