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Pratt's Practical Pointers on the Care of Livestock and Poultry
by Pratt Food Co.
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Cause.—By trouble peculiar to calving or running into rich pasture during hot weather; by lack of exercise and from costiveness. Usually attacks fat cows.

Treatment.—(From Circular 45, Bureau of Animal Industry, U.S. Department of Agriculture.) "Of all known methods of treating milk fever, the injection of sterile atmospheric air into the udder is by far the most simple and practicable as well as the most efficacious and harmless one at our disposal." Pratts Milk Fever Outfit for air treatment should always be kept on hand. The price is $3. This treatment has cured 97 per cent. of cases treated.

Prevention.—Feed pregnant cows with nutritious and laxative feed, give plenty of water and Pratts Cow Remedy daily. Keep stable clean, well ventilated and disinfected with Pratts Dip and Disinfectant.

Milk—To Increase the Flow of

Treatment.—To increase flow of milk give Pratts Cow Remedy daily with a good nutritious ration and plenty of water. These supply just what a cow needs to make her food appetizing, to regulate the blood, bowels and digestive organs, to turn all the nutriment of the feed given into flesh and milk without waste. Pratts Cow Remedy has been used for over 40 years by successful and conservative feeders, and wherever used, according to directions, has produced wonderful results.

Ophthalmia—Sore Eyes

Treatment.—Separate affected animals at once and put them in clean, well ventilated but dark stalls as this is contagious. Disinfect entire place with one part Pratts Dip and Disinfectant to 75 parts of water. Give physic of a pound and a half of Epsom salts, dissolve in a pint of warm water, to which add two ounces of powdered ginger. Give sloppy feed with one dram of powdered nitrate of potassia added and Pratts Cow Remedy daily.

Fasten a cloth over the eyes and keep it wet with a lotion of chloride of zinc, one dram; carbolic acid, two drams; water, one gallon. Apply to the cheek below each eye, to the space of about two inches, a small portion composed of Spanish fly, 2 drams; lard, two tablespoonfuls. Apply in the morning and wash off with soap suds and a sponge, six hours later. Apply lard. Keep separated from herd for a month after recovery.

Rheumatism

Symptoms.—Hot, painful swellings at the joints, stiffness in walking and difficulty in rising.

Cause.—By exposure, badly ventilated and wet stables, damp, marshy pasture and impure food.

Treatment.—Bathe joints with Pratts Liniment. Give a physic of a pound of Epsom salts in warm water. Give two drams of salicylate of soda every three hours for two days. Keep animal warm and dry. Give nutritious feed of a laxative nature with Pratts Cow Remedy daily.

Sore Throat

Symptoms.—Difficulty in swallowing, pain and difficult breathing.

Treatment.—Place in dry, clean, well ventilated stable. Use nose bag. Rub throat with Pratts Liniment. Give physic of one pound of Epsom salts in warm water. Give one-half ounce of tincture of belladonna every six hours. Syringe throat three times a day with an ounce of following solution: one and one-half drams nitrate of silver and one pint of distilled water.

Sprains

Use Pratts Liniment, nothing better.

Teats—Obstructed

Treatment.—Wash off with one part Pratts Dip and Disinfectant and 50 parts of water. Use Pratts Teat Opener. Pratts Self-Retaining Milking Tube can then be inserted until teat is better. Rub teats with Pratts Bag Ointment.

Ticks

Treatment.—All cattle infected with ticks should be sponged or dipped at once with one part Pratts Dip and Disinfectant to 20 parts water. Repeat in ten days. This will not only kill the ticks but cure mange, soften the hair and make the skin healthy.

Tuberculosis—Consumption

Symptoms.—Not well marked in early stages. Disease develops slowly. There is a loss of flesh, a short dry cough, irregular appetite, rapid breathing, weakness, bloating, diarrhoea, the milk is lessened and is watery and blue in color. The coat is rough and back arched. Whenever an animal is suspected of having tuberculosis, have a competent person give the "Tuberculosis Test" at once.

Cause.—Poor feed and water, badly ventilated stables, dirty stables, from over-feeding and inoculation. It is hereditary. May also follow abortion and catarrhal trouble of the genital organs.

Treatment.—Disease is incurable. Kill and burn all animals affected at once and disinfect thoroughly stables, yards, etc., with one part Pratts Dip and Disinfectant to 50 parts of water. Disinfect every week until every germ is destroyed. Use Pratts Dip and Disinfectant in all whitewash and sponge or dip all the cattle in a solution of one part Disinfectant to 100 parts water.

Wire Cuts, Wounds, Bites, Etc.

Treatment.—Wash with one part Pratts Dip and Disinfectant and 50 parts water and apply Pratts Healing Ointment or Healing Powder three times a day.

Worms

Give Pratts Specially Prepared Worm Powder according to directions. It is quick in its action and has a strong tonic effect.



SHEEP

Many years ago the sheep industry of America flourished. Then came a period of depression in this line accompanied by a steady decrease in the number of sheep kept. But the tide turned again about 1914 and the sheep are rapidly coming back to American farms and ranges.

This change is doubtless due to the steadily increasing cost of grain and labor accompanied by correspondingly high prices of lamb, mutton and wool. Also to a general recognition of the economic value of sheep—both of the mutton and wool breeds—as quick producers of income, no little part of which should be profit. The latter point is due to the fact that sheep are inexpensive to maintain as they thrive upon the roughest of pastures and coarse feeds which will not sell to advantage, and their care consumes but little time. Low production costs—feed and labor—and high prices for the products make a most satisfactory combination.

Methods of successful sheep management vary in different sections of the country. The beginner may well consult the successful sheep-growers in his section and adopt the methods which give good results under the conditions existing in his locality. At the same time he should neglect no opportunity to secure more information from all sources, in order to know and use the most advanced methods and so make the maximum profits.

Here are a few basic facts:

Sheep raising requires careful attention, but does not demand a great amount of heavy labor or expensive equipment.

The best time to make a start is in the early fall when good breeding stock may be selected.

While pure-bred breeders are best, a pure-bred ram and ewes of good grade will prove very satisfactory.

A start may be made in a small way, but it is best to have at least twenty to forty breeders for economy of time, labor and other expenses.

As a rule it is most profitable to push the lambs for growth and market them when they weigh 65 to 75 pounds.

This weight can be secured in about four months.

If a very large pasture is available the flock will thrive on this. Otherwise fields must be fenced off and forage crops provided.

Breeding ewes must be exercised in the winter to insure strong lambs. But protect them from rain or wet snow as soaked fleeces cause colds and pneumonia.



Thrifty condition and vigorous health must be maintained at all costs. Otherwise the lambs will be small and weak and fleeces of inferior quality. The regular use of Pratts Animal Regulator will improve condition, insure health and vigor, increase number and quality of lambs, promote growth of flesh and wool. And in large measure, it keeps common diseases away because Pratt-fed sheep are in condition to resist disease.

Shearing should be done after lambing, usually in late spring or early summer. If lambing time is late, the shearing may be done before the lambs arrive. Tie up the fleeces separately, first sorting out dung locks and tags.

After lambing, the individual ewes should be carefully watched to see that they have plenty of milk and are in good condition. They should be kept in pens for about three days, when they may be permitted to run with the flock. Feed lightly for two or three days, then heavily to stimulate the milk flow so lambs will be well-nourished. They may profitably receive one to two pounds of grain per day during the nursing period.

Inferior ewes should be marketed as rapidly as they are identified. Get rid of the barren ones, producers of poor lambs, poor milkers, light shearers.

Sheep must be protected against blood-thirsty dogs and external and internal parasites. In many sections sheep growers have united to fight sheep-killing dogs and good results have been secured. United action against a common enemy is best, as public sentiment may thus be aroused.

Because of their thick fleeces and helplessness, sheep suffer greatly from the attacks of ticks, lice and other parasites. Ticks are particularly injurious. They annoy and weaken the adult animals, torture the lambs and check their growth. The result is always a money loss to the sheep owner.

Fortunately it is a simple matter to exterminate the ticks and lice and overcome the ordinary skin diseases of sheep. Merely dip the sheep in a solution of Pratts Disinfectant. It is non-poisonous, inexpensive—does the work!



July and August is the popular time for dipping, but the work can be done as soon after shearing as the shear cuts heal. Two dippings are necessary, about twenty-four days apart. The first treatment may not kill all the eggs, but the second will kill the young ticks, thus completing the job. For successful results, it is necessary to use a dipping tank or vat large enough to hold sufficient of the solution to immerse and thoroughly saturate each animal.

Intestinal parasites, of which the stomach worm is perhaps the most dreaded, cause great loss to sheep owners. These worms live in the fourth stomach. They are easily identified, being from one-half to one and a quarter inches long, marked with a red stripe. Their eggs are found in the droppings of the sheep, so infection is secured in the pasture.

————————————————————————————————- _Augusta, Me.

As a constant user of Pratts Animal Regulator, for sheep, I find that it not only helps them to put on flesh but keeps their system in fine condition. I take great pleasure in recommending it, knowing its benefit to Cloverdale Shropshires.

H.J. O'HEAR, Samoset Farm._ ————————————————————————————————-



SWINE

No other class of animals kept upon the farm brings returns so quickly as swine, with the exception of fowls. Swine are specially valuable for utilizing food that would otherwise go to waste. They are an invaluable adjunct to the dairy, particularly when the whole milk is separated on the farm.

You can grow big, healthy, profit-paying hogs, if you will merely meet certain clearly defined hog requirements. If you do this, and it's easy, you need never worry about profits. You are sure to succeed.

The world needs and will pay you well for all the hogs you can produce. Aside from the pork products required for consumption in America, the hog growers of the United States must for years export to Europe more pork in various forms, and more lard, than ever before.

The European herds of hogs have been sadly depleted. Dr. Vernon Kellogg, of the United States Food Administration, has personally investigated the situation. He reports decreases in hogs in leading countries as follows: France, 49 per cent.; Great Britain, 25 per cent.; Italy, 12 1/2 per cent. And, of course, conditions are even worse in Germany, Austria and the Balkan Nations, all of which are big producers in normal times.

Properly handled, kept healthy and vigorous, the American hog is a money-maker. Many farmers know this from experience: others fail to realize how useful and profitable the hog really is.

The experts connected with the United States Department of Agriculture make the following assertions in Farmers' Bulletin 874:

"No branch of live-stock farming gives better results than the raising of well-bred swine when conducted with a reasonable amount of intelligence. The hog is one of the most important animals to raise on the farm, either for meat or for profit, and no farm is complete unless some hogs are kept to aid in the modern method of farming. The farmers of the South and West, awakening to the merits of the hog, are rapidly increasing their output of pork and their bank accounts. The hog requires less labor, less equipment, less capital, and makes greater gains per hundred pounds of concentrates than any other farm animal, and reproduces himself faster and in greater numbers; and returns the money invested more quickly than any other farm animal except poultry."

The University of Minnesota, in Extension Bulletin 7, sums up the matter as follows:

"From a business point of view, the hog is described as a great national resource, a farm mortgage lifter and debt-payer, and the most generally profitable domesticated animal in American agriculture."

And this summarizes the general opinion of progressive hog growers and the experts connected with the United States Department of Agriculture and the various State Agricultural Experiment Stations and Colleges.

Breeds of hogs are divided into two general classes—bacon type and lard type. Where milk is plentiful, and especially where such foods as barley and peas are grown, the bacon type will be the most profitable, as they furnish the largest litters and also make pork that brings the best price in the market. The lard type of swine are usually kept where corn is the cereal that is most grown.

The large Yorkshire and Tamworth are the leading bacon breeds. The Poland China, the Duroc Jersey, and the Chester White are leading lard types. The Berkshires, Cheshires, and Hampshires are intermediate between the bacon and lard types. When bacon sires are crossed upon sows of any of the other breeds, the progeny are excellent for pork.

The farmer who is about to adopt a breed should be sure to select one of the standard and common breeds of his own neighborhood. Many men make the mistake of introducing a breed new to the section, and when the time comes that a new boar must be secured much difficulty and expense are incurred before a satisfactory one can be found.

The bulletin quoted above further says: "To the production of pork, then, in the largest amount, in the shortest time, and with the minimum of money and labor, all the details of the hog-raising industry are directed." Here is the whole secret—pork in largest amount, in shortest time, at lowest production costs. And the very foundation is perfect health and vigorous condition of the hogs, both breeding animals and market stock.

Health and vigor are necessary in the breeding animals if they are to produce big litters of sturdy pigs—in the market animals if they are to consume large amounts of food and economically and quickly convert it into fat and muscle. Weak, sickly, run-down hogs are a constant source of trouble and are never profitable under any conditions. Disease is one of the greatest drawbacks in the hog industry.



When selecting brood sows of any breed, the preference should be given to those which have reasonably long sides and limbs of medium length. When selecting boars make sure that vigor is present in a marked degree and also strong limbs. Any weakness in the back of male or female is to be carefully shunned.

During pregnancy two facts must be borne in mind. The first is that the sow is doing double duty. She is keeping up her own bodily functions, as well as developing her fetal litter. Therefore, feeding should be liberal. The mistakes in feeding breeding animals are more frequently those which keep such stock thin. The importance of ample feeding at this time is a demonstrated fact, as well as one which appeals to common sense.

In the second place the sow is building new tissue. Hence the kind of feed is important. Bran, peas, oats and barley and such forage plants as clover, alfalfa, vetches and the like. Ordinary pasture grasses are of much value.

All breeders lay great emphasis on the condition of the bowels during pregnancy, and particularly at farrowing. The special danger to be avoided is constipation. It is right here that Pratts Hog Tonic shows its great worth to hog raiser. It puts the digestion organs into healthy condition and the result is safe farrowing and a healthy litter which is not apt to suffer from scours or thumps.



Good health is inherited from vigorous, healthy ancestors. It is intensified and preserved by proper management. "The time to begin fitting pigs for market is before they are farrowed. For this reason it is advisable to pay particular attention to the feed and care of the brood sow from breeding to farrowing time." And "It must be understood that it is much easier to continue an animal (hog) in a thrifty, hardy condition than to bring the animal back to his normal appetite and rate of growth, once he is out of order." (Circular 90, New Jersey Agr. Exp. Station.)

These common-sense statements must appeal to the reason of every thinking hog producer. And they make plain the wisdom of regularly supplying Pratts Hog Tonic to the entire herd, to breeding stock, growing pigs, fattening hogs.

This remarkable natural tonic and conditioners is not a specific for any single disease. It is a health-builder and health-preserver. In this connection we wish to particularly mention that most dreaded and destructive of all hog diseases—hog cholera. We do not claim that Pratts Hog Tonic will entirely prevent or cure this scourge. But it will put and keep your herd in such fine condition that the individuals will be more resistant and will not as readily contract cholera or other germ diseases. It will prevent and control such troubles as indigestion, diarrhoea, constipation and the like, which are such a source of trouble in the average herd.

You may not appreciate the value of using such a conditioner, but the Kentucky Agr. Exp. Station, in Bulletin 181, contains the following statement which deserves the careful consideration of every thoughtful hog raiser: "General conditioners have been found to be advantageous in the maintenance of healthy conditions in hogs."

Brood sows should not produce their first litter under twelve months. Whether they should produce one or two litters a year will depend largely upon the conditions, especially of climate. Sows should be kept for breeding as long as they will produce good, even litters. Well-chosen sows should rear an average of eight to the litter.

Brood sows should have ample exercise. They get it in good form when they are allowed to turn over litter in the barnyard on which a little grain, as corn, has previously been sprinkled. Two-thirds of the winter rations may consist of mangels or alfalfa hay—the other third being grain or swill. Alfalfa for hogs should be cut before blossoming.

When sows farrow they should be fed lightly for the first three days. Later give all they will eat of milk-making foods. A combination of ground oats, wheat shorts, and some corn is excellent. And Pratts Hog Tonic will be found especially valuable during the nursing period. Meal is fed ground and soaked. As soon as young pigs will take skim-milk they should get it in a trough apart from the sow. They are weaned at seven or eight weeks where two litters are grown in a year, and at twelve weeks where but one is grown.

When pigs are weaned, and previously, there is nothing better than shorts and skim milk. They should be grown subsequently to weaning on pasture, with one to two pounds of grain added daily. In season, winter or spring rye, clover, alfalfa, barley, and rape all make excellent pasture.

The fattening period with swine covers from six to eight weeks. Unground corn and water will fatten swine in good form. The same is true of barley and rye, ground and soaked. They may be fattened nicely while grazing on field peas. They may also be similarly fattened by hogging off corn or gathering it from the excrement of cattle that are being fattened on it. Swine well grown should make an average gain of a pound a day. Bacon swine may be best sold at 175 to 200 pounds in weight. Lard types are usually grown to greater weights.

Swine breeders have long recognized the value of Pratts Hog Tonic as a disease preventive and fattener. Progressive breeders now consider it a necessity in profitable hog raising.

If a second litter is wanted during a year the sows should be put to the boar during the first heat after weaning. Many breeders do not like to pass periods of heat for fear that the sows may become "shy," and there is little reason why a sow should not have two litters a year. In any case, the sows should be carried on comparatively light feed until time to breed again, gaining a little in weight; and their treatment after breeding should be as already detailed for pregnant sows.

When the boar arrives at the farm he should be dipped in a solution of Pratts Dip and Disinfectant, as a matter of ordinary precaution against the introduction of vermin. As an additional precaution, a quarantine pen should be ready for him, especially if epizootics are prevalent. His feed before change of owners should be known, and either adhered to or changed gradually to suit the new conditions. If he has come from a long distance it will be well to feed lightly until he is well acclimated.



Breeders generally advocate the practice of keeping a boar to himself during the entire year—out of sight and hearing of the sows. However, a boar is often allowed to run with the sows after they are safe in pig; but during the breeding season it is by far the best policy to keep him by himself, admitting a sow to his yard for mating, and allowing but one service. The litters will generally be larger and the pigs stronger.

The boar should not serve more than two sows daily, preferably one in the morning and one in the afternoon, and can serve 50 to 60 in a season without difficulty.

In order to keep the boar in vigorous physical condition, he should be given Pratts Hog Tonic regularly. The beneficial results will be seen in the way of larger litters and stronger pigs.

The greatest drawback to the hog industry which breeders in this country have to contend against is found in the losses which may be experienced through the infestation of the animals, especially young pigs, by parasites, through outbreaks of hog cholera or swine plague, or through the contraction of tuberculosis.



In dealing with the diseases of hogs, preventive measures must be most relied upon. The animals must be given dry and well-ventilated quarters, which must be kept clean. Contrary to common belief, hogs have some habits which raise them above other domestic animals from the standpoint of cleanliness. For example, unless compelled to do so, a hog will not sleep in its own filth. If part of the floor of the pen is raised and kept well bedded with straw, while the rest is not, all excrement will be left on the unbedded portion of the floor, and the bed itself will be always clean.

In addition to cleanliness, close attention should be given to the feed which is supplied, that nothing may be fed which will convey the germs of disease, especially tuberculosis, to the herd. If the hogs are fed milk in any form obtained from cows kept upon the same farm, the cows should be subjected to the tuberculin test, as by this means all tuberculous milk may be kept from the hogs. If they run with the cattle of the farm a tuberculin test of all the cattle is none the less desirable. Animals dead from any disease should not be fed to the hogs until the meat has been made safe by cooking. Skim milk or refuse from a public creamery should not be fed to hogs until it has been thoroughly sterilized.

Feeding and drinking places should be clean and the water supply pure. Unless the origin is known to be uncontaminated and there has been no possibility of infection during its course, hogs should not be allowed access to any stream. Wallows should be drained out or kept filled up as much as possible. At least once a month the quarters should be disinfected with a solution of Pratts Dip and Disinfectant. These precautions will be found valuable aids in the destruction of the various animal parasites, as well as a protection from some more serious troubles.

The methods of feeding and management outlined above have been successfully followed by hog growers for many years. They are conservative and safe. But during recent years a new method of feeding has been developed and is being generally adopted, especially by specialists who make hog growing a real business. This is known as the "self-fed" plan, under which system feed is kept before the hogs at all times and they are permitted to eat at will. In poultry feeding this is called "the dry mash system."

Just who deserves credit for originating or developing this plan cannot be stated. That it is a good one is evidenced by the fact that it has received the endorsement of the Bureau of Animal Industry, United States Department of Agriculture; of many Agricultural Experiment Stations; of the specialty swine journals; of practical hog breeders in all sections of the country.

For this self-feed plan it is claimed that both feed and labor are saved, thus reducing production costs. That a 250-pound hog can be grown in thirty days less time than is possible where slop-feeding is practiced, thus getting the hogs to market earlier and avoiding danger of loss during this time. That it produces pork of highest quality, the meat being fine in flavor, firm, and with lean and fat well distributed.

Advocates of the self-feeding plan make the following comparison with the old-time slop-feeding method:

When dry food is supplied in automatic feeders, the attendant may fill the feeders at any convenient time of day and that at intervals of several days. In slop feeding, the meals must be prepared and fed twice daily, usually when other duties are pressing and time especially valuable.

When dry, ground grains are kept before the hogs at all times, they eat when they feel the need of food and are not liable to overeat at any time. Because of the dry character of the feed, they eat slowly, masticating the food thoroughly and mixing it with saliva. This means more thorough digestion and an absence of indigestion and bowel troubles. And, of course, quicker growth.

Slop-fed hogs, on the other hand, get very hungry between meals. At feeding time they pile up around the troughs, the stronger rushing and pushing away the weaker ones, those that really need the feed the most. Then they bolt the food without chewing it, taking all they can hold and leaving little for those that cannot find a place at the "first table."

The quality of the dry-fed pork has been mentioned. Equally important, from the standpoint of the butcher, is the loss in dressing of hogs. Tests have shown that slop-fed stock loses six to eight pounds more per hundredweight than does the dry-fed.



Another big advantage of dry-feeding lies in the fact that large numbers of swine, including those of various ages and sizes, can be safely kept in one herd. The writer has seen over two hundred head of swine, ranging in size from pigs just weaned to 250-pound porkers ready for market, living in peace and contentment in one building, eating and sleeping and sharing the forage pastures together. Of course this means a big saving in buildings and fencing and a great reduction in the amount of necessary labor.

The self-feeder may be used all through the life of the hog, beginning when the pigs are still nursing and continuing until they reach market weight. During all this time the ration should contain Pratts Hog Tonic, the guaranteed hog conditioner, in order that at all times the herd may be maintained in vigorous condition, be kept free from disease, may avoid wasting feed through imperfect or sluggish digestion, may earn for the farmer the maximum amount of profit. We suggest that you make a test of this results-insuring, profit-producing tonic. Watch results. If you are not satisfied the dealer from whom you purchased the goods will refund the full amount you paid for them.

The self-feeding plan of growing hogs gives best results when the animals are given access to growing forage crops. The feeders may be placed under cover out in the fields or kept in the hog house if the latter is reasonably near the pasture lots. An unlimited supply of fresh water must be available at all times because dry-fed stock drinks many times the amount of water that slop-fed hogs do. The reason is plain.

There are many different systems of handling hogs under this plan, varying according to local conditions. We will give in detail the method used most successfully for many years on a Pennsylvania farm which each season markets several hundred hogs of a quality which commands a premium above current quotations.

On this farm, particular attention is paid to keeping the hog houses clean and sanitary, light, sunny and dry. Dampness is always a fertile source of loss. Further, the houses are never crowded. Each animal is given plenty of room.

The brood sows are placed in separate pens at farrowing time and watched carefully when giving birth to the pigs. They are fed a rich slop, a small quantity at first, but in gradually increasing amount until they are receiving enough to insure a big flow of milk.

When the pigs are eight to ten days of age they are permitted to go at will to the self-feeder containing a mixture of ground grains. As a rule, several sows farrow at about the same time and the pens are so arranged that the pigs from several litters may all use one feeder.

This arrangement results in the pigs taking more exercise, eating more food and making more rapid growth. It reduces the danger of thumps and gives the youngsters a wonderfully strong start in life.

MORE PIGS PER HOG MORE HOG PER PIG Big litters of strong-boned, growthy pigs, and rapid growth of pigs from birth to maturity are the natural result of health and vigor of breeding stock and youngsters. Weak, run-down boars and sows produce inferior pigs and usually small litters. And such pigs are not money-makers. PRATTS HOG TONIC the guaranteed conditioner for swine, overcomes most hog diseases, makes the breeders healthy and vigorous, insures big litters of big pigs, makes the youngsters grow steadily and rapidly from birth to maturity and fatten quickly and economically. Many of the most successful hog-growers will tell you that one secret of their success is the regular use of Pratts Hog Tonic. You should at least test it. No risk on your part because "YOUR MONEY BACK IF YOU ARE NOT SATISFIED"



The feed mixture used at this time varies somewhat according to available supplies and current prices. A sample pig ration is made up as follows:

RATION FOR YOUNG PIGS

Winter wheat middlings 40 lbs. Hominy meal 40 lbs. Oil meal 3 lbs. Whole oats (heavy) 5 lbs. 60 per cent. Digester tankage 12 lbs. Fine salt 1/2 lb.

Mix thoroughly.

When the pigs are weaned they are placed with the herd, a safe practice because of the general contentment and quietness and the entire absence of meal-time stampedes. They quickly adjust themselves to their new surroundings, and, because accustomed to the use of self-feeders, at once begin eating the regular hog ration with the rest of the herd.

In the hog house, enough self-feeders are provided to permit all animals to eat at will without being crowded. One feeder to each twenty-five hogs is the rule.

The hog ration, like the pig ration, varies according to conditions. But at all times it is palatable and contains feeds which build bone, muscle and fat. A favorite formula is this:

RATION FOR GROWING HOGS

Winter wheat middlings 50 lbs. Wheat bran 50 lbs. Corn chop 50 lbs. Whole oats 10 lbs. 50 per cent. Digester tankage 20 lbs.

Soft coal and salt are kept before the herd at all times. The hogs eat these at will.

The grazing system is used on this farm. Many different forage crops are planted, in order to insure a regular succession of succulent feeds. As each field reaches proper condition for grazing, a hog fence is thrown around it and the herd admitted. The hogs do all the work of harvesting, thus securing valuable exercise and at the same time saving man labor. Under this system the fields have steadily improved in fertility, due to the turning under of the uneaten green stuff and the direct application of the valuable hog manure.

Forage crops vary in different sections of the country. On the farm in question the earliest forage is rye, followed in rotation by the various clovers and mixtures of oats, Canada field peas, vetch, soy beans, etc. Dwarf Essex rape is a favorite crop and one that furnishes a tremendous amount of forage per acre.

When the corn crop matures, the larger individuals are given the liberty of the corn fields and the crop is "hogged down." This again saves a great amount of hand labor, a big item under existing conditions.

In the winter, when grazing is out of the question, the herd receives once daily a liberal feed of second crop alfalfa or clover hay.

Understand, the feeders containing the dry mixture of ground grains, are available to the hogs at all times. They help themselves at will, day and night.

————————————————————————————————- _La Fontaine, Ind.

We have been trying to produce the largest hog in the world and we have done it! We have a Big Type Poland China hog, that has been fed 123 days, making a gain of 450 pounds and at this time weighs over 1200 pounds. We fed him on Pratts Animal Regulator.

H.E. HENRY._ ————————————————————————————————-

When keeping hogs in large herds like this, it is of primary importance that the most careful attention be paid to sanitation. Pratts Dip and Disinfectant should be used regularly and thoroughly to protect against disease germs and vermin. And Pratts Hog Tonic used to keep the hogs in perfect condition inside.

If sickness appears in the herd the unaffected hogs should at once be removed to clean, disinfected quarters, preferably without much range, for by running over pastures they may come in contact with contagion. Their feed should be carefully regulated, and, if they have previously been on pasture, should include some green feed, roots, or an abundance of skim milk.

BANISH HOG VERMIN AND DISEASES To make a success of hog raising, dipping is almost as essential as feeding. At least it is second only to proper feeding. Lice and vermin, the comfort-destroyers and profit-reducers, and the germs which cause cholera and tuberculosis, are exterminated by the regular use of PRATTS DIP AND DISINFECTANT Put the hogs and pigs through the dipping vat and spray the quarters and feed receptacles occasionally with a strong solution of the original Pratts Dip and Disinfectant. Result comfortable, vermin-free and disease-free hogs, less loss, more pork, more money. There are other dips that look like the original Pratts, but they are not the same in efficiency. Refuse the substitutes. Use Pratts, the dip you can depend upon. It costs no more but it's worth more! You be the judge "YOUR MONEY BACK IF YOU ARE NOT SATISFIED"

The quarters in which the sickness first appeared should be thoroughly cleaned, all bedding and rubbish burned, and loose boards and old partitions torn out and burned. If the pen is old, knock it to pieces and burn it. Disinfect pens and sleeping places using Pratts Dip and Disinfectant on the floors, walls and ceilings. Whitewash everything. If a hog dies from any cause, the carcass should never be exposed where it may be devoured by the other hogs or by passing birds or beasts, but should be burned at once or buried deeply and the pens thoroughly disinfected immediately. If possible, do not move the carcass from the place where it falls; but if this cannot be done the ground over which it is dragged should be disinfected. Hog-cholera bacilli can live in the ground for at least three months. Care must be taken to maintain an absolute quarantine between the sick and well hogs. The same attendant should not care for both lots unless he disinfects himself thoroughly after each visit to the infected hogs. Dogs should be confined until the disease is stamped out.

Treatment of hogs suffering from cholera or swine plague is not always satisfactory. The disease runs its course so rapidly that curative measures are more or less ineffectual, and prevention of an outbreak should be relied upon rather than the cure of sick animals. Pratts Hog Tonic has been successful in less virulent outbreaks when administered as soon as signs of sickness are shown.

Pratts Hog Tonic should be thoroughly mixed with the feed, which should be soft, made of bran and middlings, corn meal and middlings, corn meal and ground and sifted oats, or crushed wheat, mixed with hot water. If the hogs are too sick to come to the feed, the tonic should be given as a drench. Pull the cheek away from the teeth and pour the mixture in slowly. Care should be exercised, as hogs are easily suffocated by drenching. Do not turn a hog on its back to drench it.

Hogs often suffer very much from vermin. Lice are introduced from neighboring herds, and the losses in feeding are often severe, especially among young pigs, when death is sometimes a secondary if not an immediate result. When very numerous, lice are a very serious drain on vitality, fattening is prevented, and in case of exposure to disease the lousy hogs are much more liable to contract and succumb to it.

Newly purchased hogs should be carefully examined for vermin, and they should not be turned out with the herd until they are known to be free from these pests.

When the herd is found to be badly infested with lice all bedding should be burned and loose boards and partitions torn out. Old boards and rubbish should be burned. The quarters should then be thoroughly disinfected by spraying with Pratts Dip and Disinfectant.

Vermin are most common around the ears, inside the legs, and in the folds of the skin on the jowl sides and flanks. In light and isolated cases they may be destroyed by washing the hogs with Pratts Dip and Disinfectant, properly diluted, applied with a broom.

In severe cases, however, especially where the whole herd is affected, thorough spraying or dipping should be resorted to. In this case a dipping tank will be a great convenience.

Whenever any animals are brought to the farm, or when animals are brought home from shows or from neighboring farms, they should be kept apart from the rest of the herd for at least three weeks. If they have been exposed to hog cholera or swine plague the diseases will be manifested within this time, and the sick animals can be treated or killed and disposed of at once.

————————————————————————————————- _Galway, N.Y.

I bought two spring pigs the 15th of April and began feeding them Pratts Animal Regulator until the 15th of December when I butchered them. One weighed 415 pounds, the other 420 pounds. I know this Regulator does what you claim it to do.

BALDWIN O'BREY._ ————————————————————————————————-

If cholera breaks out in the neighborhood the farmer should maintain a strict quarantine against the infected herds. He should refrain from visits to farms where they are located, and should insist on requiring that his neighbors stay out of his hog lots. Visiting of all kinds at this time should be carefully restricted. Dogs, cats, crows, and buzzards are very active carriers of infection from farm to farm, and should be guarded against as far as possible.



COMMON DISEASES OF SWINE

(Symptoms and Treatment)

Diarrhoea or Scours

Cause.—By milk of the dam being affected by feeding of food tainted with the elements of decay; by making a sudden change in the food; by some disordered condition in the health of the sow, and by excess of milk furnished by the dam.

Usually occurs before the weaning stage, as a rule in swine not yet ten days old.

Symptoms.—Very soft condition of the voidings which are sometimes almost watery.

Treatment.—Being highly contagious, spray the floor thoroughly with Pratts Disinfectant. Keep the young swine comfortable and remove the voidings carefully two or three times a day. Correct the food given the dam, mixing Pratts Hog Tonic with her feed. Also give a small tablespoonful of sulphur daily to the sow.

Hog Cholera and Swine Plague

Hog Cholera and Swine Plague are very much alike. Both are characterized by inflammation of stomach and intestines, enlarged and inflamed lymphatic glands and sloughing of portions of the skin. The treatment and preventive measures are alike in many respects.

They are germ diseases, contracted in purchasing swine which may contract the germs when in transit on cars; by exhibiting at fairs; through persons who have visited infected herds; through the feet of dogs and birds to which the germs may have adhered; through the water of an infected pond or stream.

The most dangerous source of infection by far is coming in touch with diseased animals.

Reduced stamina and filthy quarters favor the spread of these diseases.

Hog Cholera

Symptoms.—Dullness, loss of appetite or depraved appetite and a disposition to lie down; constipation or diarrhoea; stiff gait; red spots or blotches discernible about the ears and under the neck and belly; in some instances there is difficulty in breathing.

Treatment.—Authorities agree that there is no known cure for real hog cholera. Preventive measures, therefore, are of vital importance. Pratts Disinfectant should be used frequently and to build up the general health of the hog, giving it full disease-resisting power, Pratts Hog Tonic should be added to the ration. Besides, it is a valuable tonic and fattener.

Swine Plague

Symptoms.—Extensive inflammation of the lungs, by which it can be distinguished from hog cholera. There is coughing and labored, painful and oppressed breathing.

It frequently comes as a pneumonia or an inflammation of the lungs and pleural membrane. The animal is in a sleepy and even comatose condition much of the time. If it walks it staggers. The skin reddens in a marked degree and the bowels become constipated. This disease, though not nearly so common as hog cholera is usually very fatal. Preventive measures, as indicated for hog cholera, are all important. Use Pratts Hog Tonic as directed and disinfect with Pratts Disinfectant.

Thumps

Cause.—Too liberal feeding and lack of exercise, resulting in poor digestion. The diaphragm contracts suddenly at irregular intervals, thus giving the name to the disease. The pig becomes unthrifty and stunted. If the sow is a liberal milker, nursing pigs may be affected. Treatment is usually preventive, consisting of exercise and careful feeding, Pratts Hog Tonic being added to the feed.

Tuberculosis in Swine

The losses from this disease are beginning to assume enormous proportions. It results largely from swine drinking the milk of tuberculous cattle.

Symptoms.—Digestive disorders, such as diarrhoea and vomiting; a stunted condition and a staring coat and breathing more or less labored.

Treatment.—There is no positive cure for this severe disease, but good sanitation is the best preventive. Use Pratts Disinfectant freely and maintain health and vigor by regularly using Pratts Hog Tonic.

The importance of testing heads of cattle that may be affected with tuberculosis is thus further emphasized.

Worms

There is perhaps no other animal troubled to so great an extent or with so many varieties of worms, as the hog. Indeed it is almost a rule with some growers when a hog is sick and it cannot be told exactly what is the matter that they doctor for worms.

There are four species of worms that live in the intestines of swine, resulting in more or less harm. The Common Round Worm, Pin Worm and Whip Worm develop from eggs taken in in food and water. The Thornheaded Worm develops from a white grub which swine eat. To a great extent these are kept in check by Pratts Hog Tonic.

As preventive measures, drain stagnant pools and wet places where these eggs may be found; plough up yards and pastures; do not feed on floors not properly cleaned, or on ground that may have been much used for such feeding; do not give water from a deep well, do not allow the swine to wallow in the drinking trough.

Symptoms.—Frequently a gluttonous appetite without corresponding improvement in flesh. Again a much impaired appetite is found; diarrhoea or constipation; excessive itching, causing the animal to rub, especially the hind parts. These symptoms will only exist when worms are present in large numbers.

Treatment.—Give each adult hog one heaping tablespoonful of Pratts Worm Powder with the feed once a day for four days. After the last dose give a bran mash to loosen bowels.

Repeat this treatment two weeks after the first to insure killing any worms which may have hatched in the meantime.

Even if you are not sure that your hogs have worms—as they probably have—you should use Pratts Worm Powder as above as a matter of precaution.

————————————————————————————————- _Woodsboro, Md.

I bought four pigs, four months' old, weighing about 16 pounds each, and, in bad condition. Began to feed Pratts Animal Regulator and at 5 months' old they averaged a gain of one pound a day per pig.

CHARLES W. HOLBRUNER._ ————————————————————————————————-



POULTRY

"One hundred hens on every farm" was the small number set by the United States Department of Agriculture in its great war drive for increased production of foods. And certainly this number of fowls, and many more, can be easily and profitably maintained on the average farm. Easily, because under free range conditions, which are possible on the farm they require but little attention. Profitably, because under these conditions, where they pick up much of their living, the cost of production is comparatively low, while eggs and flesh sell at good prices. Further, these delicious and nutritious foods add variety to the farm table.



————————————————————————————————- _South Easton, Mass.

I have used Pratts Poultry Regulator regularly.

The egg record for 900 fowls for five months the past winter was as follows: Dec., 50%; Jan., 43%; Feb., 55%; March, 69%; April, 69%. The lower record of January was caused by some pullets moulting.

Would say that fertility of eggs averaged 87% in December to over 90% later in the spring.

J.H. RANKIN._ ————————————————————————————————-

Many a farmer's wife finds her poultry flock a never-failing source of pin money. Many a farm girl and boy have secured their education from faithfully saving the "egg-money." And the opportunities for profit in this line are now greater than ever before.

Helps for Poultrymen

In a short chapter in a general publication of this kind it is impossible to go into the finer details of modern methods of poultry husbandry. For those who desire more information on this subject we have a big 160-page book, pages 6x9 inches in size, fully illustrated with 150 photos and drawings. The title is "The Poultryman's Complete Handbook." It's worth a dollar, but we will send you a copy, prepaid, for only ten cents in stamps or silver. Address your request to Pratt Food Co., Philadelphia.



Pratts Poultry Service Department is maintained to give expert information and advice on poultry topics. There is no charge for this service. Whenever you get puzzled, write Pratts experts. They will send you a prompt personal reply containing the information you desire. No charge, no obligation. Address such letters to Poultry Service Department, Pratt Food Co., Philadelphia.



Breeds of Poultry

Regardless of breeding and appearance, a heavy layer is a good hen to own. And laying ability is not confined to any one breed or class of fowls. There are exceptional layers, dependable profit-payers, in practically every fair-sized flock, whether made up of standard-bred stock or mongrels.

As a general rule, however, standard-bred birds are best. By that term we mean those which have been bred to meet the typical breed and variety descriptions as appearing in the official Standard of Perfection which is published by the American Poultry Association. Such a flock is bound to be uniform in size, appearance and general characteristics, is easier to manage properly because of its uniformity, and its products, both eggs and table poultry, will also be uniform. Further the income from such a flock may be increased through the sale of eggs for hatching and of breeding stock at prices many times greater than those of table eggs and poultry.

No matter what breed you select, the most important matter, the very foundation of success, is the securing of individual birds which are strong, sturdy, vigorous and healthy. Only stock of high vitality can be depended upon to give continuously good results. It is time and money wasted to keep fowls which are weak, sickly or "run-down," the result of improper breeding or management.

As a rule, it is best to select that breed which is most popular locally, because such popularity indicates that the breed in question thrives under local conditions and meets the requirements of the local markets. Further, one has greater opportunities of securing good birds and a larger market for hatching eggs and stock.



————————————————————————————————- _Clemson College, S.C.

We have been using Pratts Baby Chick Food and are very well pleased with it. I think that it is the best baby chick mash on the market today.

FRANK C. HARE, Prof. of Poultry Husbandry._ ————————————————————————————————-

Among the farmers whose markets demand white-shelled eggs, the S.C. White Leghorn is the most popular fowl. The Black Minorca is another favorite. It produces the largest white eggs.



Where brown-shelled eggs are wanted, the Plymouth Rock, Wyandotte, Rhode Island Red and Orpington lead. And for the production of the largest table carcasses the Light Brahma, either pure or crossed with a more active breed, is a favorite. The live weights of adult birds of these breeds are as follows:

Breed. Cock. Hen.

Leghorns 5 1/2 lbs. 4 lbs. Black Minorcas 9 lbs. 7 1/2 lbs. Plymouth Rocks 9 1/2 lbs. 7 1/2 lbs. Wyandottes 8 1/2 lbs. 6 1/2 lbs. Rhode Island Reds 8 1/2 lbs. 6 1/2 lbs. Orpingtons 10 lbs. 8 lbs. Light Brahmas 12 lbs. 9 1/2 lbs.

Most of these breeds have varieties, determined by color of plumage or shape of comb. Select that one which best pleases you.



Poultry Houses

When locating the poultry house remember that it is a great advantage to have soil which is light and naturally well drained, since such soil dries off quickly after a rain and is "much warmer," as poultrymen express it. Heavy soil, even stiff clay, may be made to serve the purpose admirably if provision is made to drain off all surface water. But avoid a site on which water settles in pools, as the surface soon becomes filthy and is a menace to the health of the flock.



The birds should have the benefit of several hours of sunshine each day. So locate the poultry house where the sun can strike it freely. The shelter of tall buildings on the north, or even on the east or west, is frequently an advantage during the winter months, but the south side should be open if conditions permit. Shade trees and large shrubs about the house are a source of comfort to the fowls during hot weather and may be used to screen or partially hide the poultry plant.

The poultry house must be dry, well-ventilated, free from draughts, light, sunny and cheerful. And if it is planned with reference to the convenience of the poultryman, so much the better. The most simple and inexpensive form of construction should be used. In all sections of the country, excepting the extreme north, a single wall of matched boards on a light frame is perfectly satisfactory. Unmatched boards with battens nailed over the cracks or a layer of lightweight roofing paper over all are equally good. In fact, in case of necessity, one may use the roughest of lumber, and by covering the entire structure with roofing paper make a building which is tight and comfortable and acceptable in appearance.

The rear and end walls and roof must be tight to insure dryness and prevent all draughts. Windows and doors may be placed in end walls, but these should usually be located forward of the center of the building and made to fit snugly. The rear part of the house, where the roosts are located, must at all costs be protected against cross-currents of air.



The south or front walls, on the other hand, should have ample openings to admit air and sunshine. The open-front or fresh-air type of house is much superior to the old tightly closed type. Plenty of fresh air means comfort, health, vitality and increased production.



"PRATTS MAKES HENS LAY" What is Pratts Poultry Regulator? A positive tonic and conditioner for poultry of all kinds and ages. A health-builder and health-preserver. Not a food. What does it contain? Roots, herbs, spices, mineral substances, etc. Each ingredient performs a certain duty. The combination spells "health insurance." What does it do? Pratts Poultry Regulator makes and keeps poultry healthy, vigorous and productive. It shortens the molt, sharpens the appetite, improves digestion and circulation, hastens growth and increases egg-production. It saves feed by preventing waste due to poor digestion. It prevents disease by keeping the birds in condition to resist the common ailments. Has it been fully tested? Yes! In general use for nearly fifty years. The original poultry conditioner. Imitated, but unequalled. Does it give general satisfaction? Positively! Satisfaction guaranteed or money refunded. Test it at our risk. Increased egg production will prove that "Pratts makes hens lay." How is it best used? Daily in small quantities. For adults, tablespoonful daily for 10 birds. Younger stock in proportion. Mix with dry or moist mash. What does it cost? Nothing, because it pays big profits. About a cent a month per hen is the investment required. Where can I get it? From 60,000 Pratt dealers. There is one near you. Direct from the Pratt Food Co., prepaid, if your dealer can't supply you. "YOUR MONEY BACK IF YOU ARE NOT SATISFIED"



————————————————————————————————- _Cincinnati, O.

I have been using your poultry foods and remedies with the best of satisfaction and results for the last ten years.

FRED O. FLAHERTY._ ————————————————————————————————-



From a quarter to a third of the front wall should be left open. Cover the openings with one-inch mesh wire netting to keep the fowls in and repel all enemies and food-seeking sparrows. Cloth-covered frames should be provided to close these openings and keep out driving storms. The cloth, should be open in texture, as coarse cotton or heavy cheese cloth, not "boardy" and air-tight. Frames may be left loose to hook or button on inside or outside, or hinged to the top of the openings and swung up against the roof when not in use. In some cases, as in the Tolman house, these openings are never closed, day or night, summer or winter.

It is advisable to provide one or more glass windows in addition to the openings referred to above in order to admit light when the cloth-covered frames are closed. The windows may be placed in either the front wall or the side walls. In the latter case the sun is admitted to the building more hours each day, which is a big advantage during the fall and winter months.

Poultry house floors may be of cement, boards or earth. Cement is best for large, permanent structures. Board floors are excellent in houses of any size and are almost a necessity in small ones which may be moved frequently. Earth floors seem to be favored by the fowls, but if used the earth should be filled in to bring the floor level several inches above the surrounding ground. This to insure dryness.

The accompanying cuts show typical designs of satisfactory poultry houses. When building, just bear the above principles in mind and the results will be satisfactory.

The Tolman type is a strictly "fresh air" or "open front" house. For a flock of thirty to forty birds this house should be ten feet wide, sixteen feet front to back, seven feet to peak of roof, front wall four feet and rear wall five feet high. The highest point of roof is five feet from the rear wall.

The entire south side is a wire-covered opening, save for boards placed as shown in the cut. A full-sized door is located in the east wall opposite the window in the west side. Roosts are placed near the north wall, level with or slightly above the front opening.



————————————————————————————————- _Port Dover, Canada.

After a long experience I find Pratts Poultry Regulator to be absolutely the best tonic to keep a flock of poultry in condition. Just as soon as I find a pen is not doing well, I use the Regulator in their mash. Almost immediately I notice their appetites improve, their combs redden and they lay better. I have also made trial of your other remedies and I find them all absolutely reliable.

JOHN S. MARTIN_ ————————————————————————————————-

For a flock of one hundred or more birds the New Jersey Multiple Unit Laying House is to be recommended. Each unit is twenty feet square, accommodating a hundred fowls. Similar units may be added for each hundred additional birds. The drawing on page 48 shows two units.

In this house the front studs are nine feet high, rear studs are four and a half feet high.

Simple, inexpensive furnishings are best. The cuts show home-made equipment which will meet all practical requirements.

Getting the Eggs

Early-hatched, well-matured pullets are the most dependable layers during the fall and early winter months. Some few yearling hens may continue to lay fairly well during their molting period, but, as a rule, egg production drops with the feathers and does not begin until the new coat of plumage is completed and the system readjusted. So yearlings, taken as a whole, do little toward filling the egg-basket until January or later.

Get the early-hatched pullets into winter quarters by late September or early October before they begin to lay. But be sure the house is fully prepared in advance. Clean house! Disinfect thoroughly with a strong solution of Pratts Poultry Disinfectant. Kill every germ. Avoid possible loss.

————————————————————————————————- _Cherokee, Iowa.

I have used Pratts Poultry Regulator for the last twenty years and always had the best of results. It is a great egg producer and the best feed to keep little chicks strong and guard off that terrible disease, bowel complaint. In fact, I cannot do without it.

GEO. WM. LYON._ ————————————————————————————————-

Get Fall and Winter Eggs

It is most desirable that the flock begin egg production before the weather becomes severe. Get the laying habit established while the season is favorable, and it is comparatively easy to maintain it. And, as production will not commence until the layers are fully matured, the pullets must be hatched early to give ample time for them to make the needed growth.

As a rule, it takes about seven months to mature pullets of the general purpose breeds and six months for the egg breeds. Therefore, March and April chicks of the former, and April and May chicks of the latter, are most valuable. This is a general rule. Some poultrymen are experts in this matter of growing chicks and can bring them to laying maturity in less time.

If disease appears take instant action to check it. Delay of a day or two may permit an epidemic to get well started. In order to enable you to give proper treatment without delay you may well keep a stock of Pratts Poultry Remedies on hand.



Give every bird a thorough treatment for lice. Work Pratts Powdered Lice Killer all through the plumage. This will fix the lice, but will not kill the eggs. In anticipation of the latter hatching, rub Pratts Lice Salve in the small feathers about the vent and beneath the wings. That means death to the young lice as they appear, but to make sure, apply the salve at intervals of a few weeks.

Don't overcrowd the house. Better have a hundred hens comfortable and laying than double the number crowded and loafing.

Leave all ventilating openings wide open. Keep them open until winter storms make more protection necessary. During the summer months the pullets have had plenty of fresh air. To bring them into a warm, tightly closed house is to invite general debility and an epidemic of colds, catarrh, roup and other allied diseases. (Pratts Roup Remedy dissolved in the drinking water every few days, especially during changes of weather, will help to prevent such troubles.)

Keep the house clean. Remove the litter from the floor as soon as it becomes damp or soiled and replace with new, fresh material. Clean the droppings boards at frequent intervals. Wash with Pratts Poultry Disinfectant or scald the food and water dishes. Disinfect the whole house every few weeks, taking advantage of sunny weather so quick drying will follow. Disease causes loss—disinfection prevents disease. Therefore, DISINFECT whether you see need of it or not.

Poultry Feeding

The more food the birds eat beyond bodily requirements the greater the amount of the salable products they create. Any hen that is a natural layer will turn the surplus food into eggs. If she is naturally a meat producer she will build flesh or take on fat. And the sooner the fat producers are identified and removed from the laying flock, the better for all concerned. Your birds will not "get too fat to lay"—they will get fat if they don't lay. And the big problem is to induce the layers to eat as much food as they can digest in order that they may lay heavily and steadily.

To overcome all possible danger of overfeeding, Pratts Poultry Regulator should be regularly added to the mash. This natural tonic and conditioner contains appetizers, to stimulate the desire for food—digestives, to insure complete digestion and assimilation of the food consumed—laxatives, to regulate the bowels—internal antiseptics, to keep the entire digestive tract in a condition of perfect health—worm destroyers, to expel irritating and dangerous intestinal parasites.

Regularly used, Pratts Poultry Regulator insures freedom from the more common poultry disorders, reduces feed bills by preventing feed waste due to sluggish digestion, hastens growth, improves the egg-yield, shortens the molt, makes the entire flock more efficient, swells the profits.

Pratts Poultry Regulator should be added to the mash at the rate of one and three-quarters pound to each hundred pounds of mash. Mix thoroughly so each layer will get her share. The ideal poultry ration is a varied one. It contains mineral matter, green food, animal food and grains. The absence of any one of these groups of foodstuffs means a reduced egg yield.

————————————————————————————————- _I am both selling and feeding Pratts Poultry Regulator, and make a specialty of high-bred Buff Orpingtons. Twelve cockerels, worth from $20 to $75 each, were all placed in healthy condition by use of Pratts Poultry Regulator and their quarters disinfected with Pratts Disinfectant.

W.H. TOPP, Westgate, Iowa._ ————————————————————————————————-

The staple grain feeds are corn, oats, wheat, barley and buckwheat. The grain by-products, bran, middlings and gluten feed, to which may be added corn meal, ground oats and ground barley.

Animal food of some kind is an essential to growth and egg-production. Skim milk and butter milk, fish scrap made from oil-free fish, beef scrap, fresh cut green bone and good grades of digester tankage are all excellent. But use only feeds of this character which are of prime quality. Oily fish, poor beef scrap and mouldy green bone will surely cause trouble.

Fowls on range during the growing season will pick up all needed green food. In the winter one may feed cabbages, mangel wurtzels, beets, carrots, etc. Or, if fresh stuff is not available, heavy oats may be sprouted and fed when the sprouts are two or three inches long. Dried beet pulp, a dairy food made at beet sugar factories, is a convenient green food. It must be well soaked before feeding.

One saves much time, and not infrequently some money, by buying ready-mixed feeds, especially dry mash. In, making such purchases, be guided by quality rather than price. Adopt some brand made by a reputable concern and give it a fair trial. But do not hesitate to change if a better brand becomes available. Just try Pratts Milk Egg Mash.

————————————————————————————————- _Kingston, R.I.

I have used your Baby Chick Food with the best success and would gladly recommend it to anyone wanting such food. I do not only use it for baby chicks, but for those 5-7 weeks' of age.

C.E. BRETT, Rhode Island State College Dept. of Poultry Service._ ————————————————————————————————-

Feeding Dry Mash

The most simple and generally satisfactory feeding method is the dry mash system. Feed a certain amount of the scratch mixture—whole and cracked grains—each day and permit the fowls to complete the daily ration by eating dry mash—ground grains—at will. Keep mash before them in open hoppers and let them help themselves.

The mash, because of its high protein content, is the real egg-maker. And during recent years there has been a tendency toward restricting the scratch feed and inducing the layers to eat more mash. Results seem to indicate that this plan is best, increasing the yield and reducing feed costs.

The laying ration now recommended by the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station is simple and efficient. This ration is made as follows:

Dry Mash lbs.

Wheat Bran 100 Wheat Middlings 100 Ground Oats (heavy) 100 Corn Meal 100

High-grade Fish Scrap or Meat

Scrap 100

Scratch Grain lbs.

Cracked Corn 200 Wheat 100 Oats (heavy) 100 Barley 100

The same institution has perfected the following feeding table showing what amount of scratch feed should be given the layers daily each month in the year. This is a most valuable guide, especially to the inexperienced poultryman. When the birds are fed scratch grain, as indicated, they will naturally eat enough mash from the open hoppers to meet their requirements.

Amount of Grain to Feed Layers Each Month in the Year

Months Amount Per Day Per Pounds For Each 100 Birds Feeding A.M. P.M. November 12 lbs. 4 lbs. 8 lbs. December 12 " 4 " 8 " January 12 " 4 " 8 " February 12 " 4 " 8 " March 12 " 4 " 8 " April 12 " 4 " 8 " May 10 " 4 " 6 " June 10 " 4 " 6 " July 8 " 3 " 5 " August 6 " 2 " 4 " September 5 " 2 " 3 " October 5 " 2 " 3 "

Study this question of mash and grain consumption, for if your birds are not getting enough protein mash, they cannot lay eggs in larger numbers.

* * * * *

Hatching the Chicks

For layers or broilers, hatch chicks early. For late markets and home use, you may bring off hatches at intervals throughout the entire summer.

The incubator and brooder are big helps where many chicks are hatched. Pratts Poultry Service Department will gladly advise you regarding makes of such machines which are giving general satisfaction.

Just a word of caution. Operate incubators and brooders in accordance with the directions furnished by the maker. Go slow in making changes.

Sitting hens are very satisfactory if properly handled. Use only quiet, motherly sitters and place them where they will not be troubled by the rest of the flock. Feed whole grain and a little green food and supply plenty of water.

Dust the sitting hens occasionally with Pratts Powdered Lice Killer so they won't hatch a brood of lice with the chicks. And paint the nest boxes with Pratts Red Mite Special to keep the blood-thirsty mites away.

Growing the Chicks

Little chicks must be attended to no matter what else is done, because lack of intelligent care in early life will be reflected in poor performance when the chicks reach maturity. One can seldom, if ever, offset the mistakes of brooding time by the best of attention later on.

Protect your chicks against the weather, against their various enemies, against diseases, against lice and mites. Keep them comfortable and happy. Start them right, keep them growing steadily until they attain their full size.

Protection against unfavorable weather conditions—rain, cold winds, blazing sun—is secured by providing well-built coops and natural or artificial shade. Coops should be weather-proof, but well ventilated, and so located that surface water from sudden showers cannot flood their floors. They should also be sufficiently roomy to keep the flock happy during long hours of confinement in periods of stormy weather.

Chick enemies include those that do their work in the coops, usually at night, as rats, weasels and skunks, and those that prey upon the flock when it is at liberty, as cats, dogs, crows and hawks.

Protection against the former is found in proper construction of the coops, which should have tight floors and fine wire netting over openings left open at night. A good dog will discourage these night prowlers and steel traps placed at strategic points will often put a quick end to their activities.

Protection against ordinary diseases lies in keeping the little birds strong and vigorous through proper feeding, exercise, etc., and by close attention to sanitation. Keep the quarters and food and water dishes clean. Use Pratts Poultry Disinfectant at frequent intervals.



Aim to prevent rather than cure disease. Should there be any evidence of bowel trouble, give Pratts White Diarrhoea Remedy in the drinking water. Don't let the condition become chronic or general. In "sour weather," when colds may be expected to appear, use Pratts Roup Remedy in the drinking water.

Lice and mites work practically unseen, but they are the source of heavy loss, both directly and indirectly. In extreme cases they actually kill many chicks.

- "BABY FOOD FOR BABY CHICKS" Pratts Buttermilk Baby Chick Food raises every good chick. It won't prevent losses from accidents, but it does prevent death from digestive troubles and the more common chick disorders which are so often due to improper feeding. The original Baby Chick Food PRATTS contains all the food elements required to build muscle, bone and feather, to nourish the whole body, to give that strong start in life which assures rapid growth, even development and profitable maturity. Feed the original Pratts for the first three weeks the critical period at least; it may profitably be used much longer. Refuse substitutes and imitations. These may be slightly less in first cost, but in results, as measured by number and quality of chicks reared, Pratts Buttermilk Baby Chick Food is The Cheapest Food on Earth "YOUR MONEY BACK IF YOU ARE NOT SATISFIED" -



POULTRY

Early in life, when two to four days old, all chicks should be treated with Pratts Head Lice Ointment. Rub a little of the mild preparation on top of the head, under the throat and beneath the wings. At the same time dust with Pratts Powdered Lice Killer. Treat the mother hens most thoroughly, substituting Pratts Lice Salve for the ointment. When the youngsters are ten days old, treat them again, this time using the salve. And repeat the treatment at reasonably frequent intervals to insure complete freedom from the trouble makers.

The deadly blood-sucking mites do not live on the bodies of the birds, but make their homes in cracks and crevices of walls and floors of the coops. Attack them there. Clean coops carefully, then spray or wash walls and floors with Pratts Red Mite Special. Repeat as necessary. That will fix 'em. But you had best do the work on a bright, sunny day when the flock can be kept outside until the coop dries.

Feeding the Chicks

Do not feed chicks for forty-eight hours after hatching. In fact, you may safely wait until they are seventy-two hours old before giving them their first meal. Nature has provided for nourishment during this period and it is best not to upset things.

If possible, start the youngsters off on their life's journey with a drink of sour milk. Let them have sour milk to drink exclusively for the first ten days at least, and give it to them all through life, if this excellent food drink is available.

The principal feed for the first three weeks and profitably for a much longer time should be Pratts Buttermilk Baby Chick Food, a real "baby food for baby chicks," a mixture which is properly balanced in composition and in the right mechanical condition to insure quick digestion. As chicks eat so little during this period, as measured by pounds, one is fully justified in paying a relatively high price per pound for this special feed which will give them a strong, vigorous start and put their digestive organs in proper condition to efficiently use less expensive foods when food consumption becomes heavy.

The ideal baby chick food, Pratts, is made of a variety of foodstuffs so blended as to supply, in proper proportion, the nutrients required to build flesh, bone and feather. It is ground exceedingly fine so it may be consumed freely and yet not tax the digestive organs. Obviously such a feed cannot satisfactorily be prepared at home, which explains the rapidly growing demand which has arisen for Pratts Buttermilk Baby Chick Food during recent years.

For the first day or two, feed Pratts Buttermilk Baby Chick Food exclusively at intervals of two to three hours. At first, spread it upon a shingle or piece of board. Later place it in little troughs or shallow dishes. Let the chicks eat a reasonable amount, what they will take in twenty to thirty minutes, then remove it. Supply a bit of fine, bright grit during this time.

————————————————————————————————- _Rohrerstown, Pa.

I have used the Baby Chick Food this season and have had excellent results. I find it to meet all requirements. It makes rapid growth and at the same time maintains vigor.

L.B. SPRECHER, Director, Penna. State Poultry Association._ ————————————————————————————————-

The second or third day after feeding has begun, cut out a meal or two of the baby chick food and instead sprinkle a little regulation chick feed (scratch feed) in the litter. There are many good brands of such feed on the market. If preferred, one may be made as follows:

Scratch Feed for Chicks

Cracked Wheat 15 lbs. Fine Cracked Corn 15 lbs. Pinhead Oats 10 lbs. Broken Rice 3 lbs. Charcoal 2 lbs.

At the beginning of the second week the scratch feed may be given three times daily, just the quantity they will clean up and hunt for more, and the baby chick food left in open hoppers or dishes to which the chicks may run at will. By this time, too, grit may safely be left in open hoppers before the flock. And if milk is not given freely it is well to supply some additional animal food each day. Fine fish scrap or beef scrap—always of high quality—may be fed sparingly in troughs or on pieces of board. Do not feed too much of this material. If bowel trouble develops, reduce the quantity of animal food. The amount given may be increased progressively as the youngsters gain in size.

While Pratts Baby Chick Food need not be fed longer than the first three weeks, it is good practice to continue its use for two to three weeks longer. But at any time after the critical twenty-one day period one may safely begin to substitute a somewhat coarser and heavier developing or growing mash for the baby chick food. We advise the use of Pratts Buttermilk Growing Mash. Here is a good home-made mixture:

Growing or Developing Mash

Cornmeal 10 lbs. Wheat Bran 20 lbs. Feeding Flour 10 lbs. Fine Ground Oats, Sifted 10 lbs. Fine Fish or Beef Scrap 10 lbs.

————————————————————————————————- _"The regular use of Pratts Poultry Regulator in the ration for growing chicks prevents deaths from common disease, increases the appetite and hastens growth. This means less loss, earlier laying or market maturity, bigger profits.

P.G. PLATT, Sec. Delaware Co. Poultry Assn., Wallingford, Pa._" ————————————————————————————————-

At six to eight weeks of age, or as soon as the youngsters can comfortably eat coarser grains, the fine scratch feed may be replaced by a coarser mixture. Equal parts, by weight, of cracked corn and wheat, form the basis of this, with barley, heavy oats, kafir corn and buckwheat added for variety if available at reasonable prices. When the flock is weaned and well feathered, the regular laying mash may be substituted for the growing mash, though the latter may well be continued for a much longer period.

Above all things, see to it that nothing but feed of superior quality is supplied. Moldy, chaffy, grains and weed seeds may be cheaper to buy than sweet, sound materials, but the latter are cheaper to feed.

Begin giving green food when the chicks are three or four days old, cutting it up finely so they can eat it. And continue to feed greens liberally at all times. It's good for the health and cuts feed bills, too.

Care of the Growing Chicks

As the chicks grow, provide larger quarters if the original coops are at all crowded. And teach the youngsters to roost early, especially where brooders are used, so they will not "pile up" in corners when the heat is removed. When the brood is five to six weeks of age place low roosts, lath tacked on six to eight-inch boards, in the coops. The sturdier individuals will soon learn to use them and educate the rest of the flock.

Pay special attention to the water supply. Have clean water available at all times. And do not leave the water dishes in the sun, which will quickly make the water so warm that it is unfit to drink.

Give the growing pullets as much space, indoors and out, as you possibly can. Feed them liberally. Keep them clean and comfortable. In every way help them gain the health, strength and vigor which they must have in order to do full duty in the laying and breeding pens.

Finally, cull your flock without mercy, beginning at hatching time and continuing to the end. If any baby chicks are crippled or weak, dispose of them at once. As the flock grows, mark—by toe punching or otherwise—all individuals which show evidence of being lacking in vigor, which are stunted or do not make rapid growth, which fail to feather properly, which are ever noticeably sick. Then rush them to market as soon as they reach the proper weight. Thus you will save for your own use only those which are physically right, which have the health and stamina that will enable them to stand up under the strain of continuous egg-production. And such a flock, after it has undergone the further culling of a year in the laying pen, will give you breeding birds capable of producing worthwhile chicks.

Poultry Diseases

Prevention of disease is most essential. And the first step consists of carefully selecting the birds which will he given a place in the flock, retaining only those which are healthy and vigorous, and rejecting the weaklings and physically unfit. The next step is to keep the birds in a high state of vitality through proper management and keep contagious and infectious diseases away by adopting the necessary sanitary measures.

Fresh air, wholesome food and clean water are essential. Equally necessary is the use of Pratts Poultry Regulator, which keeps the birds in perfect condition internally and so prevents such self-developed disorders as indigestion, constipation, and the like.

Most of the serious diseases which take heavy toll of carelessly managed flocks are due to germs of various kinds. These may be introduced in many different ways, and when present in the flock they multiply and spread with great rapidity. Cleanliness and sanitation will largely overcome them, and as each fowl is worth so much money under present conditions, it is really economical to prevent loss even at the expense of some time and of germ-killing preparations.

Pratts Poultry Disinfectant costs but a trifle. A gallon, diluted with water, makes fifty gallons of a powerful disinfectant, one that is highly efficient, but both safe and pleasant to use. Spray the house and furnishings and wash feed and water containers at frequent intervals with this economical germ-killer. Results will surely be seen in healthier, more productive birds, less trouble and less loss from disease.

————————————————————————————————- _Staunton, Va.

I would not have tried to raise expensive poultry without Pratts products in my house. While I was a boy at home we always had a supply of Pratts on hand.

I find that my success is due to the use of the Pratts products kept constantly on the shelf.

H.L. CAMPBELL._ ————————————————————————————————-

In this condensed book we can discuss only the more general disorders. The subject is covered thoroughly in Chapter IX, The Poultryman's Complete Handbook, including directions for equipping a hospital, administering medicine, symptom and treatment chart, diagrams of the fowl's digestive system and skeleton, control of poultry vices, etc. Send a dime, in silver or stamps, for a copy, to Pratt Food Co., Philadelphia.

If necessary, do not hesitate to consult the poultry experts connected with Pratts Poultry Service Dept. They will give you personal help without charge. In writing, give all symptoms and necessary facts. Address such letters to our Philadelphia office.

It is important that diseases of all kinds be recognized as early as possible, and equally so that immediate treatment be given.

Watch your birds! If any show signs of being out of condition, examine them carefully to determine the trouble. Then give them the care which is demanded in each case. Quick treatment will often effect a speedy cure of a valuable bird that might be lost if the disease became firmly established.

Pratts Poultry Remedies include dependable preparations for most common poultry diseases. They are guaranteed to give satisfaction and are inexpensive. Keep a supply on hand. Use promptly as occasion demands. The saving of a single good laying or breeding fowl by instant treatment will more than pay the cost of a well-stocked poultry medicine shelf.

POULTRY LICE AND MITES

Body Lice—There are many different kinds of these parasites and all are serious trouble makers. They cause endless annoyance, check growth and egg production. Lice-free fowls are healthier and more comfortable, therefore more productive and profitable.

GUARANTEED POULTRY REMEDIES Pratts line of Guaranteed Poultry Remedies is the result of fifty years of experience. Each preparation is positively the best of its kind. Keep a supply on hand for instant use. PRATTS ROUP REMEDY (Tablets or Powder) A sure preventive and cure for roup, colds, canker, catarrh and similar diseases. PRATTS GAPE REMEDY Guaranteed to bring prompt relief. Use as a preventive the first four weeks and your chicks will not be troubled with gape-worms. PRATTS SORE-HEAD CHICKEN-POX REMEDY A guaranteed cure for this highly contagious disease. Don't risk having your entire flock ruined. Keep it on hand for quick use when the ailment is first noticed. PRATTS BRONCHITIS REMEDY A quick and effective remedy. Fully guaranteed for a disease that is generally fatal unless promptly checked. PRATTS WHITE DIARRHOEA REMEDY Will save the chicks and cure completely when used promptly. Valuable in preventing the heavy chick losses usually experienced. PRATTS CHOLERA REMEDY A sure remedy for cholera, indigestion, sour crop, dysentery, and bowel trouble. Guaranteed to satisfy or money refunded. PRATTS SCALY LEG REMEDY This disease impairs the vitality of the birds and ruins their appearance. Pratts remedy will keep the legs clean and healthy. PRATTS CONDITION TABLETS An effective remedy for "run-down" birds. Keeps show birds in condition and prevents colds, roup and liver trouble. "YOUR MONEY BACK IF YOU ARE NOT SATISFIED"

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