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Notes on the Diplomatic History of the Jewish Question
by Lucien Wolf
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The Emperor and his Ministers seem to think that age, and a great sense of the responsibility that is upon him, have of late much increased Prince Metternich's natural caution and timidity.

I have the Honour to be with the Highest Respect, My Lord,

Your Lordship's most obedient Humble Servant,

CLANRICARDE.

THE VISCOUNT PALMERSTON, G.C.B.

(F.O. Docs. 63/271.)

* * * * *

Memoire of the King of Prussia dated February 24, 1841, delivered to Lord Palmerston by Baron Buelow.

Les evenements importants qui viennent de s'accomplir en Orient, ont replace sous l'autorite souveraine du Sultan la Palestine et y ont retabli l'etat politique qui existait avant l'occupation de Mehemet Ali. Ce n'est pas par ses propres moyens que le Sultan a reussi a expulser son vassal rebelle de cette contree, berceau du christianisme et cher a toutes les communions de la grande Eglise chretienne. Le chef de la religion musulmane doit ce succes a un Traite que quatre des Puissances chretiennes ont conclu avec lui et qui a recu son execution par la valeur chevaleresque de militaires chretiens. Plus le noble desinteressement des Puissances qui ont porte secours a l'Empereur des Ottomans, leur fournit des titres a sa reconnaissance moins il peut etre douteux que ces memes Puissances sont pleinement en droit de reclamer de ce souverain des concessions dans un but purement spirituel et uniquement destinees a relever l'exercice du culte chretien de la triste condition ou il se trouve dans la contree meme qui l'a vu naitre.

Le Roi, notre auguste maitre, a saisi cette idee. Profondement attache a ses convictions religieuses et penetre de ses devoirs comme Prince chretien, Sa Majeste se reconnait dans le concours de la Prusse aux stipulations du 15 Juillet 1839 un droit et se sent la vocation de signaler a l'attention des autres Puissances chretiennes l'opportunite du moment actuel et les precieuses facilites qu'il offre, pour obtenir du Grand-Seigneur l'amelioration du sort des chretiens qui habitent la Terre sainte, l'affranchissement de leur culte et l'etablissement d'institutions qui garantissent a l'avenir aux Chretiens de toutes les confessions le libre acces des lieux, objets de leur veneration et temoins des evenemens sur lesquels repose l'esperance de leur salut eternel.

Sa Majeste est persuadee que les autres Souverains partageront les sentiments qu'Elle professe Elle-meme. D'ailleurs il est incontestable que depuis une demi-siecle, les esprits les plus eleves ont deja plaide la cause que le Roi, notre auguste maitre, recommande a la sollicitude des grandes Cours Europeennes. Il serait superflu de citer des noms, mais le nombre et la qualite des voyageurs de toutes les nations et de toutes les confessions chretiennes, qui affluent a Jerusalem, attestent deja que la Chretiente prend toujours un vif interet aux lieux saints et que cet interet, loin de se refroidir, se ravive avec le progres que l'esprit religieux fait en Europe.

En comptant avec une entiere assurance sur les sympathies de SS.MM. l'Empereur d'Autriche, de Russie et de la Reine de la Grande Bretagne pour les v[oe]ux qu'il forme a ce sujet, le Roi, notre auguste maitre, Leur fait proposer de faire valoir aupres de la Porte Ottomane les immenses services qu'elles viennent de lui rendre, pour l'engager a conclure avec les grandes Puissances Europeennes un arrangement qui place les villes saintes de Jerusalem, Bethlehem et Nazareth, sauf les droits de souverainete du Sultan, sous la protection commune de ces Puissances.

D'apres les idees de Sa Majeste l'arrangement a conclure porterait que

1. Les populations chretiennes des dites villes, les eglises, couvents, hospitaux qui en dependent, ainsi que les pelerins, les savants, les artistes, les artisans chretiens, &c., &c., qui y feraient un sejour passager, obtiendraient des immunites et des franchises telles que l'intervention des autorites turques dans leur administration interieure fut exclue. Ces immunites et franchises seraient cependant accordees sans prejudice des droits de Souverainete du Sultan.

2. Les habitans chretiens des dites villes cesseraient d'appartenir a la categorie de Rayahs; ils seraient a l'avenir exclusivement justiciables, quant a leur personnes et quant a leur proprietes, des Residents des cinq grandes Puissances Europeennes, de maniere que leurs obligations envers la Porte se reduiraient a un tribut dont le montant annuel serait acquitte par la communaute (non par les individus).

3. Le propriete des lieux saints a Jerusalem, Bethlehem et Nazareth passerait aux cinq grandes Puissances chretiennes et ferait l'objet d'un arrangement special a conclure avec ceux qui se trouvent maintenant en possession de ces localites.

4. Les chretiens habitant soit pour toujours soit temporairement les villes saintes, se formeraient d'apres les differentes confessions, en autant de corps speciaux, catholiques-romains, grecs, evangeliques. Les Armeniens et les Syriens se joindraient au premier ou au second de ces corps, selon leur rit actuel. Chacun de ces corps serait considere comme une communaute speciale legalement constituee. Toutes les communautes jouiraient de droits fixes d'avance a l'egard des lieux saints; la communaute evangelique serait autorisee a etablir un culte selon ses rits, a fonder un hospital, &c., &c. Les Chretiens de cette confession seraient admis a faire leur devotion dans l'eglise du St. Sepulcre et dans la Basilique de Bethlehem, dont les parties seraient specialement destinees a leur usage.

5. La direction des communautes serait confiee a trois Residents. Celui de la communaute catholique serait a la nomination de l'Autriche et de la France, la Russie nommerait le Resident pour la communaute grecque; la Grande Bretagne et la Prusse celui des protestants. Chaque Puissance qui nommerait un resident, mettrait a sa disposition un garde de 60 soldats. La formation de ses gardes ferait l'objet d'une stipulation ulterieure.

On choisirait quelques points pour les fortifier autant qu'il le faudrait, pour les mettre a l'abri d'une incursion subite de hordes arabes et pour que les communautes chretiennes pussent s'en servir pour mettre en surete les vases sacres precieux et leurs proprietes en general.

L'ancienne place du temple et la mosquee d'Omar resteraient dans tous les cas aux Turcs.

On pourrait encore soumettre a une deliberation commune, si les cinq Puissances ne stipuleraient pas egalement en faveur des Juifs domicilies a Jerusalem et de ceux qui s'y rendent en pelerinage, des immunites analogues a celles a obtenir pour les Chretiens.

* * * * *

Covering Letter from Baron Buelow to Lord Palmerston, March 6, 1841 (Extract).

...Il faudra donc faire obtenir aux membres de l'eglise evangelique (sans distinction des communions speciales qui la composent) la propriete exclusive d'une place distincte pres du St. Sepulcre de Jerusalem et dans l'eglise du meme nom pour y faire leurs prieres et pour y celebrer leur culte. Cette place serait mise sous la protection speciale des deux Puissances qui en garantiraient la possession paisible a la communaute protestante. Il s'agira aussi d'acquerir pour cette communaute le mont Sion afin d'y batir un hospice pour tous ceux qui visiteront ces contres par des motifs religieux ou scientifiques, d'etablir des presbyteres et des hospitaux, de fonder des ecoles pour les enfans de la population protestante (peut-etre aussi pour les enfans juifs), enfin de construire des ouvrages de fortification dont la faible garnison, mentionnee dans le memoire, aura besoin pour se defendre....

(F.O. Docs., 64/235.)

* * * * *

Lord Beauvale to Lord Palmerston.

VIENNA, March 2nd, 1841.

MY LORD,—The King of Prussia has sent His Minister at this Court a proposition for regulating the position of the Christians in Syria, which, if it were acted upon, would in Prince Metternich's opinion throw that Country into inextricable confusion. His Highness transmitted a few days back a memorandum on the subject to London which He persists in regarding as establishing the only advantageous mode of treating the question, and as He purposes drawing up a statement of his objections to the Prussian proposition, He earnestly entreats that no acquiescence may be given to any part of it on behalf of the British Government until those objections have been submitted to Your Lordship.

I have the honor to be with the greatest respect, My Lord,

Your Lordship's Most Obedient Humble Servant,

BEAUVALE.

THE VISCOUNT PALMERSTON, G.C.B.

(F.O. Docs., 7/298.)

* * * * *

Lord Palmerston to Lord Beauvale, (Draft).

F.O., March 11th, 1841.

MY LORD,—With reference to Your Excellency's despatch No. 38 of the 2nd instant reporting Prince Metternich's objections to the Prussian scheme for regulating the position of the Christians in Syria, I have to inform Your Excellency that H.M.'s Government agree very much with Prince Metternich's as to that scheme.

P.

(F.O. Docs. 1/296.)

* * * * *

Memorandum of Austrian Government delivered to Lord Palmerston by Prince Esterhazy, March 31, 1841.

Sur le Memorandum du 3 Fevrier[141] et le memoire Prussien, relativement a la protection des Chretiens en Syrie.

La difference entre le memorandum du 3 fev. et le memoire prussien consiste en ce que le premier fournit un moyen pratique pour porter remede au mal existant, sans entreprendre une reforme dangereuse, tandis que l'autre tend a introduire un nouvel ordre de choses en faveur de la representation de l'Eglise evangelique, par des moyens inexecutables.

Le travail du 3 fevr. se base sur la verite, que ni les populations chretiennes sedentaires et mouvantes, ni les couvens des trois confessions, catholique, grecque et armenienne, n'ont jamais eu a se plaindre d'un manque de tolerance musulmane. C'est un temoignage irrecusable qu'on peut recueillir sur les lieux aupres de ceux meme qui y sont les plus interesses.

Des firmans sans nombre, relatifs a des privileges et a la donation de lieux saints aux environs de Jerusalem, Bethlehem et Nazareth se trouvent deposes aux archives des differens couvens, et s'ils n'ont point ete mis en execution et forment le sujet de disputes continuelles entre les trois confessions, la faute n'en est pas au Gouvernement Turc, mais uniquement a la venalite des Musselims, comme autorites locales.

L'execution des firmans toujours mise arbitrairement a un prix tres eleve est devenu de la part des Musselims une speculation financiere.

La desunion regrettable qui regne entre les confessions, ou comme on les appelle sur les lieux, les trois nations, exploite cette corruptibilite, tantot pour suspendre l'execution d'un firman jalouse, tantot pour obtenir moyennant l'intervention du Musselim un second firman annullant le premier, ce qui a surtout lieu, lorsqu'il s'agit de la donation d'un lieu saint. En pareil cas la confession la plus offrante est sure d'atteindre son but et rien n'est plus a desirer que la punition severe du trafic illicite et honteux, qui se pratique avec les firmans et l'irrevocabilite de ceux une fois emanes.

C'est donc en parfaite connoissance du veritable siege du mal, que le memorandum du 3 fevrier a cherche le remede dans le renfort de l'action tutelaire du Gouv. par un employe sultanique special d'un rang assez eleve pour etre place a cote des Musselims; employe qui serait charge directement de tout ce qui aurait rapport aux lieux saints et aux pelerins—qui serait mis en contact avec les Representans des Gouvernement Chretiens nommes ad hoc, sous la denomination de procureurs et qui ne recevrait d'ordres que de Constantinople ou les plaintes elevees contre lui seraient portees a la connoissance du Gouvernement dans la voie diplomatique.

Le memoire prussien tendant a etablir sur les lieux une representation de l'eglise evangelique et sa participation aux fondations existantes, suscite une question toute nouvelle, dont la portee n'est pas a calculer.

Sans considerer l'opposition de Rome, du St. Synode de St. Petersbourg, et du Patriarchat grec a Constantinople le memoire suggere des moyens qui, loin de porter remede au mal existant, feraient naitre des nouvelles complications et accroitre la desunion parmi les confessions chretiennes. Ce regrettable resultat serait surtout amene par les points suivans du memoire prussien:

A. La propriete des lieux saints a Jerusalem, Bethlehem et Nazareth passerait aux cinq grandes Puissances.

Mais cette propriete est aux differentes confessions, qui deja jalouses de la partager entre trois, ne voudraient certainement pas faire une cession de droits acquis, en faveur d'une quatrieme pretendant.

B. Les Chretiens evangeliques auraient dans l'eglise du St. Sepulcre a Jerusalem et dans celle de Bethlehem des parties specialement destinees a leur usage.

Mais dans ces deux eglises chaque pouce de terrain est dispute par les trois confessions. Toute la Basilique de Bethlehem fut adjugee, il y a 80 ans, aux Grecs; en vertu d'un firman obtenu par des sommes considerables, eux et les Armeniens possedent seuls la propriete de la Grotte de la Nativite; les moins franciscains n'osent point y dire la messe, et il n'y a que l'autel de la Ste. Creche qui appartienne a ces derniers. Dans le temple de Jerusalem existent les memes subdivisions exclusives. Chaque chapelle forme pour ainsi dire une monopole; celle du Calvaire est partagee en deux—l'autel des Grecs occupant la place de l'exaltation de la croix, celui des Catholiques celle du crucifiement. Comment faire entrer une quatrieme confession dans un partage deja si conteste? La repartition toute faite de localites dont la propriete est aussi hautement appreciee par la confession qui la possede qu'enviee par la confession qui voudrait l'usurper, s'opposerait du reste a une pareille entreprise.

C. Chaque Puissance, qui nommerait un resident, mettrait a sa disposition 60 soldats.

A part d'autres considerations qui rendent ce moyen inadmissible, il fournirait des armes a une guerre de religion en petit qui, vu les elemens de jalousie et de discorde deja existans, ne manquerait pas d'eclater.

(F.O. Docs. 7/302.)

* * * * *

BRITISH JEWS AND PALESTINE, 1841-1843.

Colonel Churchill to Sir Moses Montefiore.

June 14th, 1841.

MY DEAR SIR MOSES,—I have not yet had the pleasure of hearing from you, but I would fain hope that my letters have reached you safe.

I enclose you a petition which has been drawn by the Brothers Harari, in which they state their claims and their earnest desire to be immediately under British protection. I am sorry to say that such a measure is much required even now, not only for them, but also for all the Jews in Damascus.

They are still liable to persecutions similar to those from which, through your active and generous intervention, they have so lately escaped. The Christians still regard them with malevolence, and the statement in the petition enclosed is perfectly correct.

I cannot conceal from you my most anxious desire to see your countrymen endeavour once more to resume their existence as a people. I consider the object to be perfectly attainable. But, two things are indispensably necessary. Firstly, that the Jews will themselves take up the matter universally and unanimously. Secondly, that the European Powers will aid them in their views. It is for the Jews to make a commencement. Let the principal persons of their community place themselves at the head of the movement. Let them meet, concert and petition. In fact the agitation must be simultaneous throughout Europe. There is no Government which can possibly take offence at such public meetings. The result would be that you would conjure up a new element in Eastern diplomacy—an element which under such auspices as those of the wealthy and influential members of the Jewish community could not fail not only of attracting great attention and of exciting extraordinary interest, but also of producing great events.

Were the resources which you all possess steadily directed towards the regeneration of Syria and Palestine, there cannot be a doubt but that, under the blessing of the Most High, those countries would amply repay the undertaking, and that you would end by obtaining the sovereignty of at least Palestine. That the present attempt to prop up the Turkish Empire as at present constituted is a miserable failure, we who see what is going on around us must at once acknowledge. What turn events will take no one can possibly tell, but of this I am perfectly certain that these countries must be rescued from the grasp of ignorant and fanatical rulers, that the march of civilisation must progress, and its various elements of commercial prosperity must be developed. It is needless to observe that such will never be the case under the blundering and decrepit despotism of the Turks or the Egyptians. Syria and Palestine, in a word, must be taken under European protection and governed in the sense and according to the spirit of European administration. It must ultimately come to this. What a great advantage it would be, nay, how indispensably necessary, when at length the Eastern Question comes to be argued and debated with this new ray of light thrown around it, for the Jews to be ready and prepared to say: "Behold us here all waiting, burning to return to that land which you seek to remould and regenerate. Already we feel ourselves a people. The sentiment has gone forth amongst us and has been agitated and has become to us a second nature; that Palestine demands back again her sons. We only ask a summons from these Powers on whose counsels the fate of the East depends to enter upon the glorious task of rescuing our beloved country from the withering influence of centuries of desolation and of crowning her plains and valleys and mountain-tops once more, with all the beauty and freshness and abundance of her pristine greatness." I say it is for the Jews to be ready against such a crisis in diplomacy. I therefore would strenuously urge this subject upon your calm consideration, upon the consideration of those who, by their position and influence amongst you are most likely to take the lead in such a glorious struggle for national existence. I had once intended to have addressed the Jews here in their Synagogue upon the subject, but I have reflected that such a proceeding might have awakened the jealousy of the local Government. I have, however, prepared a rough petition which will be signed by all the Jews here and in other parts of Syria, and which I shall then forward to you. Probably two or three months will elapse first. There are many considerations to be weighed and examined as the question develops itself—but a beginning must be made—a resolution must be taken, an agitation must be commenced, and where the stake is "Country and Home" where is the heart that will not leap and bound to the appeal?

I am the Resident Officer at Damascus until further order.

Believe me to be, Dear Sir Moses,

Yours very faithfully,

CHAS. H. CHURCHILL.

Before closing my letter, I cannot avoid offering one or two further considerations.

Supposing that you and your colleagues should at once and earnestly interest yourselves upon this important subject of the recovery of your ancient country, it appears to me (forming my opinions upon the present attitude of affairs in the Turkish Empire) that it could only be as subjects of the Porte that you could commence to regain a footing in Palestine. Your first object would be to interest the Five Great Powers in your views and to get them to advocate your view with the Sultan upon the clear understanding that the Jews, if permitted to colonise any part of Syria and Palestine, should be under the protection of the Great Powers, that they should have the internal regulation of their own affairs, that they should be exempt from military service (except on their own account as a measure of defence against the incursions of the Bedouin Arabs), and that they should only be called upon to pay a tribute to the Porte on the usual mode of taxation.

No doubt, such an undertaking will require Patriotism in the fullest sense of the word, energy and great perseverance. It will require large capital at the outset, but with good prospect of remuneration, returned after the lapse of a few years.

In all enterprises men must be prepared to make great sacrifices, whether of time, health or resources. To reflect calmly before commencing an undertaking and once begun to carry it through, vanquishing, surmounting, triumphing over every obstacle, this is worthy of man's existence and carries with it its own reward, if the judgment is sound, the head clear and the heart honest. I humbly venture to give my opinion upon a subject, which no doubt has already occupied your thought—and the bare mention of which, I know, makes every Jewish heart vibrate. The only question is—when and how.

The blessing of the Most High must be invoked on the endeavour. Political events seem to warrant the conclusion that the hour is nigh at hand when the Jewish people may justly and with every reasonable prospect of success put their hands to the glorious work of National Regeneration. If you think otherwise I shall bend at once to your decision, only begging you to appreciate my motive, which is simply an ardent desire for the welfare and prosperity of a people to whom we all owe our possession of those blessed truths which direct our minds with unerring faith to the enjoyment of another and better world.—C. H. C.

I will keep you "au fait" of all that passes in this country if you wish it.

* * * * *

15th August, 1842.

MY DEAR SIR MOSES,—I have delayed until now sending to you a written statement of my proposition regarding the Jews of Syria and Palestine partly because I knew you were absent last week from England and partly because I wished to keep the document by me for a few days previous to committing it finally to your care. The subject, I am sure, must in your eyes appear most worthy of consideration, and I trust that when you have perused my paper and matured the contents in your mind, you will come to such a decision as will induce you to give my proposition your warmest support. It appears to me that it might with advantage be brought under the notice of the Jews on the Continent, and if this be your opinion, perhaps you could get my paper, which, as you will perceive, I have drawn up in the shape of an "address," translated into German and forwarded to your friends in Prussia and Germany. I do sincerely believe that were the Jews as a body, both in England and on the Continent of Europe, to so arrange as to present a joint application to the British Government in the sense I propose, they would have reason to rejoice hereafter that they had taken such a step.

I have nothing more to add, as my Document, which I enclose, will express to you all I can say upon the subject.

The only question that remains for your personal consideration is whether you possess the power of having the proposition laid before the leading Jews, abroad as well as in England for their deliberate judgment.

May I beg you to present my kind regards to Lady Montefiore, and believe me to be,

Dear Sir Moses,

Yours most sincerely,

CHAS. H. CHURCHILL.

* * * * *

Proposal of Colonel Churchill (Extract).

Human efforts preceded by prayer and undertaken in faith the whole history of your nation shows to be almost invariably blessed. If such then be your conviction it remains for you to consider whether you may not in all humility, but with earnest sincerity and confiding hope direct your most strenuous attention towards the land of your Fathers with the view of doing all in your power to ameliorate the conditions of your brethren now residing there and with heartfelt aspiration of being approved by Almighty God whilst you endeavour as much as in you lies to render that Land once more a refuge and resting-place to such of your brethren scattered throughout the world as may resort to it.

Hundreds and thousands of your countrymen would strain every effort to accomplish the means of living amidst those scenes rendered sacred by ancient recollections, and which they regard with filial affection, but the dread of the insecurity of life and property which has rested so long upon the soil of "Judea" has hitherto been a bar to the accomplishment of their natural desire.

My proposition is that the Jews of England conjointly with their brethren on the Continent of Europe should make an application to the British Government through the Earl of Aberdeen to accredit and send out a fit and proper person to reside in Syria for the sole and express purpose of superintending and watching over the interests of the Jews residing in that country. The duties and powers of such a public officer to be a matter of arrangement between the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and the Committee of Jews conducting the negotiations. It is, I hope, superfluous for me to enlarge upon the incalculable benefit which would accrue to your nation at large were such an important measure to be accomplished, or to allude more than briefly to the spirit of confidence and revival which would be excited in the breasts of your fellow-countrymen all over the world were they to be held and acknowledged agents for the Jewish people resident in Syria and Palestine under the auspices and sanction of Great Britain....

..."God has put into my heart the desire to serve His ancient people. ...I have discharged a duty imposed on me by my conscience."...

* * * * *

Resolution of the Board of Deputies of British Jews.

November 8th, 1842.

That the President be requested to reply to Colonel Churchill to the effect that this Board, being appointed for the fulfilment of special duties and deriving its pecuniary resources from the contributions to the several congregations it represents, is precluded from originating any measures for carrying out the benevolent views of Colonel Churchill respecting the Jews of Syria, that this Board is fully convinced that much good would arise from the realisation of Colonel Churchill's intentions, but is of opinion that any measures in reference to this subject should emanate from the general body of the Jews throughout Europe, and that this Board doubts not that if the Jews of other countries entertain the proposition those of Great Britain would be ready and desirous to contribute towards it their most zealous support.

* * * * *

Colonel Churchill to the Secretary of the Board of Deputies.

BEYROUT, Jany. 8th, 1843.

SIR,—I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of the official Communication which the Board of Deputies of British Jews has been pleased to address to me.

It affords me the greatest gratification to learn that the British Jews would zealously co-operate with the general body of their countrymen in endeavouring to procure the permanent amelioration of the condition of Jews in Syria and Palestine.

I humbly venture to express a hope that the Board of Deputies will still continue to entertain this subject, and that it will not think it inexpedient to endeavour to ascertain the feelings and wishes of the Jews in the rest of Europe on a question so interesting and important, one in which is necessarily involved that of the prospective regeneration of their long-suffering and afflicted country.

I beg leave to offer my best thanks and warmest acknowledgements to the Board of Deputies for the kind manner in which it has been pleased to receive my previous communication, and to assure it that my services are ever at its command.

I have the honour to be, &c.,

CHAS. CHURCHILL.

(Minute-Books of Board of Deputies, 1841-43.)

* * * * *

THE ENTENTE POWERS AND PALESTINE, 1917.

Extract from Agreement between Great Britain, France and Russia, dated February 21, 1917.

"5.... With a view to securing the religious interests of the Entente Powers, Palestine, with the Holy Places, is separated from Turkish territory and subjected to a special regime to be determined by agreement between Russia, France and England."

(Manchester Guardian, January 19, 1918.)

* * * * *

GREAT BRITAIN AND ZIONISM, 1917.

Mr. Balfour to Lord Rothschild.

FOREIGN OFFICE,

November 2nd, 1917.

DEAR LORD ROTHSCHILD,—I have much pleasure in conveying to you, on behalf of His Majesty's Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet:—

"His Majesty's Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country."

I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the Zionist Federation.

Yours sincerely,

ARTHUR JAMES BALFOUR.

(Times, November 9, 1917.)

* * * * *



APPENDIX.

INTERNATIONAL ANTI-SEMITISM IN 1498.

The earliest appearance of the Jewish Question in international European politics—or rather the earliest reference to it in the British State Papers—happened in 1498, shortly after the great expulsion of the Jews from Spain. In that year Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain sent a mission to England on business connected with Prince Arthur's marriage. The mission was apparently instructed to deal with the Jewish Question. The envoys expressed to the King their sorrow that, while Spain had been purged of infidelity, Flanders and England were infested by that scourge. Thereupon, according to a dispatch from the chief of the mission, Henry VII, laying both hands on his breast, swore that he would persecute without mercy any Jew or heretic that the King or Queen of Spain might point out in his dominions.

DOCUMENT.

* * * * *

De Carta del soprior de Santa Cruza Sus Alts. (Sub-Prior of Santa Cruz to Ferdinand and Isabella, July 18, 1498). Extract.

* * * * *

Acabada nuestra embasada hable al Rey de Inglaterra solo....

Al otro cabo que le dixe que en su Reyno y en Flandes estaban muchos conversos de los Reynos de V.A. y algunos fuydos por miedo de la Inquisicion y quan firmes V.A. estaban en su amistad y hermandad y que los sobredichos siempre procuraban el contrario que le avisaban dello, holgo mucho de tal avis y dixo la mano puesta en los pechos que por la fe de su coracon que no decia el de marranos mas del mejor de su Reyno si contra lo que yo le decia algo le dixiese, no le oiria ni le ternia por suyo, y que si S.A. le mandaien airsar si en su tierra hay algun judio o herege que por la fe de su corazon et los castigaria bien. Fue esta habla larga y por ser nuevo oficial abrevie, huelga mucho el Rey de Inglaterra en fablar de la Princesa de Gales....

(Record Office: "Spanish Transcripts," Series I, vol. I, B. 205.)

* * * * *



INDEX.

Abdul Medjid, Sultan of Turkey, 96

Aberdeen, Earl of, 18, 123

Adler, Cyrus, 67, 70, 71

Agreement, Anglo-Prussian (1841), 106

Alexander I, Tsar, 12, 15

Alexander II, Tsar, 78

Alexander III, Tsar, 55

Alexander, Bishop, 106

Alexander, D. L., 51, 52, 54

Algeciras, Conference of (1906), 54, 88; Protocols, 98-99

Allenby, General, 104

Alliance Israelite, 59, 60, 89

Almodovar del Rio, Duc de, 98

American-Jewish Committee, 89

American House of Representatives, Resolution, 79

American Senate, Resolution, 79-80

American-Swiss Treaty (1855), 74

"Anabaptisticum et Enthusiasticum Pantheon," 103

Anarchists, 57

Ancona, Jews of, 63

Andrassy, Count, 30, 93

Anglo-French Entente, 56

Anglo-Jewish Association, 45, 51, 69, 89

Anglo-Moorish Treaty (1856), 78, 83, 87

Anglo-Prussian Agreement (1841), 106

Anglo-Russian Treaty (1859), 80

Anglo-Swiss Treaty (1855), 73

Anglo-Turkish Treaty (1809), 84

Anti-Semitic Triple Alliance, 57-62

Appleton, John, 75

Austria, 64, 65

Austrian Instruction (1815), 71

Austrian Jews, 7

Balance of Power, The, 54

Balfour, Arthur James, 124, 125

Baltimore, Jews of, 74

Bartholomey, Mr., 77

Baruch, Jacob, 12

Baxter, Nadir, 101

Beaconsfield, Earl of, 30, 103

Beauvale, Lord, 106, 116, 117

Belgium and Holland, Union of, 2

Benchimol Family, 88, 89, 90, 91

Berlin, Congress of (1878), 23-36, 52

Berlin, Treaty of (1878), 24, 33

Bernhardt, "Handbook of Treaties, &c.," 74, 80, 83, 84, 87

Bernstorff, Count, 16

Bertie, Francis, 44, 45

Bethlehem, 105

Bismarck, Prince, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 32

Bjoerkoe interview, 56, 62

Blaine, James G. (U.S. Secretary of State), 54, 70, 78

"Blue Laws," 77

Boerne, Ludwig, 12

Bohemia, Jews of, 7-11

Brisac, J., 66, 67, 68, 72, 73

Broglie, Duc de, 66

Brothers, Richard, 101

Bucharest Commission, 20

Bucharest, Treaty of (1913), 50

Bulgaria, 26, 33

Buelow, Baron, 105, 114, 116

Bund, Jewish, 57, 59

Bunsen, Baron, 106

Buzaglo, David, 89, 91

Canovas Del Castillo, Senor, 93, 94

Capitulations, 3, 4, 83, 100

Capodistrias, Count, 16

Caratheodory Pacha, 26, 27, 31, 32

Carlowitz, Treaty of (1699), 64, 71, 100

Cassini, Count, 99

Castlereagh, Viscount, 12, 13, 16

Catharine of Braganza, Queen, 6

Catherine of Russia, Empress, 76, 78

"Ce que les Israelites de la Suisse doivent a la France," 66

Charlemagne, Emperor, 3

Charles II, King of England, 6

Charles X, King of France, 65

Chevalier, Michel, 67

China, religious liberty in, 3

Choate, Joseph H., 44

Christendom, Peace of, 2

Christian Missions, protection of, 3

Christina, Queen of Sweden, 6

Churchill, Colonel, C. H., 103, 119, 120, 122, 123, 124

Circular Note to Great Powers, American (1902), 44

Clarendon, Earl of, 19, 67

Clanricarde, Marquis of, 113

Cobden, Richard, 67

Cohn, Albert, 19

Conferences:— Algeciras (1906), 54, 88 Bucharest (1913), 45, 47, 48, 49 Constantinople (1856), 20, 21, 23 London (1830), 17, 52 London (1912), 13, 45, 47 Madrid (1880), 54, 88 Ryswick (1697), 103 St. Petersburg (1912-13), 45-47 See also Protocols and Treaties

Congresses:— Aix-la-Chapelle (1818), 15, 16 Berlin (1878), 23, 25-33, 36 Paris (1856), 18-23 Vienna (1815), 3, 12-15 See also Protocols and Treaties

Consistoire Israelite, 66

Consular Protection, 4, 82-85, 86-88

Convention, Cyprus (1878), 107

Convention of Paris (1858), 20, 21, 23

Cremieux, Adolphe, 18, 102

Cromwell, Oliver, 4, 6, 102

Crowe, Sir Eyre, 51, 83

Cyprus, 103

Cyprus Convention (1878), 107

Damascus, 120

Daudet, Ernest, 55

"Decade Philosophique et Litteraire," 104

De Card, "Les Traites entre la France et le Maroc," 88

Declaration on Palestine, British (1917), 124-5

De Launay, Count, 29, 32, 53

De Mello, Don Francisco Manuel, 6

Deschamps, Emile, 59

Despatch, American, to U.S. Minister at Athens (1902), 38

Desprez, M., 26, 32, 33

Dicey, Professor A. V., 5, 54

D'Israeli, "Genius of Judaism," 101

Dobrudja, 50

Dohm, C. W., 15

Eastern Roumelia, 26, 79

Edict of Sultan of Morocco, 89, 92

El Arish, 104

Esterhazy, Prince, 117

Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, 126

Finch, Sir Henry, 100, 101

Finn, James, 86, 102; "Records from Jerusalem Consular Chronicles," 85

Fogg, Mr., 75

Foreign Jews Protection Society, 64

Foster, J. W., 70

France, 65, 66

Franchi, Cardinal, 93

Franco-Moorish Reglement (1863), 88

Franco-Swiss Treaty (1827), 71

Franco-Swiss Treaty (1864), 73

Franks, Aaron, 7, 8, 9

Freemasons, 59, 60, 62

Fuller, "A Pisgah Sight of Palestine," 100

George II, King of England, 7-9

German Jews, 12, 13

Goldsmid, Sir Julian, 82

Gortchacow, Prince, 28, 29, 30, 33

Graetz, "Geschichte der Juden," 103

Granville, Earl, 69; despatch of, 81-82

Greece, Jews of, 17

Grey, Sir Edward, 45, 46, 48, 51, 52, 54, 69, 82

Grey, Viscount (see Sir Edward)

Guizot, 66, 105, 107

Halhed, Nathaniel Brassey, M.P., 101

Hammond, J., 86

Hardenberg, Prince, 12, 13, 16

Haroun al-Rashid, Khalif, 3

Harrington, Lord, 11

Hart, Moses, 7, 8, 9

Hatti-Humayoun (1856), 19-22

Hay, John (U.S. Secretary of State), 37, 38, 43, 44; despatch on Rumania, 38-43

Hay, Sir John Drummond, 85, 88

Haymerle, Baron, 30

Henry VII, King of England, 126

Hervaille, 59

Herzl, Theodor, 104

"Histoire Diplomatique de l'Alliance Franco-Russe," 55

Holland, 7

Holland, Jews of, 2, 3

Holland, "The European Concert in the Eastern Question," 18, 21, 22

Holy Alliance, 12

Holy Roman Empire, 100

Hoskier, M., 55

Izviestia, 56

Izvolsky, A., 56, 62

Jackson, J. B. (U.S. Minister at Bucharest), 47

Jaffa, 85

James I, King of England, 101

Jerusalem, 101, 104, 108, 109, 115, 117

Jewish Board of Deputies, 12, 45, 47, 51, 69, 86, 89, 103, 123, 124

Jewish Bund, 57

Jewish Conjoint Committee, 24, 45, 46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 69, 82, 83

"Jewish Disabilities in the Balkan States," 37

Jewish Nationalism, 16

"Jews and the War," 24, 45

Jews in Bohemia, 7-11

Jews in Foreign Countries, Status of, 63-83

Jews in Morocco, 83-85, 87-99

Jews in Rumania, 28-48

Jews in Russia, 54

Jews in Russia, American Despatch, 76-78, 81-83

Jews in Switzerland, 72-73

"Jews in the Diplomatic Correspondence of the U.S.," 70

Jews, National Restoration of, 100-125

Jews of Baltimore, 74

Joostens, Baron, 99

Kamarowsky, 105, 106

Klueber, "Akten des Wiener Kongresses," 14

Kohler, Max, 37

Koutzo-Vlachs, 50

Lamsdorf, Count, 55, 56, 62

Lansdowne, Marquis of, 37, 38

Lassalle, Ferdinand, 59

"Legal Sufferings of Jews in Russia," 54

Lemoine, "Napoleon et les Juifs," 104

Leopold of Saxe-Coburg, Prince, 17

Leven, Narcisse, 24, 85

Lewisohn, Leon, 69, 81

Lieven, Count, 18

Loeb, Isidor, 24

Loewe, "Diaries of Sir Moses Montefiore," 89, 92

London, Treaty of (1840), 106

Louis Philippe, King of France, 66; speech of (1835), 73

Ludolf, Count, 95

Madrid, Conference of (1880), 54, 88; Protocols, 90-98

Madrid, Treaty of (1880), 91

Maiorescu, Titu (Rumanian Prime Minister), 46, 47, 49, 50

Maria Theresa, Empress, 7-11

Marranos (or Crypto-Jews), 63, 64

Marx, Karl, 59

Mehemet Ali, 102

"Memorandum on the Grievances of British Subjects of the Jewish Faith," 69

"Memorandum on Treaty Rights of Jews of Rumania" (1908), 45

Memorandum (Palestine), Austrian (1840), 111-113; (1841), 117-119

Memorandum (Palestine), Prussian (1841), 114-116

Memorandum (Palestine) of Russian Government (1840), 107-110

Menasseh ben Israel, 6

Mendes da Costa, Fernando, 6

Metternich, Prince, 12, 13, 16, 113, 116, 117, 118

Milan, Prince, 30

Mohammed Vargas, Cid, 96, 97

Moldavia, Jews in, 19, 21

Moldavians and Wallachians, 23

Montefiore, Claude G., 51, 52, 54

Montefiore, Joseph Meyer, 86

Montefiore, Lady, 122

Montefiore, Sir Moses, 18, 89, 95, 102, 103, 119, 121

Montenegro, 30, 33

Montmoren y Laval, 18

Moravia, Jews of, 7

Morocco, Jews of, 70

Morocco, Religious Liberty in, 89-99

Mount Athos, 31

Muley-el-Hassan, Sultan of Morocco, 97, 98

Nahon, Moses, 89, 91

Napier, Lord, 81

Napoleon I, Emperor, 102, 104

Napoleon III, Emperor, 19

Nasi, Donna Gracia, 6, 63

Nasi, Don Joseph (see Naxos, Duke of)

"National Treatment," 65, 68

Nationality, Jewish, 64

Naxos, Duke of, 63

Nazareth, 105

Neapolitan prison horrors, 5

Nelidow, Actual Privy Councillor, 58

Nesselrode, Count, 16, 113

Nicholas II, Tsar, 56, 62

Nicolson, Sir Arthur, 98

"Nikky-Willy" correspondence, 55

Nina, Cardinal, 94

Oliphant, Lawrence, 103

Omar, Mosque of, 116

Ottoman Empire, Jews in, 3, 4

Palestine Declaration, British (1917), 124-125

Palestine, Jews in, 70

Palestine Question, 100-125

Palestine, Russian Jews in, 84, 85

Palestine, Secret Agreement (1917), 107, 124

Palestine Memorandum, Austrian (1840), 111-113; (1841), 117-119

Palestine Memorandum, Prussian (1841), 114-116

Palestine Memorandum, Russian (1840), 107-110

Palmerston, Viscount, 102, 105, 106, 113, 114, 116, 117

Paris, Convention of (1858), 23

Passarowitz, Treaty of (1718), 71, 100

Passport Question in Russia, 68

Paul IV, Pope, 63, 64

Paulli, Holger, 103

Peace of Christendom, 2

Peace of Westphalia, 2, 3, 6

Petition concerning Jews of Bohemia, 7-11

Piggott, Sir Francis, "Exterritoriality," 84

Pogroms, 62

Poland, Jews of, 6

Poland, Protestants of, 4

Ponsonby, Lord, 106

Pope, the, 93, 95

Portugal, Jews of, 6

Prince of Wales (Arthur), 126

Protocols:— Anti-Anarchist (1904), 56 Algeciras Conference (1906), 98-99 Conference of Bucharest (1913), 47 Conference of Constantinople (1856), 20, 23 Conference of London (1830), 17, 18 Conference, Madrid (1880), 90-98 Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle (1818), 16 Congress of Berlin (1878), 25-33 Great Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria, 2, 3 See also Conferences, Congresses and Treaties

Prussia, Jews of, 6

Prussia, King of, 114

Radowitz, Herr von, 99

Reglement, Franco-Moorish (1863), 88

Religious Liberty, 1, 2, 3, 17, 20, 21

"Restoration of the Hebrews, The," 101

Revoil, M., 99

Richelieu, 16

Ristitch, 30

Robinson, Sir Thomas, 7, 9, 11

Roosevelt, Theodore, 37, 99

Rothschild, Sir Anthony de, 19

Rothschild, Baron James de, 19, 20

Rothschild, Baron Lionel de, 19

Rothschild, Leopold de, 13

Rothschild, Lord, 36, 37, 55, 56, 58

Rothschild, Lord (second), 124

Rothschild, Nathan, 13

Rumania, 24, 29, 32, 33, 37, 38, 48

Rumania and the Powers (1902), 36-45

Rumania, American Circular Note on, 44

Rumania, Identic Note to (1880), 35-36

Rumania, Jews of, 28

Rumanian Constitution, Art. VII, 34-35

Russell, Earl, 81, 86 (see Russell, Lord John)

Russell, Lord John, 68, 69, 70

Russia, Jews in, 54, 76-78, 81-83

"Russian Government and the Massacres," 54

Russian Jews in Palestine, 84, 85

Russian Jews, persecution of, 5

Russian Revolution, 54

Russian Secret Documents, 62

Russo-American Treaty (1832), 75

Russo-American Treaty (1832), denunciation of, 79-80

Ryswick, Conference of (1697), 103

Sabbathai Zevi, 103

Sager, M., 99

Salisbury, Marquis of, 26, 27, 31, 32, 34, 69, 82, 106

Samuel, Henry, Case of, 64

Sanderson, Sir T. H., 69, 82

Santa Cruz, Sub-Prior of, 126

Saxony, 66

Schiff, Jacob, 36, 37

Schouvaloff, Count, 26, 27, 28, 30

Secret Agreement (Palestine) (1917), 107, 124

Secret Note to Swiss Diet, French (1826), 72

Semenoff, M., 54, 62

Servia, 24, 27, 28, 29, 32

Servia, Jews of, 28

Seward, William H. (U.S. Secretary of State), 75

Sidi Mohammed, Sultan of Morocco, 95

Socialists, 59, 60, 61

Solyman the Magnificent, 63, 64

Spain, Jews of, 6

Stratford de Redcliffe, Lord, 19

Straus, Oscar, 37, 103

Stroock, 67

Sub-Prior of Santa Cruz, 126

Suliotis, M., 36

Sweden, 4, 57

Switzerland, 65, 66, 67, 68

"Switzerland and American Jews," 67

Switzerland, Jews in, 72-73

Tatistcheff, M., 105

Testa, Jonkheer, 99

Thirty Years War, 2

Thornton, Sir E., 81

Toledano, Isaac, 89, 91

Treaties:— American-Swiss (1855), 66, 67, 73 Anglo-Moorish (1727-8), 87 Anglo-Moorish (1856), 83, 87 Anglo-Russian (1859), 68, 80 Anglo-Swiss (1855), 67, 73 Anglo-Turkish (1809), 87 Berlin (1878), 24, 37 Bucharest (1913), 50 Carlowitz (1699), 64, 71, 100 Franco-Swiss (1827), 65, 71 Franco-Swiss (1864), 68, 73 London (1840), 106 London (1864), 49 Madrid (1880), 91 Muenster (1648), 2 Osnabruck (1648), 2 Paris (1856), 20-22 Passarowitz (1718), 71, 100 Russo-American (1832), 68, 70, 75 San Stefano (1878), 27, 31 Tientsin (1858), 3 Vienna (1815), 13-15 See also Conferences, Congresses, Conventions, Protocols and Reglement

Turkey, 31, 33, 37, 40, 63, 64, 65

Turkey, Jews in, 19

Ubicini, "Question des Principautes," 23

United States, 46, 66, 67

United States, Religious Liberty in, 38-43

Universal Suffrage, 61

Vatican, 60, 61

Vaudois, persecution of the, 4

Venizelos, M., 47

Visconti Venosta, Viscount, 99

Waddington, M., 25, 26, 28, 29, 93

Wallachia, Jews in, 19, 21

Wallachians and Moldavians, 23

Warsaw, British Jews in, 68

Way, Rev. Lewis, 15, 16

Wellington, Duke of, 13, 16

Westphalia, Peace of, 2

White, Henry, 98, 99

White, Sir W. A., 34, 36

William II, Emperor of Germany, 56

William III, King of England, 103

Wilson, Charles S., 38

Witte, Count, 56

Wolf, Lucien, 54, 58; "Sir Moses Montefiore," 89

Wolf, Simon, 37

"World's Great Restoration, The," 100

Wyshnigradski, M., 55

Zion, Mount, 116

Zionism, 103, 104, 107, 124

Printed by SPOTTISWOODE, BALLANTYNE & CO. LTD. Colchester, London & Eton, England

FOOTNOTES:

[1] Infra, pp. 57-62 and Appendix.

[2] Wolf: Menasseh b. Israel's Mission to Oliver Cromwell, pp. xviii et seq.

[3] The Protocol was accepted by the Dutch King on July 21, 1814. Its text will be found in British and Foreign State Papers, ii. 141-142.

[4] Guasco: "L'Eglise Catholique et la Liberte Religieuse dans l'Empire Chinois" (Revue Generale de Droit International Public, x. 53 et seq.)

[5] Verney and Dambmann: Puissances Etrangeres dans le Levant, pp. 69-80.

[6] Infra, pp. 83 et seq.

[7] The historical and juridical aspects of the question have been fully discussed by Professor Rougier in the Revue Generale de Droit International Public, xvii. 468 et seq.

[8] Martin: Life of the Prince Consort, iii. 510-511.

[9] For a vigorous exposition of the duty of civilised States in such cases, see Prof. A. Dicey's introduction to Legal Sufferings of the Jews in Russia, p. x.

[10] See Straus: The American Spirit (New York). For documentary examples relating to the Jews, see Cyrus Adler: Jews in the Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States.

[11] Infra, pp. 63-64.

[12] Kayserling: "Menasseh b. Israel" (Misc. Heb. Lit. ii. 29); Harleian Miscellany, vii. 618.

[13] Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 29,868, f. 1.

[14] Sir Thomas Robinson, "l'infatigable Robinson" of Carlyle's Frederick, afterwards Lord Grantham.

[15] Graetz: Geschichte der Juden, x. 393-394.

[16] Emanuel: A Century and a Half of Anglo-Jewish History, p. 9.

[17] Graetz: Geschichte, xi. 324-328. See also Kohler: Jewish Rights at International Congresses, pp. 6-20.

[18] Diary of Sir Moses Montefiore, 1817, p. 192. (Ramsgate Theological College MSS.) Kohler: op. cit. pp. 25-26.

[19] Communication from the late Mr. Leopold de Rothschild. See also Gentleman's Magazine, Oct. 1819, p. 362.

[20] Infra, p. 16. The Protocol does not appear in the Protocols of the Congress published in the British and Foreign State Papers, and is usually excluded from the official records of the Congress. Its text is, however, given in Way's Memoires (Paris, 1819) as an unpaginated Appendix.

[21] Proces-Verbal des Seances de l'Assemblee Juive (Paris, 1806), pp. 47-49; Actes du Grand Sanhedrin, pp. 65-73, 83, 90-91.

[22] Emanuel: op. cit., p. 66. The facts are given more fully by Loeb: Biographie d'Albert Cohn (Paris, 1878), pp. 48-49.

[23] Loeb: op. cit., p. 49 (supplemented by private sources), Holland: The European Concert in the Eastern Question, p. 330.

[24] Holland: op. cit., pp. 233-234, 251.

[25] British and Foreign State Papers, xlviii. 78.

[26] Loeb: Situation des Israelites en Turquie, en Serbie, et en Roumanie (1877), p. 200.

[27] The Jews and the War, No. 1 (1917), pp. 15-16. (Privately printed by Jewish Conjoint Committee.)

[28] British and Foreign State Papers, xlviii. 97.

[29] Ibid. p. 113.

[30] Ibid. p. 120.

[31] Jews and the War, No. 1 (1917), pp. 15-16.

[32] The Hatti-Humayoun (see next document).

[33] This alinea did not appear in the scheme drawn up by the Bucharest Commission, but was inserted by the Conference.

[34] Loeb: Situation, pp. 139-196. Narcisse Leven: Cinquante ans d'histoire, pp. 93-146.

[35] British and Foreign State Papers, lxii. p. 705.

[36] Infra, pp. 25-33.

[37] Jews and the War, p. 29.

[38] Infra, p. 33.

[39] Infra, p. 32. Extract from Protocol No. 17.

[40] "Le Traite de Berlin," writes M. Suliotis in the Journal du droit international prive (xiv. 563), "a cru faire merveille en faveur des etrangers, mais la Roumanie a su habilement eluder les inconvenients qui pouvaient resulter de l'application de l'article VII. dans le sens du Traite de Berlin, qui n'a eu d'autres resultats que de rendre plus difficile la situation des etrangers."

[41] Dated June 13, 1901. It is not printed. Its argument is largely reproduced in the Memorandum of the Conjoint Committee of November 1908, for full text of which see Jews and the War, pp. 14 et seq.

[42] Private information and documents.

[43] For a detailed and documented account of the American intervention, but without the full texts of the Notes of Secretary Hay (infra, pp. 38-45), see Kohler and Wolf: Jewish Disabilities in the Balkan States (the American Jewish Committee, 1916), pp. 80-83, 108-137.

[44] Semi-official communique to the newspapers through Reuter's Agency, September 23, 1902. The fact was also privately communicated by Lord Lansdowne to Lord Rothschild at the time.

[45] This is a reference to Russia. Infra, pp. 69-70.

[46] "Memorandum on the Treaty Rights of the Jews of Rumania" (November 1908). Printed for confidential use, 16 pp. fcp. Reprinted in Jews and the War, pp. 14-30. Also in the Annual Reports of the Board of Deputies and Anglo-Jewish Association (1909), and in Kohler and Wolf, op. cit.

[47] Infra, p. 47.

[48] Infra, p. 51. For a fuller text of the correspondence, see Annual Report of the Board of Deputies (1913), pp. 54-74.

[49] The United States was a conspicuous exception. See especially Mr. Blaine's despatch of February 18, 1891. (Foreign Relations of U.S. 1891, p. 737.)

[50] Wolf and Dicey: Legal Sufferings of the Jews in Russia (London, 1912). Semenoff and Wolf: The Russian Government and the Massacres (London, 1907).

[51] The story is told by M. Ernest Daudet in his Histoire Diplomatique de l'Alliance Franco-Russe, pp. 261-262, but the present writer is able to confirm it from other sources.

[52] The famous "Nikky-Willy" correspondence (see Times, September 4, 1917; Daily Telegraph, September 4, 27 and 29, 1917; and Morning Post, September 15, 1917.)

[53] Infra, pp. 57-62.

[54] The statement in the Memorandum that Messrs. Rothschild had been excluded by the Russian Government from these loan operations is inaccurate. The exclusion had come from the other side, and at the very time that the Memorandum was being prepared Count Witte had sent representatives of the Finance Ministry to London to endeavour to overcome Lord Rothschild's reluctance.

[55] This Protocol is published in vol. vi. of the Secret Documents published by the Russian Revolutionary Government in February 1918.

[56] Secret letter from the Kaiser to the Tsar published in the Soviet organ Inviestia, December 19, 1917.

[57] Actual Privy Councillor Nelidow's despatch of December 1-14, 1905.

[58] Communicated by Emil Deschamps in the Journal de St. Petersbourg, of December 23, 1905.

[59] Despatch from the Imperial Ambassador at the Hague of October 24, 1905, No. 22.

[60] Despatch from the Imperial Ambassador at Rome of November 29, 1905, No. 23.

[61] According to the rules of French Freemasonry, promotion to the eighteenth degree makes the recipient automatically a member of the "Alliance Israelite Universelle," while out of the nine members of the Secret Supreme Council of Freemasonry five must be Jews.

[62] Levy: Don Joseph Nasi, Herzog von Naxos und seine Familie (Breslau, 1859). See also Graetz: Geschichte, vol. ix. passim.

[63] The text of the Sultan's letter is preserved in the rare Lettere di Principi (Venice, 1581), iii. 171.

[64] Graetz: Geschichte, ix. 361, and 571-572.

[65] Transactions, Jewish Historical Society, iv. 478 et seq. The plea has been revived during the present war, but with less success. It was largely used by Russian Jews in order to escape conscription under the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1916. (See Petition of Foreign Jews Protection Society, Herald, July 22 and 29, 1916.) See also the case of the prosecution of Henry Samuel, Times, September 19, 1918.

[66] Infra, p. 71.

[67] Brisac: Ce que les Israelites de la Suisse doivent a la France (Lausanne, 1916), pp. 9-13. Infra, pp. 71-72.

[68] Brisac: op. cit., pp. 14-15, 16-17.

[69] Jewish disabilities still existed in England, Germany, Austria, Russia, the Italian States, Spain and Portugal.

[70] May 28, 1841. A full report of the debate will be found in the Moniteur, May 29, 1841.

[71] Stroock: "Switzerland and American Jews," in Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society, xi. 7-8, 15.

[72] Brisac: op. cit., p. 27-33.

[73] Infra, pp. 73-74.

[74] Stroock: op. cit., p. 15.

[75] Brisac: op. cit., p. 37.

[76] Stroock: op. cit., pp. 24-32.

[77] Lord Clarendon on December 17, 1857, instructed the British Minister at Berne to make representations to the Swiss Government (Stroock: p. 36). The bulk of the official correspondence of the United States on the subject is printed by Cyrus Adler in Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society, xv. 25-39.

[78] Infra, p. 73.

[79] This was not in the Commercial Treaty but in a separate Treaty of Establishment signed the same day.

[80] Sanctioned by the Referendum of January 14, 1866 (Brisac, p. 54).

[81] Parl. Paper, Russia, No. 4 (1881), p. 21. Infra, pp. 81-82.

[82] Parl. Paper, Russia, No. 3 (1881), pp. 17-18.

[83] Parl. Paper, Russia, No. 4 (1881), pp. 21-22. Infra, p. 82.

[84] Letter from Sir T. H. Sanderson on behalf of the Marquis of Salisbury, January 29, 1891.

[85] "Memorandum on the grievances of British subjects of the Jewish faith in regard to the interpretation of Articles I and XI of the Anglo-Russian Treaty of Commerce and Navigation of January 12, 1859" (August 2, 1912). Printed for confidential use, 9 pp. fcp. The text together with further correspondence has been reprinted in the Annual Reports of the Board of Deputies and the Anglo-Jewish Association for 1912.

[86] Infra, pp. 82-83.

[87] Cyrus Adler: Jews in the Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States, pp. 73-74. See also dispatch from Mr. Foster, October 18, 1880, in Foreign Relations of the United States, 1881, p. 991.

[88] See dispatches quoted by C. Adler, op. cit., pp. 75-96 from Foreign Relations 1880 and 1881.

[89] Infra, pp. 76-78.

[90] Infra, pp. 79-80.

[91] Cyrus Adler: op. cit., pp. 7-19. See also infra, p. 103 (note).

[92] Infra, p. 83.

[93] Confirmed by Art. XIII of the Treaty of Passarowitz, July 21, 1718.

[94] Supra, pp. 3-4.

[95] Piggott: Exterritoriality (Lond. 1907), pp. 67-68.

[96] Bernhardt: op. cit., pp. 947, 957.

[97] Infra, p. 86. Further details will be found in Mr. Finn's Records from Jerusalem Consular Chronicles (Lond. 1878), i. 112-114.

[98] Infra, p. 87.

[99] Infra, p. 87.

[100] Memoir of Sir John Drummond Hay (Lond. 1896), pp. 322-323. See also stipulations of French Treaty (infra, p. 88).

[101] For details of these cases see Leven: Cinquante Ans d'Histoire, pp. 158 et seq. Annual Reports of the Anglo-Jewish Association.

[102] Memoir of Sir J. D. Hay, pp. 321-323.

[103] Ibid., p. 323.

[104] Infra, pp. 90-91.

[105] Infra, p. 93.

[106] Infra, p. 92. See also Wolf: Sir Moses Montefiore (Lond. 1884), pp. 213-232, and Loewe: Diaries of Sir M. Montefiore, ii. 148-153.

[107] Infra, p. 97.

[108] Infra, p. 98.

[109] Cf. supra, p. 89.

[110] Fuller: A Pisgah Sight of Palestine (Lond. 1650), bk. iv. p. 194.

[111] D'Israeli: Genius of Judaism, pp. 200-201.

[112] The Restoration of the Hebrews to Jerusalem by the Year of 1798 under the Revealed Prince and Prophet (Lond. 1794). A letter from Mr. Brothers to Miss Cott with an Address to the Members of His Britannic Majesty's Council (Lond. 1798). The Curious Trial of Mr. Brothers... on a Statute of Lunacy (Lond. 1795).

[113] Mr. Halhed's Speech in the House of Commons... on Monday, May the 4th, 1795 (Lond. 1795).

[114] Law Reports: 4 De Gex & Smale, 467.

[115] For details see infra, pp. 104-106.

[116] Finn: op. cit., i. 106. The passage is worth quoting: "In 1839, Lord Palmerston's direction to his first Consul in Jerusalem was 'to afford protection to the Jews generally.' The words were simply those, broad and general, as under the circumstances they ought to be, leaving after events to work out their own modifications. The instruction, however, seemed to bear on its face a recognition that the Jews are a nation by themselves and that contingencies might possibly arise in which their relations to Mohammedans should become difficult, though it was impossible to foresee the shape that future transactions might assume upon the impending expulsion of the Egyptians from Syria."

[117] See text of Firman in Loewe: Diaries of Sir M. Montefiore, i. 278-279.

[118] Infra, pp. 119-124.

[119] Memoir of Laurence Oliphant, ii. 179. As late as January 1888 Mr. Oscar Straus, the United States Minister in Constantinople and himself a Jew, assured the Grand Vizier, with regard to the establishment of a Jewish State in Palestine, "that no such purpose actuated the Jews throughout the world" (Foreign Relations of U.S., 1888, p. 1559).

[120] Anabaptisticum et Enthusiasticum Pantheon (1702), Novus in Belgio Judaeorum Rex, p. 25.

[121] Graetz: Geschichte, x. 207.

[122] "Re-establishment of the Jewish Government, with a letter from a Jew to his Brethren; copied from the Courier, June 10, 1798."

[123] Lemoine: Napoleon et les Juifs (Paris, 1900), p. 72.

[124] Infra, p. 107. There is no trace of this scheme in the Foreign Office papers except in the reference here quoted from the Russian Memorandum, but Tatistcheff, who saw the Russian set of these papers in the Petrograd Foreign Office, describes a scheme submitted by Guizot to Palmerston and Metternich which seems to be the one referred to here. (Kamarowsky: "La Question d'Orient," in Revue Generale de Droit International Public, iii. 423.)

[125] Infra, pp. 107-109.

[126] Infra, pp. 111-113.

[127] Infra, p. 113.

[128] Infra, pp. 114-116.

[129] Covering despatch from Baron Buelow, infra, p. 116.

[130] Despatch from Lord Beauvale and draft of reply by Palmerston, infra, pp. 116-117.

[131] Kamarowsky, op. cit., p. 423.

[132] Memoirs of Bunsen (London, 1868), i. 593 et seq.

[133] Memorandum of July 15, 1841, presented to Palmerston by Bunsen (F.O. 64/235 Prussia).

[134] Letter from Bunsen to his Wife (Memoirs, i. 608-609).

[135] Bishop Alexander was before his conversion Minister of the Jewish Synagogue at Plymouth.

[136] Holland: European Concert in Eastern Question, p. 93.

[137] British and Foreign State Papers, lxix. 1342-1353; lxxiii. 438.

[138] Infra, p. 124.

[139] Infra, pp. 124-125.

[140] This was probably the scheme suggested by Guizot (supra, p. 105).

[141] This Memorandum is identical with the Austrian Memorandum of October 1840, which at the time was only communicated to the Prussian Government (supra, pp. 111-113).

* * * * *

Notes of the transcriber of this etext:

"Religous" changed to "Religious" "repondu" changed to "repondu" both "Toldano" and "Toledano" appear "Etats-Unis" changed to "Etats-Unis" "Janaury" changed to "January" "Canovas" and "Canovas" appear "morocain" changed to "marocain" "qu iont" changed to "qui ont" "Gortschacow" changed to "Gortchacow" "Kluber" changed to "Klueber" "Munster" changed to "Muenster" "parait" changed to "parait" "Plenipotentiaire" changed to "Plenipotentiaire" "reconnait" changed to "reconnait" "Bartholomei" changed to "Bartholomey" "Litteraire" changed to "Litteraire" "Maioresco" appears in the index as "Maiorescu" "Semenoff" appears in the index, Semenoff in the notes.

THE END

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