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Notes and Queries, Number 69, February 22, 1851
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On the question of internal evidence critics differ. Your correspondent can see in it no hand but Dryden's; while Malone will scarcely allow that Dryden made even a few verbal alterations in it (Life, p. 130.); and Sir Walter Scott is not inclined to admit any further participation on the part of the great poet than "a few hints for revision," and denies its merit altogether—a position in which I think very few, who carefully peruse it, will agree with him.

I am disposed to take a middle course between your correspondent and Dryden's two biographers, and submit that there is quite sufficient internal evidence of joint ownership. I cannot think such lines as—

"I, who so wise and humble seem to be, Now my own vanity and pride can't see;"

or,—

"I, who have all this while been finding fault, E'en with my master who first satire taught, And did by that describe the task so hard, It seems stupendious, and above reward."

or,—

"To tell men freely of their foulest faults, To laugh at their vain deeds and vainer thoughts:"

would proceed from Dryden, while it is to be noticed that the inharmonious rhymes "faults" and "thoughts" were favourites of Mulgrave, and occur twice in his Essay on Poetry.

Neither can I doubt that the verses on Shaftesbury,—the four "will any dog;" the four "For words and wit did anciently agree," the four "Mean in each action;" the two "Each pleasure has its price"—are Dryden's additions, with many others, which a careful reader will instantly appropriate.

I can find no sufficient authority for the statement of Malone and Sir W. Scott, that Pope revised the Essay on Satire. It is well known he corrected that on Poetry.

JAS. CROSSLEY.

Manchester, Feb. 10. 1851.

{147}

* * * * *

FOUNDATION-STONE OF ST. MARK'S AT VENICE.

(Vol. iii., p. 88.)

I recollect having seen the stone in question in the collection of the late Mr. Douce, in whose possession it had been for some years before his communication of it to the Society of Antiquaries. It is quite evident that he was satisfied of its authenticity, and it was most probably an accidental purchase from some dealer in antiquities, who knew nothing about it. I happen to know that it remained in the hands of Sir Henry Ellis at the time of Mr. Douce's death, and your correspondent H. C. R. will most probably find it among the other collections of Mr. Douce now in the museum at Goodrich Castle.

The doubt expressed by your correspondent is evidently founded upon the engraving and accompanying paper in the 26th volume of the Archaeologia; and as it conveys such a grave censure of the judgment of the director of the council and secretaries of the Antiquarian Society, it appears to me that it is incumbent upon him to satisfy his doubts by seeing the stone itself, and, if he should be convinced of his error, to make the amende honorable.

It is to be regretted that he did not state "the points which have suggested this notion of its being a hoax." For my own part, I cannot see the motive for such a falsification; and if it is one, it is the contrivance of some one who had more epigraphic skill than is usually found on such occasions.

There is nothing in the objection of your correspondent as to the size and form of the stone which would have any weight, and it is not necessary to suppose that it "must have been loose in the world for 858 years." On pulling down the old church, the foundation-stone in which this was imbedded may have been buried with the rubbish, and exhumed in comparatively recent times. It had evidently fallen into rude and ignorant hands, and suffered by being violently detached from the stone in which it was imbedded.

Every one who knew the late Mr. Douce must have full confidence in his intimate knowledge of mediaeval antiquity, and would not easily be led to imagine that he could be deceived on a point like this; but are we to presume, from a vague idea of your correspondent's, that the executive body of the Society of Antiquaries would fail to detect a forgery of this nature?

S. W. S., olim F. S. A.

Foundation-stone of St. Mark's, Venice (Vol. iii., p.88.).—This singular relic is now preserved in the "Doucean Museum," at Goodrich Court, Herefordshire, with the numerous objects of art and antiquities bequeathed by Mr. Douce to the late Sir Samuel Meyrick. I believe that nothing can now be ascertained regarding the history of this stone, or how it came into the possession of Mr. Douce. Sir Samuel enumerates it amongst "Miscellaneous Antiquities," No. 2., in his interesting Inventory of this Collection, given in the Gentleman's Magazine, Feb., 1835, p. 198. The Doucean Museum comprises, probably, the finest series of specimens of sculpture in ivory existing in any collection in England. The Limoges enamels are also highly deserving of notice.

ALBERT WAY.

* * * * *

HISTOIRE DES SEVARAMBES.

(Vol. iii., pp. 4. and 72.)

I am not sufficiently familiar with Vossius or his works to form any opinion as to the accuracy of the conclusion which MR. CROSSLEY has arrived at. There is at least much obscurity in the matter, to which I have long paid some little attention.

My Copy is entitled,—

"The History of the Sevarambians: A People of the South continent. In Five Parts. Containing an Account of the Government, &c. Translated from the Memoirs of Capt. Siden, who lived fifteen years amongst them. Lond. 1738." (8vo. pp. xxiii. and 412.)

I have given this to show how it differs from that spoken of by MR. C. as being in two parts, by Capt. Thos. Liden, and not a reprint, but a translation from the French, which Lowndes says was "considerably altered and enlarged."

If this be so, we can hardly ascribe to Vossius the edition of 1738. The preface intimates that the papers were written in Latin, French, Italian, and Dutch, and placed in the editor's hands in England, on his promising to methodise them and put them all into one language; but I do not observe the slightest allusion to the work having previously appeared either in English or French, although we find that Barbier, in his Dict. des Anon., gives the French edit. 1 pt. Paris, 1677; 2 pt. Paris, 1678 et 1679, 2 vols. 12mo.; Nouvelle edit. Amsterdam, 1716, 2 vols. 12mo.; and ascribes it to Denis Vairasse d'Alais.

There is a long account of this work in Dict. Historique, par Marchand: a la Haye, 1758, fo. sub. nom., Allais, as the author, observing—

"Il y a diversite d'opinions touchant la langue en laquelle il a ete ecrit ou compose."

The earliest he mentions is the English one of 1675, and an edition in the French, "a Paris, 1677;" which states on the title, Traduit de l'Anglois, whereas the second part is "imprimee a Paris chez l'Auteur, 1678," from which Marchand concludes that Allais was the writer, adding,—

"On n'a peut-etre jamais vu de Fiction composee avec plus d'art et plus d'industrie, et il faut avouer {148} qu'il y en a peu ou le vraisemblable soit aussi ingenieusement et aussi adroitement conserve."

Wm. Taylor, of Norwich, writes to Southey, asking,—

"Can you tell me who wrote the History of the Sevarambians? The book is to me curious. Wieland steals from it so often, that it must have been a favourite in his library; if I had to impute the book by guess, I would fix on Maurice Ashby, the translator of Xenophon's Cyropaedia, as the author."

to which Southey replies,—

"Of the Sevarambians I know nothing!" (See Gent. Mag. N.S. xxi. p. 355.)

Sir W. Scott, in his Memoirs of Swift, p. 304. (edit. 1834), speaking of Gulliver's Travels, says—

"A third volume was published by an unblushing forger, as early as 1727, without printer's name, a great part of which is unacknowledged plunder from a work entitled Hist. des Sevarambes, ascribed to Mons. Alletz, suppressed in France and other Catholic kingdoms on account of its deistical opinions."

It would seem from this, that Sir Walter was not aware of the English work, or knew much of its origin or the author.

F. R. A.

Histoire des Sevarambes.—The second edition of Gulliver's Travels, entitled Travels into several Remote Nations of the World, by Lemuel Gulliver, 2 vols. 8vo., London, 1727, is accompanied with a spurious third volume, printed at London in the same year, with a similar title-page, but not professing to be a second edition. This third volume is divided into two parts: the first part consists, first, of an Introduction in pp. 20; next, of two chapters, containing a second voyage to Brobdingnag, which are followed by four chapters, containing a voyage to Sporunda. The second part consists of six chapters, containing a voyage to Sevarambia, a voyage to Monatamia, a voyage to Batavia, a voyage to the Cape, and a voyage to England. The whole of the third volume, with the exception of the introduction and the two chapters relating to Brobdingnag, is derived from the Histoire des Sevarambes, either in its English or French version.

L.

* * * * *

TOUCHING FOR THE EVIL.

(Vol. iii., pp. 42. 93.)

There is ample evidence that the French monarchs performed the ceremony of touching for the evil.

In a MS. in the University Library, Cambridge[18], is this memorandum:—

"The Kings of England and Fraunce by a peculiar guift cure the King's evill by touching them with their handes, and so doth the seaventh sonne."—Ant. Miraldus, p. 384.

Fuller intimates that St. Louis was the first king of France who healed the evil. "So witnesseth Andrew Chasne, a French author, and others."[19]

Speaking of the illness of Louis XI., "at Forges neere to Chinon," in March, 1480, Philip de Commines says:

"After two daies he recovered his speech and his memory after a sort: and because he thought no man understood him so wel as my selfe, his pleasure was that I should alwaies be by him, and he confessed himselfe to the officiall in my presence, otherwise they would never have understood one another. He had not much to say, for he was shriven not long before, because the Kings of Fraunce use alwaies to confesse themselves when they touch those that be sick of the King's evill, which he never failed to do once a weeke. If other Princes do not the like, they are to blame, for continuall a great number are troubled with that disease."[20]

Pierre Desrey, in his Great Chronicles of Charles VIII., has the following passage relating to that monarch's proceedings at Rome in January, 1494-5:—

"Tuesday the 20th, the king heard mass in the French chapel, and afterwards touched and cured many afflicted with the king's evil, to the great astonishment of the Italians who witnessed the miracle."[21]

And speaking of the king at Naples, in April, 1495, the same chronicler says:—

"The 15th of April, the king, after hearing mass in the church of the Annonciada, was confessed, and then touched and cured great numbers that were afflicted with the evil—a disorder that abounded much all over Italy—when the spectators were greatly edified at the powers of such an extraordinary gift.

* * * * *

"On Easter day, the 19th of April, the king was confessed in the church of St. Peter, adjoining to his lodgings, and then touched for the evil a second time."[22]

Fuller, in remarking upon the cure of the king's evil by the touch of our English monarchs, observes:—

"The kings of France share also with those of England in this miraculous cure. And Laurentius reports, that when Francis I., king of France, was kept prisoner in Spain, he, notwithstanding his exile and restraint, daily cured infinite multitudes of people of that disease; according to this epigram:

'Hispanos inter sanat rex chaeradas, estque Captivus Superis gratus, ut ante fuit.'

'The captive king the evil cures in Spain: Dear, as before, he doth to God remain.'

"So it seemeth his medicinal quality is affixed not {149} to his prosperity, but person; so that during his durance, he was fully free to exercise the same."[23]

Cavendish, relating what took place on Cardinal Wolsey's embassy to Francis I., in 1527, has the following passage:—

"And at his [the king's] coming in to the bishop's palace [at Amiens], where he intended to dine with my Lord Cardinal, there sat within a cloister about two hundred persons diseased with the king's evil, upon their knees. And the king, or ever he went to dinner, provised every of them with rubbing them and blessing them with his bare hands, being bareheaded all the while; after whom followed his almoner distributing of money unto the persons diseased. And that done, he said certain prayers over them, and then washed his hands, and so came up into his chamber to dinner, where as my lord dined with him."[24]

Laurentius, cited by Fuller in the page already given, was, it seems, physician in ordinary to King Henry IV. of France. In a treatise entitled De Mirabili Strumarum Curatione, he stated that the kings of England never cured the evil. "To cry quits with him," Dr. W. Tucker, chaplain to Queen Elizabeth, in his Charismate, denied that the kings of France ever originally cured the evil

"but per aliquam propaginem, 'by a sprig of right,' derived from the primitive power of our English kings, under whose jurisdiction most of the French provinces were once subjected."[25]

Louis XVI., immediately after his coronation at Rheims, in 1775, went to the Abbey of St. Remi to pay his devotions, and to touch for the evil. The ceremony took place in the Abbey Park, and is thus described in a paper entitled Coronation of the Kings of France prior to the Revolution, by Charles White, Esq.:—

"Two thousand four hundred individuals suffering under this affliction, having been assembled in rows in the park, his majesty, attended by the household physicians, approached the first on the right. The physician-in-chief then placed his hand upon the patient's head, whilst a captain of the guards held the hands of the latter joined before his bosom. The king, with his head uncovered, then touched the patient by making the sign of the cross upon his face, exclaiming, 'May God heal thee! The king touches thee.' The whole two thousand four hundred having been healed in a similar manner, and the grand almoner having distributed alms to each in succession, three attendants, called chefs de goblet, presented themselves with golden salvers, on which were three embroidered napkins. The first, steeped in vinegar, was then offered to the king by Monsieur; the second, dipped in plain water, was presented by the Count d'Artois; and the third, moistened with orange water, was banded by the Duke of Orleans."[26]

The power of the seventh son to heal the evil (mentioned in the MS. I have cited) is humourously alluded to in the Tatler (No. 11.). I subjoin the passage, which occurs in a letter signed "D. Distaff."

"Tipstaff, being a seventh son, used to cure the king's evil; but his rascally descendants are so far from having that healing quality, that by a touch upon the shoulder, they give a man such an ill habit of body, that he can never come abroad afterwards."

I imagine that by the seventh son is meant the seventh son of a seventh son.

C. H. COOPER.

Cambridge, Feb. 4. 1851.

P.S. Since the above was written, I have observed the following notice of the work of Laurentius in Southey's Common Place Book, 4th Series, 478. (apparently from a bookseller's catalogue):

"Laurentius (And.) De Mirabili Strumas Sanandi VI. Solis Galliae Regibus Christianissimis divinitas concessa, (fine copy,) 12s. Paris, 1609.

"This copy possesses the large folded engraving of Henry IV., assisted by his courtiers in the ceremony of curing the king's evil."

[Footnote 18: Dd. 2. 41. fo. 38 b.]

[Footnote 19: Fuller, Church History, edit. 1837, i. 228.]

[Footnote 20: Danett's Translation. edit. 1614, p. 203.]

[Footnote 21: Monstrelet edit. 1845, ii. 471.]

[Footnote 22: Ibid. 476.]

[Footnote 23: Fuller, Church History, edit. 1837, i. 227.]

[Footnote 24: Cavendish, Life of Wolsey, edit. Singer, 1825, vol. i. p. 104.]

[Footnote 25: Fuller, Church History, edit. 1837, i. pp. 227, 228.]

[Footnote 26: New Monthly Magazine, vol. liii. p. 160.]

* * * * *

Replies to Minor Queries.

Forged Papal Bulls (Vol. ii., p. 491.).—In your Number, 20th Dec., J. E. inquires where is the instrument for counterfeiting the seal of the Pope's Bulls, which was dredged up from the ruins of old London Bridge. It is in my possession, and your correspondent will find an account of it, with woodcuts of the instrument itself and the seal, in the Proceedings of the Archaeological Association, 11th Feb. 1846.

GEO. R. CORNER.

Eltham.

Obeism.—As your correspondent T. H. (Vol. iii., p. 59.) desires "any information" on the subject of Obeism, in the absence of more and better, I offer my mite: that in the early part of this century it was very common among the slave-population in the West Indies, especially on the remoter estates—of course of African origin—not as either a "religion" or a "rite," but rather as a superstition; a power claimed by its professors, and assented to by the patients, of causing good or evil to, or averting it from them; which was of course always for a "consideration" of some sort, to the profit, whether honorary, pecuniary, or other, of the dispenser. It is by the pretended influence of certain spells, charms, ceremonies, amulets worn, or other such incantations, as practised with more or less diversity by the adepts, the magicians and conjurers, the "false prophets" of all ages and countries.

{150}

On this matter, a curious phenomenon to investigate would be, the process by which the untonsured neophyte is converted into the bonneted doctor; the progress and stages of his mind in the different phases of the practice; how he begins by deceiving himself, to end in deceiving others; the first uninquiring ignorance; the gradual admission of ideas, what he is taught or left to imagine; the faith, of what is fancied to be so, the mechanical belief; then the confusion of thought from the intrusion of doubt and uncertainty; the adoption of some undefined notions; and, finally, actual unbelief; followed by designed and systematic injustice in the practice of what first was taken up in sincerity, though even this now perhaps is not unmixed with some fancy of its reality. For this must be the gradation more or less gone through in all such things, whether Obeism, Fetichism, the Evil Eye, or any sort of sorcery or witchcraft, in whatever variousness of form practised; cheats on the one hand, and dupes on the other the primum mobile in every case being, some shape or other of gain to the practitioner.

It seems, however, hardly likely that Obeism should now be "rapidly gaining ground again" there, from the greater spread of Christianity and diffusion of enlightenment and information in general since the slave-emancipation; as also from the absence of its feeding that formerly accompanied every fresh importation from the coast: as, like mists before the mounting sun, all such impostures must fade away before common sense, truth, and facts, whenever these are allowed their free influence.

The conclusion, then, would rather be, that Obeism is on the decline only more apparent, when now seen, than formerly, from its attracting greater notice.

M.

Obeahism.—In answer to T. H.'s Query regarding Obeahism, though I cannot answer his question fully, as to its origin, &c., yet I have thought that what I can communicate may serve to piece out the more valuable information of your better informed correspondents. I was for a short time in the island of Jamaica, and from what I could learn there of Obeahism, the power seemed to be obtained by the Obeah-man or woman, by working upon the fears of their fellow-negroes, who are notoriously superstitious. The principal charm seemed to be, a collection of feathers, coffin furniture, and one or two other things which I have forgotten. A small bundle of this, hung over the victim's door, or placed in his path, is supposed to have the power of bringing ill luck to the unfortunate individual. And if any accident, or loss, or sickness should happen to him about the time, it is immediately imputed to the dreaded influence of Obeah! But I have heard of cases where the unfortunate victim has gradually wasted away, and died under this powerful spell, which, I have been informed by old residents in the island, is to be attributed to a more natural cause, namely, the influence of poison. The Obeah-man causes a quantity of ground glass to be mixed with the food of the person who has incurred his displeasure; and the result is said to be a slow but sure and wasting death! Perhaps some of your medical readers can say whether an infusion of powdered glass would have this effect. I merely relate what I have been told by others.

While speaking of the superstition of the negroes, I may mention a very curious one, very generally received and universally believed among them, called the rolling calf, which, if you wish, I will give you an account of in my next.

D. P. W.

Pillgarlick (Vol. ii., p. 393.; Vol. iii., pp. 42. 74.).—It seems to me that the passage quoted from Skelton by F. S. Q. completely elucidates the meaning of this word. Let us premise that, according to all principles of English etymology, pill-garlick is as likely to mean "the pillar of garlick" as to be a syncopated form of "pill'd garlick." Now we see from Skelton's verse that in his time the peeling of garlick was proverbially a degraded employment—one which was probably thrust off upon the lowest inmate of the servants' hall, in an age when garlick entered largely into the composition of all made dishes. The disagreeable nature of the occupation is sufficient to account for this. Accordingly we may well suppose that the epithet "a poor pill-garlick" would be applied to any person, in miserable circumstances, who might be ready to undertake mean employment for a trifling gratuity.

This, I think, satisfactorily answers the original question, "Whence comes the expression?" The verse quoted by F. S. Q. satisfactorily establishes the orthography, viz., pill garlick. A Query of some interest still remains—In what author do we first find the compound word?

R. D. H.

Pillgarlick (Vol. iii., p. 74.).—That to pill is merely another form of the word to peel, appears from the book of Genesis, c. xxx., v. 37, 38: "And Jacob took him rods of green poplar, and of the hazel and chesnut tree: and pilled white strakes in them, and made the white appear which was in the rods. And he set the rods which he had pilled before the flocks," &c.

On first seeing your correspondent's Query, it occurred to me that perhaps "poor Pillgarlick" was in some way akin to "Pillicock," of whom Edgar, in King Lear, records that "Pillicock sat on Pillicock's hill;" but the connexion between these two worthies, if any, I confess myself quite unable to trace.

I conceive that Pillgarlick means "peeler of garlick," i.e. scullion; or, to borrow a phrase from a witness in a late case at the Middlesex sessions, {151} which has attracted some attention, "a person in a low way of life."

The passage from Skelton, cited by your correspondent F. S. Q., may, I think, be explained thus: the will is so powerful in man's moral constitution, that the reason must content itself with an inferior place (as that of a scullion compared with that of the master of the house); or if it attempts to assert its proper place, it will find it a hopeless endeavour—as hopeless as that of "rosting a stone."

X. Z.

Hornbooks (Vol. ii., pp. 167. 236.).—In answer to MR. TIMBS, I send you the following particulars of a Hornbook in the British Museum, which I have this morning examined.

It is marked in the new catalogue (Press Mark 828, a. 55.). It contains on one side the "Old English Alphabet"—the capitals in two lines, the small letters in one. The fourth line contains the vowels twice repeated (perhaps to doubly impress upon the pupil the necessity of learning them). Next follow, in two columns, our ancient companions, "ab, eb, ib," &c., and "ba, be, bi," &c. After the formula of exorcism comes the "Lord's Prayer" (which is given somewhat differently to our present version), winding up with "i. ii. iii. iiii. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x." On the other side is the following whimsical piece of composition:—

"What more could be wished for, even by a literary gourmand under the Tudors, than to be able to Read and Spell; To repeat that holy charm before which fled all unholy Ghosts, Goblins, or even the old Gentleman himself to the very bottom of the Red Sea, and to say that immortal prayer, which secures heaven to all who ex animo use it, and those mathematical powers, by knowing units, from which spring countless myriads."

Now for my "Query." Can any of your correspondents oblige me with the probable date of this literally literary treasure, or refer me to any source of information on the subject?

KENNETH R. H. MACKENZIE.

Bacon (Vol. iii., p. 41.).—The explanation given in a former number from old Verstegan, of the original meaning of the family name of Bacon, and the application of the word to the unclean beast, with the corroboration from the pages of Collins's Baronetage, is very interesting. The word, as applied to the salted flesh of the dead animal, is another instance of the introduction of a foreign term for a dead animal, in opposition to the Anglo-Saxon name of the living animal. It was used in this sense in France at a very early period; and Ampere, in his Histoire Litteraire de la France avant le 12ieme Siecle, iii. 482., mentions the word among other instances of Gallicisms in the Latin of the Carolingian diplomas and capitularies, and quotes the capitularies of Charles the Fat. Bacco, porc sale, from the vulgar word bacon, jambon. The word was in use as late as the seventeenth century in Dauphine, and the bordering cantons of Switzerland, and is cited in the Moyen de Parvenir, ch. 38. The passage is curious, as it would seem to intimate that Lord Bacon was one of the personages introduced in that very extraordinary production of the Rabelaisian school.

I have frequently heard the word employed by the country people in the markets of Geneva.

J. B. D.

Lachrymatories (Vol. ii., pp. 326. 448.).—In illustration of the question as to the probable use of those small vases so commonly found in sepulchral monuments, I extract the following from Wayfaring Sketches among the Greeks and Turks. 2d edit. Introduction, pp. 6, 7. London: Chapman, 1849.

"The poorest of the sepulchres is certain to contain (in Greece) at least a few of these beautiful vases, the lachrymatories, &c.

* * * * *

When found in the graves of females, their form would generally seem to indicate that they had been used for containing scents, and other requisites of the toilet; in one that was found not long since, there was a preparation evidently (?) of rouge or some such paint for the face, &c., the mark left by the pressure of two fingers of a small hand was distinctly visible (?)."

To me, ignorant as I am of antiquarian matters, this sounds very curious; and I send it you in case you may find it worthy of insertion, as provocative of discussion, and with the utilitarian idea that I may gain some information on the subject.

C. D. HAMONT.

Greenock, Jan. 16. 1851.

Scandal against Queen Elizabeth (Vol. iii., p. 11.).—An intercepted letter, apparently from a popish priest, preserved among the Venetian correspondence in the State Paper Office, gives the following account of the death-bed of the Queen; which, as illustrative of the observations of your correspondent CUDYN GYWN, may not be uninteresting:—

"London, 9 Martii, 1603.

"About 10 dayes synce dyed the Countess of Notingham. The Queene loved the Countess very much, and hath seemed to take her death very heavelye, remayning euer synce in a deepe melancholye, w^{th} conceipte of her own death, and complayneth of many infirmyties, sodainlye to haue ouertaken her, as impostūmecon in her head, aches in her bones, and continuall cold in her legges, besides notable decay in iudgem^t and memory, insomuch as she cannot attend to any discourses of governm^t and state, but delighteth to heare some of the 100 merry tales, and such like, and to such is uery attentiue; at other tymes uery impatient, and testye, so as none of the Counsayle, but the secretary, dare come in her presence."

May we not class this story of her majesty's {152} predilection for the hundred merry tales among the "black relations of the Jesuits?"

SPES.

Meaning of Cefn.—What is the meaning of the Welsh word "Cefn" used as prefix?

JOSEPHUS.

1. The first meaning of the word "Cefn" is, "the back;" e.g. "Cefn dyn," "the back of a man."

2. It also signifies "the upper part of the ridge of some elevated and exposed land." As a prefix, its meaning depends upon the fact whether the word attached to it be an adjective or a substantive. If an adjective be attached, it has the second signification; i.e. it is the upper part of some exposed land, having the particular quality involved in the adjective, such as, "Cefndu," "Cefngwyn," "Cefncoch," the black, white, or red headland.

When a substantive is attached, it has the first signification; i.e. it is the back of the thing signified by the substantive; such as, "Cefnllys," the back of the court.

E. L.

Portrait of Archbishop Williams (Vol. iii., p. 8.).—There is a portrait of this prelate in the library of the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, in the Cloisters. The greater part of the archbishop's library was given to this library, but only one volume of it seems to have been preserved. It is of this library the remark is made in J. Beeverell, Delices de la Grande Bretagne, p. 847., 12mo., 1707:

"Il se trouve dans le cloistre une bibliotheque publique, qui s'ouvre soir et matin pendant les seances des Cours de Justice dans Westminstre."

[mu].

Sir Alexander Cumming (Vol. iii., p. 39.).—In answer to an inquiry relative to Sir Alexander Cumming, of Culter, I may refer to the Scottish Journal (Menzies, Edin. 1848) of Topography, Antiquities, Traditions, &c., vol. ii. p. 254., where an extract from a MS. autobiography of the baronet is given. The work in which this occurs is little known; but, as a repertory of much curious and interesting information, deserved a more extensive circulation than it obtained. It stopped with the second volume, and is now somewhat scarce, as the unsold copies were disposed of for waste paper.

Pater-noster Tackling (Vol. iii., p. 89.).—Pater-noster fishing-tackle, so called in the shops, is used to catch fish (perch, for instance) which take the bait at various distances between the surface and the bottom of the water. Accordingly, hooks are attached to a line at given intervals throughout its length, with leaden shots, likewise regularly distributed, in order to sink it, and keep it extended perpendicularly in the water.

This regularity of arrangement, and the resemblance of the shots to beads, seems to have caused the contrivance to have been, somewhat fancifully, likened to a chaplet or rosary. In a rosary there is a bead longer than the rest, for distinction's sake called the Pater-noster; from whence that name applies to a rosary; and, therefore, to anything likened to it; and, therefore, to the article of fishing-tackle in question.

The word pater-noster, i.e. pater-noster-wise, is an heraldic term (vide Ash's Dictionary), applied to beads disposed in the form of a cross.

ROBERT SNOW.

Welsh Words for Water (Vol. iii., p. 30.).—

"It is quite surprising," says Sharon Turner (Trans. of the Royal Society of Literature, vol. i. pt. i. p. 97.), "to observe that, in all the four quarters of the world, many nations signify this liquid by a vocable of one or more syllables, from the letter M."

He mentions the Hebrew word for it, mim; in Africa he finds twenty-eight examples, in Asia sixteen, in South America five, in North America three, in Europe three; and elsewhere, in Canary Islands one, in New Zealand one. He adds—

"We trace the same radical in the Welsh more, the sea, and in the Latin mare, humor, humidus.[27]

"All these people cannot be supposed to have derived their sound from each other. It must have descended to them from some primitive source, common to all."

From the expression used by J. W. H., "the connexion of the Welsh dwr with the Greek [Greek: hudor] is remarkable," he appears not to have known that Vezron found so many resemblances in the Doric or Laconic dialect, and the Celtic, that he thereupon raised the theory that the Lacedaemonians and the Celts were of the same—the Titanic—stock.

T. J.

[Footnote 27: He may have added the Armoric or Breton mor, mar; and the Irish muir, mara.]

Early Culture of the Imagination (Vol. iii., p. 38.).—The germ of the thought alluded to by MR. GATTY is as ancient as the time of Plato, and may be found in the Republic, book ii. c. 17. If this will aid MR. GATTY in his research, it is gladly placed at his disposal by

KENNETH R. H. MACKENZIE.

January 20. 1851.

Venville (Vol. iii., p. 38.).—R. E. G. inquires respecting the origin of this word, as applied to certain tenants round Dartmoor Forest. The name is peculiar to that district, and is applied chiefly to certain vills or villages (for the most part also parishes), and to certain tenements within them, which pay fines to the Lord of Lidford and Dartmoor, viz. the Prince of Wales, as Duke of Cornwall. The fines are supposed to be due in respect either of rights of common on the forest, or of trespasses committed by cattle on it; for the point is a vexata quaestio between the lord and tenants of Dartmoor and the tenants of the Venville lands, which lie along the boundaries of it. {153} In the accounts rendered to the lord of these fines, there was a distinct title, headed "Fines Villarum" when these accounts were in Latin; and I think it cannot be doubted that the lands and tenures under this title came to be currently called Finevill lands from this circumstance. Hence Fenvill, Fengfield, or Venvill; the last being now the usual spelling and pronunciation. R. E. G. may see a specimen of these accounts, and further observations on them, in Mr. Rowe's very instructive Perambulation of Dartmoor, published a year or two ago at Plymouth.

E. S.

Cum Grano Salis (Vol. iii., p. 88.) simply means, with a grain of allowance; spoken of propositions which require qualification. The Cambridge man's explanation, therefore, does not suit the meaning. I have always supposed that salis was added to denote a small grain. I find in Forcellini that the Romans called a small flaw in crystals sal.

C. B.

Hoops (Vol. iii., p. 88.).—The examples given in Johnson's article Farthingale will sufficiently answer the question. Farthingales are mentioned in Latimer with much indignant eloquence:

"I trow Mary had never a verdingale."

If the question had been, not whether they were in use as early as 1651, but whether they were in use in 1651, perhaps there would have been more difficulty, for they do not appear in Hollar's dresses, 1640.

C. B.

Cranmer's Descendants (Vol. iii., p. 8.).—It may be of some interest to C. D. F. to be informed, that the newspapers of the time recorded the death of Mr. Bishop Cranmer of Wivelescombe, co. Somerset, on the 8th April, 1831, at the age of eighty-eight. He is said to have been a direct descendant of the martyred archbishop, to whose portraits he bore a strong personal resemblance.

J. D. S.

Shakspeare's Use of the Word "Captious" (Vol. ii., p. 354.).—Why may not the word have the same meaning as it has now? A captious person is not primarily a deceitful person, but either one who catches at any argument to uphold his own cause, or, more generally, one who catches or cavils at arguments or expressions used by another, and fastens a frivolous objection on them; one who takes exception to a point on paltry and insufficient grounds:

"Yet in this captious and intenible sieve I still pour in the waters of my love."

i.e. yet into this sieve, which catches at, and yet never holds them, I still pour the waters of my love.

There seems to me a double meaning of the word captious, indicating an under-current of thought in the author; first, the literal sense, then the inferential: "this sieve catches at and seems as if it would intercept the waters of my love, but takes me in, and disappoints me, because it will not uphold them." The objection to explaining captious by simply fallacious, is that the word means this by inference or consequence, rather than primarily. Because one who is eager to controvert, i.e. who is captious, generally, but not always, acts for a sophistical purpose and means to deceive. Cicero, I believe, uses fallax and captiosus as distinct, not as synonymous, terms.

E. A. D.

Boiling to Death (Vol. ii., p. 519.).—

"Impoysonments, so ordinary in Italy, are so abominable among English, as 21 Hen. 8. it was made high treason, though since repealed; after which the punishment for it was to be put alive in a caldron of water, and there boiled to death: at present it is felony without benefit of clergy."—Chamberlayne's State of England,—an old copy, without a title-page.

Judging from the list of bishops and maids of honour, I believe the date to be 1669.

WEDSECNARF.

Dozen of Bread (Vol. ii., p. 49.).—The Duchess of Newcastle says of her Nature's Picture:

"In this volume there are several feigned stories, &c. Also there are some morals and some dialogues; but they are as the advantage loaf of bread to the baker's dozen." 1656.

WEDSECNARF.

Friday Weather (Vol. iii., p. 7.).—A very old friend of mine, a Shropshire lady, tells me that her mother (who was born before 1760) used to say that Friday was always the fairest, or the foulest, day of the week.

WEDSECNARF.

Saint Paul's Clock (Vol. iii., p. 40.).—In reply to MR. CAMPKIN'S Query, I send you the following extract from Easton's Human Longevity (London, 1799):

"James Hatfield died in 1770, aged 105. Was formerly a soldier: when on duty as a centinel at Windsor, one night, at the expiration of his guard, he heard St. Paul's clock, London, strike thirteen strokes instead of twelve, and not being relieved as he expected he fell asleep; in which situation he was found by the succeeding guard, who soon after came to relieve him; for such neglect he was tried by a court-martial, but pleading that he was on duty his legal time, and asserting, as a proof, the singular circumstance of hearing St. Paul's clock strike thirteen strokes, which, upon inquiry, proved true—he was in consequence acquitted."

J. B. COLMAN.

Lunardi (Vol. ii., p. 469.).—I remember seeing Lunardi's balloon pass over the town of Ware, previous to its fall at Standon. I have seen the moonstone described by your correspondent C. J. F., but all that I can remember of an old song on the occasion is. "They thought it had been the man in the moon," alluding to the men in the fields, who ran away frightened. But a servant girl had {154} the courage to take the rope thrown out by Lunardi, and was well rewarded. It caused a great sensation, and many of the principal inhabitants of Ware and Wadesmill assembled with Lunardi at the Feathers Inn, at the latter place.

J. TAYLOR.

Newick, Sussex.

Outline in Painting.—J. O. W. H. (Vol. i., p. 318.) and H. C. K. (Vol. iii., p. 63.) are earnestly referred, for resolution of their doubts, to the work by Mr. Ruskin, in 2 vols. large 8vo., entitled Modern Painters, by a Graduate of Oxford, published by Smith and Elder, 1846.

ROBERT SNOW.

Handbell before a Corpse (vol. iii., p. 68.).—Your correspondent [Hebrew: B]. has too inconsiderately dismissed the Query which he has undertaken to answer touching the custom of ringing a handbell in advance of a funeral procession. He says, "I have never considered it as anything but a cast of the bell-man's office, to add more solemnity to the occasion."

The custom is invariably observed throughout Italy, and is common in France and Spain. I have witnessed at least some hundreds of funerals in various cities and villages of Piedmont, Sardinia, Tuscany, the Roman States, Naples, Elba, and Sicily; and in Malta; yet never knew I one without the handbell.

Its object, as first explained to me in Florence, is to clear the way for the procession; to remind passengers and loiterers to take off their hats; and to call the pious to their doors and windows to gaze upon the emblems of mortality, and to say a prayer for the repose of the departed soul.

NOCAB.

Brandon the Juggler (Vol. ii., p. 424.).—Your correspondent T. CR. is referred to Scot's Discoverie of Witchcraft, p. 308. (edit. 1584) for a notice of this person and his pigeon.

JAS. CROSSLEY.

"Words are Men's Daughters" (Vol. iii., p. 38.).—This line is taken from Dr. Madden's Boulter's Monument (Dublin, 1745, 8vo.), a poem which was revised by Dr. Johnson, but to which little attention has been paid by his biographers. Mr. Croker observes (edit. of Boswell, 1848, p. 107. note)—

"Dr. Madden wrote very bad verses. The few lines in Boulter's monument which rise above mediocrity may be attributed to Johnson."

Those who take the trouble to refer to the poem itself, will, notwithstanding Mr. Croker's hasty criticism, find a great many fine and vigorous passages, in which the hand of Johnson is clearly distinguishable, and which ought not to be allowed to remain unnoticed. Perhaps on a future occasion I may, in support of this opinion, give some specimens from the poem. The line as to which T. J. inquires,—

"Words are men's daughters, but God's Sons are things,"—

and which is in allusion to Genesis vi. 2. 4., is, I entertain no doubt, one of Dr. Johnson's insertions.

JAS. CROSSLEY.

"Fine by degrees, and beautifully less" (Vol. iii., p. 105.).—This line is from Prior's "Henry and Emma," a poem, upon the model of the "Nut-brown Maid." I copy part of the passage in which it occurs, for the sake of any of your readers who may be lovers of context, and may not have the poem at hand to refer to.

"Henry [addressing Emma]. "Vainly thou tell'st me what the woman's care Shall in the wildness of the woods prepare; 420 Thou, ere thou goest, unhappiest of thy kind, Must leave the habit and the sex behind. No longer shall thy comely tresses break In flowing ringlets on thy snowy neck; Or sit behind thy head, an ample round, In graceful braids with various ribbon bound: No longer shall the bodice aptly lac'd From thy full bosom to thy slender waist, That air and harmony of shape express, Fine by degrees, and beautifully less: 430 Nor shall thy lower garments' artful plait, From thy fair side dependent to thy feet, Arm their chaste beauties with a modest pride, And double every charm they seek to hide."

C. FORBES.

Temple, Feb. 10.

[We are also indebted for replies to this Query to Robert Snow, Fras. Crossley, A. M., J. J. M., A. H., S. T., E. S. T. T., V., W. K., R. B., and other correspondents. C. H. P. remarks:

"Pope, who died in 1744, twenty-three years after Prior, evidently had this line in view when he wrote as follows:—

"'Ladies, like variegated tulips, show; 'Tis to their changes half their charms they owe; Fine by defect, and delicately weak, Their happy spots the nice admirer take.'"

And J. H. M. tells us, "The late Lord Ellenborough applied the line somewhat ignobly, when speaking of bristles, in a dispute between two brushmakers."]

"The Soul's dark Cottage" (Vol. iii., p. 105.).—The couplet "EFFARESS" inquires for, is to be found in Waller's poems. It is a production of his later years, and occurs in the epilogue to his "Poems of Divine Love," and "Of the Fear of God," &c., thus:—

"The soul's dark cottage, batter'd and decay'd, Lets in new light through chinks that time has made, Stronger by weakness, wiser, men become, As they draw nigh to their eternal home. Leaving the old, both worlds at once they view, That stand upon the threshold of the new."

{155}

There is another couplet worth citing—

"The seas are quiet, when the winds give o'er; So calm are we, when passions are no more."

How different were the effusions of Waller's earlier muse! In the year 1645, Humphrey Mosley published "Poems, &c., written by Mr. Ed. Waller, of Beaconsfield, Esquire, lately a Member of the Honourable House of Commons." The title-page also states that—

"All the Lyrick Poems in this Booke were set by Mr. Henry Lawes of the King's Chappell, and one of his Majesties Private Musick."

It is not a little remarkable that the same publisher, in the same year, should have also given to the world the first edition of that precious volume—Milton's Minor Poems; and, in the advertisement prefixed, he thus adverts to the circumstance:—

"That incouragement I have already received from the most ingenious men, in their clear and courteous entertainment of Mr. Waller's late choice Peeces, hath onece more made me adventure into the world, presenting it with these ever-green and not to be blasted laurels."

Had Humphrey Mosley any presentiment of the deathless fame of Milton?

S. W. SINGER.

"The Soul's dark Cottage," &c. (Vol. iii., p. 105.).—This admired couplet can never escape recollection. It was written by Waller. From the tenor of some preceding lines, and the place which the verses occupy in the edition of 1693, they must be among the latest of his compositions.

BOLTON CORNEY.

[A. H. H., R. B., C. J. R., H. G. T., and other friends have replied to this Query.

The Rev. J. Sansom points out a kindred passage in his poem of Divine Love, canto vi. p. 249.:

"The soul contending to that light to fly From her dark cell," &c.

H. G. sends a beautiful parallel passage from Fuller (Holy State Life of Monica): "Drawing near her death, she sent most pious thoughts as harbingers to heaven, and her soul saw a glimpse of happiness through the chinks of her sickness-broken body." And J. H. M. informs us that amongst Duke's Poems is a most flattering one addressed to Waller, evidently allusive to the lines in question.]

"Beauty Retire" (Vol. iii., p. 105.).—The lines beginning "Beauty Retire," which Pepys set to music, taken from the second part of the Siege of Rhodes, act iv. scene 2., are printed in the 5th volume of the Memoirs, p. 250., 3rd edition.

I believe the music exists in the Pepysian Library, but any of the Fellows of Magdalene College could ascertain the fact.

BRAYBROOKE.

Mythology of the Stars (Vol. iii., p. 70.).—I would here add to my recommendation of Captain Smyth's Celestial Cycle (ante, p. 70.), that soon after it appeared it obtained for its author the annual gold medal of the Royal Astronomical Society; and that it is a book adapted to the exigencies of astronomers of all degrees, from the experienced astronomer, furnished with every modern refinement of appliances and means of observation, to the humbler, but perhaps no less zealous beginner, furnished only with a good pair of natural eyes, aided, on occasion, by the common opera-glass. Such an observer, if he goes the right way to work, will make sure of a high degree of entertainment and instruction, and may reasonably hope to light on a discovery or two, worthy, even in the present day, of being recorded.

ROBERT SNOW.

Simon Bache (Vol. iii., p. 105.).—Thesaurarius Hospitii.—The office of "Thesaurarius Hospitii," about which A. W. H. inquires, means, I believe, "Treasurer of the Household." In Chauncy's Hertfordshire, vol. ii. p. 102., the inscription on Simon Bache is given in the same terms as by your correspondent. The learned author then gives, at p. 103., the epitaph on another monument also in Knebworth Church, erected to the memory of John Hotoft, in which occur these two lines:

"Hospitii regis qui Thesaurarius olim Henrici sexti merito pollebat honore."

At p. 93. of the same volume, Sir Henry Chauncy speaks of the same John Hotoft as an eminent man, and sheriff of the county, and adds:

"He was also Treasurer of the King's Household afterwards; he dyed and was buried in the chancel of this church, where his monument remains at this day."

Who Simon Bache was, or how he came to be buried at Knebworth, I cannot tell. The name of "Bach" occurs in Chauncy several times, as that of mayors and assistants, at Hertford, between 1672 and 1689.

J. H. L.

Winifreda (Vol. iii., p. 108.).—It may perhaps interest LORD BRAYBROOKE and J. H. M. to know, that I have in my possession the copy of Dodsley's Minor Poems, which belonged to John Gilbert Cooper, and which was bought at the sale of his grandson, the late Colonel John Gilbert-Cooper-Gardiner. The song of "Winifreda" is at page 282. of the 4th volume; and a manuscript note, in the handwriting of the son of the author of Letters concerning Taste, states it to have been written "by John Gilbert Cooper." The praise bestowed by Cooper on the poem, and which J. H. M. conceives to militate against his claim to the composition, is obviously intended to apply to the original, and not to Cooper's elegant translation.

A.

Newark.

Queries on Costume (Vol. iii., p. 88.).—Addison's paper in the Spectator, No. 127., seems to be {156} conclusive that hooped petticoats were not in use so early as the year 1651. The anecdote in connection with the subject related in Wilson's Life of De Foe, has always appeared to me very questionable, not only on that consideration, but because Charles was at the time a fine tall young man of more than twenty-one years of age, and at the only period that he could have been in the neighbourhood referred to, he was on horseback and attended by at least two persons, who were also mounted. Neither can the circumstances related be at all reconciled with the particulars given by Clarendon and subsequent writers, who have professed to correct the statements of that historian by authority.

J. D. S.

Antiquitas Saeculi Juventus Mundi (Vol. ii., p. 218.; Vol. iii., p. 125.).—Permit me again to express my opinion, with due deference to the eminent authorities cited in your pages, that the comprehensive words of Lord Bacon, "Antiquitas saeculi juventus mundi," were not borrowed from any author, ancient or modern. But it would be a compliment which that great genius would have been the first to ridicule, were we to affirm that no anterior writer had adopted analogous language in expressing the benefits of "the philosophy of time." On the contrary, he would have called our attention to the expressions of the Egyptian priest addressed to Solon, (see a few pages beyond the one referred to in his Advancement of Learning):

"Ye Grecians are ever children, ye have no knowledge of antiquity nor antiquity of knowledge."

The words of Bacon to me appear to be a condensation of the well-known dialogue in Plato's Timaeus, above quoted, as will, I hope, appear in the following paraphrase:

"Apud vos propter inundationes ineunte modo saeculo nihil scientiarum est augmentationis. Quoad nos juventus mundi ac terrae Aegyptiacae, qua nulla hominum exitia fuerunt, progrediente tempore, antiquitas fit saeculi, et antiquissimarum rerum apud nos momumenta servantur."

T. J.

Lady Bingham (Vol. iii., p. 61.).—Lady Bingham, whose daughter, afterwards Lady Crewe, was unsuccessfully courted by Sir Symonds D'Ewes (for which see his autobiography), was Sarah, the daughter of John Heigham, Esq., of Gifford's Hall in Urekham Brook, Suffolk, of the same family with Sir Clement Heigham, Knt., of Barrow, Suffolk, Speaker of the House of Commons. She was married by banns at St. Olave's, Hart Street, Jan. 11, 1588, to Sir Richard Bingham, Knt., of co. Dorset. She married, secondly, Edward Waldegrave, Esq., of Lawford, Essex, to whom she was second wife, and by him had Jemima, afterwards Lady Crewe. Edward Waldegrave, married to his first wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Bartholomew Averell, of Southminster, Essex, had by her an only daughter, Anne, who married Drew, afterwards Sir Drew Drury, Bart., of Riddlesworth, Norfolk. He, Edward Waldegrave, was descended from a younger branch of the family of Waldegrave, of Smallbridge, in the parish of Bures, Suffolk, from whence descends the present Earl Waldegrave.

Lady Bingham lies buried in the chancel of Lawford church, where a stone in the floor states her age to have been sixty-nine, and that she was buried Sept. 9. 1634. There is also another stone in the floor for Edward Waldegrave, Esq., who married Dame Sarah Bingham, by whom he had one daughter, Jemima, who was married to John Stearne (a mistake evidently for Stene, the seat of James Lord Crewe). Edward Waldegrave was buried Feb. 13, 1621, aged about sixty-eight.

The large monument in Lawford church is for the father of this Edward Waldegrave, who died in 1584.

D. A. Y.

Proclamation of Langholme Fair (Vol. iii., p. 56.).—MONKBARNS wishes the meaning of the choice expressions in the proclamation. They may be explained as follows:—Hustrin, hustling, or riotously inclined, being so consonanted to make it alliterate with custrin, spelt by Jamieson, custroun, and signifying a pitiful fellow. Chaucer has the word truston in this sense.

Land-louper, one who runs over the country, a vagabond.

Dukes-couper I take to be a petty dealer in ducks or poultry, and to be used in a reproachful sense, as we find "pedlar," "jockey," &c.

Gang-y-gate swinger, a fighting man, who goes swaggering in the road (or gate); a roisterer who takes the wall of every one. Swing is an old word for a stroke or blow.

Durdam is an old word meaning an uproar, and akin to the Welsh word dowrd. Urdam may be a corruption of whoredom, but is more probably prefixed to the genuine word as a co-sounding expletive.

Brabblement seems to be a derivative from the Scotch verb "bra," to make a loud and disagreeable noise (see Jamieson); and squabblement explains itself.

Lugs, ears; tacked, nailed; trone, an old word, properly signifying the public weighing-machine, and sometimes used for the pillory.

A nail o' twal-a-penny is, of course, a nail of that size and sort of which twelve are bought for a penny.

Until he down of his hobshanks, and up with his muckle doubs, evidently means, until he goes down on his knees and raises his hands. Hobshanks is, I think, still in common use. Of doubs I can give no explanation.

W. T. M.

Edinburgh, Jan. 29th.

Burying in Church Walls (Vol. iii., p. 37.).—To {157} the examples mentioned by N. of tombs in church walls, may be added the remarkable ones at Bottisham, Cambridgeshire. There are several of these in the south aisle, with arches internally and externally: the wall between resting on the coffin lid. They are, of course, coeval with the church, which is fine early Decorated. They are considered, I believe, to be memorials of the priors of Anglesey, a neighbouring religious house. They will, no doubt, be fully elucidated in the memoir of Bottisham and Anglesey, which is understood to be in preparation by members of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. At Trumpington, in the same county, is a recessed tomb of Decorated date, in the south wall of the chancel, externally.

C. R. M.

Defender of the Faith (Vol. ii., pp. 442. 481.; Vol. iii., pp. 9. 94.).—Should not King Edward the Confessor's claim to defend the church as God's Vicar be added to the several valuable notices in relation to the title Defender of the Faith, with which some of your learned contributors have favoured us through your pages?

According to Hoveden, one of the laws adopted from the Anglo-Saxons by William was:

"Rex autem atque vicarius Ejus ad hoc est constitutus, ut regnum terrenum, populum Dei, et super omnia sanctam ecclesiam, revereatur et ab injuriatoribus defendat," &c.

Which duty of princes was further enforced by the words—

"Illos decet vocari reges, qui vigilant, defendunt, et regunt Ecclesiam Dei et populum Ejus, imitantes regem psalmographum," &c.—Vid. Rogeri de Hoveden Annal., par. post., Sec.. Regis Officium; ap. Rerum Anglicarum Scriptores post Bedam, ed. Francof. 1601, p. 604. Conf. Prynne's Chronol. Records, ed. Lond. 1666, tom i. p. 310.

This law appears always to have been received as of authority after the Conquest; and it may, perhaps, be considered as the first seed of that constitutional church supremacy vested in our sovereigns, which several of our kings before the Reformation had occasion to vindicate against Papal claims, and which Henry VIII. strove to carry in the other direction, to an unconstitutional excess.

J. SANSOM.

Sauenap, Meaning of (Vol. ii., p. 479.).—The word probably means a napkin or pinafore; the two often, in old times, the same thing. The Cornish name for pinafore is save-all. (See Halliwell's Arch. Dict.) I need not add that nap, napery, was a common word for linen.

GEORGE STEPHENS.

Stockholm.

Sir Thomas Herbert's Memoirs (Vol. ii., p. 476.).—The memoirs of Charles I. by Sir Thomas Herbert were published in 1702. I transcribe the title from a copy in my possession:—

"Memoirs of the two last years of the reign of that unparall'd prince, of ever blessed memory, king Charles I. By sir Tho. Herbert, major Huntingdon, col. Edw. Coke, and Mr. Hen. Firebrace, etc. London, Rob. Clavell, 1702, 8vo."

The volume, for a publication of that period, is of uncommon occurrence. It was printed, as far as above described, "from a manuscript of the Right Reverend the Bishop of Ely, lately deceased." The remainder of the volume consists of reprinted articles.

BOLTON CORNEY.

Robert Burton (Vol. iii., p. 106.).—The supposition that the author of the Anatomy of Melancholy was born at Fald, Staffordshire, instead of Lindley, Leicestershire, seems probable from the fact, that in an edition of the History of Leicestershire, by his brother William, I find that the latter dates his preface "From Falde, neere Tutbury, Staff., Oct. 30. 1622." In this work, also, under the head "Lindley," is given the pedigree of his family, commencing with "James de Burton, Squier of the body to King Richard the First;" down to "Rafe Burton, of Lindley, borne 1547; died 17 March, 1619;" leaving "Robert Burton, bachelor of divinity and student of Christ Church, Oxon; author of the Anatomy of Melancholy; borne 8 of Febr. 1578;" and "William Burton, author of this work (History of Leicestershire), borne 24 of Aug. 1575, now dwelling at Falde, ann. 1622."

T. T.

Leicester.

Drachmarus (Vol. iii., p. 105.).—If your correspondents (Nos. 66 and 67.) who have inquired for a book called Jartuare, and for a writer named "Drachmarus," would add a little to the length of their questions, so as not by extra-briefness to deaden the dexterity of conjecturers, perhaps they might be nearer to the reception of replies. Many stranger things have happened than that Drachmarus should be renovated by the context into Christian Druthmar.

Averia (Vol. iii., p. 42.).—I have long desired to know the exact meaning of averia, but I have not met with a good explanation until lately. It is clear, however, from the following legal expression, "Nullus distringatur per averia carucae." Caruca is the French charrue, and therefore averia must mean either cart-horses or oxen which draw the plough.

P.

Dragons (Vol. iii., p. 40.).—I think the Draco of the Crusaders' times must have been the Boa constrictor. If you will look into St. Jerome's Vitas Patrum, you will find that he mentions the trail of a "draco" seen in the sand in the Desert, which appeared as if a great beam had been dragged along. I think it not likely that a crocodile would have {158} ventured so far from the banks of the Nile as to be seen in the Desert.

P.

* * * * *

Miscellaneous.

NOTES ON BOOKS, SALES, CATALOGUES, ETC.

The members of the Percy Society have just received the third and concluding volume of The Canterbury Tales of Geoffrey Chaucer, a new Text, with Illustrative Notes, edited by Thomas Wright, Esq. It is urged as an objection to Tyrwhitt's excellent edition of the Canterbury Tales, that one does not know his authority for any particular reading, inasmuch as he has given what he considered the best among the different MSS. he consulted. Mr. Wright has gone on an entirely different principle. Considering the Harleian MS. (No. 7334.) as both "the oldest and best manuscript he has yet met with," he has "reproduced it with literal accuracy," and for the adoption of this course Mr. Wright may plead the good example of German scholars when editing the Nibelungen Lied. That the members of the Society approve the principle of giving complete editions of works like the present, has been shown by the anxiety with which they have looked for the completion of Mr. Wright's labours; and we doubt not that, if the Council follow up this edition of the Canterbury Tales with some other of the collected works which they have announced—such as those of Hoccleve, Taylor the Water Poet, &c.—they will readily fill up any vacancies which may now exist in their list of members.

Mr. Parker has just issued another handsome, and handsomely illustrated volume to gladden the hearts of all ecclesiologists and architectural antiquaries. We allude to Mr. Freeman's Essay on the Origin and Development of Window Tracery in England, which consists of an improved and extended form of several papers on the subject of Tracery read before the Oxford Architectural Society at intervals during the years 1846 and 1848. To those of our readers who know what are Mr. Freeman's abilities for the task he has undertaken, the present announcement will be a sufficient inducement to make them turn to the volume itself; while those who have not yet paid any attention to this interesting chapter in the history of Architectural progress, will find no better introduction to the study of it than Mr. Freeman's able volume with its four hundred illustrations.

Mr. Foss has, we hear, gone to press with two additional volumes of his Judges of England, which will carry his subject down to the end of the reign of Richard III.

The Athenaeum of Saturday last announces that the remaining Stowe MSS., including the unpublished Diaries and Correspondence of George Grenville, have been bought by Mr. Murray, of Albemarle Street, from the Trustees of the Duke of Buckingham. The correspondence will form about four volumes, and will be ready to appear among our next winter's novelties. The Grenville Diary reveals, it is said, the secret movements of Lord Bute's administration—the private histories of Wilkes and Lord Chatham—and the features of the early madness of George III.; while the Correspondence exhibits Wilkes, we are told, in a new light—and reveals (what the Stowe Papers were expected to reveal) something of moment about Junius; So that we may at length look for the solution of this important query.

Messrs. Puttick and Simpson (191. Piccadilly) will sell, on Monday and Tuesday next, a collection of Choice Books, mostly in beautiful condition. Among the more curious lots are, an unpublished work of Archbishop Laud, on Church Government, said to have been presented to Charles I. for the instruction of Prince Henry; and an unique Series of Illustrations for Scotland, consisting of several thousand engravings, and many interesting drawings and autographs.

We have received the following Catalogues:—Bernard Quaritch's (16. Castle Street, Leicester Square) Catalogue (No. 24.) of Books in European and Oriental Languages and Dialects, Fine Arts, Antiquities, &c.; Waller and Son's (188. Fleet Street) Catalogue of Autograph Letters and Manuscripts, English and Foreign, containing many rare and interesting Documents.

* * * * *

BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES WANTED TO PURCHASE.

CONDER'S PROVINCIAL COINS. Publisher's name I cannot recollect. HISTORICAL REGISTER for 1st February, 1845, price 6d. No. 5.; also for 22d February, 1845, price 6d. No. 8., and subsequent Numbers till its discontinuation. Published by Wallbridge, 7. Catherine Street, Strand. LULLII (RAYMONDI) OPERA, Mogunt, 10 Vols. fol., 1721-42. LICETI (FORTUNII) DE QUAESITIS PER EPISTOLAS, Bonon. 7 tom. 4to., 1640-50. SCALICHII SIVE SCALIGERI (PAULI) OPERA, Basil, 1559, 4to. —— OCCULTA OCCULTORUM, Vienn. 1556, 4to. —— SATIRAE PHILOSOPHICAE, Regiom. 1563, 8vo. —— MISCELLANEORUM, Colon. 1570, 4to. —— DE VITA EJUS ET SCRIPTIS, 4to., Ulmae, 1803. RESPONSA JURIS CONSULTORUM DE ORIGINE GENTE ET NOMINE PAULI SCALIGERI, Colon. 1567, 4to. SCALIGERONUM ANNALES, Colon. sine anno in 12mo. SCALIGERI (JOS.) MESOLABIUM, Ludg. Bat. 1594. fol. GRUBINII (OPORINI) AMPHOTIDES SCIOPPIANAE, Paris, 1611, 8vo. CARDANI (HIERON) OPUSCULA MEDICA ET PHILOSOPHICA, Basil, 1566, 2 Vols. 8vo. —— CONTRADICENTIUM MEDICORUM, Lugd. 1584, 4to. —— THEONOSTON, Rom. 1617, 4to. —— DE IMMORTALITATE ANIMORUM, Ludg. 1545, 12mo. —— DE MALO MEDENDI USU, Venet. 1536, 12mo. CAMPANELLAE (THOMAE) PHILOSOPHIA SENSIBUS DEMONSTRATA, Neap., 1591, 4to. GASSENDI (PETRI) EPISTOLICA EXERCITATIO, IN QUA PRINCIPIA ROB. FLUDDI MEDICI DETEGUNTUR, Paris, 1630, 8vo. SCIOPPII (GASP.) ELOGIA SCIOPPIANA, Papiae, 1617, 4to. —— DE AUGUSTA DOM^S AUSTRIAE ORIGINE, Const., 1651, 12mo. —— OBSERVATIONES LINGUAE LATINAE, Francof., 1609, 8vo. NAUDAEI (GAB.) GRATIARUM ACTIO IN COLLEGIO PATAV., Venet., 1633, 8vo. —— INSTAURATIO TABULARII REATINI, Romae, 1640, 4to.

*** Letters stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, to be sent to Mr. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

* * * * *

Notices to Correspondents.

J. E., The price of "NOTES AND QUERIES" is 3d. per Number. There was an extra charge for the Index; and No. 65. was a double Number, price 6d. The taking of the Index was, as Lubin Log says, "quite optional." {159}

PHILO-STEVENS. We do not know of any Memoir of the late Mr. Price, the Editor of Warton's History of English Poetry. There is not certainly one prefixed to any edition of Warton. Mr. Price was a thorough scholar, and well deserving of such a memorial.

E. S. T. Only waiting for an opportunity of using them.

MARTIN FAMILY (of Wivenhoe). CLERICUS, who sought for information respecting this Family, may, by application to our publisher, learn the address of a gentleman who has collected evidence of their pedigree.

DE NAVORSCHER. Mr. Nutt, of 270. Strand, is the London Agent for this interesting work, of which we have received the January and February Numbers.

Our MONTHLY PART for FEBRUARY, price 1s. 3d., will be ready on Wednesday next.

REPLIES RECEIVED. Salisbury CraigsShaking HandsRobert BurtonUlm MS.Metrical PsalmsBooty's CaseLanguage given to ManEiselLammer BeadsTradescantMunchausenSixes and SevensUnder the Rose, &c. (from Ache)Waste BookCracowe PikeGlovesDescent of Henry IV.Lord Howard of EffinghamLincoln MissalPrayer at the HealingHats of CardinalsAverSt. Paul's Clock.

NOTE AND QUERIES may be procured, by order, of all Booksellers and Newsvenders. It is published at noon on Friday, so that our country Subscribers ought not to experience any difficulty in procuring it regularly. Many of the country Booksellers, &c., are, probably, not yet aware of this arrangement, which will enable them to receive NOTES AND QUERIES in their Saturday parcels.

All communications for the Editor of NOTES AND QUERIES should be addressed to the care of MR. BELL, No. 186. Fleet Street.

Erratum.—No. 67. p. 101. l. 4., for a read an.

* * * * *

An unpublished MS. of ARCHBISHOP LAUD on Church Government, and very Choice Books, Mahogany Glazed Book-case, Two Fine Marble Figures, &c.

PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, Auctioneers of Literary Property, will SELL by AUCTION, at their Great Room, 191. Piccadilly, on MONDAY, February 24th, and following Day, a Collection of very Choice Books in beautiful Condition, Books of Prints, Picture Galleries, a Fine Set of Curtis' Botanical Magazine; a beautiful Series of Pennant's Works, in russia; Musee Francaise and Musee Royal, morocco; Annual Register, whole-bound in calf, and numerous other valuable Books, many in rich bindings.

Catalogues will be sent on application.

* * * * *

Highly Interesting Autograph Letters.

PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, Auctioneers of Literary Property, will SELL by AUCTION, at their Great Room, 191. Piccadilly, on FRIDAY, February 28th, a highly Interesting Collection of Autograph Letters, particularly Letters of Modern Poets, CRABBE, BYRON, &c.; some very rare Documents connected with the Scottish History; an Extraordinary Declaration issued by James III., the Old Pretender; and many others of equal consequence.

Catalogues will be sent on application.

* * * * *

Valuable Library, late the Property of the Rev. GEORGE INNES, Head Master of the King's School, Warwick, deceased. Six Days' Sale.

PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, Auctioneers of Literary Property, will SELL by AUCTION, at their Great Room, 191. Piccadilly, on MONDAY, March 3rd, and Five following Days, the valuable LIBRARY of the late Rev. GEORGE INNES, consisting of Theology; Greek and Latin Classics; the Works of Standard Historians, Poets and Dramatists; a Complete Set of the Gentleman's Magazine to 1842; a few County Histories, all in good condition, many handsomely bound.

Catalogues will be sent on application.

* * * * *

SOWERBY'S ENGLISH BOTANY. Now ready, Vol. IV. price 1l. 16s. cloth boards.

Vols. I. II. and III., price 1l. 19s. 6d. each, and cases for binding the Vols. always on hand.

*** Subscribers who may desire to complete their copies can do so from the stock of the second edition, at Re-issue price.

To be had of Mr. SOWERBY, 3. Mead Place, Lambeth; and of all Booksellers.

* * * * *

WHITAKER'S CLERGYMAN'S DIARY AND ECCLESIASTICAL CALENDAR FOR 1851, containing a Diary with the Lessons, Collects, and Directions for Public Worship, with blank spaces for Memoranda for every Day in the Year, the Sundays and other Holidays being printed in red.

The Ecclesiastical Calendar contains a list of all the Bishops, Deans, Archdeacons, Canons, Prebendaries, and other dignitaries of the United Church of England and Ireland, arranged under their respective Dioceses. The Bishops and other Dignitaries of the Colonial Church, the Scottish and American Episcopal Churches; Statistics of the Roman Catholic and Greek Churches, the various bodies of Dissenters, Religious Societies in connexion with the Church, with their Income and Expenditure; Directions to Candidates for Holy Orders, Curates, and newly-appointed Incumbents; the Universities, Heads of Houses, Prizes, &c.

The Miscellaneous Part contains complete Lists of both Houses of Parliament, the Ministry, Judges, &c., Tables of the Revenue, Taxes, Wages, &c., with a variety of matter useful to all Clergymen, the whole forming a COMPLETE AND CONVENIENT CLERGYMAN'S POCKET BOOK. Price, in cloth, 3s., or with a tuck as a pocket book, roan, 5s., or in morocco, 6s. 6d.

"It appears to be exceedingly well got up, and to contain all that a clergyman or churchman can desire."—Guardian.

"Well arranged, and full of useful matter."—John Bull.

"The most complete and useful thing of the kind."—Christian Remembrancer.

Oxford: JOHN HENRY PARKER; and 377. Strand, London.

* * * * *

Committee for the Repair of the TOMB OF GEOFFREY CHAUCER.

JOHN BRUCE, Esq., Treas. S.A. J. PAYNE COLLIER, Esq., V.P.S.A. PETER CUNNINGHAM, Esq., F.S.A. WILLIAM RICHARD DRAKE, Esq., F.S.A. THOMAS W. KING, Esq., F.S.A. SIR FREDERICK MADDEN, K.H. JOHN GOUGH NICHOLS, Esq., F.S.A. HENRY SHAW, Esq., F.S.A. SAMUEL SHEPHERD, Esq., F.S.A. WILLIAM J. THOMS, Esq., F.S.A.

The Tomb of Geoffrey Chaucer in Westminster Abbey is fast mouldering into irretrievable decay. A sum of One Hundred Pounds will effect a perfect repair. The Committee have not thought it right to fix any limit to the contribution; they themselves have opened the list with a subscription from each of them of Five Shillings; but they will be ready to receive any amount, more or less, which those who value poetry and honour Chaucer may be kind enough to remit to them.

Subscriptions have been received from the Earls of Carlisle, Ellesmere, and Shaftsbury, Viscounts Strangford and Mahon Pres. Soc. Antiq., The Lords Braybrooke and Londesborough, and many other noblemen and gentlemen.

Subscriptions are received by all the members of the Committee, and at the Union Bank, Pall Mall East. Post-office orders may be made payable at the Charing Cross Office, to William Richard Drake, Esq., the Treasurer, 46. Parliament Street, or William J. Thoms, Esq., Hon. Sec., 25. Holy-Well Street, Millbank.

{160}

* * * * *

Now Ready, in 200 pages, Demy 18mo.,

WITH A PICTORIAL VIEW AND GROUND PLAN OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION BUILDING,

AND VIEW OF THE BIRMINGHAM EXPOSITION.

Price, in Fancy Binding, 2s. 6d., or Post Free, 3s.

Dedicated to His Royal Highness Price Albert

GILBERT'S POPULAR NARRATIVE

OF THE ORIGIN, HISTORY, PROGRESS, AND PROSPECTS OF THE

GREAT INDUSTRIAL EXHIBITION,

1851;

WITH A GUIDE TO THE FUTURE RULES AND ARRANGEMENTS. By PETER BERLYN.

* * * * *

PUBLISHED BY JAMES GILBERT, 49. PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON. Orders Received by all Booksellers, Stationers, and Newsvendors.

* * * * *

Just published, No. 5., price 2s. 6d.,

DETAILS OF GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE, Measured and Drawn from existing Examples. By JAMES K. COLLING, Architect.

CONTENTS: Archway from Bishop Burton Church and Corbel from Wawn Church, Yorkshire. Font from Bradfield Church, Norfolk. Nave Arches, St. Mary's Church, Beverley. Clerestory Windows from ditto. One compartment of Nave and Label Terminations from ditto.

London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

* * * * *

ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE.—The Volume of Transactions of the LINCOLN MEETING, to which Subscribers for the year 1848 are entitled, is ready for delivery, and may be obtained, on application at the Office of the Society, 26. Suffolk Street, Pall Mall. Directions regarding transmission of copies to Country Members should be addressed to GEORGE VULLIAMY, Esq., Secretary. The Norwich Volume is also completed, and will be forthwith delivered.

It is requested that all arrears of subscription may be remitted without delay to the Treasurer, EDWARD HAWKINS, Esq. The Journal, No. 29., commencing Vol. VIII., will be published at the close of March, and forwarded, Postage Free, to all Members not in arrear of their contributions.

The SALISBURY VOLUME is nearly ready for delivery. Subscribers' names received by the Publisher,

GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

* * * * *

THE DEVOTIONAL LIBRARY, Edited by WALTER FARQUHAR HOOK, D.D., Vicar of Leeds. Just Published.

THE HISTORY OF OUR LORD AND SAVIOUR JESUS CHRIST. With suitable Meditations and Prayers. By WILLIAM READING, M.A. (Reprinted from the Edition of 1737.) 32mo. cloth, price 2s.

Also,

DEVOUT MUSINGS ON THE BOOK OF PSALMS, Part 3. Psalms LXXVI. to CX. Price 1s. cloth; and Vol. I., containing Parts 1. and 2., price 2s. 6d. cloth.

Leeds: RICHARD SLOCOMBE. London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

* * * * *

FOREIGN LITERATURE.

D. NUTT begs to call the Attention of the Public to his Establishment for the SALE of FOREIGN BOOKS, both Old and New, in various Languages, and in every Department of Literature. His Stock is one of the largest of its kind in London, and is being continually augmented by Weekly Importations from the Continent. He has recently published the following Catalogues, either of which may be had Gratis, and forwarded anywhere by Post upon receipt of Four Stamps:—Classical and Philological Books; Miscellaneous German Books and Elementary Works; Theological, Philosophical, and Oriental Books.

270. Strand (opposite Arundel Street), removed from Fleet Street.

* * * * *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.—Saturday, February 22. 1851.

* * * * *

Corrections made to printed original.

Contents, "Groatsworth of Witte": 'Groathsworth' in original ('Groatsworth' twice in article).

pages 130 & 131, "The Lyars": 'Lyan' in original.

page 130, "Margaret Nicholson": 'Magaret' in original.

page 132, "which is similarly subject to Venus": 'smilary' in original.

page 139, "the first two parts of the Ecclesiastical History": 'patts' in original.

THE END

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