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Notes and Queries, Number 76, April 12, 1851
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F. B. RELTON.

Dr. Robert Thomlinson (Vol. i., p. 350.).—The gentleman who is very anxious for the communication of any matter illustrative of the life of the doctor, his family, &c., will find considerable useful and interesting information relating to him, his widow, and brother, by referring to the under-mentioned Reports from the Commissioners for inquiring concerning Charities:

5th Report, pages 67. 69.; 23rd Report, pages 56. 450.; 31st Report, pages 754. 757.

There is a slight allusion to the doctor in the Returns of Corporate Offices and Charitable Funds, &c., p. 375.

H. EDWARDS.

Touching for the Evil (Vol. iii., p. 93.).—St. Thomas Aquinas refers the practice of touching for the evil by French kings to Clovis. See a work published in 1633, by Simon Favoul, entitled, Du Pouvoir que les Rois de France ont de guerir les Ecrouelles; also a work by Du Laurens, entitled, De Mirabili Strumas sanandi vi, regibus Galliarum Christianis divinitus concessa, libri duo, Paris, 1609, in 8vo.

Edward the Confessor is said to have been the first English king who touched for the evil. Consequently the English can hardly be said to have owed their supposed power to their pretensions to the crown of France.

E. J. R.

[We are indebted to MR. J. B. DITCHFIELD and MR. JOSEPH SULLEY for very elaborate notices of the custom of the French kings touching for the evil; but the principal facts contained in those communications have already been laid before our readers by MR. COOPER (Vide No. 69. p. 148. et seq.)]

Drax Free School (Vol. ii., p. 199.).—It appears by the will of Charles Read, dated July 30, 1669, that that gentleman had at his own charge erected a school-house at Drax, which he designed for a free school, and for the habitation of a schoolmaster, to instruct the children of the inhabitants of that parish gratis, to read, write, and cast accounts, and in Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, as occasion should require; and that he had erected six almshouses at Drax, for six aged and impotent people at that parish, and the lodgment of six poor boys; and for the support and maintenance of the said school, master, alms people, and poor boys, he directed his executors to lay out 2000l. in {291} the purchase of freehold land of 120l. per annum in or near Drax, to be conveyed to trustees to let such land at the best improved rent, for the purposes and uses mentioned in his will; and he appointed the lord mayor and aldermen of York, visitors of the school and almshouses.

At the time of the inquiry by the charity commissioners, the estates purchaser in pursuance of the directions of Mr. Read's will amounted to 391 acres of land, let at 542l. per annum, and there was an accumulation of stock of 12,700l. in the Three per Cents, the whole income being 924l. 9s. 6d. per annum.

MR. DYSON will find a copious account of this school, &c., in the following Reports of the Commissioners: XXI. p. 598.; XXXII. part 2d. p. 828.; and the latter gives a full detail of proceedings in Chancery, and other matters connected with the administration of the trust.

HENRY EDWARDS.

Enigmatical Epitaph on the Rev. John Mawer (Vol. iii., pp. 184. 248.).—Perhaps it may be of service to J. H. to know that Arthur Llewellyn Tudor Kaye Mawer, referred to by J. T. A., was a short time ago an assistant bookseller at Oxford, and may be heard of by addressing a line to Mr. Vincent, Herald Office, or Mr. Wheeler, bookseller, Oxford.

NIBOR.

Treatise by Engelbert, Archbishop of Treves (Vol. i., p. 214.).—MR. SANSON may probably find the information he desires in the reprint of Bishop Cosin's History of Popish Transubstantiation, London, 1840, in which the references are verified, and the quotations given in full length.

T. J.

King John at Lincoln (Vol. iii., p. 141.).—There is no question of Matt. Paris alluding here to the old prophecy which forbade a king's wearing his crown in Lincoln, or, as some think, even entering the city. Although he makes John the first to break through the superstition, yet the same is attributed to his predecessor Stephen, who is described by H. Huntingdon as entering the city fearlessly—"prohibentibus quibusdam superstitiosis." This was after the great disasters of Stephen's reign; but as the succession eventually departed from his line, Lord Lyttleton observes that the citizens might nevertheless be strengthened in their credulity; and Henry II. certainly humoured it so far as to wear his crown only in the suburb of Wigford. John seems to have been very partial to the place, and visited it repeatedly, as did many of his successors. Many parallel superstitions might, no doubt, be gathered, as that of Oxford, and Alexander the Great at Babylon, &c.

B.

Lincoln.

Haybands in Seals (Vol. iii., p. 186.).—In your paper for March 8. I observe a Query by MR. M. A. LOWER respecting seals. It appears that MR. LOWER has in his possession one or two seals, temp. Henry VII., which are impressed on haybands, that is to say, the wax is encircled by a twisted wisp of hay, or split straw; and, if I rightly understand MR. LOWER, no device is apparent on the wax, but some ends of the hay or straw protrude from the surface of it. Under these circumstances MR. LOWER states his opinion that such seals belonged to mediaeval gentlemen who occupied their time in fattening stock,—simply graziers.

It may be interesting to some of your correspondents, and especially to MR. LOWER, to know that a few seals, both pendent and impressed on the parchment itself, within haybands, may be found of as early a date as the reign of Edward II. From that time the fashion become very prevalent: in the reigns of Richard II., Henry IV., Henry V., Henry VI., and, indeed, down to the period of Elizabeth, it was the common practice to secure the wax impression in this manner. Almost all the impressions of the Privy Seal of Henry V., called "the Eagle," are made on haybands. It is needless to give further examples, as they must be well known to all antiquaries who have studied the history of seals. It is not from the examination of a few specimens of early seals that a general conclusion is to be rationally drawn; and it is to be hoped that MR. LOWER may, even yet, be induced to abandon his singular theory of graziers' seals.

T. HUDSON TURNER.

If your correspondents on this subject will refer to the first volume of Kalendars and Inventories of his Majesty's Exchequer, published by the Commissioners of Public Records, they will find in the Introduction, written by Sir Francis Palgrave, at page cxlvii., a fac-simile representation of a letter upon paper from James IV. of Scotland to Henry VII., dated July 12, 1502, showing the seal encircled by a rush ring. At page cxxxvii. it is stated that in the fifteenth century a rush ring surrounding the fragile wax was not unfrequently used for the purpose of preserving it.

S. S. S.

Aver (Vol. iii., pp. 42. 157.).—Spelman, in his Glossary, derives averia from averare pro laborare. Averare he derives from the French ouvre and ouvrage, "vel potius a Latino operare, o et p, ut solent, in a et u, conversis." "Hence," he says, "our ancestors called beasts of burden averia, and the Scotch called them avaria." In Northumberland, he elsewhere adds, "they call a lazy, sluggish horse 'a faulse aver,' or 'afer.'"

Averum signified goods and chattels, and personal property in general, and, in this sense, is derived from the French avoir. It also signified the royal treasure, as appears from the following extract front the will of Philip Augustus, sub anno {292} 1190. After directing his rents, services, and oblations to be brought annually to Paris, he adds—

"In receptionibus averi nostri, Adam clericus noster presens erit, et eas scribet, et singuli habeant singulas claves de singulis archis in quibus reponetur averum nostrum in templo."

The following story, which illustrates P.'s Query, is told by Blackstone:—

"Sir Thomas More (when a student on his travels) is said to have puzzled a pragmatic professor at Bruges, who gave a universal challenge to dispute with any person in any science: in omni scibili, et de quolibet ente. Upon which Mr. More sent him this question, 'Utrum averia carucae, capta in vetito namio, sint irreplegibilia, Whether beasts of the plough, taken in withernam, are incapable of being replevied:'"

—a question likely enough to pose any man except an English lawyer.

CUDYN GWYN.

Aver or Aiver is a word in common use in the south of Scotland for a horse. In Burns's poem entitled "The Dream," there is this couplet:

"Yet aft a ragged cowte's been known To mak a noble aiver."

J. SS.

Aver (Vol. iii., p. 42.).—Your correspondents G. M. and D. 2. are at cross purposes. The latter is unquestionably right in his opinion about haver cake, haver in that instance being the German Hafer, Sw. Havre, &c., as held by Brockett (North Country Words) and Carr (Craven Glossary). But aver, averium, on which G. M. descants, is altogether a different word. As D. 2. requires the authority of a dictionary, allow me to refer him to Lacombe, Dictionnaire du vieux Langage Francois, where he will find:

"AVOIRS, animaux domestiques de la basse cour." "AVERLANDS, marchand de chevaux."

And in the second, or supplementary volume of the same work:

"'AVERS,' bestiaux qui nantissent une ferme a la campagne."

See also Jamieson (Scottish Dictionary):

"AVER, a cart-horse."

A suggestion may also be gathered from Webster under AVERAGE.

F. S. Q.

In the Chronicle of Jocelyn de Brakelond, at p. 29. of Tomlins's translation, mention is made of one Beodric,

"Lord of that town, whose demesne lands are now in the demesne of the Cellarer. And that which is now called Averland was the land of the rustics."

Again, at p. 30.:

The Cellarer was used freely to take all the dung-hills in every street, for his own use, unless it were before the doors of those who were holding averland; for to them only was it allowable to collect dung and to keep it."

To this a note is appended to the effect that

"Averland seems to have been ancient arable land so called, held by rustic drudges and villans."

At p. 29. the said Cellarer is stated

To have aver-peni, to wit, for each thirty acres two pence."[8]

Roquefort, in his Glossaire de la Langue Romane, gives Aver, from avoir: "Bestiaux qui nantissent une ferme de campagne;" and Ave, "un troupeau de brebis," from ovis.

Raynouard, in the Nouveau Choix des Poesies des Troubadours, vol. ii., which commences the Lexique Roman, derives "Aver" also from Avoir; to signify possession generally I take it. 2dly, Troupeau,

"E play mi quan li corredor Fan las gens e 'ls avers fugir." ("Et il me plait quand les coureurs Font fuir les gens et les troupeaux.")

Bertrand de Born, Be m Play.

Barbazan, in his short Glossary, derives the word from Avarus.

H. C. C.

[Footnote 8: "Averpenny was a sum paid as a composition for certain rustic services."]

I would inform D. 2. and others (Vol. iii., p. 42.) that aver, or haver-cake, which he states to be the name applied in North Yorkshire to the thin oat-cake in use there, is evidently derived from the Scandinavian words, Hafrar, Havre, Hafre, oats.

G. E. R. GORDON.

Stockholm.

"The Sword Flamberg" (Vol. iii., p. 168.)—AN ENGLISH MOTHER is informed that "Flamberge," or "Floberge," is the name of the sword won in battle from the Saracen admiral Anthenor by Mangis d'Aygremont, the hero of the romance of that name. Ancient swords were frequently "flamboyant," or with waved edges; more especially those used for purposes of state. The Dukes of Burgundy bore a two-handed sword of this form. Indeed, "flaming swords," as they were called, were worn down to the time of our Charles II., and perhaps later. It is rather singular that the ordinary synonyma for a sword should be "brand." The name of the weapon taken from King Bucar by the Cid was "Tizona," or the Fire-brand.

The flamboyant type may possibly be of Eastern origin. The krisses of the Malays, at the present day have serpentine blades.

W. J. BERNHARD SMITH.

Temple.

Cockade (Vol. iii., pp. 7. 196.).—The cockade was simply the knot of the riband that served to cock the broad flapped hat worn by military men in the seventeenth century, and which in fine weather, or going into action, &c., they used to cock, by means of hooks, laces, and ribands. We see still in the {293} cocked-hats of coachmen and beadles, the traces of these old ligaments. Hence the phrase to cock one's hat. Let me add one or two remarks on other points of dress arising out of old military habits. In old times coats were of the shape we now call frocks, and lined throughout, generally with a different colour from the outside. When a person in one of these coats was going about any active work, and particularly into fight, he doubled back his sleeves, and folded back the collar, which, being of a different colour, came to be what we now call the facings of military uniforms. The French, truer to their origin, still call them the "revers." So also on such occasions the broad skirts of the frock coat used to be hooked back not to impede the movements of the lower limbs, and thence the swallow tails of military uniforms. So also the high jack-boots, that covered the knees, used, in walking, to be turned down, and the inside being of a lighter colour, gave the idea of what are called top-boots.

C.

* * * * *

Miscellaneous.

NOTES ON BOOKS, SALES, CATALOGUES, ETC.

In the belief that the time has arrived when the history of our national architecture must be reconsidered, with a view to a revision of the classes or periods into which it has hitherto been divided, Mr. Sharpe has just put forth a handsomely illustrated volume, under the title of The Seven Periods of English Architecture defined and illustrated. Mr. Sharpe's proposal is, that these seven periods should be thus formed:—three belonging to the division Romanesque, under the titles of Saxon, Norman, and Transitional Periods; and the remaining four to the Gothic, viz. the Lancet, Geometrical, Curvilinear, and Rectangular Periods. We must, of course, refer our readers who desire to know the principles upon which Mr. Sharpe proposes this great change to the work itself, which is plain and to the purpose.

Mr. Bohn some time since became the purchaser of a large number of the copper-plates of Gillray's Caricatures. Having had impressions taken, and arranged them in one large volume, he sought the assistance of Mr. Wright, who had just then published his History of the House of Hanover, illustrated by Caricatures, and Mr. R. H. Evans, the well-known bibliopole, towards an anecdotical catalogue of the works of this clever satirist: and the result of the labours of these gentlemen has just been published under the title of Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray, comprising a Political and Humorous History of the latter Part of the Reign of George III. The volume will be found not only an interesting key to Mr. Bohn's edition of Gillray, and a guide to those who may be making a separate collection of his works, but a pleasant illustration of the wit and satire which lashed the politicians and amused the public

"In the old time when George the Third was king."

Those who know the value of those historical researches which Sir F. Palgrave has already given to the world, will be glad to hear that the first volume of his History of Normandy and of England will probably be published before the close of the present month. In this first volume, which is described in the advertisement as containing the general relations of Mediaeval Europe, the Carlovingian Empire, and the Danish Expeditions into Gaul, we understand the learned author has treated those expeditions at considerable length, and enters very fully into that of the decline of the Carlovingian Empire,—a portion of the work as important, as it is in a great measure new, to the English reader. Not the least valuable part of the book will be Sir Francis Palgrave's account of the nature and character of the Continental Chronicles, which form the substratum of his work, but which, existing only in the great collections of Duchesne, Bouquet, Pertz, &c., are generally very imperfectly known to English students.

Messrs. Sotheby and Wilkinson will sell, on Monday next, a collection of very rare and interesting Autograph Letters, more particularly illustrative of the period of the Civil Wars. On the same day they will also commence a Four-days' Sale of valuable Books, and Books of Engravings, chiefly from the library of a gentleman deceased, including the original edition of Stuart and Revett's Athens, a copy of Merian's Topographia Germaniae containing nearly one thousand engravings, and many other works of high character.

BOOKS RECEIVED.—Boswell's Life of Johnson, Illustrated, vol. i. This is the first volume of the National Illustrated Library, which the projectors describe "as an endeavour to bestow upon half-crown volumes for the many the same typographical accuracy, and the same artistic ability, hitherto almost exclusively devoted to high-priced books for the few." In choosing Boswell's Johnson for their first work, the projectors have shown excellent judgment; and we are bound to add that the book is not only well selected, but neatly printed, and illustrated with a number of excellent woodcuts.—Illustrations of Medieval Costume in England, &c., Part II. This second part deserves the same praise for cheapness as its predecessor.—The Cape and the Kafirs, the new volume of Bohn's cheap series, is a well-timed reprint of Mrs. Ward's Five Years in Kafirland, with some little alteration and abridgment, and the addition of some information for intending emigrants, from information supplied by published official reports.

CATALOGUES RECEIVED.—J. Miller's (43. Chandos Street) Catalogue No. XX. of Books Old and New; T. Kerslake's (3. Park Street, Bristol) Catalogue of Books lately bought; W. S. Lincoln's (Cheltenham House, Westminster Road) Sixty-seventh Catalogue of Low-priced books, mostly Second-hand; Williams and Norgate's (14. Henrietta Street, Covent Garden) Catalogue No. III. of Foreign Second-hand Books, and Books at reduced prices.

* * * * *

BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES WANTED TO PURCHASE.

THE COMPLAYNT OF SCOTLAND, edited by Leyden. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1801.

THOMS' LAYS AND LEGENDS OF VARIOUS NATIONS. Parts I. to VII. 12mo. 1834. {294}

PASSIONAEL EFTE DAT LEVENT DER HEILIGEN. Folio. Basil, 1522.

CARTARI—LA ROSA D'ORO PONTIFICIA. 4to. Rome, 1681.

BROEMEL, M. C. H., FEST-TANZEN DER ERSTEN CHRISTEN. Jena, 1705.

PULLEN'S ETYMOLOGICAL COMPENDIUM. 8vo.

COOPER (C. P.), ACCOUNT OF PUBLIC RECORDS. 8vo. 1822. Vol. I.

LINGARD'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Sm. 8vo. 1837. Vols. X. XI., XII., XIII.

*** Letters stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

* * * * *

Notices to Correspondents.

We are again compelled by the number and value of the communications, which have reached us, to present our Readers with an extra Eight Pages. We trust, therefore, we shall be excused if, with reference to what we stated a fortnight since, on the subject of making this enlargement permanent instead of occasional, we quote from a valued correspondent the mode he has kindly adopted with the view of promoting that increase of our circulation, upon which such permanent enlargement of our paper must depend. NOCAB writes thus:—"Whenever I find an article in any Number which I know to be peculiarly congenial to the taste of any of my literary or scientific friends, I forward them a copy. A letter of thanks and an intention of future subscription has almost invariably been the result." We are sure that this hint will not be lost upon our friends.

P. will find his communication on Averia inserted in No. 69. p. 157.

S. H. H. Received, and will be taken care of.

COMETS AND ECLIPSES. We are requested by our valued correspondent C. to say that his Reply, p. 253., should have been headed Eclipses, and was intended to refer to the list of Eclipses (not Comets) in the work to which he refers. He was probably led into this slip of the pen by the manner in which S. P. O. R. had, in No. 73. p. 223. mixed up Comets and Eclipses in the same Query.

JARLTZBERG has our best thanks. We receive his friendly suggestions in the spirit in which they are offered; and will, as far as practicable, attend to them. We trust he will receive in the same spirit our explanation, that the delay in inserting his communications arises chiefly from the difficulty in deciphering them. Our correspondents little know how greatly editorial labours are increased by this apparently trifling cause.

E. T. C. Our correspondent will find, on referring to our First Vol., p. 445., that the so-called French original of "Not a drum was heard," is only a clever literary hoax from the pen of Father Prout, which first appeared in Bentley's Miscellany.

J. B. C. A proof of the Sovereign of 1820; and if in very good condition, would perhaps sell for Two or Three Pounds.

LLEWELLYN. Will this correspondent favour us with his address, that we may forward a communication which we have received for him?

ACHE is requested to say how a communication may reach him.

F. R. R. We have a further Query for this correspondent on the subject of Sir Andrew Chadwick, if he will favour us with his address.

REPLIES RECEIVED.—Epitaph in Hall's Discovery—Disinterment for Heresy—Mistletoe—The San Grail—MS. Cat. of Norman Nobility—Inedited Poetry—Mazer—Whale in the Thames—Facts in Natural History—Nicolson Family—Yankee—Cowdray—Scandal against Elizabeth—Capt. John Stevens—Shakspeare's Captious—Epitaph on Countess of Pembroke—King Richard III.—Ten Commandments—Comets—Edmund Prideaux—Lost MSS.—Shakspeare's Use of "Strained"—Pilgrim's Road to Canterbury—Solid-footed Pigs—Meaning of Gig—Swearing by Swans—Places called Purgatory—Tu Autem—Thomas May—Pope Joan—Waste Book—Abbot Eustacius—Chiming, &c.

VOLS. I. and II., each with very copious Index, may still be had, price 9s. 6d. each.

NOTES AND QUERIES may be procured, by order, of all Booksellers and Newsvenders. It is published at noon on Friday, so that our country Subscribers ought not to experience any difficulty in procuring it regularly. Many of the country Booksellers, &c., are, probably, not yet aware of this arrangement, which will enable them to receive NOTES AND QUERIES in their Saturday parcels.

All communications for the Editor of NOTES AND QUERIES should be addressed to the care of MR. BELL, No. 186. Fleet Street.

* * * * *

THE QUARTERLY REVIEW, NO. CLXXVI., is just published.

CONTENTS:

1. POULTRY LITERATURE. 2. WOMEN IN FRANCE—MADAME DE MAINTENON. 3. JULIUS CAESAR—MERIVALES'S ROMAN HISTORY. 4. THE REPUBLIC IN THE KING'S COACHES. 5. SANITARY MOVEMENT—CENTRALIZATION. 6. LIVES OF CALVIN. By DYER, &C. 7. LORD HOLLAND'S REMINISCENCES. 8. LORD JOHN RUSSELL.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

* * * * *

TO BOOK COLLECTORS, AUCTIONEERS, and DEALERS in SECOND-HAND BOOKS.—The Book containing the MINUTES of VESTRY of the Parish of St. Paul, Covent garden, between the years 1645 and 1681, having been (on examination of the Books, and Documents belonging to the Parish) discovered to be missing, a REWARD of TEN POUNDS will be paid to any Person who shall forthwith cause the said Minute-book to be delivered to Mr. MOSELEY, Vestry Clerk, 13. Bedford Street, Covent Garden.

* * * * *

This day is published.

SKETCHES OF THE POETICAL LITERATURE OF THE PAST HALF CENTURY. In Six Lectures, delivered at the Edinburgh Philosophical Institution. By D. M. MOIR [Delta]. In Fcap. 8vo. (pp. 330.) price 5s.

WILLIAM BLACKWOOD & SONS, Edinburgh and London.

* * * * *

WESTERN LIFE ASSURANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY, 3. Parliament Street, London.

VALUABLE NEW PRINCIPLE.

Payment of premiums may be occasionally suspended without forfeiting the policy, on a new and valuable plan, adopted by this society only, as fully detailed in the prospectus.

A. SCRATCHLEY, M.A.

Actuary and Secretary; Author of "Industrial Investment and Emigration; being a Second Edition of a Treatise on Benefit Building Societies, &c." Price 10s. 6d.

London: J. W. PARKER, West Strand.

* * * * *

FREEMASON'S QUARTERLY MAGAZINE and REVIEW, No. 5, just published, price 3s.

CONTENTS:—Freemasonry during the Great Exhibition—Love's Triumph—The First Offence—On the Tabernacle and Temple—Notes upon Funeral Solemnities—The Condition of Scotch Masonry—"Thinking" and "Working" Freemasons—Masonic Processions—On the Rhine—Correspondence—Obituary: Dr. Crucefix, Peter Thompson. Sir W. Lorraine, T. Pryer, &c.—G. Chapter and G. Lodge Report—The 33rd Degree—The Charities—Metropolitan and Provincial Intelligence—Scotland, Ireland, The Colonies, East Indies, West Indies, America, Switzerland.

R. SPENCER, 314. High Holborn; and sold by all Booksellers.

* * * * *

THE EDINBURGH REVIEW, NO. CXC., will be published on TUESDAY next.

CONTENTS:

1. ENGLAND AS IT IS. 2. SALMON FISHERIES. 3. SOUTHEY'S LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE. 4. LAMANISM IN TARTARY AND THIBET. 5. VICTOR COUSIN. 6. SPAIN AND SPANISH POLITICS. 7. SHALL WE RETAIN OUR COLONIES? 8. THE DEFEAT OF ITALY. 9. ULTRAMONTANE DOUBTS.

London: LONGMAN & CO. Edinburgh: A. & C. BLACK.

* * * * *

JOHN MILLER'S CATALOGUE of BOOKS.—The New Number for APRIL is ready this day, and can be had Gratis, on application. Amongst others, it contains a large Selection of Books on Painting and the Fine Arts, from the Library of the late Sir M. A. Shee, President of the Royal Academy; a few articles from the late Duke of Cambridge's Collection; Works on Political Economy and History; Books of Ballads; the Drama, &c. &c.

JOHN MILLER, 43. Chandos Street, Trafalgar Square.

* * * * *

{295}

Just published, in One thick Volume, 8vo. cloth, 12s.

WILLIAM PENN; an HISTORICAL BIOGRAPHY, from New Sources. With an extra Chapter on "The Macaulay Charges." By WILLIAM HEPWORTH DIXON. With a Portrait.

"Within the compass of an octavo volume Mr. Dixon has compressed a great variety of facts, many original, and all skilfully arranged, so as to produce an authentic moral portrait of his hero. The literary merits of the volume include great research, and a narrative at once consecutive and vivid.... It makes an undeniable exposure of blunders committed by Mr. Macaulay in reference to its hero, which will go far to compromise his character as a historian."—Athenaeum.

London: CHAPMAN AND HALL, 193. Piccadilly.

* * * * *

THE GENERAL LAND DRAINAGE AND IMPROVEMENT COMPANY.

Incorporated by Act of Parliament, 12 and 13 Vict. c. 91.

DIRECTORS.

HENRY KER SEYMER, Esq., M.P., Hanford, Dorset, Chairman. JOHN VILLIERS SHELLEY, Esq., Maresfield Park, Sussex, Deputy-Chairman. John Chevallier Cobbold, Esq., M.P., Ipswich. William Cubitt, Esq., Great George Street, Westminster. Henry Currie, Esq., M.P., West Horsley, Surrey. Thomas Edward Dicey, Esq., Claybrook Hall, Lutterworth. William Fisher Hobbs, Esq., Boxted Lodge, Colchester. Edward John Hutchins, Esq., M.P., Eaton Square, London. Samuel Morton Peto, Esq., M.P., Great George Street. Colonel George Alexander Reid, M.P., Bulstrode Park, Bucks. William Tite, Esq., F.R.S., Lowndes Square, London. William Wilshere, Esq., The Frythe, Welwyn, Herts.

This Company is empowered to execute—

1. All works of Drainage (including Outfalls through adjoining Estates), Irrigation, Reclaiming, Enclosing, and otherwise improving Land.

2. To erect Farm Homesteads, and other Buildings necessary for the cultivation of Land.

3. To execute Improvements, under Contract, with Commissioners of Sewers, Local Boards of Health, Corporations, Trustees, and other Public Bodies.

4. To purchase Lands capable of Improvement, and fettered by Restrictions of Entail; and having executed the necessary Works, to resell them with a Title communicated by the Company's Act.

Owners of Entailed Estates, Trustees, Mortgagees, Corporations, Incumbents, Life Tenants, and other Persons having only limited Interests may obtain the use of the Company's Powers to carry out every kind of permanent Improvement, either by the Application of their own or the Company's Funds, secured by a yearly Charge on the Property improved.

Proposals for the Execution of Works to be addressed to

WILLIAM CLIFFORD, Secretary.

Offices, 52. Parliament Street, Westminster.

* * * * *

ARNOLD'S SELECT PLAYS OF SOPHOCLES, WITH ENGLISH NOTES.

In 12mo. price 3s.

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1. The AJAX of SOPHOCLES, with English Notes. 3s.

* * * * *

THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE for April contains, among other articles:—The Character of Charles II. by Peter Cunningham, Esq., F.S.A., being Chapter IV. of the History of Nell Gwyn.—Unpublished Poems of Alex. Gill.—The Dukes of Guise.—Chalcondyles and the English.—Bishop Stanley—Original Letter of Pres. John Adams.—Saint Francis and the Franciscans.—The Bell of Saint Patrick.—Totnes Castle (with a Plate).—Anecdotes of the Protectorate, by Dr. H. Sampson.—Ancient Scottish Seals (with several Engravings).—Mr. Macaulay and Penn.—With Notes of the Month, Review of New Publications, Reports of Antiquarian Societies. Historical Chronicle, and OBITUARY, including Memoirs of the Marquess of Northampton, Countess of Charleville, Lord Berners, Lord Bexley, Sir F. Lawley, Sir Wm. Owen Barlow, Sir John Tobin, Charles Spence, Esq., Q.C., James Sedgwick, Esq., Joanna Baillie, Rev. A. Brandram, Rev. H. H. Norris, and other eminent persons recently deceased. Price 2s. 6d.

NICHOLS and SON, 25. Parliament Street.

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STOCK of THEOLOGICAL BOOKS of Messrs. IVES and SWAN, late of Paternoster-Row; an authentic Portrait of William Huntington; Baily on Annuities, 207 Copies, &c.

PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, Auctioneers of Literary Property, will SELL by AUCTION, at their Great Room, 191. Piccadilly, on SATURDAY, April 12, and Five following Days, Sunday and Good Friday excepted, the Extensive STOCK of THEOLOGICAL BOOKS, Ancient and Modern, mostly in the English Language, including a valuable Collection of the Works of the Puritan Divines, Commentators on the Scriptures, Ecclesiastical Historians, and Miscellaneous Writers. Catalogues will be sent on application.

* * * * *

In the Press, Volumes III. and IV. of

THE JUDGES OF ENGLAND. By EDWARD FOSS, F.S.A. Comprehending the period from Edward I. to Richard III., 1272 to 1485.

Lately published, price 28s.

VOLUMES I. and II. of the same Work; from the Conquest to the end of Henry III., 1066 to 1272.

"A work in which a subject of great historical importance is treated with the care, diligence, and learning it deserves; in which Mr. Foss has brought to light many points previously unknown, corrected many errors, and shown such ample knowledge of his subject as to conduct it successfully through all the intricacies of a difficult investigation; and such taste and judgment as will enable him to quit, when occasion requires, the dry details of a professional inquiry, and to impart to his work as he proceeds, the grace and dignity of a philosophical history."—Gent. Mag.

London: LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, and LONGMANS.

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Second Edition, cloth, 1s.

THE GREEK CHURCH; a Sketch. By the Author of "Proposals for Christian Union."

"Anything written by the Author of 'Proposals for Christian Union' is sure to be distinguished by an excellent spirit. The 'Greek Church,' a Sketch, is well put together; and, though slight, will be found to contain as much real information as many a book of greater size and more pretension."—The Guardian.

By the same, now ready, price 4d.

A SUPPLEMENT ON THE DOCTRINE AND DISCIPLINE OF THE GREEK CHURCH.

"We characterised the interesting little volume entitled 'The Greek Church' as historical rather than doctrinal. The title of this Supplement shows that it expressly supplies the very material in which the original work was deficient."—Notes and Queries.

This Essay and Supplement conclude the Series. The four preceding Essays of Unity on sale. Second Edition, 1s. each.

London: JAMES DARLING, Great Queen Street, Lincoln's-Inn-Fields.

{296}

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MURRAY'S ENGLISH HANDBOOKS.

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I.

Early in April will be published, as a Pocket Volume, 16mo.,

HANDBOOK OF MODERN LONDON; Or, LONDON AS IT IS, IN 1851: giving full Descriptions of all Places and Objects of Interest in the Metropolis, including the various

Palaces. Public Buildings. Government Offices. Galleries of Art. Churches. Parks and Gardens. Museums. Private Mansions. Principal Streets. Hospitals and Asylums. Clubs. Exhibitions. Theatres. Public Monuments. River Thames. Docks. Excursions in the Environs. Conveyances, &c.

*** The aim of this Work is to describe those Features of the Metropolis best worth seeing, and the way they may be seen to the best advantage, as well as to give some general hints as to Hotels, Lodgings, &c.; in other words, it is intended to make "MURRAY'S HANDBOOK OF MODERN LONDON" on the plan adopted with so much success in "MURRAY'S CONTINENTAL HANDBOOKS."

* * * * *

II.

WESTMINSTER ABBEY: Its ART, ARCHITECTURE, and ASSOCIATIONS. By PETER CUNNINGHAM, F.S.A. New Edition. 16mo.

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III.

THE BRITISH MUSEUM: Its ANTIQUITIES and SCULPTURE. By W. S. W. VAUX, F.S.A. Woodcuts. Post 8vo. (In April.)

* * * * *

IV.

THE GALLERIES OF PICTURES IN AND NEAR LONDON. Including THE NATIONAL GALLERY; WINDSOR CASTLE; HAMPTON COURT; DULWICH GALLERY; SOANE'S MUSEUM; BARRY'S PICTURES. With Catalogues, and Biographical and Critical Notices. By MRS. JAMESON. Post 8vo. 10s.

* * * * *

V.

HANDBOOK OF LONDON: PAST and PRESENT. By PETER CUNNINGHAM, F.S.A. Containing full Descriptions of all the

Remarkable Old Inns, Coffee Houses, and Taverns. Town Houses of the Old Nobility. Old London Sights. Ancient Theatres and Crosses. The Hostels of Church Dignitaries. Privileged Places for Debtors. Old London Prisons. Places referred to by Old Writers. The Churches and Wards of London. Residences of Remarkable Men. Remarkable Streets. Burial Places of Eminent Individuals.

Second Edition, revised. Post 8vo. 16s.

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VI.

WINDSOR AND ETON: THE CASTLE, ST. GEORGE'S CHAPEL, and ETON COLLEGE. By EDWARD JESSE. New Edition. 16mo. 1s.

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VII.

HANDBOOK OF ENGLAND AND WALES; giving an Account of the Places and Objects in England best worth visiting, or likely to attract the Notice of Intelligent Strangers and passing Travellers; arranged in connexion with the most frequented Roads and Railways in England. With Maps. Post 8vo.

PART I.

THE EASTERN COUNTIES: ESSEX, SUFFOLK, NORFOLK, CAMBRIDGE, and LINCOLN. (Nearly ready.)

PART VII.

DEVON AND CORNWALL. (Ready.)

* * * * *

VIII.

THE OFFICIAL HANDBOOK; or, A MANUAL of POLITICAL and HISTORICAL REFERENCE. Fcap 8vo.

*** This Work shows concisely the Machinery by which the GOVERNMENT of the Country is carried on, including the Duties, Authorities, and Rights of the QUEEN and ROYAL FAMILY, and coupling with the Names of all the CHIEF FUNCTIONARIES and HEADS OF OFFICES, CIVIL, MILITARY, JUDICIAL, and ECCLESIASTICAL, such a succinct Account of the Departments of each, with their Political Relations, as will, it is hoped, render it useful to all desirous to make themselves acquainted with British Institutions.

* * * * *

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET.

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Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.—Saturday, April 12. 1851.

THE END

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