There is only one of these that is fairly common in the United States and that is found in the deserts of the southwest. It is the largest lizard found there except the Gila Monster which will be described later. The body of the Chuckawalla is broad and the legs short. Its length averages about a foot. It lives mostly among the rocks of the deserts.
THE COLLARED LIZARD.
This lizard is so called on account of the markings of the neck, which have the appearance of a double black collar. The throat is an orange color. It is one of the most gayly colored of the small lizards. It is quite common in the dry and stony parts of the western states and in western Texas is very abundant. It is a great eater and is not afraid to fight for its dinner. One peculiarity of this lizard is its ability to run on its hind legs. It will gulp and bolt food as large as itself.
THE LEOPARD LIZARD.
In color it is yellow, spotted with dark spots and lined across the back with dull red lines. Its habitat includes Oregon, California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas.
THE ZEBRA-TAILED LIZARDS.
These are small ground lizards found from Texas to California, especially in the dry sections. They run with great rapidity with the tail curved upward, which exposes the markings of the lower surface. Frequently they run like the Collared Lizard, on the hind feet. The black-and-white tail markings account for their name.
THE SPOTTED LIZARDS.
These are small ground lizards found in many states from Kansas to California and southward. They are very quick in their movements. Their food consists of insects of the more sluggish type. They do not stalk their prey like the chameleons.
There are a great many species of these small lizards in the United States. They live on the ground among rocks in dry places and are called swifts on account of the speed with which they are able to get over the ground. Some of them are covered with spiny scales. Clark's Swift is abundant in certain parts of the country. It is found in California, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah. It is fond of the strongest sunlight. The Yellow Striped Swift is found from Texas to Nebraska on the north, into Mexico on the south and California on the west.
The Common Swift is found abundantly both in the eastern and in the western United States. They like dry, sandy places among fallen trees, fences, old wood, etc. In color they are gray and are usually in harmony with their surroundings.
The Collared Swift lives among rocks in Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. It has a black collar with very sharp spiny scales.
THE HORNED LIZARD.
These lizards are commonly called Horned Toads, because of their resemblance in the shape of their bodies to that of a toad and of their spiny scales which have the appearance of small horns. Their habitat is in the hottest and driest parts of the country. They are fond of the hottest sunlight and bury themselves in sand at the approach of evening.
The Regal Horned Lizard is found in Arizona and Colorado.
The California Horned Lizard is found abundantly in sections of California.
THE SNAKE-LIKE LIZARDS.
These lizards have elongated bodies with either small limbs or no external evidence of such. Some cannot be easily distinguished from snakes. On close examination it will be seen that there is a ridge along each side of the body.
The Keeled Lizard has a habit of keeping its tongue protruded and will wipe its lips with it after feeding. Its tail is easily separated from its body and when so separated, the broken off portion wriggles violently. New tails grow on. It is found in California, Oregon, Washington and eastward from California to Texas.
The "Glass-Snake" has no limbs and to the eye of anyone but a naturalist would easily be mistaken for a snake. What distinguishes it from a snake is the presence of eyelids and ear holes. It occurs in many localities. It is common from the Carolinas to Florida and as far north as Illinois. Like the Keeled Lizard it has the ability to shed a very lively, wriggling tail. It feeds on worms and slugs that it finds by burrowing and will occasionally break and eat the eggs of ground-nesting birds.
THE BEADED LIZARDS.
This is a family of large lizards whose bodies look as if covered with beads. They are held to be poisonous by well-known authorities and are the only poisonous lizards found in the states.
The Gila Monster (pronounced Hee-la) has a thick body with short limbs and a short tail. In color it is pink and black. Its length is about a foot and a half. It is found in New Mexico and Arizona and is named after the river Gila, the valley of which it inhabits. The creature will defend itself viciously and will hold on tenaciously with its strong jaws. The eggs are buried in the sand.
Small lizards that are found where the tree yuccas grow.
THE RACE RUNNERS.
These are easily distinguished by the yellow stripes on their bodies. They are to be found in the dry, sandy portions of the western states, burrowing in the sand and when pursued taking refuge in these burrows.
THE WORM LIZARDS.
These are a low grade of lizards that live underground like worms. The Worm Lizard, found in Florida, is scarcely any larger around than an earthworm. It is able to move backward or forward in the earth, the end of the tail being shaped similar to the head.
This is a large family. They are burrowing lizards. The Red Headed Lizard is widely distributed throughout the United States. It is very timid and extremely difficult to capture. Its color changes with its age. The Black Banded Skink is found in the central portions of the United States. The Florida Skink in southern Florida. The Black Skink from Pennsylvania southward to Texas.
Here we reach the end of the order of reptiles known as lizards; the next order is that of the snakes.
THE OPHIDIA OR SNAKES.
Snakes are closely related to lizards. Some lizards, as you have already seen, are very much like snakes in form. The main distinguishing features of the snake are the elastic tissue which connects the two halves of the lower jaw and the absence of eyelids. Snakes are carnivorous and are capable of moving with great ease and swiftness notwithstanding their lack of limbs. They cast their skins several times a year. Many of the snakes are poisonous, and authorities tell us that there is no external characteristic that indicates which are poisonous and which are not.
THE BLIND SNAKES.
This is a low form of snake. They are worm-like and burrowing. The Texas Blind Snake is found in Texas and New Mexico. The California Blind Snake in California and Mexico.
The most common member of this family that comes within the range of this article is a snake that is found in the Pacific states and eastward as far as Nevada. It is over a foot in length and about half an inch in diameter. Various names have been given to it; in certain sections it is called the Rubber Boa, in others the Silver Snake, Two-headed Snake, Worm Snake. The name Two-headed Snake is given it evidently on account of the stubby appearance of the tail end.
THE RIBBON SNAKES.
These snakes have a yellow stripe along the back and the sides. They are long, slim snakes; specimens have been seen that measured nearly three feet long, although the average length is about two feet. It is found east of the Mississippi, but is not common. It frequents the banks of water to feed on young frogs and so forth. They swim well and are at home in the water. In the Western Ribbon Snake the back stripe is darker than those on the side, or in some instances a different color.
THE GARTER SNAKES.
These are found all over the United States and are perfectly harmless. They are abundant. Burrowing in the ground in the late fall they remain there all winter. Even the boy living in the large cities may, without going out of the city limits, find these snakes. They are quite commonly found in large public parks. They like frogs and toads and bolt their food. There are many varieties of this snake. Both the Ribbon Snakes and the Garter Snakes belong to the genus Eutaenia, which is the most numerous of those of the United States. They are all striped snakes and are very much like the water snakes in structure. There is no easily distinguished characteristic that would enable a boy, at a glance, to tell a Garter Snake. They vary widely in color and marking.
THE WATER SNAKES.
Here is another genus of snakes that is found commonly in many sections of our country. They frequent the vicinity of water and swim with ease, feeding on frogs, toads, fish. The Queen Snake is found generally east of the Mississippi Valley. It is brown above and has yellow stripes on the side. The Banded Water Snake is the water snake which is commonly found in the southern part of the United States east of Texas. It closely resembles the Moccasin, a poisonous snake, and is often mistaken for it. It attains an average length of over a yard. When alarmed, like all the water snakes, it takes to the water for refuge. This genus never preys on birds or mice. It is one of the most common of the southern snakes. The Red-bellied Water Snake is found in the east, but not north of Virginia. The Common Water Snake is the northern representative of this genus. These snakes are popularly known as "Moccasins." The Diamond Back Water Snake is common along the lower Mississippi states. They average four feet in length. May be seen on low branches overhanging water. The Green Water Snake is similar in habit to the Diamond Back and is found in the Gulf and the Mississippi Valley states. One peculiarity of the water snakes is their love of their home. They pick out a particular sunning place and will return to it regularly.
THE GROUND SNAKE OR BROWN SNAKE.
This is a common snake, found all over the United States east of the Rocky Mountains. It is small in size, about a foot long and slender, and hides under stones, where it probably feeds on the worms and forms of insect life that live in such places.
The serpents of this type are very active and nervous. The Gopher Snake, or Indigo Snake, is one of the largest found in the United States. It has been known to measure over eight feet in length. It is found from Texas eastward in the Gulf states. Its scales have a polished appearance and are blue black in color. It may be seen in sandy stretches. When feeding it holds its prey down with part of its body. It is not particular as to its diet and will eat birds with the same relish as cold-blooded frogs and toads. In the Central and South American countries this snake is highly valued as a "ratter" and frequents human habitations without fear. The Black Snake is abundant in the United States. It has a bad reputation. It is said to be a fearless fighter, not afraid to attack man even, and to be able to "charm" its prey within its reach. These attributes are popular beliefs without any basis of fact. It is fond of small birds and field mice and is what may be called a meadow snake. When frightened it speeds away at an incredible rate. The Coachwhip Snake, found in the southeast, is even more agile than the Black Snake, and like that serpent, will eat smaller snakes. It gets its name from its slender structure and similarity of the appearance of its scale distribution to a plaited whip. The Striped Racer of the southwestern states is very long and slender.
THE RAT SNAKES OR COLUBERS.
These are large, strong snakes that squeeze and crush their prey by coiling themselves around it. They are useful to the farmer, as they inhabit grainfields and prey on the rats and mice. An easy way to tell these snakes is by their flat belly. The Fox Snake is quite common in the Central states. It averages about four feet long. It derives its name from an odor which it is able to eject, which smells not unlike that of the fox. Often it will kill and eat animals as large as rabbits. It deposits its eggs in some natural hollow and leaves them there to hatch. A snake that is abundant in the southeastern states is known by the various names of Corn Snake, Red Chicken Snake, Mouse Snake, Scarlet Racer and Red Coluber. It is red, black and white. It is not as much of a climber as the Racers are, nor is it as agile; but it is braver and will fight when cornered. It is frequently found in cornfields, hence its name. The Pilot Black Snake or Mountain Black Snake is often taken for the Common Black Snake. Its head is larger and it is spotted with white. It is a snake frequently found in the same locations as the rattlesnake and copperhead. The Chicken Snake is fond of eggs and young chickens. Like the Fox Snake it will emit an unpleasant odor when caught.
THE BULL SNAKES.
The Pine or Bull Snake is one of the largest snakes found in the east. It is found in the sandy pine woods of the coast. When disturbed it is vicious in appearance, hisses loudly and strikes vigorously. It feeds on small animals and birds. It is also called the Gopher Snake. "The Yellow Gopher" Snake is found in the middle and western states.
THE GREEN SNAKES.
The Green Whip Snake or Magnolia Snake is green above, yellow below. It feeds on insects and is a good climber. In color it so perfectly matches the leaves and grass that detection is difficult. The "Grass Snake" is a common snake of the northeastern states.
THE RING-NECKED SNAKES.
The eastern Ring-necked Snake is found in the eastern portion of the United States. It has a yellow ring about the neck. This snake is not given to venturing abroad, but prefers to lie under stones and the loose bark of trees.
THE KING SNAKES.
These snakes are remarkable for their colors. They are banded around their bodies with rings of bright colors. They will eat rats and mice and other snakes. The Milk Snake or "Checkered Adder" is popularly supposed to be fond of milk. Scientists tell us that this is a fallacy. It feeds on mice, rats, other snakes and lizards. The Red Milk Snake is prettily colored—red and yellow—and is the type found in the south. All the King Snakes have pronounced patterns. More than in any other genus is the habit of feeding on its kind developed—attacking, and usually successfully, snakes larger than themselves. It is from this characteristic that they derive their name. It is bitten by the poisonous snakes which it attacks but without effect; the King Snake tightens its grip until its adversary is lifeless.
THE RAINBOW SNAKES.
These are sometimes called the mud snakes, from the fact that they are abundant in swamps. They burrow in the mud. The Red-bellied Snake is also called the Rainbow Snake, Mud Snake, Horn Snake and Hoop Snake.
THE HOG-NOSED SNAKES.
These snakes are fighters. The peculiar formation of the mouth makes them easily distinguishable. They hiss when disturbed and flatten their heads and necks. They are popularly known as "adders" and "vipers." They are found in dry and sandy situations.
The common Hog-nosed Snake is found in dry, sandy locations practically all through the United States except on the Pacific slope. It has the peculiar habit of feigning death when cornered. Before it tries these tactics it will make a terrific show of ferocity. It is capable of flattening its head and neck in a formidable manner and while assuming this attitude it hisses sharply. If this show does not scare away its enemy it will suddenly be seized with a spasm, ending by turning on its back, limp and apparently lifeless. When it thinks danger is past it recovers its normal position and quickly gets away. This snake is known popularly as the "Flat-headed Adder," the "Puff Adder," "Viper" and "Blow Snake."
THE HARLEQUIN OR CORAL SNAKE.
Is a strikingly marked serpent. Its colors are scarlet, black and yellow. This snake is found in the southeastern and central United States. It is a near relative to the deadly Cobra-de-Capello and is itself poisonous. A burrowing reptile.
These snakes are highly poisonous. The Water Moccasin is one of the largest venomous snakes found in the United States. Some have been caught that measured four feet in length and almost two and a half inches around. Certain kinds of harmless water snakes are popularly supposed to be and are called "moccasins." Unless you have a very close knowledge of which is which, you should be careful how near you approach them. The Water Moccasin is found quite abundantly in the east from the Carolinas southward and along the Mississippi states as far north as Illinois. It likes swamps and is found abundantly in many southern swampy sections. This snake is often known as the "Cotton Mouth" Snake. It is vicious and pugnacious and will fight snakes of any size. The prey of this serpent consists of birds, frogs, other snakes, fish and small animals. The Copperhead derives its name from the copperish tint on its head. It is not as large a snake as the Water Moccasin, nor does it like the swamps. It frequents rocky locations that are thickly wooded. It has a peculiar habit of backing away from danger by looping its body and then drawing it straight again.
The rattlesnake is the most interesting as well as the most deadly of the North American serpents. Its chief distinguishing characteristic is the rattle at the end of tail. Curator Ditmars, of the New York Zoological Park, says that although he has "studied living examples of many species of deadly snakes—the South American bushmaster and the fer-de-lance, the African puff adder and the berg adder, and such East Indian species as the king cobra, the spectacled cobra and Russell's viper, and although there is indelibly stamped upon his mind the bloated body, the glassy stare and the rhythmic hissing of the berg adder, the rearing, uncanny pose of an infuriated cobra—there is one image vivid above all, the rattlesnake. Thrown into a gracefully symmetrical coil, the body inflated, the neck arched in an oblique bow in support of the heart-shaped head, the slowly waving tongue with spread and tremulous tips, and above all, the incessant, monotonous whir of the rattle. One stroke—a flash—of that flat head would inject a virus bringing speedy death."
The rattlesnake always warns its enemy of its presence by its rattle. Were it not for this habit there would probably be many more deaths from the bites of this snake. The snake does not add a new ring to its rattle each year, as it is popularly supposed to do. The Massasauga is one of the smaller rattlesnakes, averaging about two feet in length. It inhabits swampy places. The Timber Rattlesnake is found from Vermont to Florida and west to Kansas. It is abundant in the mountains of New York, Massachusetts and Pennsylvania. In the spring and fall the snakes congregate on ledges of rocks; such places are called "rattlesnake dens." They spend the winter in crevices in these rocky places. The Timber Rattler is more timid than many of its cousins, preferring flight to combat, but if cornered will fight as fiercely. It feeds on birds and small animals. The largest rattlesnake is the Diamond-back. Specimens have been caught that measured over six feet long and four inches around. This snake is one of the most deadly in the world. It is found most abundantly in Florida. It is never known to strike uncoiled and rarely retreats from danger. The food of this snake seems to consist mostly of small animals. It takes but a minute for the poison from the Diamond-back's fangs to kill a rabbit.
THE TURTLES AND TORTOISES
THE CHELONIA OR TURTLES AND TORTOISES.
Turtles and tortoises belong to the order known as Chelonia. There are Fresh-water Turtles, Sea Turtles and Land Turtles.
THE SEA TURTLES.
These turtles are often carried by storm far north of their customary habitat, which is in the warmer waters of the southeastern coast. The Leatherback, or Trunk Turtle, is the largest of the sea turtles, sometimes reaching a weight of half a ton. It is not found in abundance. The Loggerhead Turtle has a very large head. Its eggs are buried in the sand about May or June and the young turtles hatch out in about two months' time. The Green Turtle often strays into northern waters. The flesh of this turtle is prized by epicures. It will die if not placed on its back, the under shell being pressed by the weight of the upper shell against its lungs, causing suffocation. The Hawksbill Turtle is distinguished by the hawk-like appearance of its head. It is the smallest of the sea turtles and the one from which is obtained the sought-after tortoise shells.
THE SNAPPING TURTLES.
These are the largest of the fresh-water turtles. Like the snakes they strike at their prey or their enemy, and their sharp mandibles make them a formidable antagonist. They will pull down their prey under the water where they always feed. The Alligator Snapping Turtle is found in the Gulf states. A peculiarity of this reptile is the fleshy filament, grub-like in appearance, which it has in its mouth and which acts as a bait, attracting fish within the reach of its powerful jaws.
THE MUD TURTLES.
The Musk Turtle is a common type of the Mud Turtle and is found in abundance in the muddy streams of the eastern, part of the United States. It will often be taken on a fish hook. It derives its name from the odor it gives forth. Seldom is it found out of the water. It snaps when taken in a way which rivals the Snapping Turtle. The common Mud Turtle is not as abundant as the Musk turtle to which it is similar in habit, crawling along the muddy bottoms of ponds and rivers. The under shell of the Mud Turtles is much broader than that of the Musk turtles. The Banded Mud Turtle, found in Georgia and Florida, has three yellow stripes or "bands" on its shell. The Yellow-necked Mud Turtle gets its name from its bright yellow neck.
The Painted Terrapin or Pond Turtle is brightly colored. The under shell is yellow and the upper shell is bordered with mottled red. It is found in the eastern United States. You may frequently see it taking a sunning on a partially submerged log, diving into the water upon your approach. It feeds on insects, small fishes and water weeds. In your aquarium it will eat small pieces of beef, fish, worms or tender greens. The Chicken Turtle or Long-necked Terrapin is found in the southeastern states. The Yellow-bellied Terrapin is found from Virginia to Georgia. It is one of the terrapins that are sold in the markets. Many may be seen there, especially in Charleston. The Cumberland Terrapin may be known by the red marking on each side of its head. This, too, is sold in the markets; it is found in the middle western states. The Diamond Back Terrapin is the most highly prized by epicures—seven-inch-long turtles bringing as much as $5 or more apiece. It is found in the marshes of the eastern and southeastern coast states. As the size increases, the price advances. They are becoming scarce. It always feeds under water. Grows to larger size in the South. The Spotted Turtle is found in abundant quantities in the eastern states. It has round yellow spots scattered over its black upper shell and may be seen near ponds, streams and marshy places. It is fond of water that is grassy, hiding therein.
THE BOX TURTLES.
This turtle is fitted with a complete suit of armor, into which it can withdraw and become practically immune from harm. It is not an aquatic reptile, its food consisting principally of vegetation. It is fond of berries and is found most abundantly in grassy thickets. It lives many years. At the approach of winter it burrows into the ground.
The Tortoises live only on the land. The Gopher Tortoise is found from South Carolina to Florida, and west as far as Texas. It feeds on vegetation. It inhabits principally the dry and sandy places and makes long burrows into which it retires from the hot midday sun. The eggs of this tortoise are buried in the sand and are hatched by the sun's rays Agassiz's Tortoise, or the Desert Tortoise, is distributed over the deserts of Arizona and southern California.
THE SOFT-SHELLED TURTLES.
The shells of these turtles are soft and the head has the distinguishing characteristic of a pointed nose. They are aquatic and are much like the snapping turtles in habit. Large specimens can do damage with their sharp jaws. They are popularly known as "flap jack turtles," and they do not look unlike large pancakes. They are vicious and can make severe wounds or injuries. Their food is the same as that of the snapping turtles; in fact, they have so many points in common that they are often called "soft-shelled snapping turtles."
THE CROCODILES AND ALLIGATORS
THE CROCODILIA OR THE CROCODILES AND ALLIGATORS.
The Crocodiles and Alligators belong to that order of reptiles known as Crocodilia. The Alligator's head is broad and blunt; the Crocodile's is narrow and sharp.
The Alligators are distributed over the low and swampy ground from North Carolina southward, but are becoming rare almost to the point of extinction. Their skin is valued and their eggs are sought as food so that they are annually becoming rarer. They are afraid of man, but if cornered will fight. Their jaws are large, powerful and provided with strong teeth, capable of inflicting serious injury. They feed on fish, animals and birds. Alligators make a "bellowing" sound. The Crocodile is livelier and more pugnacious than the Alligator, but there are no "man-eating" Crocodiles in the United States.
Adder, Berg, 177 Checkered, 168 Flat-headed, 169 Puff, 169, 171
Agassiz's Tortoise, 181
Alligators, 183, 185
Alligator Snapping Turtle, 177
Banded Gecko, 152 Mud Turtle, 180 Water Snake, 164
Beaded Lizards, 158
Berg Adder, 177
Black -banded Skink, 159 Iguana, 153 Snake, 166 Mountain, 167 Pilot, 167
Blind Snakes, 163 California, 163 Texas, 163
Blow Snake, 169
Boas, 163 Rubber, 163
Box Turtle, 173
Brown Snake, 166
Bull Snake, 167
California Blind Snake, 163 Horned Toad, 157
Cape Gecko, 152 Iguana, 153
Checkered Adder, 168
Chelonia, 147, 177
Chicken Snake, 167 Red, 167 Turtle, 180
Clark's Swift, 156
Coachwhip Snake, 166
Cobra, King, 171 Spectacled, 171
Collared Lizard, 151, 155 Swift, 156
Colubers, 167 Red, 167
Common Swift, 151, 156
Coral Snake, 169
Corn Snake, 167
Cotton Mouth Snake, 169
Crocodiles, 183, 185
Crocodilia, 147, 185
Cumberland Terrapin, 180
Desert Iguana, 154 Tortoise, 181
Diamond-back Rattlesnake 173 Terrapin, 180 Water Snake, 165
Fence Lizard, 151
Flapjack Turtle, 181
Flat-headed Adder, 169
Florida Skink, 159
Fox Snake, 167
Fresh-water Turtle, 177
Garter Snakes, 164
Gecko, 152 Banded, 152 Cape, 152 Reef, 152 Warty, 152
Gila Monster, 158
Glass Snake, 158
Gopher Snake, 166, 167 Tortoise, 181
Grass Snake, 168
Green Turtle, 177 Water Snake, 165 Whip Snake, 167
Ground Snake, 166
Harlequin Snake, 169
Hawksbill Turtle, 177
Hog-nosed Snakes, 168
Hoop Snake, 168
Horn Snake, 168
Horned Lizard, 156 Toads, 156 California, 156 Regal, 156
Iguana, 152, 153 Black, 153 Cape, 153 Desert, 154
Indigo Snake, 166
Keeled Lizard, 157
King Cobra, 171 Snake, 168
Lacertilia, 147, 151
Land Turtle, 177
Leatherback Turtle, 177
Leopard Lizard, 155
Lizards, 149 Beaded, 158 Collared, 151, 155 Fence, 151 Horned, 156 Keeled, 157 Leopard, 155 Red-headed, 159 Snake-like, 156 Spotted, 155 Worm, 158 Xanthus, 158 Zebra-tailed, 151, 155
Loggerhead Turtle, 177
Long-necked Terrapin, 180
Magnolia Snake, 167
Milk Snake, 168 Red, 168
Moccasin, 165, 169, 170 Water, 169
Mountain, Black, Snake, 167
Mouse Snake, 167
Mud Snake, 168 Turtle, 179
Musk Turtle, 178
Ophidia, 147, 163
Pacific Swift, 151
Painted Terrapin, 180
Pilot Black Snake, 167
Pine Snake, 167
Pond Turtle, 180
Pterosaurs, 147, 148
Puff Adder, 169, 171
Queen Snakes, 164
Racers, 166 Scarlet, 167 Striped, 166
Race Runners, 158
Rainbow Snake, 168
Rattlesnakes, 171, 172, 173 Diamond-back, 173
Rat Snake, 167
Red -bellied Snake, 168 Water Snake, 165 Chicken Snake, 167 Coluber, 167 Headed Lizard, 159 Milk Snake, 168
Reef Gecko, 152
Regal Horned Toad, 157
Ribbon Snakes, 163
Ring-necked Snakes, 168
Rubber Boas, 163
Russell's Viper, 171
Scarlet Racer, 167
Sea Turtles, 177, 178
Silver Snake, 163
Skink, 159 Black-banded, 159 Florida, 159
Snake-like Lizards, 156
Snakes, 163 Banded Water, 164 Black, 166 Blind, 163 California, 163 Texas, 163 Blow, 169 Brown, 166 Bull, 167 California Blind, 163 Chicken, 167 Red, 167 Coachwhip, 166 Copperhead, 171 Coral, 169 Corn, 167 Cotton Mouth, 169 Diamond-back Rattle, 173 Water, 165 Fox, 167 Garter, 164 Glass, 158 Gopher, 166, 167 Grass, 168 Green, 167 Water, 165 Whip, 167 Ground, 166 Harlequin, 169 Hog-nosed, 168 Hoop, 168 Horn, 168 Indigo, 166 King, 168 Magnolia, 167 Milk, 168 Mountain, Black, 167 Mouse, 167 Mud, 168 Pilot Black, 167 Pine, 167 Queen, 164 Rainbow, 168 Rat, 167 Red -bellied, 168 Water, 165 Milk, 168 Ribbon, 163 Ring-necked, 168 Silver, 163 Texas Blind, 163 Two-headed, 163 Water, 164, 165 Worm, 163 Yellow Gopher, 167
Snapping Turtle, 177
Soft-shelled Turtle, 181
Spectacled Cobra, 171
Spotted Lizard, 155 Turtle, 180
Striped Racers, 166
Swifts, 156 Clark's, 156 Collared, 156 Common, 151, 156 Pacific, 151 White-bellied, 151 Yellow-striped, 156
Terrapin, 180 Cumberland, 180 Diamond-back, 180 Long-necked, 180 Painted, 180 Yellow-bellied, 180
Texas Blind Snake, 163
Timber Rattlesnake, 171
Tortoises, 181 Agassiz's, 181 Desert, 181 Gopher, 181
Trunk Turtle, 177
Turtles, 175 Alligator Snapping, 177 Banded Mud, 180 Box, 181 Chicken, 180 Flapjack, 181 Fresh-water, 177 Green, 177 Hawksbill, 177 Land, 177 Leatherback, 177 Loggerhead, 177 Mud, 179 Musk, 179 Pond, 180 Sea, 177, 178 Snapping, 177 Soft-shelled, 181 Spotted, 180 Trunk, 177
Two-headed Snake, 163
Viper, 169 Russell's, 171
Warty Gecko, 152
Water Moccasin, 169
Water Snakes, 164, 165 Diamond-back, 165 Green, 165 Red-bellied, 165
Whip Snake, Green, 167
White-bellied Swift, 151
Worm Lizards, 158 Snakes, 163
Yellow -bellied Terrapin, 180 Gopher Snake, 167 Striped Swift, 156
Xanthus Lizards, 158
Zebra-tailed Lizards, 151, 155
THE HICKORY RIDGE BOY SCOUTS
A SERIES OF BOOKS FOR BOYS
Which, in addition to the interesting boy scout stories by CAPTAIN ALAN DOUGLAS, Scoutmaster, contain articles on nature lore, native animals and a fund of other information pertaining to out-of-door life, that will appeal to the boy's love of the open
I. THE CAMPFIRES OF THE WOLF PATROL
Their first camping experience affords the scouts splendid opportunities to use their recently acquired knowledge in a practical way. Elmer Chenowith, a lad from the northwest woods, astonishes everyone by his familiarity with camp life. A clean, wholesome story every boy should read.
II. WOODCRAFT; OR, HOW A PATROL LEADER MADE GOOD
This tale presents many stirring situations in which some of the boys are called upon to exercise all their ingenuity and unselfishness. A story filled with healthful excitement.
III. PATHFINDER; OR, THE MISSING TENDERFOOT
Some mysteries are cleared up in a most unexpected way, greatly to the credit of our young friends. A variety of incidents follow fast, one after the other.
IV. FAST NINE; OR, A CHALLENGE FROM FAIRFIELD
They show the same team-work here as when in camp. The description of the final game with the team of a rival town, and the outcome thereof, form a stirring narrative. One of the best baseball stories of recent years.
V. GREAT HIKE; OR, THE PRIDE OF THE KHAKI TROOP
After weeks of preparation the scouts start out on their greatest undertaking. Their march takes them far from home, and the good-natured rivalry of the different patrols furnishes many interesting and amusing situations.
VI. ENDURANCE TEST; OR, HOW CLEAR GRIT WON THE DAY
Few stories "get" us more than illustrations of pluck in the face of apparent failure. Our heroes show the stuff they are made of and surprise their most ardent admirers. One of the best stories Captain Douglas has written.
BOY SCOUT NATURE LORE TO BE FOUND IN THE HICKORY RIDGE BOY SCOUT SERIES
Wild Animals of the United States—Tracking—in Number I. Trees and Wild Flowers of the United States in Number II. Reptiles of the United States in Number III. Fishes of the United States in Number IV. Insects of the United States in Number V. Birds of the United States in Number VI.
Cloth Binding Cover Illustrations in Four Colors 40c. Per Volume
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Minor typographical errors have been corrected without note. Dialect spellings have been retained.