Doubtless the king expected Leonardo to do some equally great work after he became the nation's guest.
Before leaving Italy, Leonardo had painted his one other "greatest" picture—"La Gioconda" (Mona Lisa)-and he took that wonderful work with him to France, where the King purchased it for $9,000, and to this day it hangs in the Louvre.
But Leonardo was to do no great work in France, for in truth he was growing old. His health had failed, and although he was still a dandy and court favourite, setting the fashion in clothing and in the cut of hair and beard, he was no longer the brilliant, active Leonardo.
Bernard Berensen, has written of him: "Painting ... was to Leonardo so little of a preoccupation that we must regard it as merely a mode of expression used at moments by a man of universal genius." By which Berensen means us to understand that Leonardo was so brilliant a student and inventor, so versatile, that art was a mere pastime. "No, let us not join in the reproaches made to Leonardo for having painted so little; because he had so much more to do than to paint, he has left all of us heirs to one or two of the supremest works of art ever created."
Another author writes that "in Leonardo da Vinci every talent was combined in one man."
Leonardo was the third person of the wonderful trinity of Florentine painters, Raphael and Michael Angelo being the other two.
He knew so much that he never doubted his own powers, but when he died, after three years in France, he left little behind him, and that little he had ever declared to be unfinished—the "Mona Lisa" and the "Last Supper." He died in the Chateau de Cloux, at Amboise, and it is said that "sore wept the king when he heard that Leonardo was dead."
In Milan, near the Cathedral, there stands a monument to his memory, and about it are placed the statues of his pupils. To this day he is wonderful among the great men of the world.
PLATE—THE LAST SUPPER
This, as we have said, is in the former convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie, in Milan. It was the first painted story of this legendary event in which natural and spontaneous action on the part of all the company was presented.
To-day the picture is nearly ruined by smoke, time, and alterations in the place, for a great door lintel has been cut into the picture. Leonardo used the words of the Christ: "Verily, I say unto you that one of you shall betray me," as the starting point for this painting. It is after the utterance of these words that we see each of the disciples questioning horrified, frightened, anxious, listening, angered—all these emotions being expressed by the face or gestures of the hands or pose of the figures. It is a most wonderful picture and it seems as if the limit of genius was to be found in it.
The company is gathered in a half-dark hall, the heads outlined against the evening light that comes through the windows at the back. We look into a room and seem to behold the greatest tragedy of legendary history: treachery and sorrow and consternation brought to Jesus of Nazareth and his comrades.
This great picture was painted in oil instead of in "distemper," the proper kind of mixture for fresco, and therefore it was bound to be lost in the course of time. Besides, it has known more than ordinary disaster. The troops of Napoleon used this room, the convent refectory, for a stable, and that did not do the painting any good. The reason we have so complete a knowledge of it, however, is that Leonardo's pupils made an endless number of copies of it, and thus it has found its way into thousands of homes. The following is the order in which Leonardo placed the disciples at the table: Jesus of Nazareth in the centre, Bartholomew the last on the left, after him is James, Andrew, Peter, Judas—who holds the money bag—and John. On the right, next to Jesus, comes Thomas, the doubting one; James the Greater, Philip, Matthew, Thaddeus, and Simon. Jesus has just declared that one of them shall betray him, and each in his own way seems to be asking "Lord, is it I?" In the South Kensington Museum in London will be found carefully preserved a description, written out fairly in Leonardo's own hand, to guide him in painting the Last Supper. It is most interesting and we shall quote it: "One, in the act of drinking puts down his glass and turns his head to the speaker. Another twisting his fingers together, turns to his companion, knitting his eyebrows. Another, opening his hands and turning the palm toward the spectator, shrugs his shoulders, his mouth expressing the liveliest surprise. Another whispers in the ear of a companion, who turns to listen, holding in one hand a knife, and in the other a loaf, which he has cut in two. Another, turning around with a knife in his hand, upsets a glass upon the table and looks; another gasps in amazement; another leans forward to look at the speaker, shading his eyes with his hand; another, drawing back behind the one who leans forward, looks into the space between the wall and the stooping disciple."
Other paintings of Leonardo's are: "Mona Lisa," "Head of Medusa," "Adoration of the Magi," and the "Madonna della Caraffa."
JEAN ANTOINE WATTEAU
(Pronounced in French, Vaht-toh; English, Wot-toh) French (Genre) School 1684-1721 Pupil of Gillot and Audran
Watteau's father was a tiler in a Flemish town—Valenciennes. He meant that his son should be a carpenter, but that son tramped from Valenciennes to Paris with the purpose of becoming a great painter. He did more, he became a "school" of painting, all by himself.
There is no sadder story among artists than that of this lowly born genius. He was not good to look upon, being the very opposite of all that he loved, having no grace or charm in appearance. He had a drooping mouth, red and bony hands, and a narrow chest with stooping shoulders. Because of a strange sensitiveness he lived all his life apart from those he would have been happy with, for he mistrusted his own ugliness, and thought he might be a burden to others.
Such a man has painted the gayest, gladdest, most delicate and exquisite pictures imaginable.
He entered Paris as a young man, without friends, without money or connections of any kind, and after wandering forlornly, about the great city, he found employment with a dealer who made hundreds of saints for out-of-town churches.
It is said that for this first employer Watteau made dozens and dozens of pictures of St. Nicholas; and when we think of the beautiful figures he was going to make, pictures that should delight all the world, there seems something tragic in the monotony and common-placeness of that first work he was forced by poverty to do. Certainly St. Nicholas brought one man bread and butter, even if he forgot him at Christmas time.
After that hard apprenticeship, Watteau's condition became slightly better. He had been employed near the Pont Notre Dame, at three francs a week, but now in the studio of a scene painter, Gillot, he did work of coarse effect, very different from that exquisite school of art which he was to bring into being. After Gillot's came the studio of Claude Audran, the conservator of the Luxembourg, and with him Watteau did decorative work. In reality he had no master, learned from nobody, grovelled in poverty, and at first, forced a living from the meanest sources. With this in mind, it remains a wonder that he should paint as no other ever could, scenes of exquisite beauty and grace; scenes of high life, courtiers and great ladies assembled in lovely landscapes, doing elegant and charming things, dressed in unrivalled gowns and costumes. Until Watteau went to the Luxembourg he had seen absolutely nothing of refined or gracious living. He had come from country scenes, and in Paris had lived among workmen and bird-fanciers, flower sellers, hucksters and the like. This is very likely the secret of his peculiar art.
Watteau would have been a wonderful artist under any circumstances, no matter what sort of pictures he had painted; but circumstances gave his imagination a turn toward the exquisite in colourand composition. Doubtless when he first looked down from the palace windows of the Luxembourg and saw gorgeous women and handsome men languishing and coquetting and revelling in a life of ease and beauty, he was transported. He must have thought himself in fairyland, and the impulse to paint, to idealise the loveliness that he saw, must have been greater in him than it would have been in one who had lived so long among such scenes that they had become familiar with them.
After Watteau there were artists who tried to do the kind of work he had done, but no one ever succeeded. Watteau clothed all his shepherdesses in fine silken gowns, with a plait in the back, falling from the shoulders, and to-day we have a fashion known as the "Watteau back"—gowns made with this shoulder-plait. He put filmy laces or softest silks upon his dairy maids, as upon his court ladies, dressing his figures exquisitely, and in the loveliest colours. He had suffered from poverty and from miserable sights, so when he came to paint pictures, he determined to reproduce only the loveliest objects.
At that time French fashions were very unusual, and it was quite the thing for ladies to hold a sort of reception while at their toilet. A description of one of these affairs was written by Madame de Grignon to her daughter: "Nothing can be more delightful than to assist at the toilet of Madame la Duchesse (de Bourgoyne), and to watch her arrange her hair. I was present the other day. She rose at half past twelve, put on her dressing gown, and set to work to eat a meringue. She ate the powder and greased her hair. The whole formed an excellent breakfast and charming coiffure." Watteau has caught the spirit of this strange airy, artificial, incongruous existence. His ladies seem to be eating meringues and powdering their hair and living on a diet of the combination. One hardly knows which is toilet and which is real life in looking at his paintings.
He quarreled with Audran at the Luxembourg, and having sold his first picture, he went back to his Valenciennes home, to see his former acquaintances, no doubt being a little vain of his performance.
After that he painted another picture which sold well enough to keep him from poverty for a time, and on his return to Paris he was warmly greeted by a celebrated and influential artist, Crozat. Watteau tried for a prize, and though his picture came second it had been seen by the Academy committee.
His greatness was acknowledged, and he was immediately admitted to the Academy and granted a pension by the crown, with which he was able to go to Italy, the Mecca of all artists the world over.
From Italy he went to London, but there the fogs and unsuitable climate made his disease much worse and he hurried back to France, where he went to live with a friend who was a picture dealer. It was then that he painted a sign for this friend, Gersaint, a sign so wonderful that it is reckoned in the history of Watteau's paintings.
Soon he grew so sensitive over his illness, that he did not wish to remain near his dearest friends, but one of them, the Abbe Haranger, insisted upon looking after his welfare, and got lodgings for him at Nogent, where he could have country air and peace.
Watteau died very soon after going to Nogent in July, 1721, and he left nine thousand livres to his parents, and his paintings to his best friends, the Abbe, Gersaint, Monsieur Henin, and Monsieur Julienne. He is called the "first French painter" and so he was—though he was Flemish, by birth.
This exquisite picture displays nearly all the characteristics of Watteau's painting. He was said to paint with "honey and gold," and his method was certainly remarkable. His clear, delicate colours were put upon a canvas first daubed with oil, and he never cleaned his palette. His "oil-pot was full of dust and dirt and mixed with the washings of his brush." One would think that only the most slovenly results could come from such habits of work, but the artist made a colour which no one could copy, and that was a sort of creamy, opalescent white. This was original with Watteau, and most beautiful.
In this "Fete Champetre," which is now in the National Gallery at Edinburgh, he paints an elegant group of ladies and gentlemen indulging in an open air dance of some sort. One couple are doing steps facing one another, to the music of a set of pipes, while the rest flirt and talk, decorously, round about. There is no boisterous rusticity here; all is dainty and refined.
The same characteristics are to be found in Watteau's other pictures such as, "Embarkation for the Island of Cythera," "The Judgment of Paris," and "Gay Company in a Park."
SIR BENJAMIN WEST
American 1738-1820 Pupil of the Italian School
The beautiful smile of his little niece helped to make this man an artist. This is the story:
Benjamin West was born down in Pennsylvania, at Westdale, a small village in the township of Springfield, of Quaker parentage. The family was poor perhaps, but in America at a time when everybody was struggling with a new civilisation it did not seem to be such binding poverty as the same condition in Europe would have been. Benjamin had a married sister whose baby he greatly loved, and he gave it devoted attention. One day while it was sleeping and the undiscovered artist was sitting beside it he saw it smile, and the beauty of the smile inspired him to keep it forever if he could. He got paper and pencil and forthwith transferred that "angel's whisper."
No child of to-day can imagine the difficulties a boy must have had in those days in America, to get an art education, and having learned his art, how impossible it was to live by it. Men were busy making a new country and pictures do not take part in such pioneer work; they come later. Still, there were bound to be born artistic geniuses then, just as there were men for the plough and men for politics and for war. He who happened to be the artist was the Quaker boy, West.
He took his first inspiration from the Cherokees, for it was the Indian in all the splendour of his strength and straightness that formed West's ideal of beautiful physique.
When he first saw the Apollo Belvedere, he exclaimed: "A young Mohawk warrior!" to the disgust of every one who heard him, but he meant to compliment the noblest of forms. Europeans did not know how magnificent a figure the "young Mohawk warrior" could be; but West knew.
After his Indian impetus toward art he went to Philadelphia, and settled himself in a studio, where he painted portraits. His sitters went to him out of curiosity as much as anything else, but at last a Philadelphia gentleman, who knew what art meant, recognised Benjamin West's talent, and made some arrangement by which the young man went to Italy.
Life began to look beautiful and promising to the Pennsylvanian. He was in Italy for three years, and in that home of art the young man who had made the smile of his sister's sleeping baby immortal was given highest honours. He was elected a member of all the great art societies in Italy, and studied with the best artists of the time. He began to earn his living, we may be sure, and then he went to England, where, in spite of the prejudice there must have been against the colonists, he became at once a favourite of George III., a friend of Reynolds and of all the English artists of repute—unless perhaps of Gainsborough, who made friends with none.
West was appointed "historical painter" to his Majesty, George III., and he was chosen to be one of four who should draw plans for a Royal Academy. He was one of the first members of that great organisation, and when Sir Joshua Reynolds, the first president, died, West became president, remaining in office for twenty-eight years.
About that time came the Peace of Amiens, and West was able to go to Paris, where he could see the greatest art treasures of Europe, which had been brought to France from every quarter as a consequence of the war. At that time, before Paris began to return these, and when she had just pillaged every great capital of Europe, artists need take but a single trip to see all the art worth seeing in the whole world.
After a long service in the Academy, West quarreled with some of the Academicians and sent in his resignation; but his fellow artists had too much sense and good feeling to accept it, and begged him to reconsider his action. He did so, and returned to his place as president. When West was sixty-five years old he made a picture, "Christ Healing the Sick," which he meant to give to the Quakers in Philadelphia, who were trying to get funds with which to build a hospital. This picture was to be sold for the fund; but it was no sooner finished and exhibited in London before being sent to America, than it was bought for 3,000 guineas for Great Britain. West did not contribute this money to the hospital fund, but he made a replica for the Quakers, and sent that instead of the original.
West was eighty-two years old when he died and he was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral after a distinguished and honoured life. Since Europe gave him his education and also supported him most of his life, we must consider him more English than American, his birth on American soil being a mere accident.
PLATE—THE DEATH OF WOLFE
This death scene upon the Plains of Abraham, without the walls of Quebec in 1759, must not be taken as a realistic picture of an historic event. West drew upon his imagination and upon portraits of the prominent men supposed to have been grouped around the dying general, and he has produced a dramatic effect. One can imagine it is the two with fingers pointing backward who have just brought the memorable tidings, "They run! They run!"
"Who run?" asks Wolfe, for when he had fallen the issues of the fight were still undecided. "The French, sir. They give way everywhere." "Thank God! I die in peace," replied the English hero. At a time when the momentous results of this battle had set the whole of Great Britain afire with enthusiasm it is easy to understand the popularity of a picture such as this. It was sold in 1791 for oe28, and now belongs to the Duke of Westminster. There is a replica of it in the Queen's drawing-room at Hampton Court.
Another famous historical picture by West is "The Battle of La Hogue."
About, Edmund Academia, Florence Academy, French Rome, Royal, London, Venice "Acis and Galatea" Adoration of the Magi "Adoration of the Shepherds" "After a Summer Shower" "Afternoon" Albert, King "Alessandro del Borro" Alexander VI. Alice, Princess Allegri, Antonio. See Correggi Allegri, Pompino "Ambassadors, The" "American Mustangs" "Anatomy Lesson, The" Andrea del Sarto Angelo, Michael "Angels' Heads" "Angelas, The" Anguisciola, Sofonisba Anne of Cleves Anne of Saxony Annunciata, cloister of the "Annunciation, The" "Ansidei Madonna, The" "Antiope" Apocalypse Apollo Belvedere Apostles, the Four Apostles' Heads Appelles "Archipelago" Arena Chapel Arrivabene Chapel "Artist's Two Sons, The" "Arundel Castle and Mill" "Assumption of the Virgin" "At the Well" Audran Augusta, Princess "Avenue, Middelharnis, Holland" "Awakened Conscience, The"
"Bacchanal" "Bacchus and Ariadne" Balzac "Banquet in Levi's House" "Baptism of Christ, The" Barbizon Barile Barry, James Bartoli d'Angiolini Bartolommeo, Fra Bassano "Bathers" "Battle of La Hogue" Beaumont, Sir George Beaux-Arts, l'Ecole des Begarelli Bellini, Gentile Bellini, Giovanni Bembo, Cardinal Beneguette "Bent Tree" Bentivoglio, Cardinal Berck, Derich Berensen, Bernard Bergholt, East "Berkshire Hills" "Bianca" Bicknell, Maria Bigio, Francia Bigordi. See Ghirlandajo Bird "Birth of the Virgin" (Andrea del Sarto) (Murillo) "Birth of Venus" Blanc, Charles "Blessed Herman Joseph, The" "Bligh Shore" "Blue Boy, The" Bocklin, Arnold "Boat-Building" Boleyn, Anne Bolton, Mrs. Sarah K. Bonheur, Marie-Rosea Bonheur, Raymond B. Bordeaux Bordone. See Giotto Borghese Palace Borgia family Borgia, Lucretia Botticelli Boudin Bouguereau, William Adolphe "Boy at the Stile, The" Brancacci Chapel Brant, Isabella Breton, Jules Brice, J. B. Brouwer Browning Brunellesco "Brutus" Buckingham, Duke of Buonarroti. See Angelo Michael Burgundy, Duchess of Burke, Edmund Burne-Jones, Sir Edward Burr, Margaret
Caffin Cagliari, Benedetto Cagliari, Carletto Cagliari, Gabriele Cagliari, Paolo. See Veronese Cambridge, University of "Camels at Rest" Campagna Campana, Pedro Campanile, Florence Canova Caprese "Capture of Samson" Capuchin Church Capuchin Convent Carlos, Don "Carmencita" Carmine, Church of the "Carthage" Castillo, Juan del Cecelia, wife of Titian Cellini Centennial Exhibition Chamberlain, Arthur "Chant d'Amour" Chantry, Sir Francis "Charity" Charles, I. Charles V. Charles X. Cherokees "Chess Players, The" "Children of Charles I." "Christ Healing the Sick" "Christ in the Temple" "Christina of Denmark" Church Cibber, Theophilus Cimabue Claude "Cleopatra Landing at Tarsus" "Cock Fight" Cogniet, Leon Colnaghi "Cologne" Constable, John Copley, John Singleton Copper Plate Magazine Cornelia, Rembrandt's daughter Cornelissen, Cornelis "Cornfield" "Coronation of Marie de Medicis" "Coronation of the Virgin" (Ghirlandajo) (Raphael) Corot, Jean Baptiste Camille Correggio Cosimo, Piero di "Cottage, The" "Countess Folkstone" "Countess of Spencer" Coventry, Countess of "Creation of Man, The" "Creation of the World, The" Crozat "Crucifixion, The" (Raphael) (Tintoretto)
"Danae" Dandie Dinmont "Daniel" Dante "Daphnis and Chloe" Daubigny "David" "Dead Christ, The" "Dead Mallard" "Death of Ananias, The" "Death of Wolfe, The" "Dedham Mill" "Dedham Vale" Delaroche "Deluge, The" "Descent from the Cross, The" (Campana) (Rembrandt) (Rubens) De Witt Diaz "Dice Players, The" Dickens, Charles Digby, Kenelm "Dignity and Impudence" "Divine Comedy" Dolce, Ludovico Donatello "Don Quixote" Dore, Paul Gustave D'Orsay "Duchess of Devonshire and Her Daughter, The" "Duel After the Masked Ball" Dunthorne, John Dupre Durand, Carolus Durer, Albrecht Dyce
"Ecce Homo" "Education of Mary, The" Edward, King Egyptian art Elizabeth, Cousin of the Virgin Elizabeth, Princess "Embarkation for the Island of Cythera" "Emperor at Solferino, The" Engravers and engraving "Entombment, The" (Titian) (Veronese) Eos "Equestrian Portrait of Don Balthasar Carlos" Errard, Charles Escorial, the Esteban, Bartolome. See Murillo Esteban, Gaspar Esteban, Therese Etchers and etching "Europa and the Bull" "Eve of St. Agnes, The"
Fallen, Ambrose "Fall of Man, The" "Fantasy of Morocco" Fawkes, Hawksworth "Feast in the House of Simon" "Feast of Ahasuerus" "Ferdinand of Austria" Ferdinand III., Grand Duke Ferrara, Duke of "Fete Champetre" "Fighting Temeraire, The" Filipepi, Mariano "Finding of Christ in the Temple, The" "Flamborough, Miss" "Flatford Mill on the River Stour" "Flora" (Bocklin) (Titian) "Foal of an Ass, The" Fondato de' Tedeschi Fontainebleau "Fool, The" "Fornarina, The" Fortuny, Mariano Fourment family Fourment, Helena "Four Saints" Francis I. Frari, monks of the Frey, Agnes "Friedland"
Gainsborough, Mary Gainsborough, Thomas Gallery, Berlin Dresden Grosvenor Hague, The Hermitage, The Lichtenstein, Vienna Louvre Luxembourg Madrid Naples National, Edinburgh National, London Old Pinakothek, Munich Parma Pitti Palace Uffizi Vienna Garrick "Gay Company in a Park" Gellee. See Claude Lorrain George III. "Georgia Pines" Gerbier Germ, The Gerome, Jean Leon Gersaint Ghibertio Ghirlandajo "Gibeon Farm" Gignoux, Regis "Gillingham Mill" Gillot Giorgione Giotto "Giovanna degli Albizi" Girten, Thomas Gisze, Gorg Gladstone, Mr. and Mrs. "Gleaners, The" "Glebe Farm" Goethe "Golden Calf, The" "Golden Stairs, The" Goldsmith, craft of the Goldsmith, Oliver Gonzaga, Vincenzo "Good Samaritan, The" Graham, Judge Granacci Gravelot Grignon, Madame de Gualfonda "Guardian Angel, The" Guidi, Giovanni Guidi, Simone Guidi. Tommaso. See Masaccio Guido Guidobaldo of Urbino Guilds "Gust of Wind"
Haarlem Town Hall "Haarlem's Little Forest" "Hadleigh Castle" Hals, Franz Hamerton Hamilton, Duchess of "Hampstead Heath" Hancock, John "Hans of Antwerp" Haranger, Abbe "Hark!" "Harvest Waggon, The" Hassam, Childe Hastings, Warren "Haunt of the Gazelle, The" Hayman "Haystack in Sunshine" "Hay Wain, The" "Head of Christ" "Head of Medusa" Hearn, George A. Henin Henrietta, Queen Henry III. Henry VIII. "Henschel" "Hercules" Herrera "Highland Sheep" "Hille Bobbe, the Witch of Haarlem" Hill, Jack "Hireling Shepherd, The" Hobbema, Meindert Hogarth, William Holbein, Ambrosius Holbein, Hans, the Younger Holbein, Michael Holbein, Philip Holbein, Sigismund Holbein, the Elder "Holofernes" Holper, Barbara "Holy Family and St. Bridget" Holy Family in art, The "Holy Family under a Palm Tree, The" "Holy Night, The" "Homer St. Gaudens" "Hon. Ann Bingham, The" Hood, Admiral "Horse Fair, The" Howard, Catherine Hudson, Thomas Hunt, William Holman
"II Giorno" "II Medico del Correggio" "Immaculate Conception, The" Indian pottery Infanta "Infant Jesus and St. John, The" Inman Inness "Innocence" "In Paradise" Inquisition, Spanish "Interior of the Mosque of Omar" Isabella, Queen Islay "Isle of the Dead, The" "Ivybridge"
Jacopo da Empoli Jacque "Jane Seymour" "Jerusalem by Moonlight" "Jesus and the Lamb" Jesus in art Johnson, Dr. Jones, George Joseph in art "Joseph in Egypt" "Joseph's Dream" "Judgment of Paris, The" "Judith" Julienne Julius II. Justiniana
Kann, Rudolf "King Cophetua and the Beggar Maid" "King of Hearts" "Kirmesse, The" Knackfuss "Knight, Death and the Devil, The"
"La Belle Jardiniere" "La Disputa" "Lady Elcho, Mrs. Arden, Mrs. Tennant" "La Gioconda" "Landscape with Cattle." Landseer, John Landseer, Sir Edwin Henry Landseer, Thomas "La Primavera" "Last Judgment, The" (Angelo) (Tintoretto) (Titian) "Last Supper, The" (Andrea del Sarto) (Ghirlandajo) (Veronese) (Leonardo da Vinci) "Laughing Cavalier, The" Laura Lavinia, daughter of Titian "Lavinia, the Artist's Daughter" Lawrence, Sir Thomas "Leda" (Correggio) (Gerome) Lee, Jeremiah Legion of Honour Lemon, Margaret Leonardo. See da Vinci Leo X. Lewis, J. F. Liber Studiorium "Liber Veritas" Library, Boston Public "Light of the World, The" Linley, Thomas Linley, Samuel "Lion Disturbed at His Repast" "Lion Enjoying His Repast" "Lioness, The Study off a" "Lion Hunt, A" Lippi, Fra Filippo "Lock on the Stour" Lombardi "Lords Digby and Russell" "Lord Wharton" Lorenzalez, Claudio Lorrain, Claude Lott, Willy Louis XIV. Louise, Princess "Love Among the Ruins" "Low Life and High Life" Lowther, Sir William Lucas van Leyden Lucia, mother of Titian Lucretia, wife of Andrea del Sarto Luther, Martin Madonna and Child "Madonna and Child with St. Anne" "Madonna and Child with Saints" "Madonna del'Arpie" "Madonna della Caraffa" "Madonna della Casa d'Alba" "Madonna della Sedia" "Madonna del Granduca" "Madonna del Pesce" "Madonna del Sacco" "Madonna of the Palms" "Madonna of the Rosary." Madrazo "Magdalene, The" Manet "Manoah's Sacrifice" Mantegna Mantua, Duke of Mantua, Duke Frederick II. of "Man with the Hoe, The" "Man with the Sword, The" Margherita Maria Theresa "Marriage a la Mode" "Marriage at Cana, The" "Marriage Contract, The" "Marriage of Bacchus and Ariadne, The" "Marriage of Mary and Joseph, The" "Marriage of St. Catherine, The" "Marriage of Samson, The" Martineau "Martyrdom of St. Agnes, The" "Martyrdom of St. Peter, The" "Martyrdom of St. Sebastian, The" Mary, the Virgin, in art Masaccio (Tommasco Guidi) Masoline Mastersingers, Nuremberg Maximillian, Emperor Medici family Medici, Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, Lorenzi de' Medici, Ottaviano de' Medici, Pietro de' "Meeting of St. John and St. Anna at Jerusalem" Meissonier, Jean Louis Ernest "Melancholy" Merlini, Girolama "Meyer Madonna, The" Michallon "Midsummer Noon" Millais Millet, Jean Francois Millet, Mere "Mill Stream" "Miracle of St. Mark, The" Missions, Spanish Missirini "Mr. Marquand" "Mr. Penrose" "Mrs. Meyer and Children" "Mrs. Peel" Mohawk Mona Lisa Monet, Claude "Money Changers, The" "Moonlight at Salerno" Morales "Moreau and His Staff before Hohenlinden" More, Sir Thomas "Morning Prayer, The" "Moses" "Moses Breaking the Tablets of the Law" Mudge, Dr. Murat Murillo (Bartolome Esteban) Murillo, Dona Anna Museum of Art, Basel Berlin Court, Vienna Madrid Metropolitan, New York Prado Rijks, Amsterdam South Kensington Muther "Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine, The"
"Naiads at Play" Napoleon "Nativity, The" (Botticelli) (Durer) Navarrette "Nieces of Sir Horace Walpole" "Night Watch, The" "Noli me Tangere" Norham Castle Nuremberg "Nurse and the Child, The"
"'Oh, Pearl' Quoth I" "Old Bachelor, The" "Old Shepherd's Chief Mourner, The" Olivares
Pacheco "Pallas" "Pan and Psyche" Pantheon Pareja "Parish Clerk, The" 'Past and Present" Passignano "Pathless Water, The" Paul III. "Paysage" Pazzi family "Penzance" Percy, Bishop Perez family Perez, Maria Perugino Philip II. Philip III. Philip IV. Picot "Pilate Washing His Hands" Pinas Pirkneimer Pissaro "Ploughing" Pope, Alexander "Portrait of Old Man and Boy" Portraits of artists by themselves "Praying Arab" "Praying Hands" Pre-Raphaelites "Presentation of Christ in the Temple" "Presentation of the Family of Darius to Alexander" Prim, General "Procession of the Magi" "Prowling Lion, The" "Psyche and Cupid" Pypelincx, Maria
Quakers "Quin, Portrait of"
Rabelais "Rake's Progress, The" "Rape of Ganymede, The" "Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus, The" Raphael (Sanzio) Reade, Charles "Reading at Diderot's, A" "Reaper, The" "Regions of Joy" Rembrandt (van Rijn) "Retreat from Russia" Reynolds, Samuel Reynolds, Sir Joshua Ribera Rinaldo and Armida "Road over the Downs, The" "Robert Cheseman with his Falcon" Robusto, Jacopo. See Tintoretto Romano, Guilio Rood, Professor "Rosary, Story of the" Rossetti, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, W. M. Rothschild, Lord Rousseau Royal Princess Rubens, Albert Rubens, John Rubens, Nicholas Rubens, Peter Paul Ruisdael, Jacob van Ruskin, John Ruthven, Lady Mary Sachs, Hans "Sacred and Profane Love" "St. Anthony of Padua" "St. Augustine" "St. Barbara" St. Bernard dog St. Bernardino "Saint Cecelia" St. Christopher St. Clemente St. Dominic St. George "St. George and the Dragon" "St. George Slaying the Dragon" St. Giorgio Maggiore "St. Jerome" St, John the Baptist St. Jovis Shooting Company St. Leger, Colonel St. Lucas, Guild of St. Luke, Guild of St. Mark St. Martin's Church "St. Michael Attacking Satan." "St. Nobody" St. Paul's Cathedral St. Peter "St. Peter Baptising" St. Peter's Church "St. Rocco Healing the Sick" "St. Sebastian." (Botticelli) (Correggio) (Titian) St. Sebastian, Church of St. Sebastian, Monastery of St. Sixtus St. Trinita, Church of "Salisbury Cathedral" Salon Salvator Rosa "Samson" "Samson Threatening His Stepfather" "Samson's Wedding" San Francisco Santa Croce Santa Maria della Pace Santa Maria delle Grazte Santa Maria del Orto Santa Maria Novella Santi, Bartolommeo Santi Giovanni Santo Cruz, Church of Santo Spirito, Convent of Sanzio. See Raphael Sarcinelli, Cornelio Sargent, John Singer Sarto, Andrea del. See Andrea Saskia Savonarola "Scapegoat, The" "Scene from Woodstock" Schiavone Schmidt, Elizabeth Schongauer School Girl's Hymn "School of Anatomy, The" School of Art, Academy, London American Andalusian Castilian Dusseldorf Dutch English Flemish Florentine Fontainebleau-Barbizon Foreign French in German Hudson River Impressionist Italian Nuremberg Parma Roman Spanish Umbrian Venetian "School, of Athens, The" "School, of Cupid, The" "Scotch Deer" Scott, Sir Walter Scrovegno, Enrico Scuola di San Rocco "Seaport at Sunset" Sebastian "Serpent Charmer, The" Servi, convent of the Sesto, Cesare de Seurat Sforza, Ludovico "Shadow of Death, The" Shakespeare Sheepshanks Collection "Shepherd Guarding Sheep" Sheppey, Isle of Sheridan, Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Richard Brinsley Siddons, Mrs. Silva, Rodriguez de Sistine Chapel "Sistine Madonna, The" Six, Jan Sixtus IV. Skynner, Sir John "Slaughter of the Innocents, The" "Slave Ship, The" "Sleeping Bloodhound, The" "Sleeping Venus, The" Smith, John "Snake Charmers, The" "Snow-storm at Sea, A" Society of Arts Soderini Solus Lodge "Sortie, The" See also Night Watch Sotomayer, Dona Beatriz de Cabrera y "Sower, The" Spaniel, King Charles "Spanish Marriage, The" Spinola, Marquis of "Sport of the Waves" "Spring" Sterne, Lawrence "Storm, The" Stour, River "Straw Hat, The" Sudbury Sully Sultan of Turkey "Sunset on the Passaic" "Sunset on the Sea" "Surrender of Breda" "Susanna and the Elders" "Susanna's Bath" "Sussex Downs" Swanenburch, Jacob van "Sword-Dance, The" "Syndics of the Cloth Hall"
Taddei, Taddeo Tassi, Agostine Thackeray Thornhill, Sir James "Three Ages, The" "Three Saints and God the Father" Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti) Titian (Tiziano Vecelli) Tornabuoni, Giovanni Torregiano Trafalgar Square "Transfiguration, The" "Tribute Money, The" "Trinity" Troyon Trumbull, American painter Trumbull, English diplomat Tulp, Nicholaus Turner, Charles Turner, Joseph Mallord William "Two Beggar Boys" Tybis, Geryck
Ulenberg, Saskia van Urban VIII. Urbino, Duke of
"Valley Farm, The" Van Dyck, Sir Anthony Van Mander, Karel Van Marcke Van Noort, Adam Van Rijn. See Rembrandt Van Veen Varangeville Vasari Vatican Vecchio, Palazzo Vecchio, Palma Vecelli family Vecelli, Orsa Vecelli, Orzio Vecelli, Pompino Vecelli, Tiziano. See Titian Velasquez (Diego Rodriguez de Silva) "Venice Enthroned" "Venus Dispatching Cupid" "Venus Worship" Verhaecht, Tobias Vernon Veronese, Paul (Paolo Cagliari) Verrocchio "Vestal Virgin, The" Victoria, Queen "Villa by the Sea" "Village Festival, The" "Ville d'Avray" Vinci, Leonardo da Violante "Virgin as Consoler, The" "Virgin's Rest Near Bethlehem" "Vision of St. Anthony, The" "Visitation, The" "Visitor, The" "Visit to the Burgomaster"
Warren, General Joseph "Water Carrier, The" "Watermill, The" Watteau, Jean Antoine "Wedding Feast at Cana, The" Wells, Frederick West, Sir Benjamin "Weymouth Bay" Whitcomb, Ida Prentice "William, Prince of Orange" William the Silent "Will-o'-the-Wisp" "Willows near Arras" Wilson "Winnower, The" "Winter" Wolgemuth "Woodcutters, The" "Wooded Landscape" "Wood Gatherers, The"
Yarmouth "Young People's Story of Art" "Youth Surprised by Death"
"Zingarella" Zuccato, Sebastian