Printers' Marks - A Chapter in the History of Typography
by William Roberts
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During the past few years there has been a very evident revival in the Printer's Mark as a modern device, but the interest has much more largely obtained among publishers than among printers. We propose, therefore, to include in this chapter a few of the more interesting examples of each class. On the score of antiquity the Stationers' Company may be first mentioned. Founded in 1403—nearly three-quarters of a century before the introduction of printing—its first charter was not received until May 4th, 1557, during the reign of Mary. The number of "seditious and heretical books, both in prose and verse," that were daily issued for the propagation of "very great and detestable heresies against the faith and sound Catholic doctrine of Holy Mother the Church," became so numerous, that the government were only too glad to "recognize" the Company, and to intrust it with the most absolute power. The charter was to "provide a proper remedy," or, in other words, to check the fast-increasing number of publications so bitter in their opposition to the Court religion. But, stringent and emphatic as was this proclamation, its effect was almost nil. On June 6th, 1558, another rigorous act was published from "our manor of St. James," and will be found in Strype's "Ecclesiastical Memorials" (ed. 1822, iii. part 2, pp. 130, 131). It had specific reference to the illegality of seditious books imported, and others "covertly printed within this realm," whereby "not only God is dishonoured, but also encouragement is given to disobey lawful princes and governors." This proclamation declared that not only those who possessed such books, but also those who, on finding them, do not forthwith report the same, should be dealt with as rebels. It will be seen, therefore, how easy it was, in the absence of any fine definition, for books of whatever character to be proscribed. There was no appeal against the decision of the Stationers' Hall representatives, who had the power entirely in their own hands. Afew months after Mary's futile attempt at checking the freedom of the press, adiametrically objective change occurred, and with Elizabeth's accession to the throne in November, 1558, the licensed stationers conveniently veered around and were as industrious in suppressing Catholic books as they had been a few weeks previously in endeavouring to stamp out those of the new religion. The history of the Stationers' Company however has been so frequently told that it need not be further entered upon here, and it must suffice us to say that, after many vicissitudes, all the privileges and monopolies had become neutralized by the end of the last century, till it had nothing left but the right to publish a common Latin primer and almanacks, and the right to the latter monopoly was annulled after a memorable speech of Erksine. The Company still continues to publish almanacks, and uses the two Marks or Arms here reproduced. The larger example is the older, and is used on the County almanacks; whilst the smaller one is used on circulars and notices.

Of the existing firms of publishers and printers, that of Messrs. Longmans is the most memorable; vice the firm of Messrs. Rivingtons, which has now become joined to that of the Longmans. This gives us the opportunity to consider briefly the Marks of the two firms together. In the year 1711, Richard Chiswell, the printer of much of Dryden's poetry, died, and his business passed into the hands of Charles Rivington, anative of Chesterfield, Derbyshire. Thoughtful and pious himself, Charles Rivington threw himself with ardour into the trade for religious manuals, and not only succeeding in persuading John Wesley to translate "Kempis" for him, but also in publishing the saintly Bishop Thomas Wilson's "Short and Plain Introduction to the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper," the first edition of which bears Charles Rivington's name on the imprint, and which is still popular. To the novelist Richardson, he suggested "Pamela." Dying in 1742, he left Samuel Richardson as one of the executors of his six children, but his sons, John and James, continued to conduct the business. Afew years later, it was deemed advisable for the brothers to separate, and while John remained at the "Bible and Crown," St. Paul's Churchyard, James joined a Mr. Fletcher in the same locality, and started afresh. One especially fortunate venture was the publication of Smollett's continuation of Hume, which brought its lucky publishers upwards of 10,000, alarger profit than had previously been made on any one book. However, Newmarket had attractions for James, and eventually disaster set in; he died in New York in 1802 or 1803. His brother, meanwhile, had plodded on steadily at home, and admitting his two sons, Francis and Charles, into partnership. About this time there were numerous editions of the classics, the common property of a syndicate of publishers, and it says much for Mr. John Rivington that he was appointed managing partner. About 1760 he obtained the appointment of publisher to the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, alucrative post, held by the firm for upwards of two generations. By the year 1889, the two representatives of this ancient firm were Messrs. Francis Hansard Rivington and Septimus Rivington; in this year the partnership was dissolved, and the goodwill and stock were acquired by Messrs. Longmans. They used at various periods no less than eight Marks, the design of which was in most cases based upon the ancient sign of their shop, "The Bible and Sun."

The history of Messrs. Longmans may be said to commence with the birth of Thomas Longman in 1699. The son of a Bristol gentleman, he lost his father in 1708, and, eight years later, was apprenticed, on June 9, 1716, to Mr. John Osborn of Lombard Street, London. His apprenticeship expiring (he had come into the possession of his property two years earlier), we find him, in 1724, purchasing from his master, John Osborn (acting with William Innys as executors), the stock in trade of William Taylor, of the Ship and Black Swan in Paternoster Row. Readers of Longman's Magazine turn to Mr. Andrew Lang's genial gossip, "At the Sign of the Ship," without recalling the origin of the title. Henceforward the Ship carried the Longman fortunes as cargo, and the prosperity of the vessel is not yet ended. Messrs. Longmans have used nearly a dozen Marks, all of which have been suggested, like those of the Rivingtons, by the sign of their shop, which has now grown into a very imposing pile of buildings. Of these Marks we give two of the most artistic and interesting. As taking us back into a comparatively remote period in the history of printing and publishing in England, the Mark of the Clarendon Press, or, in other words, the arms of the University of Oxford, may be here cited.

The "Chiswick Press" of Messrs. Whittingham and Co., is in several respects a link with the long past, and, having been in existence for more than a century, is one of the oldest offices in London. It has attained a world-wide celebrity for the excellence of its work, the careful reading and correction of proofs, and the appropriate application of its varied collection of ornaments and initial letters. The Chiswick Press was the first to revive the use of antique type in 1843, for the printing of "Lady Willoughby's Diary," published by Messrs. Longmans. Since that time its use has become universal. The founder, Charles Whittingham, was born on June 16th, 1767, at Calledon, in Warwick, and was apprenticed at Coventry in 1779, working subsequently at Birmingham, and then in London. He commenced business on his own account in Fetter Lane in 1790; and in 1810 he had removed to Chiswick, and since that period the firm has always been known as "The Chiswick Press." In 1828 he began to execute work for William Pickering, the publisher, and his press quickly acquired an unrivalled reputation for its collection of ornamental borders, head and tail pieces. The publisher Pickering, and the printer Whittingham, had employed about two dozen marks in their various books: the former justly calling himself a disciple of Aldus, and using a large number of variations on the original Anchor and Dolphin Mark of the great Venetian printer. Of these we give two examples, one with, and one without a cartouche; and also the mark of Basil Montagu Pickering, the son and successor of William Pickering. We also reproduce three of the more striking Marks of the Chiswick Press, the shield on one of which, it will be observed, carries the Aldine Anchor and Dolphin.

The name of Cassell takes us back to the era of Charles Knight and John Cassell, and the inauguration of the noble results which these two pioneers achieved on behalf of cheap and healthy literature. The name of the former is no longer associated with either printing or publishing; but that of the latter is still one of the most prolific firms of printers and publishers. Its Mark is founded on the name of "La Belle Sauvage" Yard, Ludgate Hill, in which the business has been located for a long series of years.

Two Edinburgh printers may be here conveniently referred to. Messrs. R. and R.Clark, whose business was started in Hanover Street, Edinburgh, in 1846, and removed to Brandon Street, in that city, in 1883, are well known for the excellence of their printing. Mr. Austin Dobson thus sings, in Mr. Andrew Lang's Book on "The Library:"

"'Of making many books,' 'twas said, 'There is no end;' and who thereon The ever-running ink doth shed But proves the words of Solomon: Wherefore we now, for Colophon, From London's City drear and dark, In the year Eighteen-eighty-one, Reprint them at the press of Clark."

The accompanying Mark was designed byMr. Walter Crane, and first used by Messrs. Clark in 1881. It is used in several sizes. Of the very handsome Mark of Messrs. T. and A.Constable, the Queen's Printers, at the University Press, we may mention that the legend is a hexameter; it was written by Professor Strong, and contains two puns; the ship is an old Constable device. The Marks of both Messrs. Chatto and Windus (who succeeded to the business, started and carried on with such energy by the late John Camden Hotten) and Messrs. Macmillan and Co. (whose firm dates from the year 1843) are characterized by the extremest possible simplicity.

The finest of the several Marks used by Messrs. George Bell and Sons is given in two colours on the title-page of the present volume, and is a play on the surname, the Aldine device being added to the bell. Another example will be found on page 261.

Messrs. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trbner and Co., Limited, originally a branch of the extensive Anglo-Indian firm of H.S. King and Co., first used the accompanying device in the autumn of 1877; the drawing was executed by Mrs. Orrinsmith in accordance with Mr. Kegan Paul's suggestions. Messrs. Lawrence and Bullen, like Messrs. Clark, called in the aid of Mr. Walter Crane in designing their charming little Mark.

We give two of the several Marks used by one of the most prolific of the younger publishers, Mr. T.Fisher Unwin, the one is simply his initials, and the more elaborate example is a copy of a type not infrequently met with among the marks of the sixteenth century printers. Mr. David Nutt's device is a quaint and effective play on his surname. Through the courtesy of Mr. William Morris, we are enabled to give examples of both of the Kelmscott Press Marks, each of which was designed by Mr. Morris.

As indicating the position of the printer's Mark in America, we group together seven of the most interesting examples of the leading printers and publishers in the United States. The eighth example is that of Mr. Martinus Nijhoff, of the Hague; the device, "Alles komt te regt," signifies "All turns right," or something to that effect.


The following books will be found helpful to those who wish to prosecute their studies further into the subject of the Printer's Mark. Special information respecting the devices of the more eminent typographers, such as Plantin, Elzevir, and others, will be found in the monographs and bibliographies which have been compiled concerning these men and their works.

HAVRE, G. VAN. Marques typographiques des imprimeurs et libraires anversois, 2 vols. Avec plus de 1000 reproductions.

Anv., 1884.

HEITZ (P.) and BARACK (K.A.). Die Bchermarken oder Buchdrucker und Verlegerzeichen. Elsssische Bchermarken bis Anfang des 18. Jahrhdts. Nebst Vorbemerkungen u. Nachrichten b. d. Drucker. Mit 76 Holzschn. Tafeln.

4o. Strassburg, 1892.

HOLTROP, J. W. Monuments Typographiques des Pays Bas au quinzime sicle.

Fol. La Haye, 1868.

HORNE, REV. T. H. Introduction to the Study of Bibliography.

8vo. London, 1814.

HUMPHREYS, H. N. Masterpieces of the Early Printers.

Fol. London, 1870.

INVENTAIRE des marques d'imprimeurs et de libraires de la France.

4o. Paris, 1886-87.

JOHNSON, J. Typographia, 2 vols.

London, 1824.

LEDEBOER, ADRIAN MAR. Alfabetische lijst der Boekdrukkers, Boekverkoopers en Uitgevers in Nord-Nederland. With 4 plates of Printers' Marks.

4to. Utrecht, 1876.

LEMPERTZ, HEINRICH. Bilder Hefte zur Geschichte des Bcherhandels und der mit demselben verwandten Knste und Gewerbe. 11 Hefte mit 65 Taf., enthalt. Facs. Reprod. von Portraits berhmter Buchhndler, auf den Buchhandel bezgl. Schriftstcke, Initialen, Ex-libris, Abbilden kunstvoller Einbnde.

Fol. Kln, 1853-65.

LINDE, A. V. D. Geschichte der Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst. 3 Bde.

4o. 1886-87.

MEERMANN, GERARD. Origines typographic, 2 vols. With 10 pl. Printers' Marks.

4o. Hag. Com., 1765.

MENDEZ, FRAY FRANCISCO. Tipographia espaola historia de la introduccion, propagacion y progesos del arte de la imprenta en Espaa. Second edition revised by D.Hidalgo.

Madrid, 1861.

ORLANDI, P. A. Origin e Progressi della Stampa.

4o. Bolog. 1722.

ROTH-SCHOLTZ, F. Thesaurus Symbolarum ac Emblematum, etc. Fol. Nremberg, 1730 (with reproductions of several hundred Marks).

SILVESTRE, L. C. Marques typographiques ou recueil des monogrammes, chiffres, enseignes, etc., des libraires et imprimeurs qui ont exerc en France depuis 1470, jusqu' la fin du 16e sicle. Avec plus de 1300 fig. s. bois.

Paris, 1853-67.

THIERRY-POUX, O. Premier Monuments, etc., de l'imprimeur en France au XV sicle.

Fol. Paris, 1890.

WEIGEL (T. O.) and ZESTERMANN (A.C. A.). Die Anfnge der Druckerkunst in Bild und Schrift. An deren frhesten Erzeugnissen in der Weige'schen Sammlung erlatert. Mit 145 Facs. u. viel. Holzschn. im Text.

Folio. Leipz., 1866. 2 vols.



Abiegnus, J., 26. Aldine family, The, 218-223. Alexandre, J., 13, 26. Allen, John, 92. Andrewe, W., 26, 65, 70. Angelier, J., 27. Anshelm, Thomas, 155, 156. Apiarius, Mathias, 7. Appleton and Co., 250. Arbuthnot, A., 81, 82. Aubri, B., 14, 36. Auvray, G., 27. Auzolt, R., 26.

Back, G., 188-190. Bade, C., 91. —— J., 12, 115, 129. Baland, E., 22. Baptista de Tortis, 25, 215. Barack, Dr. K. A., 140. Barbon, H., 8. Barker, C. and R., 90. Bartholomus, D., 47. Bartholomeus de Zanis, 25. Bassandyne, T., 99. Baumgarten, C., 171. Beck, R., 49, 143, 144. Bellaert, Jacobus, 191, 195. Bell (Geo.), and Sons, 247. Benedetti, G. A. de, 25, 228. Benedetto d'Effore, 25. Bentley, R., 19. Berger, Thiebold, 150-151. Bernardino de Misintis, 25, 225. Bernardinus de Vitalibus, 25. Berrichelli, D., 25. Berthelet, T., 71. Bertochus, D., 25, 215. Bertramus, A., 29. Berwick and Smith, 251. Besicken, J., 210-211. Besson, J., 21. Bichon, G., 7. Bien-N, J., 20. Bignon, J., 14. Birckmann, A., 162-163. Blades, W., 55. Blount, E., 87. Bocard, A., 20. Bonino de Boninis, 25, 225-256. Boucher, N., 27. Bouchet, G., 21. —— J., 21. Bouchets Brothers, 12. Boulle, G., 34. Bounyn, B., 14. Bourgeat, G.,27. Bouyer, J., 21. Bradshaw, Henry, 53. Breuille, M., 32, 33, 125. Brothers of Common Life, 181. Brylinger, N., 176. Bumgart, Herman, 158-159. Burges, J., 22. Byddell, J., 72. Bynneman, H., 85, 86.

Csar, N., 161. Csaris, A., 189, 191. Caillaut, A., 3. Caligula de Bacileriis, 25. Calvarin, P., 14. Calvin, J., 174. Cartander, see Cratander. Cassell and Co., 243-4. Caxton, W., 53-57. Cervicornis, Eucharius, 159. Csar, P., 12. Chandelier, P., 7, 137-138. Charteris, H., 99. Chatto and Windus, 243, 247. Chaudire, G., 27, 28. —— R. and G., 126. Chepman, W., 95, 97. Chevallon, G., 22. Chiswick Press, The, 240-2. Chouet, J., 31. Christopher de Canibus, 25. Clarendon Press, The, 238, 240. Clark, R. and R., 244. Cleray, G., 32. Clopejau, M., 27. Cloquemin, L., 12. Colines, see De Colines, S. Colomies, J., 137. Colophon, The, 49. Constable, T. and A., 246-7. Copland, R., 67, 68. —— W., 68. Corrozet, G., 32. Couteau, Gillet, 4, 103. Cox, T., 92. Cramoisy, S., 127. Cranach, L., 170. Crane, Walter, 247, 249. Cratander, 44-45. Creede, T., 90, 91. Crespin, J., 20. Cushing and Co., 250. Cyaneus, L, 125.

Dallier, J., 32. Davidson, T., 98. Day, John, 78-80. De Bordeaux, J., 32. De Campis, J., 51. De Codeca, M., 25. De Colines, S., 14, 27, 118-119, 120, 126. De Francfordia, W., 25. De Gourmont, G., 13, 118, 124. —— J., 21. —— R., 27. De Hamont, M., 27, 200. De la Barre, N., 26. De Laet, 30. Delalain, Paul, 24. De la Noue, D., 8. De la Porte, A. S. and H., 133-135. —— H. and A., 66. De la Rivire, G., 8. De Marnef Brothers, The, 26, 106-107. Denidel, A., 21. Denis, J.,38. De Pfortzheim, Jacobus, 163, 165. De Saincte-Lucie, P., 14. De Salenson, G., 17. De Sartires, P., 14. Destresius, J., 194. De Tournes, J., 29, 31, 133. —— S., 25 De Vingle, 115, 232. De Vinne, Th., 251. Dewes, R., 89. Dolet, E., 16, 132, 133. Dorp, R. van den, 188-189. Duff, E.Gordon, 62. Dulssecker, J. R., 47, 50, 153-154. Du Mont, A., 8. Du Moulin, J., 6. Du Pr, Galliot, 5. —— J., 26, 108, 136. —— P., 22. Du Puys, J., 8, 10, 129.

Eckert de Hombergh, H., 34. Eggestern, H., 139. Elzevirs, 17, 18, 205-208. Endter's (W. E.) Daughter, 167. Erasmus, 166, 181. Erpenius, T., 49. Estienne, Family, The, 100, 118-123. Eve, N., 8.

Faques, W., 16, 62. Fawkes, R., 63. Federico de Basilea, 230. Fernandez, A., 229. —— V., 231, 232. Feyrabendt, J., 172. Fzandat, M, 14. Fouet, R., 32. Fradin, C., 36. —— F., 26. Francfordia, N. de, 215. Frellon, J., 22. Friburger, M., 100, 101. Fritag, A., 209-211. Froben, J., 42-44, 48, 58, 164-166. Froschover, C., 71, 175. Furter, M., 166. Fust and Schoeffer, 40-42.

Gering, U., 100, 101. Gerla or Gerlis, L., 25. Gibier, Eloy, 12. Girard, J., 173-174. Giunta Family, The, 222-225. Goes, M. van der, 187-188. Goltz, H., 57, 197. Gourmont, see De Gourmont. Grafton, R., 10, 74-76. Grandin, L., 18. Granjon, R., 14. Grapheus, J., 194, 197. Gregorius, J. and G. de, 214. Grosii, The, 22. Groulleau, E., 32. Grninger, J., 140. Gryphius, S., 6, 135, 136. —— The, 36. Guarinus, 73. Gueffier, J., 8. Guerbin, L., 172-173. Guillemot, M., 32.

Hall, Rowland, 84, 85. Hardouyn, G., 18, 117. Harper Bros., 250. Harrison, R., 89. Hauth, David, 152. Heitz, P., 140. Hellenius, M., 189, 191-192. Henrici, H., 192, 194. Henricpetri, 166. Herembert, J., 131, Herolt, G., 210. Hesker, H., 34. Hester, A., 26, 70. Hillenius, M., 57. Holbein, Hans, 42-45, 163. Hombergh, H. Eckert van, 188. Hovii, J. M., 201-202. Huby, F., 34. Huguetan, The Brothers, 17, 49. —— J., 26. Hugunt, M., 232. Husz, M., 26.

"Inventaire des Marques d'Imprimeurs," 24.

Jacobi, P., 29. Jaggard, Isaac and William, 87, 88. Janot, W., 14, 15, 107, 129. Janssens, G., 208. Jenson, N., 213. Johannes de Spira, 211. Jove, M., 8. Jucundus, J., 29. Jugge, R., 80, 82. Julian, G., 8. Junta, see Giunta. Justinian de Ruberia, 25, 228.

Kalliergos, Z., 211, 232. Kerver, T., 7, 34, 111, 115. Keysere, see Csaris. Kingston or Kyngston, Felix, 88, 89. Knoblouch, J., 17, 91, 142. Koberger, Anthony, 167. Kobian, Valentin, 156. Koelhoeff, J., 159-160. Kpfel (or Cphalus), W., 17, 145, 146. Krantz, M., 100, 101.

Lagache, J. and A., 29. Lambert, J., 14, 26. Lamparter, N., 166. L'Angelier, A., 10. Laurens, Le Petit, 34. Lawrence and Bullen, 243. Le Bret, G., 36. Lecoq, Jehan, 6, 7, 137. Leeu, G., 184-186. —— N., 184. Le Forestier, J., 21. Legnano, G. G., 226-228. —— J. A., 232. Le Jeune, M., 20. Le Noir, Michel, 3, 13, 109. —— P. and G., 4, 110. Le Preux, F., 177. —— J., 12. —— Poncet, 36. Le Rouge, P., 109. Le Talleur, G., 26. Liechtenstein, P., 215. Lippincott and Co., 251. Lockwood and Co., 250. Longis, J., 14. Longman and Co., 233, 237, 240. Loslein, P., 48, 213. Lotter, Melchior, 169, 170. Lynne, W., 52, 83. Mac, B.,36. —— R., 13. —— Family, The, 108. Macmillan and Co., 243. Madden, J.P. A., "Lettres," 57. Magno, 229. Maillet, J. and E., 5. Mainyal, G., 101. Mallard, O., 14. Manilius, G., 32. Mansion, Colard, 181. Marchant, G., 29, 106. Marnef, see De Marnef. Martin d'Alost, T., 180, 210, 211. Martin, L., 34. Meer, J. J. van der, 186. Meietos, P. and A., 217. Mentelin, J., 139. Middleton, W., 76-77. —— H., 252. Miguel, P., 26, 231. Miscomini, A., 226. Mittelhus, G., 26. Morel, G., 17, 38. Morin, M., 137. Morris, William, 247-91. Moulin, J., 97. Mller, Craft, 147, 148, 149. Myllar, A., 6, 95, 96.

Nani, H., 25. Neobar, C., 20. Nijhoff, M., 251. Nivelle, S., 14, 126, 128, 129, 130. Noir, see Le Noir. Norton, W., 88, 252. Notary, J., 61-62. Nourry, C., 14. Nutt, David, 243.

Oglin, Erhart, 163-164. Olivier, J., 23. Orwin, T., 30.

Paffraej, Albertus, 183-184. —— Richard, 184. Palomar, L., 229. Pannartz, A., 209. Paulo de Colonia, 229. Paul (Kegan) and Co., 243, 249. Pavier, T., 10, 12. Pegnicer, J., 229. Pepwell, H., 63, 189. Peregrino de Pasqualibus, 25, 215. Prier, T., 27. Petit, J., 6, 9, 112, 115. Pfortzheim, see De Pfortzheim. Picart, B., 46. Pickering, W., 239, 242. —— B. M., 239, 242. Pigouchet, 97, 112, 113. Pincius, P., 223. Pine, J., 46. Pinzi, P., 25. Plantin, C., 203-205. Pollard, A.W., 48. Portunaris, V., 22. Prevosteau, E., 17. Printers' Marks: punning devices, 3, 10; mottoes from sacred history, 8; printing press, 12; mottoes, 13; Hebrew and Greek mottoes, 17; the Sphere, 17, 207; the Brazen Serpent, 20; Balaam's Ass, 22; Christ on the Cross, 22; St. Christopher, 22; Saints and riests, 23; The Cross, 23-26; St. George and the Dragon, 26; Time and Peace, 27; musical notes, 29; rustic subjects, 29; the Cornucopia, 30; the Unicorn, 32-34; the Griffin, 35; the Mermaid, 36; the Anchor, 37; Angels, 37; Arion, 37; Bellerophon, 37; astrological signs, 37; Cat, 38; Eagle, 38; Fortune, 38, 44; Fountain, 38; Heart, 38; Hercules, 38; Lion, 38; Magpie, 38; Mercury, 38; Pelican, 38; Phoenix, 39; Salamander, 39; Swan, 39. Psalter, The Mentz, 41. Pynson, R., 59-61.

Rastell, J., 36. Ratdolt, E., 162, 212-214. Regnault, F., 75, 103-105. —— P., 105. Rembolt, B., 17, 26, 101, 102. Reynes, J., 16. Ricci, B., 25. Richard, J., 34. —— T., 29. Rigaud, B., 14. Rihel, Wendelin, 150. Rivery, J., 174. Rivingtons, The, 235-8. Rizzardi, G., 225, 228. Roccociola, D., 25, 226. Roce, D., 4, 14, 66. Rodt, Berthold, 163. Roffet, J., 29, 30. —— Family, The, 125. Rose, Germain, 4. Rosembach, J., 26, 230, 231-2. Roth-Scholtz's "Thesaurus," 24. Rubeus de Valentia, L., 25, 215. Ryverd, G., 22.

Sabio Brothers, The, 224-226. Sacer, J., 25. Sacon, J., 26, 73. Schffeler of Bodensee, 22. Schaufelein, Hans, 155, 156. Scher, Conrad, 152. Schomberg, W., 25. Schott, M. and J., 141. Schultis, E., 32. Schumann, V., 170-171. Scolar, J., 93, 94. Scott, or Skott, J., 66. Scotto, O., 25, 214-215. Sergent, P., 18. Sessa, M., 217-218. Siberch, J., 94, 95. Silvius, G., 22. Singleton, Hugh, 82, 83. Sixtus Riessinger, 210. Snellaert, C., 34, 35, 186. Somaschi, The, 25. Soter, Johann, 161-162. St. Albans Press, The, 54-56. Stadelberger, J., 172-173. Stagninus, B., 25, 215. Stationers' Company, The, 233-6. Steels, J., 19, 191. Steinschawer, Adam, 173. Suardo, L., 25. Sweynheim, C., 209.

Tardif, A., 8. Temporal, J., 14, 27. Thanner, J., 139, 171. Ther Hoernen, A., 24, 157, 159, 183. Thomas, 229. Title-page, The First, 48. Tonson, J., 94. Topie, M., 131. Torresano, A., 219. Tory, Geoffrey, 14, 117-118. Tottell, R., 85. Tournes, see De Tournes. Trepperel, J., 21. Treschel, J., 25, 115, 132. —— The Brothers, 17. Treveris, P., 64.

Unwin, T. F., 243, 245.

Van den Keere, H., 195, 198. Van der Noot, T., 194, 196. Van Hombergh, H. E., 188. Vautrollier, T., 7, 73, 75. Veldener, J., 178. Velpius, Rutger, 200. Vrard, A., 21, 102. Vidoue, P., 17, 124. Vincent, Simon, 34, 51. Vindelinus de Spira, 213. Vitalibus, B. de, 215. Von Andlau, G., 1, 32, 146. Vostre, S., 102, 103, 111, 112. Vurster de Campidon, J., 226.

Waesberghe, J., 199. Walthoe, J., 92. Ware, R., 92, 93. Wchel, A. and C., 31, 125-127. Weissenburger, J., 167-169. Whitchurche, E., 75. Whittingham, Messrs., 240-2. Wight, or Wyghte, J., 83, 84. Windet, J., 82. Wolfe, R., 20, 77, 86. —— John, 77, 78. Woodcock, T., 10, 86, 87. Wyer, R., 68. Wynkyn de Worde, 51, 57-59, 67.

Zainer, G., 41, 162. Zanis, Bartholomeus, 215. Zell, Ulric, 157, 178. Zetzner, L., 151, 152.





CHRISTIE'S: A Chapter in the History of Art. [In the Press.

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ERRATA (Noted by Transcriber)

Main Text:

primus excogitavit Aldus._" [_missing close quote_] and with the motto "Vogue la gualee." [_illustration text has "guallee"_] "... eu pour origine l'affiliation une confrrie religieuse." [_error for "eut pour"?_] The editions of the Printer, "la licorne," Deft [_spelling "Deft" unchanged: may be quoting original_] in this device we have the sun shining [devise] "Veritas virescit vulnere." [_illustration text has "viressit"_] "Pour proquer la grand' misricorde, [_text unchanged: illustration has "provocquer"_] the two first, Jean or Jehan and Galliot, were the most celebrated. [_final period missing or invisible_] the motto "ardentes juvo," [_illustration text has "audentes"_] examples of the Strasburg printers [_here and below, anomalous spelling with one "s" unchanged_] their very elaborate "Elsssische Bchermarken bis Anfang des 18. Jahrhunderts," [_missing period in "18.", present in earlier citation_] Berthold Rodt of Hanau, one of Fust's workmen [Fst's] probably that of Wilhelm Moritz Endter's daughter [thatof] an enthusiastic bibliopole [_not an error: bookseller, not bibliophile_] Johann Feyrabendt [_spelled -bendt in body text, -bend in figure caption_] Le Nouueau Testament de nostre Sauflueur Iesu Christ [_spelling unchanged_] Joannes and Gregorius de Gregoriis, 1480-1516, [1480—1516] the "Britannia" of Camden ... which was likewise employed [_text unchanged: superfluous "which"_] the first edition the unabridged "Chronicle of the Cid," [_text unchanged: missing "of"?_]

Illustrations of Printers' Marks:

Non-classical spellings in Greek are not individually noted.

14. Hercules Nani. [period . after 14. in caption invisible] ginesthe phronimoi hs hoi opheis [breathing mark on "hoi" misplaced in Greek] Melius est nomen bonum q[uam] diuitie mnlte. Prou. xxu. [error "mnlte" for "multe" in original text seems to say "xxu" (xxv, 25) but passage is at 22] Ereunate tas graphas, oti em autais zm ainiom echete. [All errors, including the use of mu for nu, are in the original.] H agap panta degei. [There is no such word as degei or segei, but the intended form could not be deduced; it might be a variant of thigei.] ' Galle premes tecum mox Leo uictus erit [unambiguous apostrophe ' neither flyspeck nor part of verse] kai mn arthmon [text unchanged: error for arithmon]


Elsssische Bchermarken bis Anfang des 18. Jahrhdts. [missing period in "18.", present in first citation] l'imprimeur en France au XV sicle. [text unchanged: error for "XV^e" (superscript e)?]


A few missing commas after initials were silently supplied.

De Vinne, Th., 251. [151]


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