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Primitive Love and Love-Stories
by Henry Theophilus Finck
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[252] U.S. Geogr. and Geol. Survey of Rocky Mt. Region, IX., 90.

[253] Related in G. White's Historical Collection of Georgia, 571.

[254] See Brinton's The American Race, 59-67, for an excellent summary of our present knowledge of the Eskimos (on the favorable side).

[255] Journal Ethnol. Soc., I., 299.

[256] Cranz, I., 155, 134; Hall, II., 87, I., 187; Hearne, 161.

[257] Hall, Narrat. of Second Arctic Exp., 102; Cranz, I, 207-12 (German ed.); Letourneau, E.d.M., 72.

[258] Among the Nagas, we read in Dalton (43), "maidens are prized for their physical strength more than for their beauty and family;" and the reason is not far to seek. "The women have to work incessantly, while the men bask in the sun."

[259] Shortt in Trans. Ethnol. Soc., N.S., VII., 464.

[260] For our purposes it is needless to continue this list; but I may add that of the very few tribes Westermarck ventured to claim specifically for his side, three at any rate—the Miris, Todas, and Kols (Mundas) do not belong there. The state of mind prevalent among the Miris is indicated by Dalton's observation (33) that "two brothers will unite and from the proceeds of their joint labor buy a wife between them." In regard to the Todas, Westermarck apparently forgot what he himself had written about them on a previous page (53), after Shortt:

"When a man marries a girl, she becomes the wife of his brothers as they successively reach manhood, and they become the husbands of all her sisters, when they are old enough to marry."

To speak of "liberty of choice" in such cases, or of the marriage being only "ostensibly" arranged by the parents, is nonsense. As for the Kols, what Dalton says about the Mundas (194) not only indicates that parental interference is more than "ostensible," but makes clear that what these girls enjoy is not free choice but what is euphemistically called "free love," before marriage:

"Among Mundas having any pretensions to respectability the young people are not allowed to arrange these affairs [matrimonial] for themselves. Their parents settle it all for them, French fashion, and after the liberty they have enjoyed, and the liaisons they are sure to have made, this interference on the part of the old folk must be very aggravating to the young ones."

If the dissolute or imbecile advocates of "free love" had their way, we should sink to the level of these wild tribes of India; but there is no danger of our losing again the large "tracts of mind, and thought, and feeling" we have acquired since our ancestors, who came from India, were in such a degraded state as these neighbors of theirs.

[261] Statistics have shown that twenty-eight per cent of the females were married before their fourth year. The ancient Sutras ordained the age of six to seven the best for girls to marry, and declared that a father who waits till his daughter is twelve years old must go to hell. The evils are aggravated by the fact noted by Dr. Ryder (who gives many pathetic details) that a Hindoo girl of ten often appears like an European child of six, owing to the weak physique inherited from these girl mothers. Yet Mrs. Mansell relates:

"Many pitiable child-wives have said to me, 'Oh, Doctor mem Sahib, I implore you, do give me medicine that I may become a mother.' I have looked at their innocent faces and tender bodies, and asked, 'Why?' The reply has invariably been, 'My husband will discard me if I do not bear a child.'"

[262] Journal of Nat. Indian Assoc., 1881, 543-49.

[263] The roots of this superstition, which has created such unspeakable misery in India, go back to the oldest times of which there are records. The Vedas say, "Endless are the worlds for those men who have sons; but there is no place for those who have no male offspring."

[264] Dr. S. Armstrong-Hopkins writes in her recent volume Within the Purdah (51-52): "A few years ago the English Government passed a law to the effect that no bride should go to the house of her mother-in-law before she arrived at the age of twelve years. I am witness, however, as is every practising physician in India, that this law is utterly ignored.... Often and often have I treated little women patients of five, six, seven, eight, nine years, who were at that time living with their husbands."

[265] If Darwin had dwelt on such facts in his Descent of Man, and contrasted man's vileness with the devotion, sympathy, and self-sacrifice shown by birds and other animals, he would have aroused less indignation among his ignorant contemporaries. In these respects it was the animals who had cause to resent his theory.

[266] Dr. Ryder says in her pathetic book, Little Wives of India: "A man may be a vile and loathsome creature; he may be blind, a lunatic, an idiot, a leper, or diseased in any form; he may be fifty, sixty, or seventy years old, and may be married to a child of five or ten, who positively loathes his presence; but if he claims her she must go. There is no other form of slavery equal to it on the face of the earth."

[267] The London Times of November 11, 1889, had the following in its column about India:

"Two shocking cases of wife killing lately came before the courts, in both cases the result of child marriage. In one a child aged ten was strangled by her husband. In the second case a child of tender years was ripped open with a wooden peg. Brutal sexual exasperation was the sole apparent reason in both instances. Compared with the terrible evils of child marriage, widow cremation is of infinitely inferior magnitude."

[268] Manu's remark that "where women are honored there the gods are pleased" is one of those expressions of unconscious humor which naturally escaped him, but should not have escaped European sociologists. What he understands by "honoring women" may be gathered from many maxims in his volume like the following (the references being to the pages of Burnell and Hopkins's version):

"This is the nature of women, to seduce men here" (40);

"One should not be seated in a secluded place with a mother, sister, or daughter; the powerful host of the senses compels even a wise man" (41).

"No act is to be done according to (her) own will by a young girl, a young woman, or even by an old woman, though in (their own) houses."

"In her childhood (a girl) should be under the will of her father; in (her) youth, of (her) husband; her husband being dead, of her sons; a woman should never enjoy her own will" (130).

"Though of bad conduct or debauched, or even devoid of good qualities, a husband must always be worshipped like a god by a good wife."

"For women there is no separate sacrifice, nor vow, nor even fast; if a woman obeys her husband, by that she is exalted in heaven" (131).

"Day and night should women be kept by the male members of the family in a state of dependence" (245)....

"Women being weak creatures, and having no share in the mantras, are falsehood itself" (247).

Quite in the spirit of these ordinances of the great Manu are the directions for wives given in the Padma Purana, one of the books of highest authority, whose rules are, as Dubois informs us (316), kept up in full vigor to this day. A wife, we read therein, must regard her husband as a god, though he be a very devil. She must laugh if he laughs, eat after him, abstain from food which he dislikes, burn herself after his death. If he has another wife she must not interfere, must always keep her eyes on her master, ready to receive his commands; she must never be gloomy or discontented in his presence; and though he abuse or even beat her she must return only meek and soothing words.

[269] In Calcutta nearly one-half the females—42,824 out of 98,627—were widows. In India in general one-fifth of the women (or, excluding the Mohammedans, one-third) are widows.

[270] Journal of the National Indian Assoc., 1881, 624-30.

[271] Ploss-Bartels, I., 385-87; Lamairesse, 18, 95, XX., etc.

[272] Here again we must guard against the naive error of benevolent observers of confounding chastity with an assumption of modest behavior. In describing the streets of Delhi Ida Pfeiffer says (L.V.R.W., 148):

"The prettiest girlish faces peep modestly out of these curtained bailis, and did one not know that in India an unveiled face is never an innocent one, the fact certainly could not be divined from their looks or behavior." It happens to be the fashion even for bayaderes to preserve an appearance of great propriety in public.

[273] Pp. 143 and 160 of Kellner's edition of this drama (Reclam). The extent to which indifference to chastity is sometimes carried in India may be inferred from the facts that in the famous city of Vasali "marriage was forbidden, and high rank attached to the lady who held office as the chief of courtesans;" and that the same condition prevails in British India to this day in a town in North Canara (Balfour, Cyclop. of India, II., 873).

[274] Hala's date is somewhat uncertain, but he flourished between the third and fourth centuries A.D. Professor Weber's translation of his seven hundred poems, with the professor's comments, takes up no fewer than 1,023 pages of the Abhandlungen fuer die Kunde des Morgenlandes, Vols. V. and VII. I have selected all those which throw light on the Hindoo conception of love, and translated them carefully from Weber's version. Hala's anthology served as prototype, about the twelfth century, to a similar collection of arya verses, the erotic Saptacati of Govardhana, also seven hundred in number, but written in Sanskrit. Of these I have not been able to find a version in a language that I can read, but the other collection is copious and varied enough to cover all the phases of Hindoo love. The verses were intended, as already indicated, to be sung, for the Hindoos, too, knew the power of music as a pastime and a feeder of the emotions. "If music be the food of love, play on," says the English Shakespere, and the "Hindoo Shakespere" wrote more than a thousand years before him:

"Oh, how beautifully our master Rebhila has sung! Yes, indeed, the zither is a pearl, only it does not come from the depths of the sea. How its tones accord with the heart that longs for love, how it helps to while away time at a rendezvous, how it assuages the grief of separation, and augments the delights of the lovers!" (Vasantasena, Act III., 2.)

[275] The disadvantage of arguing against the believers in primitive, Oriental, and ancient amorous sentiment is that some of the strongest evidence against them cannot be cited in a book intended for general reading. Professor Weber declares in his introduction to Hala's anthology that these poems take us through all phases of sentimental love (innigen Liebeslebens) to the most licentious situations. He is mistaken, as I have shown, in regard to the sentiment, but there can be no doubt about the licentiousness. Numbers 5, 23, 62, 63, 65, 71, 72, 107, 115, 139, 161, 200, 223, 237, 241, 242, 300, 305, 336, 338, 356, 364, 369, 455, 483, 491, 628, 637, depict or suggest improper scenes, while 61, 213, 215, 242, 278, 327, 476, 690 are frankly obscene. Lower and higher things are mixed in these poems with a naivete that shows the absence of any idea of refinement.

[276] I have here followed Kellner, though Boehtlingk's version is more literal and Oriental: "Mir aber brennt Liebe, O Grausamer, Tag und Nacht gewaltig die Glieder, deren Wuensche auf dich gerichtet sind."

[277] Anas Casarea, a species of duck which, in Hindoo poetry, is allowed to be with his mate only in the daytime and must leave her at night, in consequence of a curse; thereupon begin mutual lamentations.

[278] For a Hindoo, unless he has a son to make offerings after his death, is doomed to live over again his earthly life with all its sorrows. A daughter will do, provided she has a son to attend to the rites.

[279] The sequel of the story, relating to the misfortunes of Nala and Damayanti after marriage, will be referred to presently. The famous tale herewith briefly summarized occurs in the Mahabharata, the great epic or mythological cyclopaedia of India, which embraces 220,000 metric lines, and antedates in the main the Christian era. The story of Savitri also occurs in the Mahabharata; and these two episodes have been pronounced by specialists the gems not only of that great epic, but of all Hindoo literature. I have translated from the edition of H.C. Kellner, which is based on the latest and most careful revisions of the Sanscrit text. I have also followed Kellner's edition of Kalidasa's Sakuntala and Otto Fritze's equally critical versions of the same poet's Urvasi and Malavika and Agnimitra. Some of the earlier translators, notably Rueckert, permitted themselves unwarranted poetic licenses, modernizing and sentimentalizing the text, somewhat as Professor Ebers did the thoughts and feelings of the ancient Egyptians. I will add that while I have been obliged to greatly condense the stories of the above dramas, I have taken great care to retain all the speeches and details that throw light on the Hindoo conception of love, reserving a few, however, for comment in the following paragraphs.

[280] Our poets speak of fright making the hair stand on end—but only on the head. Can the alleged Hindoo phenomenon be identical with what we call goose flesh—French frisson? That would make it none the less artificial as a symptom of love. Hertel says, in his edition of the Hitopadesa (26):

"With the Hindoos it is a consequence of great excitement, joy as well as fear, that the little hairs on the body stand erect. The expression has become conventional."

[281] Hitopadesa (25). This gratification the Hindoos regard as one of the four great objects of life, the other three being liberty (emancipation of the soul), wealth, and the performance of religious duties.

[282] Robert Brown has remarked that "moral and intellectual qualities seem to be entirely omitted from the seven points which, according to Manu, make a good wife." And Ward says (10) that no attention is paid to a bride's mind or temper, the only points being the bride's person, her family, and the prospect of male offspring.

[283] This is the list, as given by the eminent Sanscrit scholar, Professor Albrecht Weber in the Abhandlungen fuer die Kunde des Abendlandes, Vol. V., 135. Burton, in his original edition of the Arabian Nights (III., 36), gives the stages thus: love of the eyes; attraction of the manos or mind; birth of desire; loss of sleep; loss of flesh; indifference to objects of sense; loss of shame; distraction of thought; loss of consciousness; death. Cf. Lamairesse, p. 179.

[284] Preferably in Boehtlingk's literal version, which I have followed whenever Kellner idealizes. In this case Kellner speaks of covering "den Umfang des Bruestepaars," while Boethlingk has "das starke Bruestepaar," which especially arouse the king's "love."

[285] It would hardly be surprising if Kalidasa had had some conception of true love sentiment, for not only did he possess a delicate poetic fancy, but he lived at a time when tidings of the chivalrous treatment and adoration of women might have come to him from Arabia or from Europe. The tradition that he flourished as early as the first century of our era was demolished by Professor Weber (Ind. Lit. Ges., 217). Professor Max Mueller (91) found no reason to place him earlier than our sixth century; and more recent evidence indicates that he lived as late as the eleventh. Yet he had no conception of supersensual love; marriage was to him, as to all Hindoos, a union of bodies, not of souls. He had not learned from the Arabs (like the Persian poet Saadi, of the thirteenth century, whom I referred to on p. 199) that the only test of true love is self-sacrifice. It is true that Bhavabhuti, the Hindoo poet, who is believed to have lived at the end of our seventh century, makes one of the lovers in Malati and Madhava slay a tiger and save his beloved's life; but that is also a case of self-defence. The other lover—the "hero" of the drama—faints when he sees his friend in danger! Generally speaking, there is a peculiar effeminacy, a lack of true manliness, about Hindoo lovers They are always moping, whining, fainting; the kings—the typical lovers—habitually neglect the affairs of state to lead a life of voluptuous indulgence. Hindoo sculpture emphasizes the same trait: "Even in the conception of male figures," says Luebke (109), "there is a touch of this womanly softness;" there is "a lack of an energetic life, of a firm contexture of bone and muscle." It is not of such enervated stuff that true lovers are made.

[286] An explanation of this discrepancy may be found in A.K. Fiske's suggestion (191) that there is a double source for this story. The reader will please bear in mind that all my quotations are from the revised version of the Bible. I do not believe in retaining inaccurate translations simply because they were made long ago.

[287] McClintock and Strong's Encyclop. of Biblical Literature says: "It must be borne in mind that Jacob himself had now reached the mature age of seventy-seven years, as appears from a comparison of Joseph's age... with Jacob's." That Rachel was not much over fifteen may be assumed because among Oriental nomadic races shepherd girls are very seldom unmarried after that age, or even an earlier age, for obvious reasons.

[288] Gen. 19: 1-9; 19: 30-38; 34: 1-31; 38: 8-25; 39: 6-20; Judges 19: 22-30; II. Sam. 3: 6-9; 11: 2-27; 13: 1-22; 16: 22; etc.

[289] For whom the Hebrew poet has a special word (dodi) different from that used when Solomon is referred to.

[290] See Renan, Preface, p. iv. It is of all Biblical books, the one "pour lequel les scribes qui ont decide du sort des ecrits hebreux ont le plus elargi leurs regles d'admission."

[291] McClintock and Strong.

[292] In the seventh chapter there are lines where, as Renan points out (50), the speaker, in describing the girl, "vante ses charmes les plus intimes," and where the translator was "oblige a des attenuations."

[293] Renan says justly that it is the most obscure of all Hebrew poems. According to the old Hebrew exegesis, every passage in the Bible has seventy different meanings, all of them equally true; but of this Song a great many more than seventy interpretations have been given: the titles of treatises on the Canticles fill four columns of fine print in McClintock and Strong's Cyclopaedia. Griffis declares that it is, "probably, the most perfect poem in any language," but in my opinion it is far inferior to other books in the Bible. The adjective perfect is not applicable to a poem so obscure that more than half its meaning has to be read between the lines, while its plan, if plan it has, is so mixed up and hindmost foremost that I sometimes feel tempted to accept the view of Herder and others that the Song of Songs is not one drama, but a collection of unconnected poems.

[294] Mr. Griffis' lucid, ingenious, and admirably written monograph entitled, The Lily among Thorns, is unfortunately marred in many parts by the author's attitude, which is not that of a critic or a judge, but of a lawyer who has a case to prove, that black and gray are really snow white. His sense of humor ought to have prevented him from picturing an Eastern shepherd complimenting a girl of his class on her "instinctive refinement". He carries this idealizing process so far that he arbitrarily divides the line "I am black but comely," attributing the first three words to the Shulamite, the other two to a chorus of her rivals in Solomon's harem! The latter supposition is inconceivable; and why should not the Shulamite call herself comely? I once looked admiringly at a Gypsy girl in Spain, who promptly opened her lips, and said, with an arch smile, "soy muy bonita"—"I am very pretty!"—which seemed the natural, naive attitude of an Oriental girl. To argue away such a trifling spot on maiden modesty as the Shulamite's calling herself comely, while seeing no breach of delicacy in her inviting her lover to come into the garden and eat his precious fruits, though admitting (214) that "the maiden yields thus her heart and her all to her lover," is surely straining at a gnat and swallowing a camel.

[295] Which, however, evidently was not saying much, as he immediately added that he was ready to give her up provided they gave him another girl, lest he be the only one of the Greeks without a "prize of honor." Strong individual preference, as we shall see also in the case of Achilles, was not a trait of "heroic" Greek love.

[296] I have already commented (115) on Nausicaea's lack of feminine delicacy and coyness; yet Gladstone says (132) "it may almost be questioned whether anywhere in literature there is to be found a conception of the maiden so perfect as Nausicaea in grace, tenderness, and delicacy"!

[297] How Gladstone reconciled his conscience with these lines when he wrote (112) that "on one important and characteristic subject, the exposure of the person to view, the men of that time had a peculiar and fastidious delicacy," I cannot conceive.

[298] It will always remain one of the strangest riddles of the nineteenth century why the statesman who so often expressed his righteous indignation over the "Bulgarian atrocities" of his time should not only have pardoned, but with insidious and glaring sophistry apologized for the similar atrocities of the heroes whom Homer fancies he is complimenting when he calls them professional "spoilers of towns." I wish every reader of this volume who has any doubts regarding the correctness of my views would first read Gladstone's shorter work on Homer (a charmingly written book, with all its faults), and then the epics themselves, which are now accessible to all in the admirable prose versions of the Iliad by Andrew Lang, Walter Leaf and Ernest Myers, and of the Odyssey by Professor George H. Palmer of Harvard—versions which are far more poetic than any translations in verse ever made and which make of these epics two of the most entertaining novels ever written. It is from these versions that I have cited, except in a few cases where I preferred a more literal rendering of certain words.

[299] In all the extracts here made I follow the close literal prose version made by H.T. Wharton, in his admirable book on Sappho, by far the best in the English language.

[300] P.B. Jevons refers to some of these as "mephitic exhalations from the bogs of perverted imaginings!" Welcker's defence of Sappho is a masterpiece of naivete written in ignorance of mental pathology.

[301] The most elaborate discussion of this subject is to be found in Moll's Untersuchungen, 314-440, where also copious bibliographic references are given. The most striking impression left by the reading of this book is that the differentiation of the sexes is by no means as complete yet as it ought to be. All the more need is there of romantic love, whose function it is to assist and accelerate this differentiation.

[302] As long ago as 1836-38 a Swiss author, Heinrich Hoessli, wrote a remarkable book with the title The Unreliability of External Signs as Indications of Sex in Body and Mind. I may add here that if it were known how many of the "shrieking sisterhood" who are clamoring for masculine "rights" for women, are among the unfortunates who were born with male brains in female bodies, the movement would collapse as if struck by a ton of dynamite. These amazons often wonder why the great mass of women are so hard to stir up in this matter. The reason is that the great mass of women—heaven be thanked!—have feminine minds as well as feminine bodies.

[303] Probably no passage in any drama has ever been more widely discussed than the nine lines I have just summarized. As long ago as the sixteenth century the astronomer Petrus Codicillus pronounced them spurious. Goethe once remarked to Eckermann; (III., March 28, 1827) that he considered them a blemish in the tragedy and would give a good deal if some philologist would prove that Sophocles had not written them. A number of eminent philologists—Jacob, Lehrs, Hauck, Dindorf, Wecklein, Jebb, Christ, and others—have actually bracketed them as not genuine; but if they are interpolations, they must have been added within a century after the play was written, for Aristotle refers to them (Rhet. III., 16,9) in these words: "And should any circumstance be incredible, you must subjoin the reason; as Sophocles does. He furnishes an example in the Antigone, that she mourned more for her brother than for a husband and children; for these, if lost, might again be hers.

"'But father now and mother both being lost, A brother's name can ne'er be hailed again.'"

It is noticeable that Aristotle should pronounce Antigone's preference strange or incredible from a Greek point of view; that point of view being, as we have seen, that a woman's first duties are toward her husband, for whom she should ever sacrifice herself. It has been plausibly suggested that Sophocles borrowed the idea of those nine lines from his friend Herodotus, who (III., 118) relates the story of Darius permitting the wife of Intophernes to save one of her relatives from death and who chooses her brother, for reasons like those advanced by Antigone. It has been shown (Zeitschrift f. d. Oesterreich Gymn., 1898; see also Frankfurter Zeitung, July 22, 24, 27, 1899; Hermes, XXVIII.) that this idea occurs in old tales and poems of India, Persia, China, as well as among the Slavs, Scandinavians, etc. If Sophocles did introduce this notion into his tragedy (and there is no reason for doubting it except the unwarranted assumption that he was too great a genius to make such a blunder), he did it in a bungling way, for inasmuch as Antigone's brother is dead she cannot benefit her family by favoring him at the expense of her betrothed; and moreover, her act of sacrificing herself in order to secure the rest of a dear one's soul—which alone might have partly excused her heartless and unromantic ignoring and desertion of her lover—is bereft of all its nobility by her equally heartless declaration that she would not have thus given her life for a husband or a child. These Greek poets knew so little of true femininity that they could not draw a female character without spoiling it.

[304] The unduly extolled [Greek: Epos] chorus in the Antigone expresses nothing more than the universal power of love in the Greek conception of the term.

[305] In Mueller's book on the Doric race we read (310) that the love of the Corinthian Philolaus and Diocles "lasted until death," and even their graves were turned toward one another, in token of their affection. Lovers in Athens carved the beloved's names on walls, and innumerable poems were addressed by the leading bards to their favorites.

[306] Compare Ramdohr, III., 191 and 124.

[307] I have before me a dictonary which defines Platonic love as it is now universally, and incorrectly, understood, as "a pure spiritual affection subsisting between the sexes, unmixed with carnal desires, a species of love for which Plato was a warm advocate." In reality Platonic (i.e. Socratic) love has nothing whatever to do with women, but is a fantastic and probably hypocritical idealization of a species of infatuation which in our day is treated neither in poems nor in dialogues, nor discussed in text-books of psychology or physiology, but relegated to treatises on mental diseases and abnormalities. In fact, the whole philosophy of Greek love may be summed up in the assertion that "Platonic love," as understood by us, was by Plato and the Greeks in general considered an impossibility.

[308] In the Deipnosophists of Athenaeus (III., Bk. XII.) we find some other information of anthropological significance: "Hermippus stated in his book about lawgivers that at Lacedaemon all the damsels used to be shut up in a dark room, while a number of unmarried young men were shut up with them; and whichever girl each of the young men caught hold of he led away as his wife, without a dowry." "But Clearches the Solensian, in his treatise on Proverbs, says: 'In Lacedaemon the women, on a certain festival, drag the unmarried men to an altar and then buffet them; in order that, for the purpose of avoiding the insults of such treatment, they may become more affectionate and in due season may turn their thoughts to marriage. But at Athens Cecrops was the first person who married a man to one woman only, when before his time connections had taken place at random and men had their wives in common.'"

[309] My critics might have convicted me of a genuine blunder inasmuch as in my first book (78) I assumed that Plato "foresaw the importance of pre-matrimonial acquaintance as the basis of a rational and happy marriage choice." This was an unwarranted concession, because all that Plato recommended was that "the youths and maidens shall dance together, seeing and being seen naked," after the Spartan manner. This might lead to a rational choice of sound bodies, but romantic love implies an acquaintance of minds, and is altogether a more complicated process than the dog and cattle breeder's procedure commended by Plato and Lycurgus. I may add that in view of Lycurgus's systematic encouragement of promiscuity, the boast of the Spartan Geradas (recorded by Plutarch) that there were no cases of adultery in Sparta, must be accepted either as broad sarcasm, or in the manner of Limburg-Brouwer, who declares (IV., 165) that the boast is "like saying that in a band of brigands there is not a single thief." Even from the cattle-breeding point of view Lycurgus proved a failure, for according to Aristotle (Pol. II., 9) the Spartans grew too lazy to bring up children, and rewards had to be offered for large families.

[310] See the evidence cited in Becker (III., 315) regarding Aristotle's views as to the inferiority of women. After comparing it with the remarks of other writers Becker sums up the matter by saying that "the virtue of which a woman was in those days considered capable did not differ very much from that of a faithful slave."

[311] In the Odyssey (XV., 418) Homer speaks of "a Phoenician woman, handsome and tall." He makes Odysseus compare Nausicaea to Diana "in beauty, height, and bearing," and in another place he declares that, like Diana among her nymphs, she o'ertops her companions by head and brow (VI., 152, 102). However, this manner of measuring beauty with a yard-stick; indicates some progress over the savage and Oriental custom of making rotundity the criterion of beauty.

[312] Compare Menander, Frag. Incert., 154: [Greek: gunaich ho didaskon gpammat ou kalos poiei].

[313] A homely but striking illustration may here be added. In Africa the negroes are proud of their complexion and look with aversion on a white skin. In the United States, knowing that a black skin is looked down on as a symbol of slavery or inferiority, they are ashamed of it. The wife of an eminent Southern judge informed me that Georgia negroes believe that in heaven they will be white; and I have heard of one negro woman who declared that if she could become white by being flayed she would gladly submit to the torture. Thus have ideas regarding the complexion changed the emotion of pride to the emotion of shame.

[314] Professor Rohde appears to follow the old metaphysical maxim "If facts do not agree with my theory, so much the worse for the facts." He piles up pages of evidence which show conclusively that these Greeks knew nothing of the higher traits and symptoms of love, and then he adds: "but they must have known them all the same." To give one instance of his contradictory procedure. On page 70 he admits that, as women were situated, the tender and passionate courtship of the youths as described in poems and romances of the period "could hardly have been copied from life," because the Greek custom of allowing the fathers to dispose of their daughters without consulting their wishes was incompatible with the poetry of such courting. "It is very significant," he adds, "that among the numerous references to the ways of obtaining brides made by poets and moral philosophers, including those of the Hellenistic [Alexandrian] period, and collected by Stobaeus in chapters 70, 71, and 72 of his Florilegium, love is never mentioned among the motives of marriage choice." In the next sentence he declares nevertheless that "no one would be so foolish as to deny the existence of pure, strong love in the Greek life of this period;" and ten lines farther on he backs down again, admitting that though there may be indications of supersensual, sentimental love in the literature of this period these traits had not yet taken hold of the life of these men, though there were longings for them. And at the end of the paragraph he emphasizes his back-down by declaring that "the very essence of sentimental poetry is the longing for what does not exist." (Ist doch das rechte Element gerade der sentimentalen Poesie die Sehnsucht nach dem nicht Vorhandenen.) What makes this admission the more significant is that Professor Rohde, in speaking of "sentimental" elements, does not even use that word as the adjective of sentiment but of sentimentality. He defines this Sentimentalitaet to which he refers as a " Sehnen, Sinnen und Hoffen," a "Selbstgenuss der Leidenschaft"—a "longing, dreaming, and hoping," a "revelling in (literally, self-enjoying of) passion." In other words, an enjoyment of emotion for emotion's sake, a gloating over one's selfish joys and sorrows. Now in this respect I actually go beyond Rohde as a champion of Greek love! Such Sentimentalitaet existed, I am convinced, in Alexandrian life as well as in Alexandrian literature; but of the existence of true supersensual altruistic sentiment I can find no evidence. The trouble with Rohde, as with so many who have written on this subject, is that he has no clear idea of the distinction between sensual love, which is selfish (Selbstgenuss) and romantic love, which is altruistic; hence he flounders in hopeless contradictions.

[315] See Anthon, 258, and the authors there referred to.

[316] See Theocritus, Idyll XVII. Regarding the silly and degrading adulation which the Alexandrian court-poets were called upon to bestow on the kings and queens, and its demoralizing effect on literature, see also Christ's Griechische Litteraturgeschichte, 493-494 and 507.

[317] I have given Professor Rohde's testimony on this point not only because he is a famous specialist in the literature of this period, but because his peculiar bias makes his negative attitude in regard to the question of Alexandrian gallantry the more convincing. A reader of his book would naturally expect him to take the opposite view, since he himself fancied he had discovered traces of gallantry in an author who preceded the Alexandrians. The Andromeda of Euripides, he declares (23), "became in his hands one of the most brilliant examples of chivalrous love." This, however, is a pure assumption on his part, not warranted by the few fragments of this play that have been preserved. Benecke has devoted a special "Excursus" to this play (203-205), in which he justly remarks that readers of Greek literature "need hardly be reminded of how utterly foreign to the Greek of Euripides's day is the conception of the 'galante Ritter' setting out in search of ladies that want rescuing." He might have brought out the humor of the matter by quoting the characteristically Greek version of the Perseus story given by Apollodorus, who relates dryly (II., chap. 4) that Cepheus, in obedience to an oracle, bound his daughter to a rock to be devoured by a sea monster. "Perseus saw her, fell in love with her, and promised Cepheus to slaughter the monster if he would promise to give him the rescued daughter to marry. The contract was made and Perseus undertook the adventure, killed the monster and rescued Andromeda." Nothing could more strikingly reveal the difference between Hellenic and modern ideas regarding lovers than the fact that to the Greek mind there was nothing disgraceful in this selfish, ungallant bargain made by Perseus as a condition of his rescuing the poor girl from a horrible death. A mediaeval knight, or a modern gentleman, not to speak of a modern lover, would have saved her at the risk of his own life, reward or no reward. The difference is further emphasized by the attitude of the girl, who exclaims to her deliverer, "Take me, O stranger, for thine handmaiden, or wife, or slave." Professor Murray, who cites this line in his History of Greek Literature, remarks with comic naivete: "The love-note in this pure and happy sense Euripides had never struck before." But what is there so remarkably "pure and happy" in a girl's offering herself as a slave to a man who has saved her life? Were not Greek women always expected to assume that attitude of inferiority, submission, and self-sacrifice? Was not Alcestis written to enforce that principle of conduct? And does not that very exclamation of Andromeda show how utterly antipodal the situation and the whole drama of Euripides were to modern ideas of chivalrous love?

Having just mentioned Benecke, I may as well add here that his own theory regarding the first appearance of the romantic elements in Greek love-poetry rests on an equally flimsy basis. He held that Antimachus, who flourished before Euripides and Plato had passed away, was the first poet who applied to women the idea of a pure, chivalrous love, which up to his time had been attributed only to the romantic friendships with boys. The "romantic idea," according to Benecke, is "the idea that a woman is a worthy object for a man's love and that such love may well be the chief, if not the only, aim of a man's life." But that Antimachus knew anything of such love is a pure figment of Benecke's imagination. The works of Antimachus are lost, and all that we know about them or him is that he lamented the loss of his wife—a feeling very much older than the poet of Colophon—and consoled himself by writing an elegy named [Greek: Ludae], in which he brought together from mythical and traditional sources a number of sad tales. Conjugal grief does not take us very far toward so complicated an altruistic state of mind as I have shown romantic love to be.

[318] Theocritus makes this point clear in line 5 of Idyl 12:

[Greek: hosson parthenikae propherei trigamoio gunaikos].

[319] See Helbig, 246, and Rohde, 36, for details. Helbig remarks that the Alexandrians, following the procedure of Euripides, chose by preference incestuous passions, "and it appears that such passions were not rare in actual life too in those times."

[320] He refers as instances to Plaut., Asin., III., 3, particularly v. 608 ff. and 615; adding that "a very sentimental character is Charinus in the Mercator;" and he also points to Ter., Eun., 193 ff.

[321] What makes this evidence the more conclusive is that Rohde's use of the word "sentimental" refers, according to his own definition, to egoistic sentimentality, not to altruistic sentiment. Of sentimentality—altiloquent, fabricated feeling and cajolery—there is enough in Greek and Latin literature, doubtless as a reflection of life. But when, in the third act of the Asinaria, the lover says to his girl, "If I were to hear that you were in want of life, at once would I present you my own life and from my own would add to yours," we promptly ask, "Would he have done it?" And the answer, from all we know of these men and their attitude toward women, would have been the same as that of the maiden to the enamoured Daphnis, in the twenty-seventh Idyl of Theocritus: "Now you promise me everything, but afterward you will not give me a pinch of salt." As for the purity of the characters in the play, its quality may be inferred from the fact that the girl is not only a hetaira, but the daughter of a procuress. From the point of view of purity the Captivi is particularly instructive. Riley calls it "the most pure and innocent of all the plays of Plautus;" and when we examine why this is so we find that it is because there is no woman in it! In the epilogue Plautus himself—who made his living by translating Athenian comedies into Latin—makes the significant confession that there were but few Greek plays from which he might have copied so chaste a plot, in which "there is no wenching, no intriguing, no exposure of a child" to be found by a procuress and brought up as a hetaira—which are the staple features of these later Greek plays.

[322] Those who cannot read Greek will derive much pleasure from the admirable prose version of Andrew Lang, which in charm of style sometimes excels the original, while it veils those features that too much offend modern taste.

[323] Couat, 142. There are reasons to believe that the epistles referred to are not by Ovid. Aristaenetus lived about the fifth century. It is odd that the poem of Callimachus should have been lost after surviving eight centuries.

[324] See also Helbig's Chap. XXII. on the increasing lubricity of Greek art.

[325] Space permitting, it would be interesting to examine these poets in detail, as well as the other Romans—Virgil, Horace, Lucretius, etc., who came less under Greek influence. But in truth such examination would be superfluous. Any one may pursue the investigation by himself, and if he will bear in mind and apply as tests, the last seven of my ingredients of love—the altruistic-supersensual group—he cannot fail to become convinced that there are no instances of what I have described as romantic love in Latin literature any more than in Greek. And since it is the province of poets to idealize, we may feel doubly sure that the emotions which they did not even imagine cannot have existed in the actual life of their more prosaic contemporaries. It would, indeed, be strange if a people so much more coarse-fibred and practical, and so much less emotional and esthetic, than the Greeks, should have excelled them in the capacity for what is one of the most esthetic and the most imaginative of all sentiments.

Before leaving the poets, I may add that the Greek Anthology, the basis of which was laid by Meleager, a contemporary of the Roman poets just referred to, contains a collection of short poems by many Greek writers, in which, of course, some of my critics have discovered romantic love. One of them wrote that "the poems of Meleager alone in the Greek Anthology would suffice to refute the notion that Greece ignored romantic passion." If this critic will take the trouble to read these poems of Meleager in the original he will find that a disgustingly large number relate to [Greek: paiderastia], which in No. III. is expressly declared to be superior to the love for women; that most of the others relate to hetairai; and that not one of them—or one in the whole Anthology—comes up to my standard of romantic love.

[326] The best-known ancient story of "love-suicide" is that of Pyramus and Thisbe. Pyramus, having reason to think that Thisbe, with whom he had arranged a secret interview at the tomb of Ninus, has been devoured by a lion, stabs himself in despair, and Thisbe, on finding his body, plunges on to the same sword, still warm with his blood. This tale, which is probably of Babylonian origin, is related by Ovid (Metamorph., IV., 55-166), and was much admired and imitated in the Middle Ages. Comment on it would be superfluous after what I have written on pages 605-610.

[327] See Rohde, 130; Christ, 349.

[328] No more like stories of romantic love than these are the five "love-stories" written in the second century after Christ by Plutarch. This is the more remarkable as Plutarch was one of the few ancient writers to whom at any rate the idea occurred that women might be able to feel and inspire a love rising above the senses. This suggestion is what distinguishes his Dialogue on Love most favorably from Plato's Symposium, which it otherwise, however, resembles strikingly in the peculiar notions regarding the relation of the sexes; showing how tenacious the unnatural Greek ideas were in Greek life. Plutarch's various writings show that though he had advanced notions compared with other Greeks, he was nearly as far from appreciating true femininity, chivalry, and romantic love as Lucian, who also wrote a dialogue on love in the old-fashioned manner.

[329] Hirschig's Scriptores Erotici begins with Parthenius and includes Achilles Tatius, Longus, Xenophon, Heliodorus, Chariton, etc. The right-hand column gives a literal translation into Latin.

[330] Der Griechische Roman, 432-67. An excrescence of this theory is the foolish story that "Bishop" Heliodorus, being called upon by a provincial synod either to destroy his erotic books or to abdicate his position, preferred the latter alternative. The date of the real Heliodorus is perhaps the end of the third or the first half of the fourth century after Christ.

[331] He refers in a footnote to such scenes as are painted in I., 32, 4; II., 9, 11; III., 14, 24, 3; IV., 6, 3—scones and hypocritically naive experiments which he justly considers much more offensive than the notorious scene between Daphnis and Lykainion (III., 18).

[332] Rohde (516) tries to excuse Goethe for his ridiculous praise of this romance (Eckermann, II., 305, 318-321, 322) because he knew the story only in the French version of Amyot-Courier. But I find that this version retains most of the coarseness of the original, and I see no reason for seeking any other explanation of Goethe's attitude than his own indelicacy and obtuseness which, as I noted on page 208, made him go into ecstacies of admiration over a servant whom lust prompted to attempt rape and commit murder. As for Professor Murray, his remarks are explicable only on the assumption that he has never read this story in the original. This is not a violent assumption. Some years ago a prominent professor of literature, ancient and modern, in a leading American university, hearing me say one day that Daphnis and Chloe was one of the most immoral stories ever written, asked in a tone of surprise: "Have you read it in the original?" Evidently he never had! It is needless to add that translations never exceed the originals in impropriety and usually improve on them. The Rev. Rowland Smith, who prepared the English version for Bohn's Library, found himself obliged repeatedly to resort to Latin.

Apart from his coarseness, there is nothing in Longus's conception of love that goes beyond the ideas of the Alexandrians. Of the symptoms of true love—mental or sentimental, esthetic and sympathetic, altruistic and supersensual, he knows no more than Sappho did a thousand years before him. Indeed, in making lovers become indolent, cry out as if they had been beaten, and jump into rivers as if they were afire, he is even cruder and more absurd than Sappho was in her painting of sensual passion. His whole idea of love is summed up in what the old shepherd Philetas says to Daphnis and Chloe (II., 7): [Greek: Egvov d' ego kai tauron erasthenta kai hos oistro plaegeis emukato, kai tragon philaesanta aiga kai aekolouthei pantachou. Autos men gar aemaen neos kai aerasthen Amarullidos].

[333] See Rehde, 345; on Musaeus, 472, 133.

[334] Lucii Apulei Metamorphoseon, Libri XI., Ed. van der Vliet (Teubner), IV., 89-135.

[335] See the remarks on Tristan and Isolde in my Wagner and his Works, II., 138.



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Jones, C.C.: Antiquities of the Southern Indians.

Jones, Rev. Peter: History of the Ojebway Indians.

Jowett, B.: The Dialogues of Plato.

Jung, K.E.: Der Welttheil Australien.

Kalakaua, King: Legends and Myths of Hawaii.

Kalidasa, Sakuntala, Urvasi, Malavika and Agnimitra.

Kama Soutra, or Kamasutram.

Kane, E.K.: Arctic Explorations.

Kay, S.: Caffraria.

Keane, A.H.: Journ. Anthr. Inst., 1883.

Keating, W.H.: Expedition to the Source of St. Peter's River.

Kenrick, J.: Ancient Egypt Under the Pharaohs.

King, Captain J.S.: Folk Lore Journal, 1888.

King, W. Ross: Aboriginal Tribes of the Nilgiri Hills.

King and Fitzroy: Voyages of the Adventure and Beagle.

Koelle, S.W.: African Native Literature.

Kolben, Peter: Description du Cap de Bonne Esperance, Paris, 1743.

Kotzebue, O.: New Voyage Round the World.

Krabbes, Theodor: Die Frau im altfranzoesischen Karls-epos.

Krafft-Ebing, R.V.: Psychopathia Sexualis. Psychopathologie.

Krause, A.: Die Tlinkit Indianer.

Kremer, A.V.: Culturgeschichte des Orients.

Kronlein: Wortschatz der Namaqua Hottentotten.

Kubary, J.S.: Globus XLVII.

Kuechler: Trans. Asiatic Soc. of Japan.

Lafitau, J.F.: Moeurs des Savages Ameriquains.

Lamairesse, E.: Kama Soutra.

Landa, D.: Relacion de las cosas de Yucatan.

Lander, C. and J.: Expedition to Explore the Niger.

Landor, A.H. Savage: Alone Among the Hairy Ainu.

Lane, E.W.: Arabic Society in the Middle Ages. Manners and Customs of Modern Egyptians.

Lang, Andrew: Custom and Myth. Translations of Homer and Theocritus.

Lathrop, G.P.

Lavaysse, M.: Venezuela, Trinidad, etc..

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Leigh, W.H.: South Australia.

Le Jeune.

Leland, C.A.: The Algonquin Legends of New England.

Leslie, D.: Among the Zulus and Amatongas.

Letourneau, Ch.: L'Evolution du Mariage.

Lewin, T.H.: Wild Races of South-Eastern India.

Lewis and Clarke: Travels to the Source of the Missouri River and Across the Continent to the Pacific Ocean. Library of Aboriginal American Literature, edited by D.G. Brinton.

Lichtenberg, G.C.: Schriften.

Lichtenstein, H.: Travels in South Africa.

Limburg-Brouwer: Hist. de la Civilisation des Grecs.

Livingstone, D.: Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa. Expedition to the Zambesi. Last Travels.

Loebel, D.T.: Hochzeitsgebraeuche der Tuerken.

Longus.

Loskiel, G.H.: Geschichte der Mission der evangelischen Brueder, 1789.

Love-Affairs of Some Famous Men.

Low, Brooke: Catalogue of the Brooke Low Collection in Borneo.

Lowel, J.R.

Lowrie, J.C.: Two Years in Upper India.

Lubbock, Sir J.: The Origin of Civilization and the Primitive Condition of Man.

Lucian.

Luebke, W.: History of Art.

Lumholtz, C.: Among Cannibals.

Lycurgus.

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Lytton, Bulwer: Essay on Love.

Macaulay, T.B.: Essay on Petrarch.

MacDonald, Duff: Africana.

MacDonald, Rev. J.: Journal Anthropol. Institution, 1890, Vol. XX.

Macgillivray, J.: Voyage of the Rattlesnake.

Mackenzie, Alexander: Voyages to the Frozen and Pacific Oceans.

Mackenzie, Day: Dawn in Dark Places.

Macpherson, S.C.: Rural Bengal.

M'Lean, J.: Twenty-Five Years' Service in the Hudson's Bay Territory.

Magazin von Reisebeschreibungen.

Mahaffy, J.P.: Greek Life and Thought.

Mallery, G.: Picture Writing of the Indians. Rep. Bureau Ethnol., Wash., 1882-83, 1888-89.

Man, E.H.: Journ Anthr. Inst. Vol. XII.

Mantegazza, P.: Geschlechtsverhaeltnisse des Menschen.

Manu, Ordinances of.

Mariner, W. (See Martin, J.)

Markham, C.R.: Expedition into the Valley of the Amazon.

Marryat, F.: Borneo.

Marsden, W.: History of Sumatra.

Martin, J.: An Account of the Natives of the Tonga Islands Compiled from the Communications of Mr. William Mariner.

Martin, L.A.: La Morale chez les Chinois.

Martius, C.F. Ph.: Beitraege zur Ethnographic ... Brasiliens.

Martyr, P.: De Orbe Novo.

Mathew, J.: Jour. and Proc. Royal Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. XXIII.

Mathews C.: Indian Fairy Book.

Mayne, R.C.: Four Years in British Columbia.

McClintock and Strong: Cyclopaedia of Biblical ... Literature.

McCulloh, J.H.: Researches, Philosophical and Antiquarian, Baltimore, 1829.

McLennan, J.F.: Studies in Ancient History.

Meleager.

Menander.

Meyer, H.E.A.: in Woods' Native Tribes of South Australia.

Miller, Joaquin: Life Among the Modocs.

Milman, H.H.: History of the Jews. History of Latin Christianity.

Mitchell, T.L.: Three Expeditions into the Interior of Eastern Australia.

Moffat, R.: Missionary Labors and Scenes in Southern Africa.

Moll, A.: Die Contraere Sexual-empfindung. Untersuchungen ueber die Libido Sexualis.

Moncaut, Cenac: Histoire de l'Amour.

Monteiro, J.J.: Angola and the River Congo.

Moore, T.: Marriage Customs ... of Various Nations.

Morgan, L.H.: League of the Iroquois. Ancient Society.

Mueller, C.O.: History and Antiquities of the Doric Race.

Mueller, F.: Allgemeine Ethnographic.

Mueller, F. Max: India, What can it Teach Us?

Muir, John: The Mountains of California.

Mundy, Rodney: Narrative of Events in Borneo and Celebes.

Munzinger, W.: Ostafrikanische Studien.

Murdoch, J.: Rep. Bureau Ethnol., Wash., 1887-1888.

Murr, C.G.: Nachrichten von verschiedenen Laendern des Spanischen Amerika.

Murray, G.G.A.: History of Ancient Greek Literature.

Musaeus.

Musters, G.C.: At Home with the Patagonians.

Nansen, F.: The First Crossing of Greenland.

Napier, E.E.: Excursions in Southern Africa.

Neill, E.D.: Dacotah Land.

Niblack, A.P.: Coast Indians of South Alaska, in Smithsonian Rep., 1888.

Niebuhr, C.: Travels in Arabia.

Nonnus, Dionysiaka.

Norman, Henry: Peoples and Politics of the Far East.

Oliphant, L.: Minnesota.

Ovid.

Oviedo, G.F.: Historia de las Indias.

Pallas, P.S.: Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des russischen Reichs.

Palmer, Geo. H.: Trans. Odyssey.

Park, Mungo: Travels in the Interior of Africa.

Parker, R. Langloh: Australian Legendary Tales.

Parkman, F.: California and Oregon Trail. Jesuits in N. America.

Parkyns, M.: Life in Abyssinia.

Parthenius.

Paulitschke, P.: Beitraege zur Ethnographie u. Anthrop. der Somali, Galla u. Harari. Ethnographie Nordost Afrikas.

Pausanias: Description of Greece.

Peabody Museum Reports.

Petherick, J.: Egypt, the Soudan, and Central Africa.

Pfeiffer, Ida: Meine Zweite Weltreise. A Lady's Voyage Round the World.

Philip, J.: Researches in South Africa.

Phillip, A.: Voyage to Botany Bay.

Plato.

Plautus.

Ploss-Bartels: Das Weib in der Natur-und Volkerkunder. Fourth edition, 1895.

Plutarch.

Polak, J.E.: Persien, das Land und seine Bewohner.

Polo, Marco: Marvels of the East.

Powers, S.: Tribes of California, in U.S. Geogr. and Geol. Survey Rocky Mt. Region, 1877.

Pizarro, P.: Relaciones ... los Reynos del Peru.

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Propertius.

Raffles, T.S.: History of Java.

Rahmdohr, F.W.B. von: Venus Urania, 1798.

Ramabai Saravasti: The High Caste Hindu Woman.

Rand, S.T.: Legends of the Micmacs.

Ratzel, F.: Voelkerkunde.

Reade, W.W.: Savage Africa. Equatorial Africa.

Reeves, E.: Brown Men and Women.

Reich, E.: Geschichte des ehelichen Lebens.

Reinsberg-Dueringsfeld: Hochzeitsbuch.

Renan, E.: Le Cantique des Cantiques.

Reports of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.

Reuleaux, F.: Eine Reise durch Indien.

Revue d'Anthropologie.

Ribot, T.: Psychologie des Sentiments.

Richardson, J.: Arctic Searching Expedition.

Riggs, S.R.: Dakota ... Ethnography, in U.S. Geogr. and Geol. Survey Rocky Mt., Vol. IX.

Rink, H.J.: Tales and Traditions of the Eskimo.

Rivero and Tschudi: Peruvian Antiquities.

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Robley, Maj.-Gen.: Moko: or Maori Tatooing.

Rohde, E.: Der Griechische Roman.

Romanes, G.: Mental Evolution in Animals.

Roosevelt, Theodore: Winning of the West.

Rossbach, in Schenkel's Bibellexicon.

Rossetti, C.G.

Roth, H. Ling: Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo.

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Rousseau, J.J.

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Saadi, Gulistan.

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Sandwich Island Notes, by "Haeole," New York, 1854.

Sappho.

Schoen: Grammar of the Hausa Language.

Schomburgk, R.: Reisen in Britisch-Guiana.

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Schopenhauer: Werke.

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Schurmann, C.W.: in Woods' Native Tribes of S. Australia.

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Schuyler, Eugene: Turkestan.

Schwaner, C.A.: Borneo.

Schweinfurth, G.: The Heart of Africa.

Scott, Walter.

Seemann, B.: Viti.

Sellar, W.Y.: Roman Poets of the Republic, 1863.

Semon, R.: In the Australian Bush.

Shakespere.

Shelley, P.B.

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Shortland, E.S.: Traditions and Superstitions of the New Zealanders.

Smith, Donaldson: Through Unknown African Countries.

Smith, E.R.: The Araucanians.

Smith, James (cited Bancroft, I.).

Smith, W.R.: Marriage and Kinship in Early Arabia.

Smithsonian Reports of the Bureau of Ethnology, etc.

Smyth, Brough: Aborigines of Victoria.

Smythe, W.J.: Ten Months on the Fiji Islands.

Sophocles.

Southey, R.: History of Brazil.

Speke, J.H.: Discovery of the Source of the Nile.

Spencer, Herbert: Principles of Psychology. Principles of Sociology. Descriptive Sociology.

Spencer and Gillen: Native Tribes of Central Australia, 1899.

Spix and Martius: Travels in Brazil in 1817-1820.

Squier, E.G.: Nicaragua.

Stanley, H.M.: How I found Livingstone. My Early Travels and Adventures.

Steele, R.: The Lover.

Steihen, Karl von den: Durch Central Brasilien.

Stephens, Edward: Journal of Royal Soc. New South Wales, Vol. XXXIII.

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Stockton, Frank.

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Sturt, C.: Expedition into Central Australia.

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Sutherland, A.: Origin and Growth of the Moral Instinct.

Symonds, J.A.: Studies in the Greek Poets.

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Tawney, C.H.: The Kathakoca, or Treasury of Stories.

Taylor, R.: Te Ika a Maui; or, New Zealand and its Inhabitants.

Tennyson.

Terence.

Theal, G.M.: Kaffir Folk-Lore, 1886.

Theocritus.

Thomson, A.S.: New Zealand.

Thomson, J.: Through Masai Land.

Thunberg, C.P.: An Account of the Cape of Good Hope, in Pinkerton's Coll. of Voyages, Vol. XVI.

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Tibullus.

Torquemada, J. de: Monarquia Indiana.

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Trumbull, H.C.: Studies in Oriental Social Life.

Tschudi, J.J. von: Reisen durch Sued Amerika. Travels in Peru. See also Rivero.

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Turgeuieff.

Turner, G.: Nineteen Years in Polynesia. Samoa.

Tyler, J.: Forty Years Among the Zulus.

Tylor, E.B.: Primitive Culture. Anthropology.

Tyrrell: Across the Sub Arctics of Canada.

Ulrici, H.: Shakspere's Dramatic Art.

United States Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region. Same of Colorado.

D'Urville, Dumont: Voyage de l'Astrolabe.

Vail, E.A.: Les Indiens de l'Amerique du Nord.

Vambery, A.: The Turkish People.

Varigny, De: Quartorze Ans aux Isles Sandwich.

"Vason," Four Years' Residence at Tongataboo.

Verplanck, G.C.: The Illustrated Shakespeare.

Vespucci, Amerigo: Four Voyages. Quaritch Transl., London, 1885.

Virgil.

Wagner, R.

Waitz-Gerland: Anthropologie der Naturvoelker.

Wallace, A.R.: Travels on the Amazon and Rio Negro. Tropical Nature. Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection. Darwinism. The Malay Archipelago. Australasia.

Wallaschek, R.: Primitive Music.

Ward, Herbert: Five Years with the Congo Cannibals.

Ward, Wm.: History, Literature and Religion of the Hindus.

Watson and Kaye: The People of India.

Weber, A.: History of Indian Literature.

Weber, Ernst von: Vier Jahre in Afrika.

Weismann: Essays upon Heredity.

Westcott, W.W.: Suicide.

Westermarck, E.: History of Human Marriage. Second Ed., 1894.

Wharton, H.T.: Sappho.

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Wied, Maximilian Prinz zu: Reise in das Innere Nord Amerikas.

Wilhelmi, C., in Woods' Native Tribes of South Australia.

Wilkes, C.: Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842.

Wilkinson, G.B.: South Australia.

Williams, Monier: Modern India and the Indians.

Williams and Calvert: Fiji and the Fijians.

Willoughby, C.: Smithsonian Report, 1886, Pt. I..

Winstanley, W.: A Visit to Abyssinia.

Wood, J.G.: Natural History of Man.

Wood, Robert: The Original Genius, and Writings of Homer, London, 1775.

Woods, J.D.: The Native Tribes of South Australia. South Australia.

Xenophon.

Xenophon Ephesius.

Yawger, Rose: The Indian and the Pioneer.

Yonan, Isaac Malek: Persian Women. Nashville, 1898.

Zeitschrift fuer Ethnologie.

Zoeller, H.: Pampas und Anden. Rund um die Erde. Forschungsreisen in die deutsche Colonie Kamerun.



INDEX OF SUBJECTS

Abipones: Baldness; Tattooing courage; Cruel to women; Parental tyranny.

Abyssinians: Concubinage; Women not coy; Amulets; Choice; Where woman rules; No chance for love; Pastoral love; A flirtation.

Achilles and Briseis.

Acontius and Cydippe.

Adoration, contempt, and adulation: (See also Women: maltreatment of, and contempt for).

Affection.

Africans: Mutilations; Vanity and emulation; Scarification; Beauty not appreciated; Corpulence versus beauty; Concupiscence versus beauty; Kissing; Why wives are valued; Desertion of the aged; "Liberty of choice,"; Chapter on (See Table of Contents and names of peoples: Bushmen, Hottentots, Kaffirs, etc.).

Ainos: A flirtation.

Algerians: Kabyles.

Algonkins: Tattooing; Words for love.

Altruism: (See Selfishness).

Amazons: (See Women, masculine).

American Indians: Fear of nature; Honorable polygamy; Ashamed to wear clothes; Indifference to chastity; Incest; Advertising for a wife; Repression of preference; Utility versus beauty; Masculine women; A girl's ideal; Polygamous sentiment; "Jealousy,"; Absence of real jealousy; Unjealous Californians and Patagonians; Feminine jealousy; Absence of; Easily overcome; Causes of; Proposals by girls; Capture of women; Pride; Cruelty; Contempt for women; Kinship through females; Woman's domestic and political rule; Ungallant; Caressing no evidence of affection; War decorations; Tattooing; Hair dresses; Valor versus beauty; Tattooing as a mark of courage; Language of signs; Utility versus beauty; Uncleanly; Child-wives; Conjugal "tenderness,"; Mourning to order; Conjugal grief; Lack of brains; "Liberty of choice,"; Sexual taboos; Tribal hatred; Chapter on (See Table of Contents); Defenders; Stories; Not true to life; Morals; Not gallant; Lower than brutes; Enforced chastity, but no purity; Why some female captives were spared; Squaws intimidated; Beauty not valued; Lack of sympathy; Contempt for squaws; Girl market; Marriage arrangements; Elopements; Suicide; Love-dreams; Curiosities of courtship; Silent proposals; Music in courtship; Honeymoon; Love-poems; Philology and love; More stories.

Animals: Superior to savages; Gallant roosters; A noble officer; Maternal instinct; Sexual selection; Superior to Hindoos.

Annamanese: Incest.

Antigone and Haemon.

Apaches: Hair; Filthy; "Purity" and cruelty; Cruelty to mothers; Enslave women; Courtship.

Appetite and longing.

Arabs: Nudity; Unjealous; Unjealous women; Bedouin women not coy; Resistance of brides; Love among; Shaping skulls; Corpulence versus beauty; Love and lust; One wife not enough; Desertion of parents; Influence on others.

Arapahoes: Protection against men; Girls as merchandise.

Araucanians: Brides sold; Bride-capture; Musical lovers.

Ashangos: Amazons.

Ashantees: No free choice.

Attachment.

Australians: Inclined to murder; Infanticide; Indifference to chastity; Jealous women; Female opposition to marriage; Capture not encouraged; Protection not gallantry; Risking life for a woman; War-paint; Mutilations; Signs of mourning; Colors to attract attention; Feathers to look savage; Scarification; Women and ornaments; Taking notice of a man's face; Must submit to mutilations; Women indifferent to decorations; Filthy; "Appreciation of beauty"; Child-wives; Mourning to order; "Love"; Lewd dances; Price of a wife; Chapter on (See Table of Contents).

Azteks: (See Mexicans).

Babylonian women.

Bakongo: Headdresses.

Bathing: Reasons for.

Bayaderes.

Beauty: Personal; Hottentot ideal; Australian; South Sea Islanders; Not valued in squaws; Hindoo ideal; Greek masculine ideal.

Bechuanas: Polygamy.

Bhuiyas: Romantic courtship.

Bible: (See Hebrews).

Blackfeet: Punishing infidelity; Maltreatment of squaws; "Only a woman"; Disposal of girls; Marrying sisters; Elopements; Courtship.

Borneans: Marriage by stratagem; Tattooing; Suicidal grief; Caged girls (See also Dyaks).

Brazilians: Tribal marks; Tattooing; Lack of brains; Multiplicity of languages; Licentiousness; Jus primae noctis; Women as slaves; Words to express love.

Brides: Capture or purchase of (See Marriage).

Bushmen: Imperfect sexual differentiation; Charms; Child-wives; Various details; No liberty of choice.

Butias: Promiscuity.

California Indians: Adultery; Tattooing; Uncleanly; Voluptuous beauties; Deceptive modesty; Intimidating the squaws; Treatment of squaws; Marriage; Courtship; Puberty songs; Stories.

Cannibalism: Australian.

Capture of brides: (See Marriage).

Caribs: Columbus on; Jus primae noctis; Women as drudges.

Caroline Islanders: Tattooing.

Chansons de Geste: Courting by women.

Charms.

Chastity and unchastity.

Cherokees: Immoral.

Cheyennes: Protection against men; Girls as merchandise.

Chinese: Hiding women's feet; Feminine coercion to marriage; Pitiable condition of women; Love considered immoral; Why deform women's feet; Marriage restrictions.

Chinooks: Painting; Unchaste; Position of women; Love-songs.

Chippewas: Husband and wife; Lending wives; Cruelty to women; "Choice"; Love-powders; No love.

Chippewyans: Unchaste; Love and drums.

Chittagong Hill Tribes: Capacity for love.

Choice: Prevention of; New Zealand; Indians; Wild tribes of India; Hindoos.

Christianity: Vs. natural selection; Prayer; Encourages feminine virtues; Ideal of love.

Cleanliness: Indifference to.

Coarseness: An obstacle to love.

Comanches: Utilitarian marriages; Cruel jealousy; Filthy; Lower than brutes; Enforce chastity on wives.

Congo: Ornaments as fetiches; Mourning; Wives esteemed as mothers only; "Poetic love" on.

Coreans: Contempt for women.

Corpulence versus beauty.

Corrobborees.

Courage: Mutilation a test of.

Courtship: Greenland; Creeks; Zulu; Australian; Torres Islands; Dyaks; New Zealand; Apaches; Omahas; Curiosities of Indian; Bhuiyas; Hindoo; Greek.

Coyness: (See Table of Contents).

Creeks: Masculine women; Deceptive modesty; Immoral; Women as slaves; Contempt for women; Choice and marriage; Suicides.

Crees: Unchastity.

Cruelty: In women; An obstacle to love; Of Indians: Of Hindoos; Of Greeks; (See Women, maltreatment of).

Dahomans: Signs of grief; Compulsory mourning; Amazons.

Dakotas: Honorable polygamy; Similarity of sexes; Gallantry; War-decorations; Paint; Uncleanly; Lower than brutes; Market value of chastity; Maltreatment of squaws; Sorrows of women; Disposal of girls; Honeymoon; Suicide; Love-charms; Courtship; Love-poems; A love-story.

Damaras: Lack of sympathy; Uncleanly; Temporary marriages.

Decorations, personal.

Delawares: Treatment of squaws; Suicide.

Dyaks: Head-hunters; Gallantry; Scars and courage; Charms of women; Morals; Courtship; Fickle and shallow passion; Love-songs.

Dying for love.

Egyptians: Obscenity in tombs; Love; Child-wives.

Elopements: Philosophy of Australian; Why Indians elope.

Eskimos: No morality or chastity; Not modest or coy; Ungallant; Risking life for a woman; Assaults; Mutilations; Tattooing; Tattoo marks and husbands; Filthy; "Love-unions;" Capacity for love.

Esthetic sense: (See Beauty).

Esthonians: Mock coyness.

Fashion and mutilation.

Females: Kinship thorough.

Feminine ideals: Superior to masculine; Encouraged by Christianity; Greek ignorance of.

Fetiches.

Fijians: Murder a virtue; Infanticide; Preference; Similarity of sexes; Jealousy; Proposal by a girl; Feathers to attract attention; Eat useless wives; Choice; Cleanliness; Treatment of women; Modesty and chastity; Sentimentality; Love-poems; Serenades and proposals; Suicides and bachelors.

Fondness.

Fuegians: Marriage.

Gallantry: A lesson in; American Indians; Wild tribes of India; Greeks; Hebrews.

Gallas: Coarseness of.

Garos: Proposing by girls.

Gipsies: Incest.

Greeks: Hegel on love; Love in Homer; Wood, Shelley; Macaulay, Bulwer, Gautier; Sentimentality; No love of romantic scenery; Incest; Jealousy; Homeric women not coy; Women the embodiment of lust; Masculine coyness; Shy women; War and love; Mercenary coyness; Mixed moods in love; Amorous hyperbole; Artificial symptoms; Sympathy denounced by Plato; Estimate of women; Unchivalrous; Risking life for a woman; Suicide and love; Love turns to hate; Woman-love considered sensual; Attitude toward female beauty; Sensual love; Barrenness a cause of divorce; Chapter on Greek love; Champions of; Gladstone on the women of Homer; Achilles as a lover; Words versus actions; Odysseus, libertine and ruffian; Penelope as a model wife; Conjugal tenderness of Hector; Barbarous treatment of women; Love in Sappho's poems; Anacreon and others; Woman and love in AEschylus; In Sophocles; In Euripides; Romantic love for boys; Platonic love excludes women; Made impossible in Sparta; Preference for masculine women and beauty; Oriental costumes; Love in life and in literature; In Greater Greece; Seventeen symptoms; Alexandrian chivalry; The New Comedy; Theocritus and Callimachus; Medea and Jason; Poets and hetairai; No stories of romantic love; Romances; Marriage among.

Greenlanders: Indifferent to chastity; Courtship.

Guatemalans: Brides selected for men; Erotic philology.

Guiana: War-paint; Tattooing; Women as drudges; Marriage arrangements.

Harari: Amorous hyperbole; Love-poems.

Hawaiians: Infanticide; Nudity; Indifference to chastity; Incest; Similarity of sexes; Ungallant; Mutilations; Mourning; Personal appearance; Love-stories; Quality of love; Morals.

Head-hunters.

Heads: Moulded.

Hebrews: Women not coy; Champions for; Stories; No sympathy or sentiment; A masculine ideal of womanhood; Not the Christian ideal of love; Unchivalrous slaughter of women; Song of Songs.

Hector and Andromache.

Hero and Leander.

Hetairai.

Hindoos: (See India).

Honeymoon: Among Indians.

Hope and Despair.

Hottentots: Courtship; Uncleanly; Ugliness; Child-wives; Various details.

Hurons: Preference and aversion; Immorality; Woman man's mule; Old wives for young men.

Hyperbole.

Importance of Love: (See Utility).

Incest: (See Licentious Festivals); Horror of.

India: Hindoos: Immorality in religion; Idea of politeness; Of modesty; Incest; Mixed moods in love; Arousing pride; Sham altruism; Contempt for women; Ungallant; Impurity; Idea of beauty; Widow-burning; Conjugal "devotion,"; Barren wives discarded; Cruelty to infant wives; "Maiden's choice,"; Chapter on; Child murder and marriage; Parental selfishness; Below brutes; Contempt for women; Widows and their tormentors; Depravity; Symptoms of love: feminine; Masculine; Artificial symptoms; God of love; Dying for love; What Hindoo poets admire in women; Shrewd selfishness; Bayaderes and princesses as heroines; Marriages of choice not respectable.

India: Wild Tribes: Religious sacrifices; Filthy; Practical promiscuity; Romantic customs; Choice; Courtship; Proposing by girls; Attachments.

Indians: (See American Indians).

Individual preference.

Infanticide.

Intelligence: Importance of, to beauty.

Iroquois: Feathers and rank; No love; Licentious festivals; Cruelty to mothers; Woman man's servant; Love the last product of civilization.

Jacob and Rachel.

Japanese: Concubines; Lover's pride; Contempt for women; No love-marriages; Tattooing.

Javanese: Marriage before puberty; No liberty of choice.

Jealousy: Rousseau on; Chapter on (See Table of Contents).

Jus primae noctis.

Kaffirs: Cattle versus women; Pride vs. love; Pride to aid love; Uncleanly; Child-wives; No free choice; Various details.

Kaffirs of Hindu-Kush: Unjealous.

Kamerun: Nudity; No individual preference; No love in.

Kandhs: Licentious festivals.

Klamath Indians: Erotic songs.

Korumbas, promiscuity.

Kukis: Unchastity.

Kwakiutl Indians: Love-songs.

Languages: Multiplicity of.

Latuka: Polygamy.

Lepchas: Promiscuity.

Levirate.

Licentious festivals; Kaffir; Australian (See Corrobborees); Hawaiians; American Indians; India.

Liking.

Longing.

Love, conjugal: Nature of; Mistakes regarding; African; Australian; Dyak; Fijian; Hawaiian; New Zealand; Indian; Hindoo; Greek.

Love-letters: African; Australian; Hawaiian.

Love: pathologic.

Love-poems: Turkish; Fijian; Somali; Esthonian; Hottentot; Harari; New Zealand; Indian; Hindoo; Song of Songs; Greek.

Love: Primitive.

Love: Romantic; A compound; The word; Last product of civilization; Importance of; What it is; Ingredients; Jealousy in; Power of; Hyperbole; Comic side of; Symptoms; Sympathy; Adoration; Actions versus words; Affection; Mental purity; Definition of; Why called romantic; Sentiment; Vanity of; Changed to conjugal love; Obstacles to; Baker on African; Zoeller on African; Absent in Abyssinia; Among Bushmen; Hottentots; Kaffirs; Negroes; Gallas; Somals; Kabyles; Touaregs; Germs; Australian "affection,"; Sentimental touches; Dyak love; Fijian love; Tahitian love; Polynesian stories; Hawaiian love; Its violence compared with sensual passion; To be found in New Zealand?; Unchastity incompatible with; Indian "refined love,"; Does suicide prove love?; Philologic evidence; Indian specimens; Whole tracts of feeling unknown to savages; Unknown to Hindoos; To Hebrews; To Greeks; Utility of.

Madagascar: Unchastity.

Mahabharata.

Makololo: Mutilations.

Malavika and Agnimitra.

Mandans: Women not jealous; Not coy; Obliged to mourn; Apparent modesty; Lower than brutes; "Conjugal love,"; Brides sold.

Maoris (See New Zealanders).

Marriage: Polygamy more honorable than monogamy; Monopolism and monogamy; Chastity not valued in; Utilitarian; Wives as property; On trial; A farce; And corpulence; Why savages value wives; Of women, without choice (See Choice); In China; Love in Bushman; Why Australians marry; By exchange of girls; By elopement (See Elopements); Taboos; Of souls; By stratagem; Christian ideal vs. ancient Hebrew; In Greece; Plato's ideal; In Tonga; In Hawaii; Indians; In India; By capture and mock capture; By purchase; Before puberty; (See also Promiscuity).

Masculine selfishness: (See Selfishness).

Medea and Jason.

Mediaeval gallantry.

Melanesians: Morals.

Mexicans: Barrenness a cause of divorce; Practical promiscuity; Woman's inferior position; Marriage conditions; Aztek love-poems; Erotic philology.

Micronesians: Tattooing.

Militarism and feminine lack of coyness.

Mishmees: Unchastity.

Mixed Moods: (See Hope and Despair).

Modesty: Curiosities of; Deception; Absence of, etc. (See Chastity).

Modocs: Dangers of adultery; Why they marry; Marriage ceremony.

Mohammedans: Polygamy; Contempt for women.

Mojaves: Jewels and rank; Morals.

Monopolism.

Moors: Ideas of beauty; Ugly features.

Mordvins: Mock coyness.

Mosquitos: Lower than animals.

Mourning: Decorations; To order; For entertainment.

Murder: As a virtue.

Mutilations.

Nagas: Ungallant.

Nala and Damayanti.

Natchez: Lending wives; Unchaste; Treatment of squaws.

Natural selection: Replaced by love.

Navajos: Unchastity; Treatment of women; Courtship.

Negroes, African: Feminine aspect of men; Delight in torture; Scarification; Idea of beauty; No love among.

New Britain Group: Paying for a wife.

New Hebrides: Infanticide.

New Zealanders: Masculine women; Wooing-house; Decorations; Anesthetic; Object of tattooing; Filthy; Origin of the Maoris; Love-poems; Courtship; Morals.

Niam-Niam: Conjugal love.

Nicaraguans: Tattooing; Licentious festivals; Eating a rival.

Nudity: (See Modesty).

Obscenity: An obstacle to love.

Odysseus as a husband.

Old maids.

Omahas: Tribal marks; Tattooing; Courtship; Buying wives; And elopements; An idyl; Love-poems.

Oraons: Promiscuity; Courtship.

Oriental ideal of beauty; Sentimentality.

Osages: Tattooing; Unchaste.

Pacific Islands: Love on.

Paharias: Attachment.

Paiderastia [Greek].

Papuans: Nudity.

Pastoral love.

Patagonians: Adultery; Decorations; No esthetic sense; Licentiousness; Women as drudges; Marriages; A courtship.

Paul and Virginia.

Pawnees: Apathy of brides; Daughters as merchandise; Courtship.

Penelope as a model wife.

Perseus and Andromeda.

Persians: Cruel jealousy; Unjealous women; Amorous hyperbole; Love among; Impurity.

Peruvians: Mutilations; Sun virgins; Cruel to women; Marriage; Love-charms; Words to express love.

Philippine Islanders: Bisayos; Indifferent to chastity; Women not jealous.

Piutes: Nocturnal courtship.

Pocahontas, story of.

Polynesians: Gods; Infanticide; Proposals by women; Tattooing; Reasons for bathing; Beauty means fat.

Pride, amorous.

Priestesses.

Promiscuity, practical.

Proposing: By women; In Fiji; Silent; By Indians.

Puberty: Decorations and mutilations at; Marriage before (See Marriage).

Pueblos: Girls propose; Unchastity.

Purchase of brides: (See Marriage).

Purity, mental.

Race aversion.

Rebekah, the courting of.

Religion: No love in early; Fear; Blasphemy; Sacrifices; Immorality; Associated with.

Religious prejudices.

Romans: Refined sensual love; Mercenary coyness; Amorous hyperbole; Sham gallantry; Suicide and love; Terence and Plautus; Catullus; Tibullus; Propertius and Ovid.

Romantic, meaning of.

Ruth and Boaz.

Sakuntala.

Samoans: Idea of modesty; Obscene conversation; Various traits; Chastity; Courtship pantomime; Love-stories; Personal appearance.

Samoyedes: selfish men.

Savitri.

Scarification.

Scenery, romantic.

Selfishness: (See Women, maltreatment of); Adoration; Sympathy; Gallantry; Affection.

Self-sacrifice.

Sensuality: Antipode of love; Fastidious; Is not love; Goethe's error; Appetite and longing; And sentimentality (See Chastity).

Sentiment, versus sentimentality.

Sentimentality.

Sentiments: How they change and grow.

Separation of the sexes.

Sexual characters, primary and secondary.

Sexual selection.

Sexuality, mental.

Singhalese: utilitarian marriage.

Sioux: (See Dakotas).

Social barriers to love.

Somali: Unjealous wives; Feathers; Fat versus beauty; A love-song; Child-wives; Barren women chased away; Absence of gallantry; Love-affairs.

Song of Songs.

Sorceresses.

Stories, incidents, and dramas: African; American Indian; Australian; Eskimo; Greek; Hawaiian; Hebrew; Indian (Hindoo and wild tribes); New Zealand; Oriental; Polynesian; Samoan; Tahitian; Tongan.

Suicide and love.

Sumatrans: Marriages; Selfish men; No choice.

Swedes: mock-capture.

Sympathy.

Syria: idea of modesty.

Taboos, sexual.

Tahitians: Tattooing; Indifference to chastity; Contempt for women; Compressed heads; Flowers and licentiousness; Mourning; Personal appearance; Depraved by white visitors?

Tasmanians: Charms; Mourning.

Taste, disputing about.

Tattooing.

Temple girls, Hindoo.

Thibet: Unchastity; Woman's wretched lot.

Thlinkeets: Exchanging wives; War-paint; Mutilations; Suicide.

Todas: Unjealous.

Tongans: Tattooing; Beads and vanity; Personal appearance; Were they civilized? Love of scenery.

THE END

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