Our Common Insects - A Popular Account of the Insects of Our Fields, Forests, - Gardens and Houses
by Alpheus Spring Packard
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Among the injurious hymenoptera, which abound late in this month, is the Rose Saw fly (Selandria rosae, Fig. 236) and S. cerasi. The eggs are then laid, and the last of June, or early in July, the slug-like larvae mature, and the perfect insects fly in July. Various Gall flies now lay their eggs in the buds, leaves and stems of various kinds of oaks, blackberries, blueberries and other plants.

Dipterous Gall flies are now laying their eggs in cereals. The Hessian fly (Cecidomyia destructor) has two broods, the fly appearing both in spring and autumn. The fly lays twenty or thirty eggs in a crease in the leaf of the young plant. In about four days, in warm weather, they hatch, and the pale-red larvae crawl down the leaf, working their way in between it and the main stalk, passing downward till they come to a joint, just above which they remain, a little below the surface of the ground, with the head towards the root of the plant. Here they imbibe the sap by suction alone, and, by the simple pressure of their bodies become imbedded in the side of the stem. Two or three larvae thus imbedded serve to weaken the plant and cause it to wither and die. The second brood of larvae remains through the winter in the flax-seed, or puparium. By turning the stubble with the plough in the autumn and early spring, its imago may be destroyed, and thus its ravages may be checked. (Figure 237 represents the female, which is about one-third as large as a mosquito: a, the larva; b, the pupa; and c represents the joint near the ground where the maggots live.) The same may be said of the Wheat midge (Cecidomyia tritici), which attacks the wheat in the ear, and which transforms an inch deep beneath the surface.

Among the butterflies which appear this month are the Turnip butterfly (Pontia oleracea, Fig. 238,) which lays its eggs the last of the month. The eggs hatch in a week or ten days, and in about two weeks the larva changes to a chrysalis. Thanaos junevalis and T. Brizo fly late in May. The caterpillars live on the pea and other papilionaceous plants. Thecla Auburniana, T. Niphon, and other species fly in dry, sunny fields, some in April. Argynnis Myrina flies from the last of May through June, and a second brood appears in August and September. Vanessa J-album and V. interrogationis appear in May, and again in August and September. The caterpillars of the latter species live on the elm, lime and hop-vine. Grapta comma also feeds on the hop. Alypia 8-maculata (Fig. 49) flies at this time, and in August its larva feeds on the grape. Sphinx gordius, S. 5-maculata (Fig. 239) and other Sphinges and Sesia (the Clear-winged moth), appear the last of May. Arctia Arge, A. virgo, A. phalerata and other species fly from the last of May through the summer. Hyphantria textor, the Fall-weaver, is found in May or June. The moth of the Salt-marsh caterpillar appears at this time, and various Cut worms (Agrotis, Fig. 240) abound, hiding in the daytime under stones and sticks, etc., while various Tineids and Tortrices, or Leaf-rolling caterpillars, begin to devour tender leaves and buds and opening blossoms of flowers and fruit trees.

The White-pine weevil flies about in warm days. We have found its burrows winding irregularly over the inner surface of the bark and leading into the sap-wood. Each cell, in which it hibernates, in the middle of March, contains the yellowish white footless grub. Early in April it changes to a pupa, and a month after the beetle appears, and in a few days deposits its egg under the bark of old pine trees. It also oviposits in the terminal shoots of pine saplings, dwarfing and permanently deforming the tree. Associated with this weevil we have found the smaller, rounder, more cylindrical, whitish grubs of the Hylurgus terebrans, which mines the inner layers of the bark, slightly grooving the sap-wood. Later in April it pupates, and its habits accord in general with those of Pissodes strobi. Another Pine weevil also abounds at this time, as well as Otiorhynchus picipes (Fig. 241), which injures beans, etc.

Cylindrical bark-borers, which are little, round, weevil-like beetles, are now flying about fruit trees, to lay their eggs in the bark. Associated with the Pissodes, we may find in April the galleries of Tomicus pini, branching out from a common centre. They are filled up with fine sawdust, and, according to Dr. Fitch, are notched in the sides "in which the eggs have been placed, where they would remain undisturbed by the beetle as it crawled backwards and forth through the gallery." These little beetles have not the long snouts of the weevils, hence they cannot bore through the outer bark, but enter into the burrows made the preceding year, and distribute the eggs along the sides (Fitch). Another Tomicus, more dangerous than the preceding, feeds exclusively in the sap-wood, running solitary galleries for a distance of two inches towards the centre of the tree. We figure Tomicus xylographus Say (Fig. 242, enlarged). It is the most formidable enemy to the white pine in the North, and the yellow pine in the South that we have. It also flies in May. Ptinus fur (Fig. 243, much enlarged) is now found in out-houses, and is destructive to cloth, furs, etc., resembling the Larder-beetle (Dermestes) in its habits. It is fourteen hundredths of an inch in length.

The Insects of June.

Early in the month the Parsnip butterfly (Papilio Asterias) may be seen flying about, preparatory to laying its eggs for the brood of caterpillars which appear in August. At the time of the flowering of the raspberry and blackberry, the young larva of Vanessa Antiopa, one of our most abundant butterflies, may be found living socially on the leaves of the willow; while the mature larva of another much smaller butterfly, the little Copper skipper (Chrysophanus Americans), so abundant at this time, may sometimes be found on the clover. It is a short, oval, greenish worm, with very short legs. The dun-colored skippers (Hesperia) abound towards the middle of the month, darting over the flowers of the blueberry and blackberry, in sunny openings in the forests.

The family of Hawk moths (Sphinges) now appear in greater abundance, hovering at twilight over flower-beds, and, during this time, deposit their eggs on the leaves of various fruit-trees. The American Tent caterpillar makes its cocoon, and assumes the pupa state. The caterpillar passes several days within the cocoon, in what may be called the semi-pupa states during which period the chrysalis skin is forming beneath the contracted and loosened larva skin. We once experimented on a larva which had just completed its cocoon, to learn how much silk it could produce. On removing its cocoon it made another of the same thickness; but on destroying this second one it spun a third but frail web, scarcely concealing its form. A minute Ichneumon parasite, allied to Platygaster, lays its eggs within those of this moth, as we once detected one under a bunch of eggs, and afterwards reared a few from the same lot of eggs. A still more minute egg-parasite (Fig. 244) we have seen ovipositing in the early spring, in the eggs of the Canker-worm.

Among that beautiful family of moths, the Phalaenidae, comprising the Geometers, Loopers, or Span-worms, are two formidable foes to fruit growers. The habits of the Canker worm should be well known. With proper care and well-directed energy, we believe their attacks can be in a great measure prevented. The English sparrow, doves and other insectivorous birds, if there are any others that eat them, should be domesticated in order to reduce the number of these pests. More care than has yet been taken should be devoted to destroying the eggs laid in the autumn, and also the wingless females, as they crawl up the trees in the spring and autumn to lay their eggs. The evil is usually done before the farmer is well aware that the calamity has fallen upon him. As soon as, and even before the trees have fairly leafed out, they should be visited morning, noon and night, shaken and thoroughly examined and cleared of the caterpillars. By well-concerted action among agriculturists, who should form a Board of Destruction, numbering every man, woman and child on the farm, this fearful scourge may be abated by the simplest means, as the cholera or any epidemic disease can in a great measure be averted by taking proper sanitary precautions. The Canker worms hatch out during the early part of May, from eggs laid in the fall and spring, on the branches of various fruit-trees. Just as the buds unfold, the young caterpillars make little holes through the tender leaves, eating the pulpy portions, not touching the veins and midribs. When four weeks old they creep to the ground, or let themselves down by spinning a silken thread, and burrow from two to six inches in the soil, where they change to chrysalids in a day or two, and in this state live till late in the fall, or until the early spring, when they assume the imago or moth form. The sexes then unite, and the eggs are deposited for the next generation.

The Canker worm is widely distributed, though its ravages used to be confined mostly to the immediate vicinity of Boston. We have seen specimens of the moth from Illinois. Riley has found it in Missouri.

The Abraxas ribearia of Fitch (Fig. 245, moth), the well-known Currant worm, defoliates whole rows of currant bushes. This pretty caterpillar may be easily known by its body being of a deep golden color, spotted with black. The bushes should be visited morning, noon and night, and thoroughly shaken (killing the caterpillars) and sprinkled with ashes.

Among multitudes of beetles (Coleoptera) injurious to the crops, are the May beetle (Lachnosterna fusca, Fig. 246), whose larva, a large white grub, is injurious to the roots of grass and to strawberry vines. The Rose beetle appears about the time of the blossoming of the rose. The Fire-flies now show their light during mild evenings, and on hot sultry days the shrill rasping song of the male Cicada, for "they all have voiceless wives," cuts the air: The Chinch-bug, that fell destroyer of our wheat crops, appears, according to Harris, in the middle of the month, and "may be seen in their various stages of growth on all kinds of grain, on corn and herds-grass during the whole summer." So widely spread is this insect at present, that we have even detected it in August on the summit of Mount Washington.

The Diptera, or two-winged flies, contain hosts of noxious insects, such as the various Cecidomyians, or two-winged Gall flies, which now sting the culms of the wheat and grasses, and various grains, and leaves of trees, producing gall-like excrescences of varying form. Legions of these delicate minute flies fill the air at twilight, hovering over wheat fields and shrubbery. A strong north west wind, at such times, is of incalculable value to the farmer. Moreover, minute flies, allied to the house fly, such as Tephritis, Oscinis, etc., now attack the young cereals, doing immense injury to grain.

Millions of Aphides, or Plant lice, now infest our shade and fruit trees, crowding every green leaf, into which they insert their tiny beaks, sucking in the sap, causing the leaves to curl up and wither. They also attack the stems and even the roots of plants, though these latter (Pemphigus, Fig. 247) differ generically from the true Plant lice. Fruit trees should be again washed and rubbed to kill off the young Bark lice, of which the common apple Bark louse (Aspidiotus conchiformis, Fig. 248), whose oyster-shaped scales may be found in myriads on neglected trees, is a too familiar example. Another pest of apple trees is the woolly Blight (Eriosoma lanigera). These insects secrete from the surface of the body a downy, cottony substance which conceals the animal, and when they are, as usual, grouped together on the trees, makes them look like patches of mould. The natural insect enemies of the Plant lice now abound; such are the Lady bugs (Coccinella, Fig. 249); the larva of the Syrphus fly (Fig. 76), which devours immense quantities, and the larva of the Golden-eyed, Lace-winged fly (Chrysopa, Fig. 256).

The last days of June are literally the heyday and jubilee of insect life. The entomological world holds high carnival, though in this country they are, perhaps, more given to mass-meetings and caucuses. The earth, the air, and the water teem with insect life. The insects of mid-summer, now appear. Among the butterflies, the Wood Satyrus (Neonympha Eurythris) skips in its low flight through the pines. The larva of Grapta Progne appears on the currants, and feeds beneath the leaves on hot sunny days. The larva of Cynthia cardui may be found on the hollyhocks; the pupa state lasts twelve days, the butterfly appearing in the middle or last of July. The Hyphantria textor now lays its smooth, spherical eggs in broad patches on the under side of the leaves of the apple, which the caterpillar will ravage in August; and its ally, the Halesidota caryae, we have found ovipositing the last week in the month on the leaves of the butternut. The Squash bug, Coreus (Gonocerus) tristis (Fig. 250) is now very abundant, gathering about the roots of the squash vines, often in immense numbers, blackening the stems with their dark, blackish-brown bodies. This insect is easily distinguished from the yellow striped Squash beetle previously mentioned, by its much greater size, and its entirely different structure and habits. It is a true bug (Hemipter, of which the bed-bug is an example), piercing the leaves and stalks, and drawing out the sap with its long sucker.

In June, also, we have found that beautiful butterfly, Militaea Phaeton rising from the low, cold swamps. Its larva transforms early in June or the last week in May, into a beautiful chrysalis. The larva hibernates through the winter, and may be found early in spring feeding on the leaves of the aster, the Viburnum dentatum and hazel. It is black and deep orange-red, with long, thick-set, black spines.

The Currant borer, Trochilium tipuliforme (Fig. 251), a beautiful, slender, agile, deep blue moth, with transparent wings, flies the last of the month about currant bushes, and its chrysalids may be found in May in the stems. Among moths, that of the American Tent caterpillar flies during the last of June and July, and its white cocoons can be detected under bark, and in sheltered parts of fences and out-houses.

Among others of the interesting group of Silk worms (Bombycidae) are Lithosa, Crocota and allies, which fly in the daytime, and the different species of Arctia, and the white Arctians, Spilosoma, and Leucarctia, the parent of the Salt-marsh Caterpillar.

Many Leaf rollers, Tortrices, are rolling up leaves in various ways for their habitations, and to conceal them from too prying birds; and hosts of young Tineans are now mining leaves, and excavating the interior of seeds and various fruits. Grape-growers should guard against the attacks of a species of Tortrix (Penthina vitivorana) which rolls the leaves of the grape, and, according to Mr. M. C. Reed, of Hudson, Ohio, "in mid-summer deposits its eggs in the grape; a single egg in a grape. Its presence is soon indicated by a reddish color on that side of the yet green grape, and on opening it, the winding channel opened by the larva in the pulp is seen, and the minute worm, which is white, with a dark head, is found at the end of the channel. It continues to feed upon the pulp of the fruit, and when it reaches the seeds, eats out their interior; and if the supply from one grape is extinguished before its growth is completed, it fastens this to an adjoining grape with a web, and burrows into it. It finally grows to about one-half of an inch in length, becomes brown, almost black, the head retaining its cinnamon color. When it leaves the grape it is very active, and has the power of letting itself down by a thread of silk. All my efforts to obtain the cocoons failed until I placed fresh grape leaves in the jar containing the grapes. The larvae immediately betook themselves to these, and, cutting a curved line through the leaf thus), sometimes two lines thus (), folded the edge or edges over, and in the fold assumed the chrysalis form. From specimens saved, I shall hope to obtain the perfect insect this season, and perhaps obtain information which will aid in checking its increase. Already it is so abundant that it is necessary to examine every branch of ripe grapes, and clip out the infested berries before sending them to the table. A rapid increase in its numbers would interfere seriously with the cultivation of the grape in this locality."

The Rose beetle (Macrodactyla subspinosa) appears in great abundance. The various species of Buprestis are abundant; among them are the Peach-borer (Dicerca divaricata), which may be now found flying about peach and cherry trees; and Chrysobothris fulvogutta, and C. Harrisii, about white pines. A large weevil (Arrhenodes septentrionalis), which lives under the bark of the white oak, appears in June and July. The Chinch bug begins its terrible ravages in the wheat fields. The various species of Chrysopa or Lace-winged flies, appear during this month.

The Insects of July.

During mid-summer the bees and wasps are very busy building their nests and rearing their young. The Humble bees, late in June and the first of this month, send out their first broods of workers, and about the middle of the month the second lot of eggs are laid, which produce the smaller-sized females and males, while eggs laid late in the month and early in August, produce the larger-sized queens, which soon hatch. These hibernate. The habits of their peculiar parasite, Apathus, an insect which closely resembles the Humble bee, are still unknown.

The Leaf-cutter bee (Megachile) may be seen flying about with pieces of rose-leaf, with which she builds, for a period of twenty days, her cells, often thirty in number, using for this purpose, according to Mr. F. W. Putnam's estimate,[32] at least one thousand pieces! The bees referred to "worked so diligently that they ruined five or six rose-bushes, not leaving a single unblighted leaf uncut, and were then forced to take the leaves of a locust tree as a substitute."

The Paper-making wasps, of which Vespa maculata (Fig. 252), the "White-faced wasp," is our largest species, are now completing their nests, and feeding their young with flies. The Solitary wasp (Odynerus albophaleratus) fills its earthen cells with minute caterpillars, which it paralyzes with its poisonous sting. A group of mud-cells, each stored with food for the single larva within, we once found concealed in a deserted nest of the American Tent caterpillar. Numerous species of Wood wasps (Crabronidae) are engaged in tunnelling the stems of the blackberry, the elder, and syringa, and enlarging and refitting old nail holes, and burrowing in rotten wood, storing their cells with flies, caterpillars, aphides and spiders, according to the habit of each species. Eumenes fraterna, which attaches its single, large, thin-walled cell of mud to the stems of plants, is, according to Dr. T. W. Harris, known to store it with Canker worms. Pelopaeus, the Mud-dauber, is now building its earthen cells, plastering them on old rafters and stone walls.

The Saw flies (Tenthredo), etc., abound in our gardens this month. The Selandria vitis attacks the vine, while Selandria rosae, the Rose slug, injures the rose. The disgusting Pear slug-worm (S. cerasi), often live twenty to thirty on a leaf, eating the parenchyma, or softer tissues, leaving the blighted leaf. The leaves should be sprinkled with a mixture of whale-oil soap and water, in the proportion of two pounds of soap to fifteen gallons of water.

Among the butterflies, Melitaea Ismeria, in the south, and M. Harrisii, in the north, are sometimes seen. A second brood of Colias Philodice, the common sulphur-yellow butterfly, appears, and Pieris oleracea visits turnip-patches. It lays its eggs in June on the leaves, and the full-grown, dark-green, hairy larva may be found in August. The Pieria rapae, or imported cabbage butterfly (Fig. 253, male) is now also abundant. Its green hairy larva is fearfully prevalent about Boston and New York. The last of the month a new brood of Grapta comma appears, and a second brood of the larva of Chrysophanus Americanus may be found on the sorrel.

The larvae of Pyrrarctia Isabella hatch out the first week in July, and the snuff-colored moth enters our windows at night, in company with a host of night-flying moths. These large moths, many of which are injurious to crops, are commonly thought to feed on clothes and carpets. The true carpet and clothes moths are minute species, which flutter noiselessly about our apartments. Their narrow, feathery wings are edged with long silken fringes, and almost the slightest touch kills them.

Among beetles, the various borers, such as the Saperda, or apple tree borer (Fig. 254) are now pairing, and fly in the hot sun about trees. Nearly each tree has its peculiar enemy, which drives its galleries into the trunk and branches of the tree. Among the Tiger beetles, frequenting sandy places, the large Cicindela generosa and the Cicindela hirticollis are most common. The grotesque larvae live in deep holes in sand-banks.

The nine-spotted Lady Bug, Coccinella novemnotata (Fig. 255, with pupa) is one of a large group of beetles, most beneficial from their habit of feeding on the plant lice. We figure another enemy of the Aphides, Chrysopa, and its eggs (Fig. 256), mounted each on a long silken stalk, thus placed above the reach of harm.

Among other beneficial insects belonging to the Neuroptera, is the immense family of Libellulidae, or Dragon flies. The Forceps-tail, or Panorpa, P. rufescens (Fig. 257), is found in bushy fields and shrubbery. They prey on smaller insects, and the males are armed at the extremity of the body with an enormous forceps-like apparatus.

The Insects of August.

During this month great multitudes of bugs (Hemiptera) are found in our fields and gardens; and to this group of insects the present chapter will be devoted. They are nearly all injurious to crops, as they live on the sap of plants, stinging them with their long suckers. Their continued attacks cause the leaves to wither and blight.

The grain Aphis, in certain years, desolates our wheat fields. We have seen the heads black with these terrible pests. They pierce the grain, extract the sap, causing it to shrink and lose the greater part of its bulk. It is a most insidious and difficult foe to overcome.

The various leaf-hoppers, Tettigonia (Fig. 258) and Ceresa, abound on the leaves of plants, sadly blighting them; and the Tettigonias frequent damp, wet, swampy places. A very abundant species on grass produces what is called "frog's spittle." It can easily be traced through all its changes by frequently examining the mass of froth which surrounds it. Tettigonia Vitis blights the leaf of the grape-vine. It is a tenth of an inch long, and is straw-yellow, striped with red. Tettigonia rosae, a still smaller species, infests the rose, often to an alarming extent.

The Notonecta, or water boatman, is much like a Tettigonia, but its wings are transparent on the outer half, and its legs are fringed with long hairs, being formed for swimming. It rows over the surface in pursuit of insects. Notonecta undulata Say (Fig. 259) is a common form in New England.

Another insect hunter is the singular Ranatra fusca (Fig. 260). It is light brown in color, with a long respiratory tube which it raises above the surface of the water when it wishes to breathe. This species connects the Water-boatman with the Water-skaters, or Gerris, a familiar insect, of which Gerris paludum (Fig. 261) is commonly seen running over the surface of streams and pools.

Reduvius and its allies belong to a large family of very useful insects, as they prey largely on caterpillars and noxious insects. Such is Pirates picipes (Fig. 262), a common species. It is an ally of Reduvius personates, a valued friend to man, as in Europe it destroys the bed-bug. Its specific name is derived from its habit while immature, of concealing itself in a case of dust, the better to approach its prey.

Another friend of the agriculturist is the Phymata erosa (Fig. 263). Mr. F. G. Sanborn states that "these insects have been taken in great numbers upon the linden trees in the city of Boston, and were seen in the act of devouring the Aphides, which have infested the shade trees of that city for several years past. They are described by a gentleman who watched their operations with great interest, as 'stealing up to a louse, coolly seizing and tucking it under the arm, then inserting the beak and sucking it dry.' They are supposed to feed also on other vegetable-eating insects as well as the plant louse."

Phytocoris lineolaris swarms in our gardens during this month. It is described and figured in "Harris's Treatise on Insects." Closely allied, though generally wingless, is that enemy of our peace, the bed-bug. It has a small somewhat triangular head, orbicular thorax, and large, round, flattened abdomen. It is generally wingless, having only two small wing-pads instead. The eggs are oval, white; the young escape by pushing off a lid at one end of the shell. They are white, transparent, differing from the perfect insect in having a broad, triangular head, and short, thick antennae. Indeed, this is the general form of lice (Pediculus Vestimenti, and P. capitis), to which the larva of Cimex has the closest affinity. Some Cimices are parasites, infesting pigeons, swallows, etc., in this way also showing their near relation to lice. Besides the Reduvius, the cockroach is the natural enemy of the bed-bug, and destroys large numbers. Houses have been cleared of bugs after being thoroughly fumigated with brimstone.

During this month the ravages of grasshoppers are, in the West, very wide-spread. We have received from Major F. Hawn, of Leavenworth, Kansas, a most interesting account of the Red-legged locust (Caloptenus femur-rubrum). "They commence depositing their eggs in the latter part of August. They are fusiform, slightly gibbous, and of a buff-color. They are placed about three-fourths of an inch beneath the surface, in a compact mass around a vertical axis, pointing obliquely up and outwards, and are partially cemented together, the whole presenting a cylindrical structure, not unlike a small cartridge. They commence hatching in March, but it requires a range of temperature above 60 F. to bring them to maturity, and under such conditions they become fledged in thirty-three days, and in from three to five days after they enter upon their migratory flight.

"Their instincts are very strong. When food becomes scarce at one point, a portion of them migrate to new localities, and this movement takes place simultaneously over large areas. In their progress they stop at no obstacle they can surmount. In these excursions they often meet with other trains from an opposite direction, when both join in one.

"The insects are voracious, but discriminating in their choice of food, yet I know of no plant they reject if pressed by hunger; not even the foliage of shrubs and trees, including pine and cedar."

During this month the Seventeen-year locust (Cicada septendecim of Linnaeus, Fig. 264) has disappeared, and only a few Harvest flies, as the two other species we have are called, raise their shrill cry during the dog-days. But as certain years are marked by the appearance of vast swarms in the Middle States, we cannot do better than to give a brief summary of its history, which we condense in part from Dr. Harris' work.

The Seventeen-year locust ranges from South-eastern and Western Massachusetts to Louisiana. Of its distribution west of the Mississippi Valley, we have no accurate knowledge. In Southern Massachusetts, they appear in oak forests about the middle of June. After pairing, the female, by means of her powerful ovipositor, bores a hole obliquely to the pith, and lays therein from ten to twenty slender white eggs, which are arranged in pairs, somewhat like the grains on an ear of wheat, and implanted in the limb. She thus oviposits several times in a twig, and passes from one to another, until she has laid four or five hundred eggs. After this she soon dies. The eggs hatch in about two weeks, though some observers state that they do not hatch for from forty to over fifty days after being laid. The active grubs are provided with three pairs of legs. After leaving the egg they fall to the ground, burrow into it, and seek the roots of plants whose juices they suck by means of their long beaks. They sometimes attack the roots of fruit trees, such as the pear and apple. They live nearly seventeen years in the larva state, and then in the spring change to the pupa, which chiefly differs from the larva by having rudimentary wings. The damage done by the larvae and pupae, then, consists in their sucking the sap from the roots of forest, and occasionally fruit trees.

Regarding its appearance, Mr. L. B. Case writes us (June 15) from Richmond, Indiana: "Just now we are having a tremendous quantity of locusts in our forests and adjoining fields, and people are greatly alarmed about them; some say they are Egyptian locusts, etc. This morning they made a noise, in the woods about half a mile east of us, very much like the continuous sound of frogs in the early spring, or just before a storm at evening. It lasted from early in the morning until evening." Mr. V. T. Chambers writes us that it is abounding in the vicinity of Covington, Kentucky, "in common with a large portion of the Western country." He points out some variations in color from those described by Dr. Fitch, from New York, and states that those occurring in Kentucky are smaller than those of which the measurements are given by Dr. Fitch, and states that "these differences indicate that the groups, appearing in different parts of the country at intervals of seventeen years, are of different varieties." A careful comparison of large numbers collected from different broods, in different localities, and different years, would alone give the facts to decide this interesting point. Mr. Riley has shown that in the Southern States a variety appears every thirteen years.

Regarding the question raised by Mr. Chambers, whether the sting of this insect is poisonous, and which he is inclined to believe to be in part true, we might say that naturalists generally believe it to be harmless. No hemiptera are known to be poisonous, that is, to have a poison-gland connected with the sting, like that of the bee, and careful dissections by the eminent French naturalist, Lacaze-Duthiers, of three European species of Cicada, have not revealed any poison apparatus at the base of the sting. Another proof that it does not pour poison into the wound made by the ovipositor is, that the twig thus pierced and wounded does not swell, as in the case of plants wounded by Gall flies, which, perhaps, secrete an irritating poison, giving rise to tumors of various shapes. Many insects sting without poisoning the wound; the bite of the mosquito, black fly, flea, the bed bug, and other hemipterous insects, are simply punctured wounds, the saliva introduced being slightly irritant, and to a perfectly healthy constitution they are not poisonous, though they may grievously afflict some persons, causing the adjacent parts to swell, and in some weak constitutions induce severe sickness. Regarding this point, Mr. Chambers writes: "I have heard—not through the papers—within a few days past of a child, within some twenty miles of this place, dying from the sting of a Cicada, but have not had an opportunity to inquire into the truth of the story, but the following you may rely on. A negro woman in the employment of A. V. Winston, Esq., at Burlington, Boone County, Ky., fifteen miles distant from here, went barefooted into his garden a few days since, and while there was stung or bitten in the foot by a Cicada. The foot immediately swelled to huge proportions, but by various applications the inflammation was allayed, and the woman recovered. Mr. Winston, who relates this, stands as high for intelligence and veracity as any one in this vicinity. I thought, on first hearing the story, that probably the sting was by some other insect, but Mr. Winston says that he saw the Cicada. But perhaps this proves that the sting is not fatal; that depends on the subject. Some persons suffer terribly from the bite of a mosquito, while others scarcely feel them. The cuticle of a negro's foot is nearly impenetrable, and perhaps the sting would have been more dangerous in a more tender part." It is not improbable that the sting was made by a wasp (Stizus) which preys on the Cicada. Dr. Le Baron and Mr Riley believe the wound to be made by the beak, which is the more probable solution of the problem.

A word more about the Seventeen-year Cicada. Professor Orton writes us from Yellow Springs, Ohio, that this insect has done great damage to the apple, peach, and quince trees, and is shortening the fruit crop very materially. By boring into twigs bearing fruit, the branches break and the fruit goes with them. "Many orchards have lost full two years' growth. Though the plum and cherry trees seemed exempt, they attacked the grape, blackberry, raspberry, elm (white and slippery), maple, white ash, willow, catalpa, honey-locust and wild rose. We have traces of the Cicada this year from Columbus, Ohio, to St. Louis. Washington and Philadelphia have also had a visitation."

We figure the Hop-vine moth and the larva (Fig. 265) which abound on hops the last of summer. Also, the Ilythia colonella (Fig. 266, a, pupa), known in England to be a parasite of the Humble bee. We have frequently met with it here, though not in Humble bees' nests. The larvae feed directly upon the young bees, according to Curtis (Farm Insects). The Spindle-worm moth (Gortyna zeae), whose caterpillar lives in the stalks of Indian corn, and also in dahlias, flies this month. The withering of the leaves when the corn is young, shows the presence of this pest. The beetles of various cylindrical Bark borers and Blight beetles (Tomicus and Scolytus) appear again this month. During this month the Tree cricket (Oecanthus niveus, Fig. 267) lays its eggs in the branches of peach trees. It will also eat tobacco leaves.

We figure (268) the moth of Ennomos subsignaria, the larva of which is so injurious to shade trees in New York City. It is a widely diffused species, occurring probably throughout the Northern States. We have taken the moth in Northern Maine. We have received from Mr. W. V. Andrews the supposed larvae of this moth. They are "loopers," that is, they walk with a looping gait, as if measuring off the ground they walk over, whence the name "Geometers," more usually applied to them. They are rather stout, brown, and roughened like a twig of the tree they inhabit, with an unusually large rust-red head, and red prop-legs, while the tip of the body is also red. They are a little over an inch long.

The Insects of September.

Few new insects make their first appearance for the season during this month. Most of the species which abound in the early part of the month are the August forms, which live until they are killed by the frosts late in the month. From this cause there is towards the end of the month a very sensible diminution of the number of insects.

The early frosts warn these delicate creatures of approaching cold. Hence the whole insect population is busied late in the month in looking out snug winter quarters, or providing for the continuance of the species. Warned by the cool and frosty nights, multitudes of caterpillars prepare to spin their dense silken cocoons, which guard them against frost and cold. Such are the "Spinners," as the Germans call them, the Silk moths, of which the American Silk worm is a fair example. The last of September it spins its dense cocoon, in which it hibernates in the chrysalis state.

The larvae of those moths, such as the Sphinges, or Hawk moths, which spin no cocoon, descend deep into the earth, where they transform into chrysalids and lie in deep earthen cocoons.

The wild bees may now be found frequenting flowers in considerable numbers. Both sexes of the Humble bee, the Leaf-cutter bee, and other smaller genera abound during the warm days.

One's attention during an unusually warm and pleasant day in this month is attracted by clouds of insects filling the air, especially towards sunset, when the slanting rays of the sun shine through the winged hosts. On careful investigation these insects will prove to be nearly all ants, and, perhaps, to belong to a single species. Looking about on the ground, an unusual activity will be noticed in the ant-hills. This is the swarming of the ants. The autumnal brood of females has appeared, and this is their marriage day.

The history of a formicarium, or ant's nest, is as follows: The workers, only, hibernate, and are found early in the spring, taking care of the eggs and larvae produced by the autumnal brood of females. In the course of the summer these eggs and larvaae arrive at maturity, and swarm on a hot sultry day, usually early in September. The females, after their marriage flight, for the small diminutive males seek their company at this time, descend and enter the ground to lay their eggs for new colonies, or, as Westwood states, they are often seized by the workers and retained in the old colonies. Having no more inclination to fly, they pluck off their wings and may be seen running about wingless.

Dr. C. C. Abbot gives us the following account of the swarming of a species in New Jersey: "On the afternoon of Oct. 6th, at about 4 P. M., we were attracted to a part of the large yard surrounding our home, by a multitude of large sized insects that filled the air, and appeared to be of some unusual form of insect life, judging of them from a distance. On closer inspection these creatures proved to be a brood of red ants (Formica) that had just emerged from their underground home and were now for the first time using their delicate wings. The sky, at the time, was wholly overcast; the wind strong, southeast; thermometer 66 Fahr. Taking a favorable position near the mass, as they slowly crawled from the ground, up the blades of grass and stems of clover and small weeds, we noted, first, that they seemed dazed, without any method in their movements, save an ill-defined impression that they must go somewhere. Again, they were pushed forward, usually by those coming after them, which seemed to add to their confusion. As a brood or colony of insects, their every movement indicated that they were wholly ill at ease.

"Once at the end of a blade of grass, they seemed even more puzzled as to what to do. If not followed by a fellow ant, as was usually the case, they would invariably fall down again to the earth, and sometimes repeat this movement until a new comer joined in the ascent, when the uncertain individual would be forced to use his wings. This flight would be inaugurated by a very rapid buzzing of the wings, as though to dry them, or prove their owner's power over them, but which it is difficult to say. After a short rest, the violent movement of the wings would recommence, and finally losing fear, as it were, the ant would let go his hold upon the blade of grass and rise slowly upwards. It could, in fact, scarcely be called flight. The steady vibration of the wings simply bore them upwards, ten, twenty or thirty feet, until they were caught by a breeze, or by the steadier wind that was moving at an elevation equal to the height of the surrounding pine and spruce trees. So far as we were able to discover, their wings were of the same use to them, in transporting them from their former home, that the 'wings' of many seeds are, in scattering them; both are wholly at the mercy of the winds.

"Mr. Bates, in describing the habits of the Saueba ants (Oecodoma cephalotes) says,[33] 'The successful debut of the winged males and females depends likewise on the workers. It is amusing to see the activity and excitement which reign in an ant's nest when the exodus of the winged individuals is taking place. The workers clear the roads of exit, and show the most lively interest in their departure, although it is highly improbable that any of them will return to the same colony. The swarming or exodus of the winged males and females of the Saueba ant takes place in January and February, that is, at the commencement of the rainy season. They come out in the evening in vast numbers, causing quite a commotion in the streets and lanes.' We have quoted this passage from Mr. Bates' fascinating book, because of the great similarity and dissimilarity in the movements of the two species at this period of their existence. Remembering, at the time the above remarks concerning the South American species, we looked carefully for the workers, in this instance, and failed to discover above half a dozen wingless ants above ground, and these were plodding about, very indifferent, as it appeared to us, to the fate or welfare of their winged brothers. And on digging down a few inches, we could find but comparatively few individuals in the nest, and could detect no movements on their parts that referred to the exodus of winged individuals, then going on.

"On the other hand, the time of day agrees with the remarks of Mr. Bates. When we first noticed them, about 4 P. M., they had probably just commenced their flight. It continued until nearly 7 P. M., or a considerable time after sundown. The next morning, there was not an individual, winged or wingless, to be seen above ground; the nest itself was comparatively empty; and what few occupants there were seemed to be in a semi-torpid condition. Were they simply resting after the fatigue and excitement of yesterday?

"It was not possible for us to calculate what proportion of these winged ants were carried by the wind too far to return to their old home; but certainly a large proportion were caught by the surrounding trees; and we found, on search, some of these crawling down the trunks of the trees, with their wings in a damaged condition. How near the trees must be for them to reach their old home, we should like to learn; and what tells them, 'which road to take?' Dr. Duncan states,[34] 'It was formerly supposed that the females which alighted at a great distance from their old nests returned again, but Huber, having great doubts upon this subject, found that some of them, after having left the males, fell on to the ground in out-of-the-way places, whence they could not possibly return to the original nest!' We unfortunately did not note the sex of those individuals that we intercepted in their return (?) trip; but we can not help expressing our belief that, at least in this case, there was scarcely an appreciable amount of 'returning' on the part of those whose exodus we have just described; although so many were caught by the nearer trees and shrubbery. Is it probable that these insects could find their way to a small underground nest, where there was no 'travel' in the vicinity, other than the steady departure of individuals, who, like themselves, were terribly bothered with the wings they were carrying about with them?" (American Naturalist.)

We have noticed that those females that do not return to the old nest found new ones. In Maine and Massachusetts we have for several successive years noticed the swarming of certain species of ants during an unusually warm and sultry day early in September.

The autumnal brood of Plant lice now occur in great numbers on various plants. The last brood, however, does not consist exclusively of males and females, for of some of the wingless individuals previously supposed to be perfect insects of both sexes, Dr. W. I. Burnett found that many were in reality of the ordinary gemmiparous form, such as those composing the early summer broods.

The White Pine Plant lice (Lachnus strobi) may be seen laying their long string of black oval eggs on the needles of the pine. They are accompanied by hosts of two-winged flies, Ichneumons, and in the night by many moths which feed on the Aphis-honey they secrete, and which drops upon the leaves beneath.


[Footnote 30: The right side represents the under side of the wings.]


[Footnote 32: See "Proceedings of the Essex Institute," vol. iv, p. 105.]

[Footnote 33: Naturalist on the River Amazons, vol. 1, p. 32.]

[Footnote 34: Transformations of Insects, p. 205.]


Abraxas ribearia, 202.

Acarus, 124.

Acceleration, theory of evolution by, 167.

Achorutes, 145.

Adela, 189.

Agrion, 109.

Agrion, egg-parasite of, 164.

Agrotis, 197.

Alternation of generations, 168.

Alypia, 57, 197.

American tent caterpillar, 187.

Amnion, 166.

Ancestral forms, 151.

Andrena, 31, 45, 192.

Angle worms, 189.

Annelida, 161, 170.

Anopheles, 189.

Ant, 217.

Antenna, origin of, 174.

Antherophagus, 49.

Ant lion, 115, 182.

Ants, 189.

Anura, 136, 145, 147.

Anurida, 146.

Apathus, 47.

Aphis, 151, 203.

Aphis eater, 75.

Aphis of grain, 209.

Apple borer, 208.

Apple insects, 83.

Apple tree borer, 187.

April, insects of, 187.

Agonum, 191.

Aquarium, 195.

Arachnida, ancestry of, 189.

Archetype, 186.

Archetypes in Insects, 150.

Arctia, 197.

Argas, 123.

Argynnis, 193, 197.

Army worm, 55.

Arrhenodes, 206.

Arthropoda, 166.

Aspidiotus, 203.

Assmus, Edward, on parasites of honey bee, 39.

Astoma, 122, 159.

August, insects of, 209.

Band, primitive, 163, 167.

Bark borer, 188, 216.

Bark louse, 203.

Barnacle, 155.

Bed bug, 96, 183.

Bees, 17, 168, 206.

Bee louse, 41.

Beneficial insects, 190.

Billings on Eophyton, 158.

Bird tick, 84.

Black fly, 73.

Blight insect, 203.

Bombardier beetle, 191.

Borer, 187.

Bot fly, 77.

Botrytis, 47.

Brachinus, 191.

Brauer, F., on ancestry of insects, 157. On two larval forms, 175.

Braula, 41.

Breeze fly, 74.

Brephos, 189.

Bristle tail, 127.

Bruchus, 188.

Buprestis, 206.

Cabbage butterfly, 55, 207.

Caddis fly, 153.

Caddis fly larva, 178.

Caddis worm, 195.

Calendar, Insect, 187.

Caloptenus, 211.

Calosoma, 190.

Campodea, 133, 159, 170, 178.

Campodea-stage of insects, 157.

Canker worm, 187, 201.

Carabidae, 189, 190.

Carabus, 191.

Carboniferous insects, 158. Myriopods, 158. Scorpion, 158.

Carpenter bee, 192.

Carpet fly, 75.

Case worms, 195.

Casnonia, 191.

Caterpillar, origin of, 175, 179.

Cecidomyia, 168, 196, 203.

Cecidomyia tritici, 197.

Centipede, 149.

Ceratina, 24, 192.

Ceresa, 209.

Cestodes, 162.

Cheese maggot, 83.

Cheese mite, 124.

Cheyletus, 119.

Chigoe, 86.

Chinch bug, 55, 203.

Chionea, 85.

Chironomus, 168, 189.

Chloeon, 170, 180.

Chrysobothris, 206.

Chrysopa, 171, 182, 208.

Chrysophanus, 193, 207.

Cicada, 212.

Cicindela, 189.

Clothes moth, 64, 188.

Coccinella, 204.

Coddling moth, 188.

Coleopterous larvae, 175.

Collembola, 133, 159.

Comprehensive type, 154.

Compsidea, 90.

Conotrachelus, 194.

Copepoda, 167.

Corydalus, mandibles of, 182.

Crab, 155, 156.

Crustacea, differences of from insects, 157.

Currant borer, 204.

Currant worm, 202.

Cut worm, 197.

Cyclops-like stage, 162.

Cynips, 193.

Daddy-long-legs, 194.

Dawson's discovery of fossil myriopods, 159.

Dawson on fossil land plants of Upper Silurian, 158.

Degeeria, 143.

Demodex, 125, 148, 160.

Devil's darning-needle, 106.

Devonian formation, insects in, 158.

Diabrotica, 194.

Dicerca, 206.

Dicyrtoma, 142.

Diplax, 113, 154.

Dipterous gall fly, 196.

Dipterous larvae, 175.

Dohrn, Anton, on ancestry of insects, 169.

Dragon fly, 106, 171, 195.

Dujardinia, 170.

Dytiscus, 182.

Ear wig, 136.

Echinoderes, 169.

Egg parasites, 201.

Egg parasite of Agrion, 164.

Eggs of canker worm, 187.

Elm tree insects, 90.

Embryology, comparative. 167.

Embryology of Podura, 140.

Ennomos, 216.

Ephemera, 154, 194.

Ephydra, 174.

Eruciform larva, 175.

Euphorberia, 158.

Evolution theory, 152.

Eyes of insects, 185.

Fabre on hyper-metamorphosis, 43.

Fall weaver, 197.

Fire fly, 202.

Flea, 86.

Forceps Tail, 171.

Forficula, 136.

Fossil insects, 158. Myriopods, 158. Scorpion, 158.

Foul brood, 40.

Gad fly, 74.

Galley worm, 149.

Gall flies, 193.

Gall fly, 72, 203.

Gall fly, two-winged, 196.

Gamasus, 120.

Ganin on embryology of insects, 161.

Gegenbaur on tracheae, 172.

Generalized types, 154.

Generation, alternate, 168.

Gerris, 210.

Gerris, egg-parasite of, 166.

Gills of insects, 172.

Gnat, 71, 189.

Gonocerus, 204.

Gordius, 46.

Gortyna, 215.

Grain Aphis, 209.

Grape insects, 57.

Grape leaf roller, 205.

Grape saw fly, 207.

Grapta, 189, 204, 207.

Grasshopper, 181, 211.

Green head, 74.

Grimm on parthenogenesis, 168.

Haeckel, Ernst, on ancestry of insects, 156.

Hairs of insects, 185.

Hair worm, 46.

Halictus, 31, 192.

Handily, A. H., on Thysanura, 133.

Hartt's discovery of fossil insects in New Brunswick, 158.

Harvest bugs, 122.

Haustellate insects, 183.

Hawk moth, 194, 200.

Head of insects, mode of formation of, 174.

Heart, iv.

Hemiptera, 209.

Hemipterous larvae, 175.

Hessian fly, 72, 196.

Heteropus, 126.

Hibernation of insects, 192.

Hirudo, 166.

Histolysis, 168.

Histriobdella, 166.

Histriobdella stage of Polynema, 164.

Hop vine moth, 215.

Horse tick, 84.

House fly, 80.

Humble bee parasite, 215.

Humming bird moth, 194.

Hunt on organic life in the Laurentian period, 158.

Hylobius pales, 188.

Hylurgus terebrans, 188.

Hymenopterous larvae, 175.

Hyper-metamorphosis of insects, 166.

Hyphantria, 204.

Hypodermis, 163.

Ichneumon, 161, 201.

Illinois, fossil insects of, 159.

Ilythia, 215.

Injurious insects, 190.

Insects, ancestry of, 150.

Insects, archetypes of, 150.

Insects, beneficial, 190.

Insect calendar, 187.

Insects, embryology of, 154, 155.

Insects, flight of, ix.

Insects in the Devonian formation, 158.

Insects, metamorphosis of, 166.

Insects, origin of, 156.

Insects, reason in, 30, 37.

Insects, respiration of, 171.

Insects, senses of, xiii.

Insects, sexes in, 52.

Insects, transformations of, xiv, 50.

Insects, wingless, 171.

Intestinal worms, 161.

Isotoma, 140, 143.

Itch mite, 125.

Ixodes, 117, 123.

Japyx, 132.

Jaws of insects, origin of, 174.

Jelly fishes, 168.

Joint worm, 55.

Julus, 149, 169.

Julus, embryology of, 164.

July, insects of, 206.

June, insects of, 200.

Kowaleusky's researches on embryology of worms, 169.

Labium, vi, 165.

Lachnosterna fusca, 202.

Lachnus, 220.

Lady bird, 208.

Larva, ernciform, 175. Leptiform, 175. Two kinds of, 175.

Larval skin of crustacea, 166.

Leaf cutter bee, 26, 206.

Leaf roller, 188, 197, 205.

Leeches, 166.

Legs of insects, 173.

Leidy, J., on internal parasites of insects, 39, 46.

Lepidocyrtus, 144.

Lepidopterous larvae, 175.

Lepisma, 128.

Leptiform larva, 175.

Leptus, 120, 155, 159.

Lespes, on sense of hearing in insects, xiv.

Leucania, 55.

Leuckart on embryology of Hirudo, 168. Parthenogenesis, 168.

Libellula, 107, 195.

Linden tree insects, 90.

Linguatula, 160.

Lipura, 145.

Lithobius, 178.

Locust tree insects, 93.

Louse, 96, 154.

Lubbock's discovery of Pauropus, 149.

Lubbock, Sir John, on Thysanura, 133; on the origin of insects, 159, 173.

Machilis, 128.

Macrodactylus, 206.

Macrosila cluentius, 184.

Maggot, origin of, 175, 178.

Mandible, vi.

Mandibles of moths, 183.

Mandibulate insects, 183.

Mange mite, 125.

Marey on the flight of insects, ix.

Mason bee, 192.

Maxillae, vi.

Maxilla of moths, 184.

May beetle, 202.

May fly, 194.

May, insects of, 192.

Mazonia, 158.

Meat fly, 82.

Meek's discovery of fossil insects in Illinois, 158.

Megachile, 26.

Melipona, 18.

Melitaea, 193, 207.

Melitaea Phaeton, 204.

Meloe, 21, 42.

Metamorphosis of insects, 166, 175; origin of, 179.

Miastor, 168.

Microgaster, 49.

Mites, 116, 149.

Mosquito, 68.

Mosquito hawk, 195.

Mouth-parts of insects, origin of, 173.

Mucor, 47.

Mud dauber, 207.

Mueller, Fritz, on ancestry of insects, 156, 169.

Mueller, J., on sight in insects, xiii.

Murray's discovery of Eophyton in America, 158.

Musca, 80, 168.

Muscardine, 47.

Mycetobia, 73.

Myobia, 169.

Myriopoda, 149. Ancestry of, 159.

Nannophya, 114.

Nauplius, 155, 160.

Nebalia, 182.

Nephelis, 166.

Nephopteryx, 49.

Neuropterous larvae, 175.

New Brunswick, fossil insects of, 158.

Newport, on embryology of Julus, 164.

Nicoletia, 131.

Nomada, 38.

Notonecta, 209.

Nova Scotia, fossil insects of, 159.

Ocypete, 159.

Odynerus, 207.

Oecanthus, 216.

Oil beetle, 188.

Onion fly, 49.

Ophioneurus, embryology of, 165.

Orchesella, 143.

Ornithomyia, 84.

Orthopterous larvae, 175.

Osmia, 27.

Otiorhynchus, 199.

Ovipositor of Cicada, 185.

Palpus, vi. Origin of, 174.

Pangus, 191.

Panorpa, 171, 209.

Paper wasp, 207.

Papilio Asterias, 200.

Papirins, 142.

Parasite of insect eggs, 164.

Parsnip butterfly, 200.

Parthenogenesis, 168.

Pasteur on the silk worm disease, 63.

Pauropus, 149, 154, 158, 171.

Peach borer, 206.

Pear slug, 207.

Pea weevil, 188.

Peck, W. D., on the habits of Stylops and Xenos, 45, 46.

Pelopaeus, 207.

Pentastoma, 148, 160.

Peripatus, 161.

Perla, 154.

Phora, 40.

Phymata, 211.

Phytocoris, 211.

Pickle worm, 57.

Pieris, 55, 197, 207.

Pieris brassicae, egg parasite of, 165.

Pine plant louse, 220.

Pine weevil, 188, 199.

Piophila, 83.

Pirates, 210.

Pissodes strobi, 188.

Plan of structure, 186.

Plant louse, 220.

Platygaster, embryology of, 161.

Plum weevil, 194.

Podura, 133, 135, 144, 153, 154, 159, 170. Catch of, 139. Spring of, 137.

Podurids, the ancestors of the true insects, 157.

Poisonous insects, 214.

Polynema, embryology of, 164.

Poplar tree insects, 92.

Potato insects, 63.

Prelarval stage of ichneumons, 168.

Primitive band, 163, 166.

Primitive insects, 175.

Prionus, 93.

Procris, 60.

Protoleptus, 172, 174.

Pseudoneuroptera, 178.

Ptinus fur, 200.

Putnam, F. W., on habits of the bees, 19, 26.

Pyrrharctia, 207.

Ranatra, 210.

Rat-tailed fly, 76.

Reduvius, 210.

Reproduction, virgin, 168.

Respiration of insects, 171.

Retardation, theory of evolution by, 167.

Rose beetle, 206.

Rose saw fly, 196.

Rose slug, 207.

Rotatoria, ancestors of crustacea, 169.

Salpa, 168.

Saperda, 91, 208.

Sarcoptes, 125.

Saw fly, 196, 207.

Saw of saw fly, 185.

Schioedte on the mouth-parts of the louse, 96.

Scolopocryptops, 149.

Scorpion, fossil, 158.

Scudder on fossil insects of New Brunswick and Illinois, 158.

Seira, 143.

Selandria, 207.

Selandria rosae, 196.

September, insects of, 216.

Sesia, 194.

Seventeen year locust, 212.

Sexes, origin of, 152.

Sheep tick, 85.

Shrimp, 155.

Siebold, T. von, on the ears of grasshoppers, xiv.

Siebold on parthenogenesis, 168.

Silk worm, 51.

Silver witches, 128.

Simulium, 73.

Sitaris, 44.

Smith, F., on stingless bees, 18. On parasitic bees, 37.

Smynthurus, 142.

Species, origin of, 152.

Sphinx, 194, 197, 200, 207.

Spider, 155.

Spider fly, 85.

Spindle worm, 215.

Spinneret of caterpillars, 183; of spiders, 185.

Spring, insects of, 187.

Spring of Podura, 185.

Spring tail, 127.

Squash beetle, 194.

Squash bug, 204.

Sting of bee, 185.

Sting, origin of, 165.

Stylops, 21, 45, 152, 179, 188.

Sucker of insects, 183.

Sugar mite, 124.

Swarming of ants, 217.

Syllis, 170.

Syrphus, 75.

Tabanus, 74.

Tachina, 39, 189.

Tailor bee, 26.

Tardigrade, 150, 160.

Teleas, embryology of, 166.

Templetonia, 143.

Tent caterpillar, 187.

Tenthredo, 207.

Tettigonia, 209.

Thanaos, 197.

Thecla, 197.

Thorax of insects, 173.

Thysanura, 127, 154.

Ticks, 116.

Tinea, 64, 188.

Tipula, 194.

Tomicus, 199.

Tomocerus, 137, 143.

Tongue of insects, 183.

Torell's discovery of Eophyton in Sweden, 158.

Tortrices, 205.

Tortricidae, 188.

Trachea, iv.

Tracheae, absence of in Polynema, 165.

Tracheae, origin of, 171.

Tree cricket, 216.

Trichocera hyemalis, 189.

Trichodes, 42.

Trigona, 18.

Trochilium tipuliforme, 205.

Trombidium, 120, 159.

Trouvelot, L., on amount eaten by silk worms, vii, 60.

Turnip butterfly, 197.

Uhler, P. R., on habits of the dragon fly, 107, 110.

Verrill, A. E., on the parasites of man and the domestic animals, 84.

Vine dresser, 59.

Virgin reproduction, 168.

Wasp, 206.

Water bear, 150.

Water boatman, 166, 209.

Waterhouse, G. R., on habits of Osmia, 27.

Weevil, 179, 188, 194.

Weismann on growth of insects, 164.

West, Tuffen, on the foot of the fly, viii.

Wheat midge, 197.

Wine fly, 83.

Wingless insects, 171.

Wings of insects as respiratory organs, 165.

Wings, origin of, 172.

Worthen's discovery of fossil insects in Illinois, 158.

Worms, the ancestors of insects, 160, 169.

Wyman, Jeffries, on the cells of the honey bee, 17.

Xenos, 46.

Xylobius, 159.

Xylocopa, 21.

Zaddach on development of worms, insects and crustaceans, 169.

Zoea, 156.

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