Notes and Queries, Number 78, April 26, 1851
Author: Various
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T. C. W.

University Hoods.—The Scotch universities of Aberdeen, St. Andrew's, and Glasgow had, before the Reformation, or before the Revolution rather, hoods for the several degrees of M.A., D.D., LL.D., and D.C.L. What these were, is a question which it is now very difficult to determine; but this much is known, that the hoods of Aberdeen were identical with those of Paris, those of St. Andrew's with those of Louvain, and those of Glasgow with those of Bologna. The Revolution, however, has done much to obliterate the traces of even the Parisian hoods, and the M.A. hood of Paris is all that has hitherto rewarded the researches of the university antiquary. Can any of your readers assist in the somewhat interesting investigation by endeavouring to discover, or informing us if they already know, what were the hoods of the universities of Paris, Louvain, and Bologna, for the several degrees I have enumerated.

G. A. J.

"Nullis Fraus tuta latebris."—Can any of your correspondents favour me with a reference to the above motto?

S. S.

Voltaire, where situated?—The "terre," hamlet, or other property of Voltaire, from which the French poet took the addition to his paternal name of Arouet,—where situated? That there is, or at least was, in Voltaire's time, such an estate, Condorcet's statement (vide Voltaire) makes apparent. But the locality is not pointed out. Can any of your correspondents help me to it?


Table of Prohibited Degrees, 1563.—By the 99th canon of the Church of England the "table of prohibited degrees" set forth by authority in 1563 is ordered to "be in every church publicly set up and fixed at the charge of the parish." Is this usually done now? and if not, why is it omitted to be done?

What is the authority for the insertion of the Canons, or the Articles, or the table of the {330} prohibited degrees found in the Book of Common Prayer?

J. O. M.

Launcelot Lyttleton.—I shall be greatly obliged to any genealogist who can tell me who was that Launcelot Lyttleton, a Lichfield gentleman, whose eldest laughter, Mary, married the Hon. Francis Roper, and became the mother of the fourteenth Lord Teynham. Was this Launcelot a descendant of Sir Edward Lyttleton, temp. Eliz., who married a daughter of Sir William Devereux?

I could answer my own question by an inspection of the "Roper Roll;" but unfortunately that is in Ireland, and I may not soon discover the address of its possessor.

H. G. R. C.


The Antediluvians.—Can you or any of your learned correspondents inform me of any work likely to assist me in my researches into the antediluvian history of our race? The curious treatise of Reimmanus, and the erudite essay of J. Joachimus Maderus, I have now before me; but it occurs to me that, besides these and the more patent sources of information, such as Bruckerus and Josephus, there must be other, and perhaps more modern, works which may be more practically useful. Perhaps the author of the elegant essay on the subject in Eruvin may be able to refer to such a a work.

G. A. J.

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Minor Queries Answered.

Wither's Haleluiah.—Mr. R. A. Willmott, in his Lives of Sacred Poets, has done himself credit by doing justice to George Wither, and vindicating his claims as poet, whom it has long been the fashion to underrate, but who Southey said "had the heart and soul of a poet in him."—(Life, iii. 126.)

In the Life, Mr. Willmott says:

"In 1641 appeared the Haleluiah, or Britain's Second Remembrancer ... which book, now as scarce as the first Remembrancer is common, I have not seen."

It is therefore very probable that the work is seldom to be met with. I have a copy, but it is unfortunately imperfect; wanting a few leaves (only a few I imagine) at the end. There is no index, nor table of contents, by which I might ascertain the extent of the deficiency. The last page is 478, and contains a portion of Hymn 60, part iii. If any reader of "NOTES AND QUERIES" would kindly inform me what is the number of pages of the work, and where a copy may be seen, he will oblige

S. S. S.

[The work consists of 487 pages, with an index of twelve more. A copy of it in in the Library of the British Museum.]

Voltaire's Henriade.—Is it known who is the author of the English translation of this poem into blank verse, published in 1732. The preface and the notes create a desire to know the author. In one of the notes (17) he speaks of something as being "proved at large in my History of Christianity now ready for the press." I am not aware that any such work exists. Was it ever published? If not what became of the manuscript?

S. T. D.

[Voltaire's Henriade was translated by John Lockman, a gentleman of great literary industry, who died Feb. 2, 1771. See Nichols's Bowyer, and Chalmers's Biographical Dictionary. A list of his published works will be found in Watt's Bibliotheca Britan.]

Christ-Crosse A.—In Tatham's Fancie's Theater, 12mo., 1640, is a poem in praise of sack, wherein the following lines occur:

"The very children, ere they scarce can say Their Pater Noster, or their Christ-crosse A, Will to their Parents prattle, and desire To taste that Drinke which Gods doe so admire."

Can any of your readers inform me the meaning of "Christ-Crosse A" here mentioned? Does it allude to some alphabet then in use?


[The alphabet was so designated, because in the old primers a cross was prefixed to it. Nares tells us that in French it was called Croix de par Dieu; and upon reference to Cotgrave for an expression of that term we find, "The Christ's-cross-row; or the hornbook wherein a child learns it."]

Apple-pie Order.Spick and Span new.—My wife very much grudges my spending threepence a week for the "NOTES AND QUERIES", and threatens me with stopping the allowance unless I obtain from some of your correspondents answers to the two following Queries:—

1. What is the origin of the phrase "Apple-pie order?"

2. Ditto—of "Spick and span new?"


[We leave to some of our friends the task of answering the first of the Queries which our correspondent has put to us by desire of his "better-half."

There is much curious illustration of the phrase Spick and Span in Todd's Johnson, s. v. Spick: and Nares in his Glossary says, "Span-newe is found in Chaucer:

'This tale was aie span-newe to begin.'—Troil. and Cres., iii. 1671.

It is therefore of good antiquity in the language, and not having been taken from the French may best be referred to the Saxon, in which spannan means to stretch. Hence span-new is fresh from the stretchers, or frames, alluding to cloth, a very old manufacture of the country; and spick and span is fresh from the spike, or tenter, and frames. This is Johnson's derivation, and I cannot but think it preferable to any other."

A very early instance of the expression, not quoted by Todd, may be found in the Romance of Alexander: {331}

"Richelich he doth him schrede In spon-neowe knightis weode."—L. 4054-5.

And Weber, in his Glossary (or rather, Mr. Douce, for the "D" appended to the note shows it to have proceeded from that accomplished antiquary), explains it, "Spon-neowe, span-new, newly spun. This is probably the true explanation of spick and span new. Ihre renders sping-spang, plane novus, in voce fick fack." The learned Jamieson, in his Dictionary, s. v. Split-new (which corresponds to the German Splitter neu, i. e. as new as a splinter or chip from the block), shows, at greater length than we can quote, that split and span equally denote a splinter or chip; and in his Supplement, s. v. Spang-new, after pointing out the connexion between spinga (assula) and spaungha (lamina), shows that, if this be the original, the allusion must be to metal newly wrought, that has, as it were, the gloss from the fire on it: in short, that the epithet is the same as one equally familiar to us, i. e. fire-new, Germ. vier-neu. We will bring this note to a close by a reference to Sewell's Dutch Dictionary, where Spikspelder nieuw is rendered "Spick and span new."]

Theory of the Earth's Form.—Have any objections to the received theory of the earth's spherical form, or any revival of the old "plane" doctrine, been recently noticed and controverted by scientific men of known standing?


[The old theory has been advanced, and even lectured on, within these two years; but no notice has been taken of it by scientific men.]

Carolus Lawson.—Who was "Carolus Lawson," of whom I have a good print, engraved by Heath. He is called "Scholae Mancuniensis Archididascalus," 1797. "Pietas alumnorum" is inscribed underneath, and on the back is written, probably by some grateful pupil—

"Cari propinqui, cari liberi, cari parentes, sed omnes omnium caritates Archididascalus noster comprehendit."—Cicero (verbis quibusdam mutatis).


[Mr. Charles Lawson was educated at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, and was presented by the president, Dr. Randolph, in 1749, to the place of Second Master of Manchester Grammar School; upon the death of Mr. Purnell, in 1764, he succeeded him as Head Master. The colleges of St. John, in Cambridge, and of Brazenose, in Oxford, can bear witness to the success with which he laboured for more than half a century in his profession, having received from the Manchester school, whilst under his direction, a very considerable number of well-grounded classical scholars. He died at Manchester on April 19, 1807, aged seventy-nine. Some further particulars respecting him may be found in the Gentleman's Magazine, vol. lxxvii. part i. p. 583.]

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(Vol. iii., pp. 186. 248. 291.)

I am sorry that in referring to a peculiarity in ancient seals under this title, MR. LOWER should have pinned to his notice a theory which I feel persuaded is quite untenable. It is surely something new to those who have directed their attention to the numerous devices upon seals to find that the husbandman had so low an opinion of his own social status as to reject the use of any emblematical sign upon his seal, when Thomas the smith, Roger the carpenter, and William the farrier, bore the elements of their respective crafts as proudly as the knight did his chevron or fess. But the question is one of facts. The following examples of the use of the "hayband" are now before me:—

6 June, 7 Henry IV. Grant by John Dursley, citizen and armorer of London, to William Serjaunt Taverner, of Stanes, and another, of a messuage, &c. in Westminster. Seal of dark red was, about 1-1/2 inch in diameter; a hay-stalk twisted and pressed into the wax while hot, inclosing a space as large as a shilling, in which is a poor impression of a badly engraved seal; the whole very clumsy and rough.

26 November, 24 Henry VI. Grant by Maurice Brune, Knight, Robert Darcy, John Doreward, Henry Clovill, Esquire, John Grene, and Henry Stampe, to Richard Hill and others, of lands, &c., in Sprinfield, &c., in Essex. Each seal is round and thick, and has the impression of a small armorial bearing. The 1st, 2nd, and 5th seals have a small plaited coil of hay pressed into the wax, and inclosing the impression.

26 Henry VI. Receipt by Jane Grene for 10l. paid her by the Earl of Ormond. Seal of diminutive size, and the impression nearly defaced. Round the extreme edge is a "diminutive hayband."

2 January, 34 Henry VI. Grant by Thomas Tudenham, Knight, John Leventhorp, Esquire, and Thomas Radclyff, of the reversion of the manor of Newhall to John Neell and others. All the seals, which are large and thick and more than two inches in diameter, have the impression of a signet ring inclosed with a "hayband" of parchment pressed into them. One of these coils being loose shows itself to be a thin strip of the label itself brought through the wax.

10 February, 14 Edward IV. Lease by Sir Thomas Urswyk, Knight, Chief Baron of the Exchequer, and Thomas Lovell, to John Morton and others, of the manor of Newhall, Essex, and other lands, &c. The seal of Lovell has his armorial bearings and legend; that of the Lord Chief Baron is the impression of a signet ring, being a classical bust. The seal itself is a thick ball of wax about {332} two inches across, pressed into the face of which is a "hayband" or twisted coil of thin parchment inclosing the impression.

I am sure that I have seen many examples much earlier and later, but those given are merely in reference to the theory of your Lewes correspondent. Even they are surely inconsistent with the idea of the practice being peculiar to any locality or distinctive of any class. My recollection would lead me to assign the fourteenth to the sixteenth centuries as the period of its use. But still the question remains—Has it any, and what signification? I have always considered it to have been a contrivance to strengthen the substance of the seal itself. The earliest instances I have seen were "applique" seals, such as the royal privy seals, and with these it would seem to have originated. Their frail nature suggested the use of some substance to protect the thin layer of wax from damage by the crumpling of the parchment on which they were impressed. For some time its use was confined to this kind of seal; and fashion may perhaps have extended the practice to pendent seals, where, however, it was often efficacious in neutralising the bad quality of the wax so general in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The plaiting of the hay or straw sometimes assumed a fanciful shape. Although the impressions of seals of the time of Henry VII. are often very bad, there are generally traces of their existence; these may perhaps be discovered in MR. LOWER'S seals if he looks more to the enclosure than to the substance forming it.


Haybands in Seals.—M. A. LOWER thinks that MR. T. HUDSON TURNER has misapplied his description of the seals in his possession. The seals are not impressed upon haybands, neither do "some ends of the hay or straw protrude from the surface." The little fillet or wreath of hay, about equal in diameter to a shilling, is inlaid upon the pendent lump of wax, and forms the ornament or device of the seal, rather than an integral portion of it, like that in the specimens referred to by MR. TURNER.

M. A. LOWER begs, under favour, to add, that the very fact of a Query being inserted in the pages of this invaluable—one might almost say indispensable—publication, implies a candid avowal pro tanto of ignorance on the part of the Querist, who might reasonably expect a plain answer, unaccompanied by any ungracious reflection on the side of the more highly-gifted savant that furnished the reply. As a simple matter of taste, many other correspondents besides MARK ANTONY LOWER may probably object, like the latter's eminent namesake, Mr. Tony Weller, to being "pulled up so wery short," especially in cases where there is a clear misapprehension on the part of the respondent.

Haybands in Seals.—It is impossible for one moment to doubt the correctness of MR. HUDSON TURNER'S remarks on this question, and I hasten to retract my own suggestions, frankly acknowledging them to be erroneous.

I had always taken the same view as MR. TURNER (for it is very palpable to the eye, and speaks for itself), till diverted from it by one of those sudden fancies which, spite of all caution, will ever and anon unaccountably cross the mind and bewilder the better judgment. To have established my view, these rushes should have been proved to be affixed to deeds of feoffment alone; a point which, at the moment, I overlooked. Even while I write, I have before me a lease granted by the abbey of Denney in the fifteenth century, with a rush in the seal; and MR. TURNER'S cited instances of royal charters put an end to all question.

Lest others be led astray by my freak of fancy, without an opportunity of correcting it by MR. TURNER'S statement, the proper course for me is to acknowledge myself wrong—palpably, unmistakeably wrong,—MR. TURNER'S explanation is the correct one; thanks to him for it—liberavi animam meam.

L. B. L.

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(Vol. ii., pp. 93. 253.; Vol. iii., p. 125.)

Your correspondents on this subject have generally taken it as granted, that the prejudice against burying in this portion of the churchyard is almost universal. In a former communication (Vol. ii., p. 93.) I stated that there are at least some exceptions. Since that time I have visited perhaps a hundred churchyards in the counties of York, Derby, Stafford, Bucks, Herts, and Oxford, and in nearly half of these burial had evidently been long since practised on the north side of the several churches. The parish church of Ashby de la Zouch is built so near the south wall of the churchyard, that the north must clearly have been designed for sepulture. I was incumbent of an ancient village church in that neighbourhood, which is built in the same manner, with scarcely any ground on the south, the north being large and considerably raised by the numerous interments which have taken place in it. It has also some old tombs, which ten years ago were fast falling to decay. The part south of the church contains very few graves, and all apparently of recent date.

In my former communication I mentioned, that in this churchyard burial has been chiefly, till of late, on the north side of the church; and, since that communication, a vault has been made on the south side, which has convinced us the ground had never before been there broken up. The soil is chalk; whereas, whenever a grave is made on the north side, human dust and bones are so {333} abundant, that the chalk soil has almost lost its nature.

Till more light can be thrown on the subject than what has yet appeared in "NOTES AND QUERIES," I cannot but retain my original opinion, viz., that the favourite part of interment, in earlier times, was that nearest the principal entrance into the church. The original object of burying in churches and churchyards was the better to insure for the dead the prayers of the worshippers, as they assembled for public devotion. Hence the churchyard nearest the entrance into church would be most in request. The origin of the prejudice for the south side, which I believe to be of recent date, may, I doubt not, be ascertained from any superstitious cottager who entertains it. "It would be so cold, sir," said one to me, "to be always lying where the sun would never shine on me."

If your correspondent on this subject in Vol. iii., p. 125., would ask an old inhabitant of his parish which is the backside of their church, and why it is so called? he would probably come at the fact. I would refer him to Burn's History of Parish Registers, page 96., foot-note, where he will find it stated that "a part of the churchyard was sometimes left unconsecrated, for the purpose of burying excommunicated persons."


Drayton Beauchamp.

North Side of Churchyards.—Your correspondents seem to be agreed as to the facts, not as to the origin of the objection. I suspect MR. HAWKER (Vol. ii., p. 253.) is nearest the truth; and the following, from Coverdale on Praying for the Dead, may help to strengthen his conjecture:

"As men die, so shall they arise: if in faith in the Lord towards the south, they need no prayers; they are presently happy, and shall arise in glory: if in unbelief without the Lord towards the north, then are they past all hope."

N. S.

North Side of Churchyards (Vol. ii., pp. 253. 346.).—The subjoined extract from Bishop Wilkins's Discourse concerning a New Planet, tending to prove that it is probable our Earth is one of the Planets, 8vo., 1640, pp. 64-66., will serve to illustrate the passage from Milton, of the north being "the devoted region of Satan and his hosts:"

"It was the opinion of the Jewish rabbies, that man was created with his face to the east; therefore the Hebrew word signifies ante, or the east; post, or the west; dextra, or the south; sinistra, or the north. You may see all of them put together in that place of Job xxiii. 8, 9.: 'Behold I go forward, and he is not there; and backward, but I cannot perceive him: on the left hand, where he doth work, but I cannot behold him. He hideth himself on the right hand, that I cannot see him.' Which expressions are, by some interpreters, referred unto the four coasts of heaven, according to the common use of those original words. From hence it is that many of the ancients have concluded hell to be in the north, which is signified by the left hand; unto which side, our Saviour tells us, that the goats shall be divided. Which opinion likewise seems to be favoured by that place in Job xxvi. 6, 7., where it is said, "Hell is naked before God, and destruction hath no covering.' And presently it is added, 'He stretcheth out the north over the empty place.' Upon these grounds, St. Jerome interprets that speech of the Preacher, Eccles. xi. 3.: 'If the tree fall toward the south, or toward the north, in the place where the tree falleth, there shall it be,' concerning those who shall go either to heaven or hell. And in this sense also do some expound that of Zechariah (xiv. 4.), where it is said that 'the Mount of Olives shall cleave in the midst: half of it shall remove toward the north, and half of it toward the south.' By which it is intimated, that amongst those Gentiles, who shall take upon them the profession of Christ, there are two sorts: some that go to the north, that is, to hell; and others to the south, that is, to heaven. And therefore it is, say they, that God so often threatens evil out of the north: and upon this ground it is, saith Besoldus, that there is no religion that worships that way. We read of the Mahometans, that they adore towards the south; the Jews towards the west; Christians towards the east; but none to the north."

J. Y.


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(Vol. iii., p. 276.)

MR. DAWSON TURNER asks for information regarding three writers in the Rolliad, viz.: Tickell, Richardson, and Fitzpatrick. Memoirs of the first two are given in Chalmers's Dictionary; but in Moore's Life of Sheridan, MR. TURNER will find several notices of them, far more attractive than dry biographical details. They were both intimately associated with Sheridan; Tickell, indeed, was his brother-in-law. One would prefer calling them his friends, but steady friendship must rest upon a firmer basis than those gifts of wit, talent, and a keen sense of the ridiculous, which prevailed so largely amongst this clever trio.

Tickell's production, Anticipation, is still remembered from its cleverness and humour; but when every speaker introduced into its pages has long been dead, and some of them were little known to fame, the pamphlet is preserved by a few solely from the celebrity which it once possessed.

His death in 1793 was a most melancholy one. It is described by Professor Smyth in in his interesting Memoir of Sheridan, a book printed some years ago for distribution among his friends, and which well deserves publication.

Independent of his contributions to the Rolliad, {334} Richardson did little as an author. His comedy of The Fugitive, acted and published in 1792, was well received, and is much praised. Why has this production so completely disappeared?

General Fitzpatrick was born in 1749, and died in 1815. He was the second son of John, Earl of Upper Ossory; twice Secretary-at-War; once secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, the Duke of Portland, but what he regarded as his highest distinction, and it is recorded on his tomb, was the friendship of Fox during forty years of their lives.

Some of his speeches on the union with Ireland will be found in the thirty-fourth volume of the Parliamentary History.

His epitaph, by himself, is inscribed on a sarcophagus in the church-yard at Sunning Hill, in which he describes himself—what his friends admitted to be truth—a politician without ambition, a writer without vanity.

Which is the true reading in the following lines by Fitzpatrick on Fox? In my copy the word "course" in the third line is erased, and the word "mind" is substituted.

"A patriot's even course he steered, Mid Faction's wildest storms unmoved: By all who marked his course revered, By all who knew his heart beloved."

Sheridan says most justly:

"Wit being generally founded upon the manners and characters of its own day, is crowned in that day, beyond all other exertions of the mind, with splendid and immediate success. But there is always something that equalises. In return, more than any other production, it suffers suddenly and irretrievably from the hand of Time."

Still some publications, from their wit and brilliancy, are sufficiently buoyant to float down to posterity. The publication in question, the Rolliad, is one; the Anti-Jacobin another. You may not be unwilling, in your useful pages, to give a list of some of the writers in the latter publication. My own copy of it is marked from that belonging to one of the writers, and is as follows:—

Nos. 1. 4. 9. 19. 26, 27—33., by Mr George Ellis. Nos. 6. and 7., by Messrs. Ellis and Frere. Nos. 20, 21, 22. 30—36., by Mr. Canning. No. 10. by M.; No. 13. by C. B.; No. 39. by N.

To the remaining numbers, neither names nor initials are affixed. Can any of your readers explain the initials, M., C. B., and N., and give us the authors of the remaining numbers?

In replying to Mr. TURNER'S Queries, I shall attend to the wish expressed by so old and so valued a friend, and substitute for initials, of which he disapproves, the name of


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(Vol. iii., p. 276.)

I am much surprised at MR. DAWSON TURNER'S inquiry about these names. I will not say with him that, "not to know them argues himself unknown." On the contrary, my wonder is, that one, himself so well and so favourably known as MR. TURNER, should have need to ask such a question about men with whom, or, at least, with whose fame, he must have been a contemporary, presuming, as I do, that he is the same MR. DAWSON TURNER with whose works we have been acquainted for above half a century. Since, however, he has made the Query, I will answer it as succinctly as I can.

The Right Honourable Richard Fitzpatrick was the only brother of the last Earl of Upper Ossory, and prominent in fashion, in politics, and in elegant literature, and not undistinguished as a soldier. He sat in nine successive parliaments (in two which I knew him). As early as 1782 he was Secretary for Ireland, and in 1783 Secretary-at-War, which office he again filled in 1806. In the galaxy of opposition wits, when opposition was wittiest, Fitzpatrick was generally admitted to be the first, and there were those who thought him in general powers superior even to Fox and Sheridan. His oratory, however, did not do justice to his talents, and he was both shy and indolent. His best speech was that in December, 1796, for the release of Lafayette, to which even the ridicule of the Anti-Jacobin allowed the merit of pathetic eloquence. His share in the Rolliad was considerable, and there are many other sprightly and some elegant specimens of his poetical talents scattered through various publications. I wish they were collected.

Richard Tickell, the grandson of Addison's friend, and brother-in-law to Sheridan, was the author of Anticipation, one of the liveliest political pamphlets ever written. He published many occasional poems, the best of which is a poetical "Epistle from Charles Fox, partridge shooting, to Lord John Townsend, cruising." MR. DAWSON TURNER will find more about him in the Biographical Dictionary.

Joseph Richardson, who died in 1803, was M.P. for Newport in three parliaments. He was an intimate friend of Sheridan's, and partner with him in Drury Lane Theatre. He wrote a play, entitled The Fugitive; but he is only remembered for his contributions (whatever they were) to the Rolliad. In the Gentleman's Magazine (vol. lxxiii. p. 602.), MR. DAWSON TURNER will find a longer notice of him.

There are a few remarks on the authors of the Rolliad in Moore's Life of Sheridan, i. 420.


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(Vol. iii., p. 302.)

I have never met with any satisfactory account of this singular Quaker aggression. Perhaps it may be a contribution towards one if you can find room for some notice of a tract in my possession. It is entitled, A Narrative of some of the Sufferings of J. P. in the City of Rome. London, printed for Thomas Simmons, at the Bull and Mouth, near Aldersgate, 1661, 4to., pp. 16. This narrative of John Perrot's does not, however, give any particulars respecting his going to Rome, or the proceedings which led to his captivity there, but begins with the words—

"When I was cast into Prison, because I loved the souls of my enemies," &c.;

and after eight pages, chiefly occupied by inflated description of his sorrows, from which one obtains no facts, he tells us that God took pity on him,

"And raised up his little babe, my dear Brother Thomas Hart, to set his tender soul nearer unto my sufferings, and made him take my burdens on his back, and the yoak of my tribulation on his neck, and made him sup of my sore sorrows, and drink of the bleedings of my grief,'—

and so he goes on; but we do not learn what Thomas Hart did, except that he comforted John Perrot in his confinement.

"Moreover," he says, "the everlasting mercies of my God did stir up the bowels of other two of his tender babes, named in the tent Jane Stokes and Charles Baylie, to come to visit me whilest I was as forsaken of all men."

They persevered, he tells us,

"in their pilgrimage until they arrived to Rome, where C. B. offered his life to ransom me, and both of them entered into captivity for the love which they bore to my life."

His Narrative (strictly speaking) contains no further information, but that at the bottom of the tenth page it is dated and signed,

"Written in Rome Prison of Madmen. JOHN."

The remaining six pages of the pamphlet consist of a letter from Charles Baylie, giving an account of his pilgrimage with Jane Stokes, from Dover to Calais, Paris, Marseilles, Genoa, until

"Arriving," he says, "safe at Rome, we were drawn in our lives directly to the place where the dearly beloved J. P. was, and coming to the prison door, I enquired for him, and having answer of his being there, I desired for to speak with him, but it would not be permitted us; So it was said in me, Write unto him, which I did, the which he answered us in the fulness of love, which refreshed us after our weary steps; For our souls were refreshed one in another, though one another's faces we had never seen to the outward, and then we being kept in a holy fear not to do nor act one way nor other, but as we were moved of the Lord, least we should add to his bonds,—I say, being thus kept, we were delivered out of the snare of the fowler, who secretly lay in wait to betray our innocency; And after a little time the Lord showed me I should go to the inquisition, which I did, and enquired for the Inquisitor, as I was showed of the Lord I should do; and when I spoke to him I told him I was come from England for to see my brother J. P.; to which he answered, I should see him, and appointed me to come to a certain place called Minerva, and there, saith he, I will procure you the liberty of the Cardinalls to see him; he had me also to the Inquisition office, where he asked many questions of me concerning our religion, to which I answered in the simplicity of my heart in the fear of the Lord; and at the appointed time I came to the place aforesaid, and there I was showed what further I should do, which was to tender my body for my brother; and so from that time I hardly missed opportunity to speak to them as often as they met: for their manner was thus to meet twice a-week, the one time at Minerva, and the other time at Monte-Cavallo, where the Pope's own dwelling is, where I also did the like, more than once, which stirred them up against me, in great enmity," &c.

I am afraid I am trespassing on your overfilled columns; but—omitting his account of his going to the Jews' synagogue, and of the command which he received to fast twenty days as a testimony against those who falsely stated that John Luffe had fasted nineteen days and died on the twentieth—omitting this, I must give one more extract. Having been detained in one of his visits to the Minerva, he says:

"From thence I was carried to the Inquisition, where I was shut up close, and after I had been there 3 dayes the Lord said to me, Thou must go to the Pazzarella, which was the Prison or Hospital of mad men, where our dear brother was prisoner; and it was also said unto me, Thou shalt also speak to the Pope; And at the 17 dayes end, I was led from the Inquisition towards the other prison, and by the way I met the Pope carried in great pomp; as it was the good will of the Lord that I should speak unto him, men could not prevent it, for I met him towards the foot of a bridge, where I was something nigh him, and when he came against me, the people being on their knees on each side of him, I cried to him with a loud voice in the Italian tongue, To do the thing that was Just, and to release the Innocent; and whilest I was speaking, the man which led me had not power to take me away until I had done, and then he had me to prison where my endeared brother was, where I fasted about 20 dayes as a witness against that bloody generation," &c.

As to how they got out, he only says:

"Soon after my fast, the Lord, by an outstretched arm, wrought our deliverance, being condemned to perpetual galley-slavery, if ever we returned again unto Rome."

It appears, however, that though thus prevented from exercising his office of a missionary in Rome, Charles Baylie did not relinquish it. In the letter just quoted he informs his correspondent (who this was does not appear), that since he had seen his face, he had been several times (as he was while {336} writing) shut up in strong prisons; and the letter is dated

"The third of the sixth month, 1661. From the Common Gaol in Burkdou, in France, about thirty leagues from Dover, where I am a sufferer for speaking the Word of the Lord to two Priests, saying, All Idols, all Idolatries, and all Idol Priests must perish."

John Perrot seems to have considered that his mission extended over all the world. While in Rome Prison of Madmen, he wrote an address "To all people upon the face of the Earth," which he "sent thence the 8th of the 10th month, 1660;" and he was, no doubt, the author of the tract which follows it (and precedes the narrative) in my volume, entitled "Blessed openings of a day of good things to the Turks. Written to the Heads, Rulers, Ancients, and Elders of their Land, and whomsoever else it may concern," though it is only signed "JOHN." To him also, I suppose, we must ascribe another tract, Discoveries of the Day-dawning to the Jewes. Whereby they may know in what state they shall inherit the riches and glory of Promise. "J. P." is all that is given for the author's name on the title-page, but the tract is signed [Hebrew: JWHN], that is, John. He too, I presume, was the author of another of the tracts, An Epistle to the Greeks, especially to those in and about Corinth and Athens, &c. Written in Egripo in the Island of Negroponte, by a Servant of the Lord: J. P. He seems to have been at Athens on the 27th day of the 7th month, in the year accounted 1657, being the first day of the week, the day of Greek solemn worship, and to have been "conversant" with Carlo Dessio and Gumeno Stephaci, "called Greek doctors."

S. R. M.


* * * * *


(Vol. iii., p. 221.)

Snail-eating is by no means uncommon. When I was a youth I took a dozen snails every morning to a lady who was of a delicate constitution, and to whom they were recommended as wholesome food. They were boiled, and mixed up with milk. They were the common snail, usually found about old garden walls. A friend of mine, in walking round his garden, was in the habit of picking the snails off his fruit-trees and eating them raw. He was somewhat fastidious, for I have seen him take a snail, put it to his tongue, and reject it as not of a good flavour, and select another more agreeable to his taste. We are strange creatures of habit, especially in our feeding. I am fond of oysters, muscles, and cockles; but I do not think anything could induce me to taste a snail, a periwinkle, or a limpet.

B. H.

Snail-eating.—This practice is very general in Italy. While residing near Florence, my attention was often attracted by a heap of fifty or one hundred very clean, empty, snail-shells, in a ditch, or under a bush; and I indulged in many vain speculations, before I could account for so strange a phenomenon.

One day, however, I happened to meet the contadina coming out of my garden with a basket on her arm; and from her shy, conscious manner, and an evident wish to avoid my seeing the contents, I rather suspected she had been making free with my peaches. To my surprise, however, I found that she was laden with the delicious frutta-di-terra (sometimes so called, as the Echinus, so common along the Italian coast, is called frutta-di-mare); and thinking that she had been collecting them simply from regard to my fruit and vegetables, I thanked her for her kind services. But she understood me ironically, and, with a good deal of confusion, offered to carry them to the kitchen, apologising most elaborately, and assuring me that she would on no account have taken them, had not our cook told her that we despised them, and that she would no doubt be welcome. I asked her what in the world she intended to do with them? and, with a look of amazement at my question, even surpassing mine at her reply, she informed me that her brother and his wife had come to pay them a visit, and that, with my kind permission, she would thus treat them to "una bellissima cena." She had collected about three quarts, during a search of two hours. The large brown kind only are eaten. Among the poor they are generally esteemed a delicacy, and reputed to be marvellously nutritious.


* * * * *


(Vol. iii., p. 82.)

The following additional particulars of this eminent lawyer and poet may be deemed interesting. In a letter from Mr. Pary to the Rev. Josiah Mead, of the 26th November, 1626, it is stated:

"Tomorrow, it is said Sergeant Richardson shall be Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, and Sir John Davis nominated to the King's Bench, because he hath written a book in defence of the legality of this new Loan."

In another letter of the 9th December, 1626, it is stated:

"I heard last night that Sergeant Davis, who it is said looked to be Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench, in place of Sir Randal Crew, was found dead in his bed."

And, again, in a letter from the Rev. Josiah Mead to Sir Martin Stuteville, of the 16th Dec., 1626:

"This of the death of Sir John Davis, for aught I {337} can hear, holds true. It is added, that he was at supper with my Lord Keeper that evening before I was told by him that he should be Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench; but he lived not to see the morning. My Lord of Huntingdon rode up, upon this news, for he is his heir."

Ferdinando Lord Hastings, eldest son of Henry, Earl of Huntingdon, married Lucy, daughter and heiress of Sir John Davis, and in 1613 succeeded his father as Earl of Huntingdon.

Sir John Davis married Lady Eleanor, only daughter of the Earl of Castlehaven, and sister of the infamous Earl. She remarried Sir Archibald Douglas, and died in 1652. She was the lady of the anagram celebrity, "Reveal, oh, Daniel," and "Never so mad a lady." There is no doubt that she and her brother were as mad as could well be.

In a letter from Mr. Edward Rossingham to Sir Thomas Puckering, dated 4th January, 1636, it is stated:

"Sunday before Christmas the Bishop, Dean, and Chapter of Lichfield sent up a complaint against the Lady Eleanor Davis. It seems the cathedral church in Lichfield is lately very beautifully set out with hangings of arras behind the altar, the Communion table handsomely railed in, and the table itself set out in the best manner, and the Bishop's seat fairly built. This Lady came one Communion day, in the morning, with a kettle in one hand and a brush in the other, to sprinkle some of her holy water (as she called that in the kettle) upon these hangings and the Bishop's seat, which was only a composition of tar, pitch, sink-puddle water, &c., and such kind of nasty ingredients, which she did sprinkle upon the aforesaid things. This being the act of a mad woman, the Lords, to prevent further mischief, have given out two warrants, the one to bring the Lady to Bethlehem, the other to the keeper of Bethlehem to receive her. There are messengers gone into Staffordshire to bring her up."

It appeared afterwards she was so poor, that it became a question at the Council who should maintain her. She seems to have been wholly neglected by her second husband.

Sir John Davis and his lady are buried in the church of St. Martin's in the Fields, and the following are their epitaphs, from Strype's Stow, book vi. p. 72.:

"D. O. M. S. Johannes Davys, Equestris ordinis quondam Attornati Regis Generalis amplissima Provincia in regno Hib. functus. Inde in Patriam revocatus inter Servientes Domini Regis ad Legem primum locum sustinuit. Ob. 1626."

"Accūbat dignissimo marito incomparabilis Uxor, &c., 1652."

"Note.—She was the Lady Eleanora, the only daughter of the Earl of Castlehaven, Baron Audley."


Fulham, April 15. 1851.

* * * * *


(Vol. ii., p. 413.)

In reference to an inquiry after MSS. relating to Locke, I enclose particulars of a small 4to. MS. volume in my possession.


"MANUSCRIPT.—LOCKE'S (John, an Attorney living at Publow, and father of the illustrious Metaphysician of the same name) Common-Place Book, containing Matters (relating to the Hundreds of Chew, Chewton, Kainsham, Brewton, Catsashe, Norton Ferris, Horethorne, Froome, Wellowe, Whitstone, Wells Forum, Portbury, Bathe Forum, Winterstoke, Bempstone, Kilmersdon, Brent, Hartliffe and Bedminster, Hampton and Claverton, and Phillips Norton Liberties, Glaston, Queene Camell, &c.) of daily use to him as Court Keeper to Col. Alex. Popham, a Magistrate and Leader of Parliamentary Forces in Somersetsh., variously dated from 1629 to 1655, all in the handwriting of the elder John Locke,—also many entries by other hands of other matters, in the remaining leaves of the same volume, many of which are probably in the handwriting of the afterwards distinguished younger John Locke, 4to. original vellum wrapper, 12l. 12s.


Entries of Bailments and Bindings over of Prosecutors in cases of Felony which occurred in the neighbourhood of Pensford, for the Assizes at Bath, Taunton, Bridgewater, and Wells, 1630-31.

Appointment at Bathe of Overseers of Woollen Cloth, 1631, for Chew, Dundry, Chewstoke, Ubley, Mids. Norton, Kainsham, Publow, Kelston, Mounton Coombe, Bathford, Bathwicke, Freshford, Weston, Froome, Rode, Beckington, Lullington, Berkley, Chew, Mells, and Leigh, Colsford, Hampton et Claverton, Batheaston, Charterhouse Hinton, with the names of the Overseers.

Scotch Postures (Humorous).

Names of the Tithings in the Hundreds of Chew, Chewton, and Kainsham.

Abp. Usher on the Liturgie and Episcopall Government, 1640.

The Sums of the Payment of each Tithing of the above hundreds of the 1st of 15th and 10th of the Subsidy of 3-15ths and 10ths to K. James, to declare war against Spain, 1623-4.

The Yearlie Proportion of the Severall Hundreds of the Easterne Division of the Countie towarde the releife of the Hospitall, 1632.—Ditto, Westerne Division.

The Yearlie Rate for the Maymed Soldiers of every Hundred and Libertie within this County of Somerset.

The Rate of Kainsham Hundred, with the amount of each Parish.

A Rate devised at Hinton in 1601, for the raising of 100 men for Ireland, with consent of the Bath Magistrates, and their names.

The number and proportion of Shipping within Englande and Wales, to be made readie against Mar. 1, 1635.

Hundred of Kainsham, Quarterlie Payment of each tithing to the Hospitalls and Maymed Soldiers.

A Rate made at Pensford 23rd Sept., 1635, for the raising of 160l. {338}

The Assizes holden at Bathe, 24th July, 1637, before the Right Honble. S. Fynch,—the Names of the Justices (among whom are John Stowell, Ralph Hopton, John Horner, Rob. Hopton, John Harington, &c.), and the Names of the Grand Jury.

Subsidie 17th Charles:—A Particular how each Tithing within the Hundreds of Chew, Chewton, and Kainsham stands chardged, for the Reliefe of his Maties Army and the Northerne parte of the Kingdom, Thomas Hunt of Dundry, Collector.

The Protestation by Order of Parliament, 5^o Maij, 1641,—with Jo. Locke's acceptance of the Protestation in the Parish Church of Publoe, 3rd Apr., 1642.

Kainsham:—The "Purblinde, Partiall, and Innovated Rate" of this Hund., 24th Sept., 1649.

Kainsham Hund.—A Rate for Ship-money—with the Particulars of every Tithing, Parish, and Particular Person chardged—contains the name of every rateable person in the parishes of Burnet, Preston, Stanton Drew, Stanton Prior, Salford, Publoe, Marksbury, Chelworth, Shrubwell, Belluton, Compton Dando, Farmborrow, Chewton, Whitchurch, Charlton, Brislington, and Kainsham, with the amount of this celebrated tax assessed to each person.

The Names of the Lords Lieutenants nominated by the Howse of Comons, 1641.

The Muster Roll of the Collonell Sir Rawfe Hopton, Knight, his Band of 200 foote Soldiers, within the Eastern Division, and Regiment of the Countie of Somerset.—Bathe, xxi^o xxij^{do} Maij, 1639.—(Contains, a List of the Officers, "William Tynte," &c.—a list of bearers of Pikes, with the Names of the Soldiers and of the gentlemen or tithings for whom they serve,—also a similar list of the bearers of "Shott.")

A list of Parishes in the Deaneries of Froome and Bedminster, with the name of the Clergyman of each, the arms supplied by him, and the Names of the men who bore them.

A Rate for raising L41-00-03 per mensem, in the hund. of Kainsham, for Generall Fairfax Army, 1648.

Several Papers relating to Differences concerning Rates between the In Hundred and Out Hundred of Kainsham.

Particulars and Value of Feer's Tenement, in Belluton, now in the possession of Henry Stickland, given in by him this day, 24 Dec., 1655.

Rente to my Landlord, Coll. Alex. Popham, out of the 3 Tenements I hold in Publoe, and the Lives thereon at the time of their obtaining, 1650.

A Receipt for his Rente at Publoe, 3. 8bris & 11 Dec., 1638.

The above are in the handwriting of Jo. Locke, the elder; in another hand, on blank covers, left by the former, are—Propositions on

Philosophy:—Phisicke, Ethike, and Dialectike. De Providentia Dei et ad genus. De Praedestinatione. Propositiones Catholicae.

N.B. One of the later chapters of the Essay on the Human Understanding is treated under propositions nearly identical with the leaf of the MS. which is described in the preceding four lines.

Copia Actus locationis Mensae Dominicae in Ecclesia S. Gregorij Civitatis London. Character of Drunkenness (Rhyme), &c. &c.

At the end, in several hands, are various receipts: one in the elder Locke's handwriting, 'The Weapon Salve, and the use thereof, as it was sent unto mee as a most excellent and rare secret from my Cosin Alderman John Locke[5], of Bristoll, in his Letter, dat. 5^o Apr. 1650,'—also 'To make Shineing Inke', signed 'J L: Ox:'

On the last leaf is a record of the Births, Marriages and Deaths of the Locke Family, from 1603 to 1624, including that of John Locke, the father, 29 April, 1606."

[Footnote 5: High Sheriff of Bristol in 1626, and the Mayor of Bristol in 1641 who refused admittance to the royal forces. See Barrett and Seyer.]

* * * * *

Replies to Minor Queries.

Defoe's Anticipations (Vol. iii., p. 287.).—Defoe had probably seen the English translation, or rather abridgment, of Father Dos Santos's Ethiopia Oriental, in Purchas's Pilgrimes (vol. ii. 1544, fol. ed.), in which some hints are given of the great lake (nyassi, i. e. sea) Maravi, which lies nearly parallel with the eastern coast, and was known to D'Anville, in whose map Massi is misengraved for Niassi. A very careful examination of the Portuguese expeditions across the continent of Africa has been given by Mr. Cooley, in the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society (vol. xv. p. 185.; xvi. p. 138.), and he has ascertained, approximately, the extent and position of that great lake, which, from distrust of D'Anville, one of the most exact geographers, had been expunged from all modern maps. It is considerably to the N. and E. of the Nyami lately determined, and of much greater extent.


Epitaph in Hall's Discovery (Vol. iii., p. 242.).—The work entitled Discovery of a New World, or a Description of the South Indies, hitherto unknown, by an English Mercury, imprinted by E. Blount, no date, 12mo., is not, as our correspondent supposes, very rare, nor is it by Bishop Hall. It is a free translation, or rather paraphrase, and an excellent one in its way, by John Healey, of Bishop Hall's very entertaining Mundus Alter et Idem, first published in 12mo., Francof., without date, afterwards reprinted with Campanella's Civitas Solis and Bacon's Atlantis at Utrecht, 1643, 24mo., and subsequently included in the edition of Bishop Hall's works by Pratt, 10 vols., Lond., 1808, 8vo. The epitaph quoted is not a satire upon any statesman of the time. The writer is describing the Land of Changeableness, or, as it is called in the Latin original, "Variana vel Moronia Mobilis," and gives in the course of his description this epitaph on Andreas Vortunius (a vertendo), or, as he is styled in the English {339} translation, "Andrew Turncoate." The epitaph occurs in p. 132. of the Latin edition of 1643, and is evidently, as indicated by the marginal notes, an imitation or parody of the famous one on AEelia Laelia Crispis, which has exercised the ingenuity of so many writers, and of which our own countryman, Richard White, of Basingstoke, the historian, has given three different interpretations. See his AElia Laelia Crispis, Epitaphium Antiquum quod in Agro Bononiensi adhuc videtur, a diversis interpretatum varie, novissime autem a Richardo Vito explicatum, Padua, 1568, 4to. An article on this epitaph and its various interpreters, of whom I have collected about forty, might be made a very interesting one.


[We wish MR. CROSSLEY—than whom no one is more competent—would favour us with such an article. The following communication from MR. FORBES is only one of several we have received, showing that the interest in this enigma is not abated.]

Epitaph in Hall's Discovery (Vol. iii., p. 242.).—When this epitaph is assigned to its right owner, it may perhaps throw some light on its twin-brother—the epitaph on "AElia Laelia Crispis"—"about which many of the learned have puzzled their heads." (See Encyc. Brit., article "AEnigma.") I enclose a copy of this epitaph, which you can use or not, as you please. If you think that it might help to "unearth" Mister Andrew Turnecoate, you may perhaps like to lay it before your readers; if, on the other hand, that it would but increase the difficulty of the operation by distracting attention needlessly, you can hand it over to "the Editor's best friend"—the fire.

"D. M.

AElia Laelia Crispis, Nec vir, nec mulier, Nec androgyna Nec puella, nec juvenis, Nec anus; Nec casta, nec meretrix, Nec pudica; Sed omnia; Sublata Neque fame, neque ferro, Neque veneno; Sed omnibus: Nec coelo, nec terris, Nec aquis, Sed ubique jacet. Lucius Agatho Priscius, Nec maritus, nec amator, Nec necessarius; Neque moerens, neque gaudens, Neque flens; Hanc, Nec molem, nec pyramidem, Nec sepulchrum, Sed omnia, Scit et nescit, cui posuerit."


Saint Thomas of Lancaster.—The following passage in Fuller's Worthies (of Yorkshire) does not seem to have been noticed by either of your correspondents who replied to MR. R. M. MILNES' Query in Vol. i., p. 181.:

"Thomas Plantagenet. Before I proceed, I must confess myself formerly at a great loss to understand a passage in an honourable author, speaking of the counterfeit reliques detected and destroyed at the Reformation: 'The Bell of Saint Guthlac, and the Felt of Saint Thomas of Lancaster, both remedies for the headache.' (Vice Lord Herbert's Life of Henry VIII., p. 431.) But I could recover no Saint Thomas (saving him of Canterbury) in any English Martyrology, till since, on enquiry, I find him to be this Thomas Plantagenet. He was Earl of Derby, Lancaster, Leicester, and (in the right of Alice his wife) of Lincoln. A popular person, and great enemy to the two Spencers, minions to King Edward II, who being hated as devils for their pride, no wonder if this Thomas was honored as a Saint and Martyr by the common sort.[6] Indeed he must be a very good chymist who can extract martyr out of malefactor; and our chronicles generally behold him put to death for treason against King Edward II. But let him pass for a saint in this shire, though never solemnly canonised, it being true of such local saints, what Servius Honoratus observeth of topical gods, 'ad alias regiones nunquam transibant,' they travelled not so far as to be honored in other countries. His beheading, alias his martyrdom, happened at Pomfret A.D. 1322."

It would appear from the foregoing extract that Thomas of Lancaster was never admitted into the Romish calendar of saints; though his memory was locally revered, especially for his opposition to the two Spencers, or Despensers, as they are called by Hume. This historian had no respect for "the turbulent Lancaster;" but the quaint old Fuller seems to have thought well of him.

As a bell-man I am more interested in the virtues of the bell of Saint Guthlac, than in the hat of Saint Thomas, and I take this opportunity of asking assistance from the readers of "NOTES AND QUERIES" towards a collection of curious anecdotes and information about bells, which I am endeavouring to make. Any contributions will be thankfully received by me.



[Footnote 6: "In sanctorum numerum retulit vulgus.—Camden's Brit. in Yorkshire. Amongst other profits received by the abbey of Leicester, in 1348, from oblations at the church of St. Martin in that town, occurs, pes Thomae Lancastriae respondebat, 6l. 10s."—History of Leicestershire, vol. i. p. 591.]

Francis Moore (Vol. iii., p. 263.).—That such a personage really did exist there can be little doubt. Bromley (in Engraved Portraits, &c.) gives 1657 as the date of his birth, and says that there was a portrait of him by Drapentier ad vivum. Lysons mentions him as one of the {340} remarkable men who, at different periods, resided at Lambeth, and says that his house was in Calcott's Alley, High Street, then called Back Lane, where he seems to have enlightened his generation in the threefold capacity of astrologer, physician, and schoolmaster.

J. C. B.


"Tickhill, God help me" (Vol. i., p. 247.; Vol. ii., p. 452.).—Although I am full late with my pendent, I am tempted to add the instance of "Kyme God Knows," well known to all explorers of the Fens. The adjunct, "God knows," is supposed to be part of the following verse:

"It's Kyme, God knows, Where no corn grows, And very little hay; And if there come a wet time, It weshes all away."

If I misquote, perhaps some Fen man will set me right.

As to the "Lincoln-heath where should 'un?" instanced by your correspondent H. C. ST. CROIX, in the No. for April 27, 1850, it is quite unknown in this neighbourhood, and I believe must belong to some other locale.



Meaning of Tye (Vol. iii., p. 263.).—On or contiguous to the South Downs, in Sussex, there are several portions of land bearing this designation, as Berwick Tye, Alfriston Tye, Telscombe Tye, &c. They are all contiguous to the villages from which they derive their names. These lands were formerly held in common by the tenants of the respective manors, and I think the origin of the expression may be traced to the tethering or tying-up of cows, horses, &c., for the double purpose of preventing their straying, and of preserving the fences of the neighbouring tenements. I offer this conjecture with some diffidence, because the word is very often found in composition with proper names of places, as Lavortye, Brambletye, Holtye, Puxtye, Ollantigh. The vulgar notion, that it means a space which originally measured ten acres, is, I think, untenable.



Dutch Church in Norwich (Vol. iii., p. 209.).—Some interesting details connected with the establishment of the Dutch Church in Norwich, as well as the first settlement of the Walloons in that city, will be found in Blomefield's History of Norfolk, vol. iii. p. 282. et seq., edit. 1806.

J. Y.

The Dutch Church, Norwich.—Some account of this church may be seen in Burn's History of the Foreign Refugees, 1846. It is to be regretted, however, that the registers and acts of vestry are missing. The seal of the church has lately been discovered.

J. S. B.

Lost Manuscripts (Vol. iii., pp. 161. 261.)—In pursuance of MR. MACKENZIE'S suggestions respecting the search for lost manuscripts, permit me to ask, if all hope must be considered as given up of decyphering any more of those discovered at Herculaneum, or of resuming the excavations there, that have been so long discontinued? Perhaps the improved chemical processes of recent days might be found more successful in facilitating the unrolling of the MSS., than the means resorted to so long ago by Sir H. Davy. Can any of your correspondents state whether anything has been done lately with the Herculaneum MSS.?

Eustace says that—

"As a very small part of Herculaneum has hitherto been explored, it is highly probable that if a general excavation were made, ten times the number of MSS. above mentioned (1800) might be discovered, and among them, perhaps, or very probably, some of the first works of antiquity, the loss of which has been so long lamented."—Classical Tour, vol. i. 4to., p.585.

J. M.


The Circulation of the Blood (Vol. iii., p.252.).—In a paraphrase on Ecclesiastes xii. 1-6., entitled, King Solomon's Portraiture of Old Age, by John Smith, M.D., London, 1676, 8vo., 1752, 12mo., the author attributes the discovery of the circulation of the blood to King Solomon. Mede also finds the same anticipation of science in "the pitcher broken at the fountain." Who was the first to suggest the transfusion of blood?

T. J.

Alliteration (Vol. iii., p. 165.)—Your correspondent H. A. B., in quoting the seventh stanza from Phineas Fletcher's Purple Island, observes, that the second line,

"A life that lives by love, and loves by light,"

is "noticeable" for its alliteration. But the best specimen that I have met with in English—after having read much verse, and published a volume, which my partial friends call poetry—will be found in Quarles' Divine Emblems, book ii. emblem ii. Beyond all question, Quarles was a poet that needed not "apt alliteration's artful aid" to add to the vigour of his verse, or lend liquidity to his lines. Quarles is often queer, quaint, and querulous, but never prolix, prosey, or puling.

"We sack, we ransack to the utmost sands Of native kingdoms, and of foreign lands: We travel sea and soil; we pry, we prowl, We progress, and we prog from pole to pole."

Verily, old Francis must have had a prophetic peep at the effects of free trade, and the growing greatness of Great Britain, in the gathering of the Nations under a huge GLASS CASE in Hyde Park, in the present year 1851!

C. G.



Vineyards in England (Vol. ii., p. 392.).—The Lincoln "Vine Closes" may as well be added to the rest. They were given to the church here by Henry I. See the charter, entitled Carta Hen. I. de Vinea sua Linc., in Dugdale (Caley's) vol. vi. p. 1272. Their site is a rather steep slope, facing the south, and immediately east of the city. The southern aspect of our hill was celebrated long ago by some poet, as quoted by H. Huntingdon:

"Urbs in colle sita est, et collis vergit ad austrum".

N.B. One of the Abbey fields at Bullington, a few miles east of Lincoln, is known as the Hopyard. The plant has never been cultivated in these parts within memory, or the range of the faintest tradition, but the character of the soil is clayey, and perhaps not unsuitable. Were hopyards often attached to monasteries? The house at Bullington was of the order of Sempringham.



Countess of Desmond (Vol. iii., p. 250.).—If your correspondents on this subject should be wandering to the south-east of London, they may be interested in knowing that there are two very striking portraits of this lady in Kent, one at Knowle, near Seven Oaks; the other, which is the more remarkable picture of the two, at Bedgebury, near Cranbrook, the seat of Viscount Beresford.

E. H. Y.

St. John's Bridge Fair (Vol. iii., pp. 88. 287.).—I cannot agree with the conjecture that this was Peterborough Bridge Fair. On the confines of Gloucestershire and Berkshire, at the distance of about 77 miles from London, near Lechlade, and on the road to Farringdon, is a St. John's Bridge, near which was a priory or hospital. It is at this place that the Thames first becomes navigable. (Leland's Itinerary, vol. ii. fo. 21, 22, 23; vol. iv. fo. 48; Bowles's Post Chaise Companion, 1782, pl. 28; Lysons' Berkshire, vol. i. p. 193., and map of county prefixed; Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica, vol. i. p. 320.; Parliamentary Gazetteer, art. "Lechlade.") Whether there is or ever was a fair at this place is more than I can state; but perhaps some of your correspondents dwelling in those parts can give information on this point.


Cambridge, April 14. 1851.

Paring the Nails unlucky on Sundays (Vol. ii., p. 511.; Vol. iii, p. 55.).—Compare Sir Thomas Browne's Vulgar Errors, lib. v. cap. xxi. Sec. x.


Errata in Braithwait's Latin Drinking-song (Vol. iii., p. 297.).—It is well for us that honest Barnaby is not alive to visit upon us the scandalous "negligences and ignorances" with which our transcript of his song abounds; and it is no excuse perhaps to say, that the errors almost all of them exist in the MS. from whence the transcript was made. Sensitive as he has shown himself "upon the errata's," he would not have accepted the apology from us which he makes for himself. "Good reader, if this impression have errors in it, excuse it. The copy was obscure; neither was the editor, by reason of his distance, and employments of higher consequence, made acquainted with the publishing of it."

"His Patavinus erravit prelis, Authorem suis lacerando telis."

The following corrections, which are necessary to the sense, have been pointed out, and have no doubt been already silently made by many of our readers.

Sic in MS. forsan.

Stanza 3. hoc te amoenum hoc amoenum reparare reperire

Stanza 4. memento momento gustabit gustabis

Stanza 5. solvet solvit potis potus

Stanza 6. frigestis frigescis

Stanza 8. succedant succedunt

Omit the comma between Domum and feram, and disregard the erroneous punctuation generally.

There may be other errors; for, as it stands at present, the song is inferior to the other known productions of the pleasant author of the ITINERARIUM. We can only hope that its publication, in even this imperfect form, may lead to the discovery of a better text; and we must be content if the lines of the author are applied to our blunders:

"Delirans iste Sapiens Gottam, Reddit Coetum propter Cotem." ——— "Quid si breves fiant longi? Si vocales sint dipthongi? Quid si graves sint acuti? Si accentus fiant muti? Quid si placide, plene, plane, FREGI FRONTEM PRISCIANI?

Quid si sedem muto sede? Quid si carmen claudo pede? Quid si noctem sensi diem? Quid si veprem esse viam? Sat est, Verbum declinavi, Titubo—titubas—titubavi."

In the last line of the extract from "Phyllis and Flora," hinc is printed for huic; inpares, in the preceding line, is the correct reading for impares. "Impar richtiger Inpar" (Scheller).

S. W. S.

* * * * *



The publication of The National Cyclopaedia of Useful Knowledge has just been completed by the issue of {342} the twelfth volume. We notice this useful condensation of The Penny Cyclopaedia principally, however, for a feature which we hope to see more widely extended, namely, that of issuing it in a strong and handsome half-binding, at the moderate charge of one shilling per volume extra. The practice of publishing books in a bound form (more especially such books as are intended for very general circulation) is one which we have no doubt may be widely extended with great satisfaction to purchasers. It has, generally speaking, been, up to the present time, too closely confined to books of high price, adapted only to wealthy purchasers, whom the words "bound by Hayday," or "morocco extra," with the necessary increase of price, charm, rather than discourage.

There is perhaps no work to which, at the present moment,—when the World's Fair is about to commence, and we are sure to be visited by hundreds, or rather thousands, of our Gallic friends, with whom we shall be in daily and hourly conversation,—we can more appropriately call the attention of our readers than to the second division (Partie Francaise-Anglaise) of M. Tarver's Dictionnaire Phraseologique Royal, in which we can assure them they will find the readiest solution of all those phraseological queries which may arise during their intercourse with our lively neighbours. A very cursory examination of its pages will serve to convince the inquirer of the great learning and patient industry of M. Tarver; and his interest in the work will not be diminished by the reflection that the name of its accomplished author will be found in the obituary of the present week.

When noticing, a few weeks since, one of Captain Knox's interesting volumes, we spoke of the undying popularity of White's Selborne. A proof at once of this popularity, and a means of increasing it, will be found in a new edition of this delightful book just issued as one of the volumes of Bohn's Illustrated Library. It is entitled to its place in this series on account of forty admirable woodcuts by which it is illustrated; and to a place on the bookshelves of every Naturalist, for the sake of the additional notes of Sir W. Jardine, and its present editor, Mr. Jesse.

Messrs. Puttick and Simpson (191. Piccadilly) will sell on Tuesday and Wednesday next an exceedingly choice Collection of Autograph Letters, comprising numerous Letters of extraordinary rarity, selected principally from Upcott's Collection. We cannot attempt to particularise the many interesting lots which are to be found in the present collection, but recommend the Catalogue to attention for the satisfactory manner in which the different documents are arranged and described.

CATALOGUES RECEIVED.—B. Quaritch's (16. Castle Street, Leicester Square) Cheap Book Circular (No. XXVIII.) of Books in all Languages; W. Pedder's (18. Holywell Street) Catalogue Part II. for 1851, of Books Ancient and Modern; R. Saywell's (138. High Holborn) Select Catalogue Part XXI. of Books in Theology, Classics, and General Literature.

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*** Letters stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

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Notices to Correspondents.

J. S. S. (Leicester). THE CHAUCER MONUMENT. It will require about 100l. to make a complete restoration. Not one-half that amount has yet been subscribed.

X. Y. Z. The custom of "Swearing on the Horns at Highgate" is very ably treated by Hone, Every-Day Book, vol. ii. p. 79 et seq. It probably arose from the graziers who put up at the Gate-house on their way to Smithfield, and were accustomed, as a means of keeping strangers out of their company, to bring an ox to the door as a test: those who did not like to be sworn of their fraternity, and kiss its horns, not being deemed fit members of their society.

W. R. M. Will this correspondent favour us with another copy of his Queries, which were received and intended for insertion, but have apparently been omitted by some accident?

A. W. H. Our correspondent will find that his Query had been anticipated in Vol. i., p. 336. Its appearance then brought it a mass of Replies, mostly of a very unsatisfactory kind. We delayed repeating the Query until we could find leisure to condense those replies, so as to prevent our correspondents furnishing us with information already in our possession. We hope to do this next week.

SING. Bryan Waller Procter, Esq., one of the Commissioners of Lunacy.

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NOTES AND QUERIES may be procured, by order, of all Booksellers and Newsvenders. It is published at noon on Friday, so that our country Subscribers ought not to experience any difficulty in procuring it regularly. Many of the country Booksellers, &c., are, probably, not yet aware of this arrangement, which will enable them to receive NOTES AND QUERIES in their Saturday parcels.

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PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, Auctioneers of Literary Property, will SELL by AUCTION, at their Great Room, 191. Piccadilly, on TUESDAY, April 29, and following Day, a very important Collection of AUTOGRAPH LETTERS, the Property of a Gentleman. The Collection includes an unusually complete series of English Royal Autographs, many being important Letters, from the time of Henry VII.; also Letters of Contemporary Foreign Sovereigns, with numerous rare and interesting Letters in other Classes. The whole in the finest preservation. Catalogues will be sent on application.

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BOHN'S CLASSICAL CATALOGUE, comprising all the principal editions of the Greek and Latin Classics. Translations and Commentaries, with prices annexed; royal 8vo. half morocco, price 2s. 6d.—Allowed to Purchasers.

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PAROCHIAL WORK. By the Rev. E. MONRO, M.A., Incumbent of Harrow Weald, Stanmore. A Second Edition of this valuable Work is nearly ready, and will, it is expected, be published in April.

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Intended as a Companion to the above.

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POETAE SCENICI GRAECI. AEschyli, Sophoclis, Euripidis, et Aristophanis Fabulae superstites et perditarum fragmenta. Editio secunda, ex nova recognitione GUIL. DINDORFII. Royal 8vo. cloth, 1l. 1s.; or bound by Hayday in calf extra for school prizes, 1l. 10s.

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* * * * *

Corrections made to printed original.

page 336, "From the Common Gaol in Burkdou" - original reads 'Burkdon', this corrected by the errata in issue 80 which adds that Burkdou is Bourdeaux.

page 341, "Authorem suis lacerando telis." - original reads 'laurando', this corrected by the errata in issue 80.


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