Notes and Queries, Number 65, January 25, 1851
Author: Various
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Will P. have the goodness to mention the source from which he obtained his statement?



In reply to the Query respecting the sword of William the Conqueror (Vol. iii., p. 24.), I am enabled to inform you that the sword, and also the coronation robes, of William the Conqueror, were, together with the original "Roll of Battel," kept in the church or chapel of Battel Abbey until it was dismantled at the Reformation; when they were transferred to the part of the abbey which remained, and which became the possession and habitation of Sir Anthony Browne, Master of the Horse to Henry VIII. These precious relics continued in the possession of his descendants, who were created Lords Mountacute; and when Battel Abbey was sold by them to the ancestor of the present owner, they conveyed them to Cowdray Park, Sussex, where they remained until they were destroyed in the lamentable fire which burned down that mansion; and which, by a singular coincidence, took place on the same day that its owner, the last male representative of the Brownes Lords Mountacute, was drowned in a rash attempt to descend the falls of Schaffhausen in a boat.


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(Vol. ii., pp. 241. 286. 315. 329)

After all that has been written on this subject in "NOTES AND QUERIES," from MR. SINGER'S proposition of wormwood in No. 46., to MR. HICKSON'S approval of it in No. 51., the question remains substantially where Steevens and Malone had left it so many years agone.

It is not necessary to discuss whether vinegar, verjuice, or wormwood be the preferable translation of the Shakspearian word; for before either of them can be received, the advocate is bound to {67} accommodate his exposition to Shakspeare's sentence, and to "get over the drink up," which still stands in his way as it did in that of Malone.

MR. SINGER get over the difficulty by simply saying "to drink up was commonly used for simply to drink." The example he quotes, however,—

"I will drink Potions of eysell,"—

is not to his purpose; it is only an equivalent by the addition of the words "potions of" to give it the same definite character. Omit those words, and the question remains as before.

MR. HICKSON (Vol. ii., p. 329.) has laid down "a canon of criticism for the guidance of commentators in questions of this nature," so appropriate and valuable, that I cannot except to be bound by it in these remarks; and if in the sequel his own argument (and his friend's proposition to boot) shall be blown up by his own petard, it will show the instability of the cause he has espoused.

"Master the grammatical construction of the passage in question (if from a drama, in it dramatic and scenic application), deducing therefrom the general sense, before you attempt to amend or fix the meaning of a doubtful word."

Such is the canon; and Mr. HICKSON proceeds to observe, in language that must meet the approval of every student of the immortal bard, that—

"Of all writers, none exceed Shakspeare in logical correctness and nicety of expression. With a vigour of though and command of language attained by no man besides, it is fair to conclude, that he would not be guilty of faults of construction such as would disgrace a schoolboy's composition."

With this canon so ably laid down, and these remarks so apposite, MR. HICKSON, taking up the weak point which Mr. SINGER had slurred over, observes—

"Drink up is synonymous with drink off, drink to the dregs. A child taking medicine is urged to 'drink it up.'"

Ay, exactly so; drink up what? the medicine; again a defined quantity; dregs and all,—still a definite quantity.

MR. HICKSON proceeds:

"The idea of the passage appears to be that each of the acts should go beyond the last preceding in extravagance.

'Woo't weep? woo't fight? woo't fast? woo't tear thyself? Woo't drink up eisell?'

and then comes the climax—'eat a crocodile?' Here is a regular succession of feats, the last but one of which is sufficiently wild, though not unheard of, and leading to the crowning extravagance. The notion of drinking up a river would be both unmeaning and out of place."

From this argument two conclusions are the natural consequences: first, that from drinking up wormwood,—a feat "sufficiently wild but not unheard of," to eating a crocodile, is only a "regular succession of events;" and, secondly, that the "crowning extravagance," to eat a crocodile, is, after all, neither "unmeaning" nor "out of place;" but, on the contrary, quite in keeping and in orderly succession to a "drink up" of the bitter infusion.

MR. SINGER (vol. ii., p. 241.) says:

"Numerous passages of our old dramatic writers show that it was a fashion with the gallants of the time to do some extravagant feat as proof of their love."

I quite agree with him, if he mean to say that the early dramatists ascribe to their gallants a fashion which in reality belongs to the age of Du Gueslin and the Troubadours. But Hamlet himself, in the context of the passage in question, gives the key to his whole purport, when, after some further extravagance, he says:

"Nay, an thoul't mouth, I'll rant as well as thou."

That being so, why are we to conclude that each feat of daring is to be a tame possibility, save only the last—the crowning extravagance? Why not also the one preceding? Why not a feat equally of mere verbiage and rant? Why not a river?

Adopting MR. HICKSON'S canon of criticism, the grammatical construction of the passage requires that a definite substantive shall be employed to explain the definite something that is to be done. Shakspeare says—

"Woul't drink up esile?"[9]

—a totality in itself, without the expression of quantity to make it definite. If we read "drink up wormwood," what does it imply? It may be the smallest possible quantity,—an ordinary dose of bitters; or a pailful, which would perhaps meet the "madness" of Hamlet's daring. Thus the little monosyllable "up" must be disposed of, or a quantity must be expressed to reconcile MR. SINGER'S proposition with Mr. HICKSON'S canon and the grammatical sense of Shakspeare's line.

If with Steevens we understand esile to be a river, "the Danish river Oesil, which empties itself into the Baltic," the Yssel, Wessel, or any other river, real or fictitious, the sense is clear. Rather let Shakspeare have committed a geographical blunder on the information of his day, than break {68} Priscian's head by modern interpretation of his words. If we read "drink up esile" as one should say, "woul't drink up Thames?"—a task as reasonably impossible as setting it on fire (nevertheless a proverbial expression of a thirsty soul, "He'll drink the Thames dry"),—the task is quite in keeping with the whole tenor of Hamlet's extravagant rant.



[Footnote 6: So the folio, according to my copy. It would be advantageous, perhaps, to note the spelling in the earliest edition of the sonnet whence MR. SINGER quotes "potions of eysell:" a difference, if there be any, would mark the distinction between Hamlet's river and the Saxon derivative.]

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(Vol. ii., p. 495. Vol. iii., p. 30.)

The following passage from the works of a deeply pious and learned Caroline Divine, which I have never before seen quoted, merits, I think, a place in "NOTES AND QUERIES:"—

"As our Lord himself, so his Gospel also, is called Light, and was therefore anciently never read without a burning taper, 'etiam Sole rutilante' ('tis Saint Hierome's testimony), though it were lighted in the sun.... The careful Church, perceiving that God was so much taken with this outward symbol of the Light, could do no less than go on with the ceremony. Therefore, the day of Our Lord's nativity was to be called [Greek: epiphania], or, appearing of the Light; and so many tapers were to be set up the night before, as might give name to the vigil, 'Vigilia Luminum'. And the ancients did well to send lights one to another, whatsoever some think of the Christmas candle. The receiving of this Light in Baptism, though called not usually so, but [Greek: photismos], Illumination, which further to betoken the rites, were to celebrate this sacrament [Greek: haptomenon panton ton keron], etc., with all the tapers lighted, etc., as the order in the Euchologus. The Neophytus, also, or new convert, received a Taper lighted and delivered by the Mystagogus, which for the space of seven days after, he was to hold in his hand at Divine service, sitting in the Baptistery.

"Who perceiveth not that by this right way the Tapers came into the Church, mysteriously placed with the Gospel upon the altar as an emblem of the Truer Light?...

"The Funeral Tapers (however thought of by some) are of the same harmless import. Their meaning is, to show that the departed souls are not quite put out, but having walked here as the Children of the Light, are now going to walk before God in the Light of the Living. The sun never rose to the ancients, no, not so much as a candle was lighted, but of this signification. 'Vincamus' was their word, whensoever the Lights came in; [Greek: phos gar ten Niken], etc., for Light (saith Phavorinus) betokeneth victory. It was to show what trust they put in the Light, in whom we are more than conquerors. Our meaning is the same when, at the bringing in of a candle, we use to put ourselves in mind of the Light of Heaven: which those who list to call superstition do but 'darken counsel by words without knowledge.' Job xxxviii. 2."—Gregorie's Works, 4th ed. p. 110. Lond. 1684.

I believe it is a fact, that in some churches (I hope not many) lamps or candles are placed on the altar unlighted during divine service. Now I would not quarrel with persons who have objections to altar lights, &c., but I have no patience with that worse than superstition which would place unlighted candles on the altar,—if they symbolize any thing, it is damnation, excommunication, misery, and dark woe.

Coming out of a church one time in which unlighted candles were ostentatiously displayed, I was forcibly reminded of an hieroglyphical of Quarles—an extinguished taper,—and under it the words, "Sine lumine inane."

"How canst thou be useful to the sight? What is the taper not endued with light?"

I can hardly refrain from quoting here a beautiful passage from Wordsworth:

"Our ancestors within the still domain Of vast cathedral, or conventual gloom, Their vigils kept: when tapers day and night On the dim altar burn'd continually, In token that the house was evermore Watching to God. Religious men were they, Nor would their reason, tutor'd to aspire Above this transitory world, allow That there should pass a moment of the year When in their land the Almighty's service ceased."

Any communication of interest of the above subject will much oblige


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Handbell before a Corpse (Vol. ii., p. 478.).—It is usual, at the funeral of any member of the University of Oxford, for the University marshal and bellman to attend in the character of mutes. As the procession moves along, the latter rings his bell at about half-minute time. I have witnessed it also when the deceased has been one of the family of a member of the University, and when he has been a matriculated person. I have never considered it as anything but a cast of the bellman's office, to add more solemnity to the occasion.

[Hebrew: b].

L—— Rectory. Somerset.

Sir George Downing (Vol. ii., pp. 464. 497.).—It may assist your querist "ALPHA," to be informed that among the monuments to the family of Pengelly, in the church of Whitchurch near Tavistock, in the county of Devon, is one to the memory of Ann, wife of Francis Pengelly, and daughter of Sir George Downing of East Hatley in the county of Cambridge, who died the 23rd of November, 1702; with the arms of Pengelly impaling Barry of six argent and gules, over all a wyvern or—for Downing. {69}

Nicholas Downing of Exeter College, vicar of Kingsteignton, in Devon, who died in 1666, and was buried there, seems to have been of another family, as he bore a very different coat of arms.

A Lieut. Downing was buried in Charles church, Plymouth, in 1799, but the arms on his monument are not the same as either of the above.

Other than these, I know of none of the name, ancient or recent, in the county, and I shall be glad to learn on what ground Sir George Downing's family is said to be of most ancient origin in Devonshire. The name does not appear in Westcote, Pole, Prince, Risdon, or the Heralds' visitations, and the modern authorities state that the family was from Essex or Norfolk.


The following memorandum I found accidentally on the margin of a MS. pedigree of Downing, but I am sorry I cannot recall the source from whence I obtained it. Possibly, however, it may assist "ALPHA" in his enquiry.

"Sir George Downing was not the son of Calibut Downing, rector of Hackney, but of Emmanuel Downing, a London merchant, who went to New England. Governor Hutchinson, in his History of Massachusetts, gives the true account of Downing's affiliation, which has been further confirmed by Mr. Savage, of Boston, from the public records of New England."


Hulls, the Inventor of Steam-boats (Vol. iii., p. 23.).—Your facetious correspondent, NOCAB, may gain some information relative to his friend Jonathan Hulls, by going to the British Museum, and asking for the following book from Mr. Grenville's library.

I will give the full title and Mr. Grenville's note, as it stands in my Catalogue of the library.


"Hulls, Jonathan. A Description and Draught of a new-invented Machine for carrying vessels or ships out of, or into any harbour, port, or river, against wind and tide, or in a calm. For which his Majesty has granted letters patent, for the sole benefit of the Author, for the space of Fourteen years. London, 1737, folding plate.[10] 8vo. R.[11]

"This new invented machine is a steam-boat. It entirely puts an end to the claims of America to the invention of steam navigation, and establishes for this country the honour of that important discovery."


42. Devonshire Street, 12. Jan. 1851.

[Footnote 7: Representing, as well as I remember, a perfect steam-boat.]

[Footnote 8: Meaning Russia binding.]

[We are also indebted to [Curly-pi] for a reply to NOCAB'S query.]

"The lucky have whole days" (Vol. i., pp. 231. 351.).—I can inform your correspondents P.S. and H.H., that the passage in question is correctly quoted by the latter at p. 351., and that it is to be found in Dryden's Tyrannic Love.


St. Lucia, West Indies, Nov. 1850

"Clarum et venerabile nomen" (Vol. ii., p. 463.).—Your enquirer as to whence comes "Clarum et venerabile nomen," &c., will find them in Lucan. Book ix. l. 203.



Occult Transposition of Letters (Vol. i., p. 416.; Vol. ii., p. 77.).—Concert of Nature.—Other examples of these ambiguous verses are given by J. Baptista Porta, de Furtivis Literarum Notis, one of which has suggested the following lines, as conveying the compliments of the season to the editor of "NOTES AND QUERIES:" but which, transposed, would become an unseasonable address:—

"Principio tibi sit facilis, nec tempore parvo Vivere permittat te Dea Terpsichore.

Si autem conversis dictionibus leges, dicent,—

Terpsichore Dea te permittat vivere parvo Tempore, nec facilis sit tibi principio."

I beg leave sincerely, to add, in the words of Ausonius (Ep. xxv.),—

"Quis prohibet Salve atque Vale brevitate parata Scribere? Felicesque notas mandare libellis."

This magnificent epistle inculcating—

"Nil mutum Natura dedit: non aeris ales Quadrupedesve silent," &c.

should be compared with the celebrated stanza of Spenser's Faerie Queen (book ii. canto xii. st. 71.), beginning with

"The joyous birds shrouded in cheareful shade;"

and with D'Israeli's animated defence, in his Amenities (vol. ii. p. 395.) of these charming verses against the [Greek: plemmeles] and tasteless, the anti-poetical and technical, criticism of Twining, in his first Dissertation on Poetical and Musical Imitation.


Darby and Joan (Vol. iii., p. 38.).—I never heard of the tradition mentioned by H. I can only suppose that the poet referred to was the first person who introduced the ballad at the manor-house. Helaugh Nichols, an excellent authority in such matters, whose trade traditions, through the Boyers, father and son, went back a century and a half, tells us that the ballad was supposed to have been written by Henry Woodfall, while an apprentice to Darby. The Darbys were printers time out of mind—one Robert Darby was probably an assistant to Wynkyn de Worde, who certainly left a legacy to a person of that name. The Woodfalls, too, can be traced up as printers for nearly two centuries. The Darby, and Joan, his wife, were probably John Darby, printer, in Bartholomew Close, who was {70} prosecuted in 1684 for printing "Lord Russell's Speech," and died in 1704. The Woodfall, the printer, is understood to have been Henry Woodfall, afterwards "Woodfall without Temple Bar," grandfather of Henry Sampson, the printer of Junius' Letters, and great-great-grandfather of the present excellent printer of the same name.


Did Bunyan know Hobbes? (Vol. ii., p. 518.).—Before this question, put by JAS. H. FRISWELL, can be answered satisfactorily, it should be shown that Bunyan was the author of the Visions of Hell. In Chambers' Journal for Sept. 7. 1833, n., it is taken for granted that he was, and the passage alluding to Hobbes is noticed. Your correspondent more justly questions the fact.

A very intelligent friend of mine, who has devoted much research into the supposed origin of the Pilgrim's Progress, the result of which I hope ere long will appear, tells me that he is decidedly of opinion that the Visions in question are not the production of the "prince of dreamers."

He believes the Visions first appeared as Bunyan's in a stereotyped collection or selection of his works, about 1820-8. Some time after seeing this, my friend was surprised at meeting with the following little volume, which is now before me: The World to Come. The Glories of Heaven, and the Terrors of Hell, lively displayed under the Similitude of a Vision. By G.L., Sunderland. Printed by R. Wetherald, for H. Creighton, 1771. 12mo. The running title, as far as p. 95., is, The World to Come; or, Visions of Heaven; and on that page commence the Visions of Hell, and of the Torments of the Damned: and here it is the author has charitably placed Hobbes, with whom the colloquy alluded to by your querist occurs.

I shall not occupy your papers with any remarks on the ignorance betrayed by G.L. (whoever he may be), both of the writings and character of Hobbes; but I shall be glad if I can lead to the elucidation of what yet remains a literary obscurity, and obtains the name of G.L.


Mythology of the Stars (Vol. iii., p. 23.).—G.I.C. is recommended to study the ordinary celestial globe, and to make himself familiar with its use, in order to enhance the interest of the spectacle of the sidereal heavens as seen by the naked eye. He is also particularly referred to the Celestial Cycle, by Capt. Smyth, published by Parker and Co., West Strand, in 2 vols. 8vo., price 2l. 2s.; a book full of astronomical and mythological gossip.

G.I.C. will find books on Astrology for sale at Maynard's, No. 8. Earl's Court, Cranbourn Street, Leicester Square, more readily, perhaps, than any where else in London.


6. Chesterfield Street, Mayfair, Jan. 13. 1851.

Dodo Queries (Vol. i., pp. 261, 262.).—MR. STRICKLAND is informed, that in the list of Pingre's works, as given in Querard's France Litteraire, there is one with the following title:—

"Memoire sur les Decouvertes faites dans la Mer du Sud, avant les derniers Voyages des Francais autour du Monde, lu a l'Academie des Sciences, 1766, 1767, 1778, in. 4."

I have not read Pingre's works, but if they contain any mention of Solitaires, it will probably be found in the Memoire above referred to.


St. Lucia, W.I., Nov. 1850.

Holland Land (Vol. ii., pp. 267. 345.; Vol. iii., p. 30).—In an ancient charter, in my possession, bearing date 19 Edw. I.: "Gilebertus dictus ate Vorde, de Farlegh," and "James, son of the late Philip de Essche," quitclaim to James, son of Paulinus de Wynchelse:

"dimidiam acram terre Flandrensis ... in villa de Ickelesham,"

to have and to hold

una cum redditu et servitio mihi (sic) pertinentibus de alia dimidia acra terre Flandrensis."

The polders of Holland are familiar to all travellers, as lands lying below the level of the sea, once a mere morass, redeemed from that state, and brought into cultivation by embankments, &c., &c.

In another charter, somewhat earlier in date and relating to the same district, viz. the neighbourhood of Winchelsea, Hamo de Crevecour speaks of lands in La more in Ideun, which the monks of Robertsbridge, with consent of his father Hamo, "a mari incluserunt."

I have always supposed that the "terra Flandrensis" of my charter signified land of the same description as the Dutch polders; the art of thus redeeming land being probably introduced from the Low Countries. It is not unlikely that, in that day, lands so brought into cultivation were designated as "terre Flandrenses," and the term afterwards anglicised into "Holland Land."


Swearing by Swans (Vol. ii., p. 392.).—Symbology of the swan.

"Tunc allati sunt in pompatica gloria duo cygni, vel olores, ante regem, &c. &c.,—vindicaturus."[12]—Matthaeus Westmonasteriensis.

Dr. Lingard states that "the vows of chivalry were not taken on the gospels, but, ridiculous as it may appear, in the presence of a peacock, or {71} pheasant, or other bird of beautiful plumage."—History of England, Edward I.

"Nec dissimili ingenio Heraldi antiquiores, musicos et cantatores cygnis[13] donarunt. Ejusque haud ignarus perspicax noster Franciscanus cum hos a non cantoribus latos observasset, rationem se ait a rege heraldorum petiisse, eumque duplicem assignasse: hanc quia viri essent pulcherrimi, illam quia haberent longa colla. Sane candorem animi per cygni effigiem antiquitus praedicabant, nec insulse igitur corporis. Sed gloriae studium ex eodem hoc symbolo indicari multi asserunt.

"Cum Edwardus primus," &c. &c.—Spelmanni Aspilogia, p. 132.

The Spaniards found that the swan had been employed emblematically in Mexico, supporting the theory of Hornius that that part of America was colonised by the Phoenicians and Carthaginians, inasmuch as, according to Bryant, "where the Canaanites or their descendants may have settled, there will a story be found in reference to swans."

The mythological history of the Cygnus will be found in the latter author's Analysis, and in Hill's Urania, or a Complete View of the Heavens, containing the Ancient and Modern Astronomy, in Form of a Dictionary, which will perhaps meet the wants of G.I.C. (Vol. iii. p. 24.).

It will not, perhaps, be irrelevant to this subject to advert to the story of Albertus Aquensis (in Gesta Dei per Francos, p. 196.), regarding a Goose and a Goat, which in the second crusade were considered as "divino spiritu afflati," and made "duces viae in Jerusalem." Well may it be mentioned by the histoian as "scelus omnibus fidelibus incredibile;" but the imputation serves to show that the Christians of that age forgot what a heathen poet could have taught them,—

[Greek: "Eis oionos aristos amynesthai peri patres."]


[Footnote 9: With this solecism in the printed Flores Historiarum I find that a MS. in the Chetham Library agrees, the abbreviative mark used in the Hundred Rolls of Edward I. for the terminations us and er having been affixed to this participle.]

[Footnote 10: To the passages I have elsewhere referred to on The Concert of Nature, from Ausonius, Epistle 25., and Spenser's Faerie Queen, book ii. canto xii. st. 71., "divine respondence meet" is made by the last lines in Tennyson's Dying Swan.]

Swearing by Swans (Vol. ii., p. 392.).—The quotation given by your correspondent E.T.M. (Vol. ii., p. 451.), only increases my desire to receive a reply to my query on this subject, since he has adduced a parallel custom. What are the earliest notices of the usage of swearing by swans and pheasants? Was the pheasant ever considered a royal bird?


The Frozen Horn (Vol. iii., p. 25.).—I am quite angry with J.M.G. for supposing my old friend Sir John Maundevile guilty of such a flam as that which he quotes from memory as the worthy knight's own statement. There is no such story in the Voiage and Travaile: nay more, there is not in the whole of that "ryght merveillous" book, a single passage given on the authority of Sir John as eyewitness that is not perfectly credible. When he quotes Pliny for monsters, the Chronicles for legends, and the romances of his time for narratives of an extraordinary character, he does so in evident good faith as a compiler. His most improbable statements, too, are always qualified with some such phrase as "men seyn, but I have not sene it." In a word, I believe Sir John Maundevile to have been as truthful in intention as any writer of his age. I am afraid that J.M.G.'s knowledge of our old "voiager" is limited to some jest-book of more modern times, which attributes to him sayings and doings of which he is perfectly guiltless.



Cockade and True Blue (Vol. iii., pp. 7. 27.) both owe their origin to the wars of the Scottish Covenanters; and the cockade appears to have been first adopted as a distinguishing emblem by the English army at the battle of Sherra-muir, where the Scotch wore the blue ribbon as a scarf, or on their bonnets (which was their favourite colour). The English army then, to distinguish themselves, assumed a black rosette on their hats; which, from its position, the Scotch nick-named a "cock'ade" (with which our use of the word "cockscomb" is connected) and is still retained.

An old Scotch song describing, "the Battle of Sherra-muir" (which name it bears) in verse 2., line 1., speaks of the English as—

"The red-coat lads, wi' black cockades;"

verse 3., describing the Scotch and their mode of fighting, says,—

"But had you seen the philibegs, And skyrin tartan trews, man, When in the teeth they dared our Whigs, And Covenant TRUE-BLUES, man; In lines extended lang and large, When bayonets opposed the targe, And thousands hasten'd to the charge, Wi' Highland wrath, they frae the sheath Drew blades o' death, till, out o' breath, They fled like frighted doos, man."

The song, which is rather a long one, carries you with the army to the Forth, Dumblane, Stirling, Perth, and Dundee. Oft referring to the "Poor red-coat," and to the "Angus lads."


The Vavasours of Hazlewood (Vol. ii., p. 326.).—1. It is a well-known fact that the stone for York minster was given by the Vavasour family. To commemorate this, there is, under the west window in that cathedral, a statue of the owner of Hazelwood at that period, holding a piece of stone in his hand. Hence may have arisen the tradition that the chief of the family might ride into York minster on horseback.

{72} 2. In feudal times Hazlewood was a fortified castle, having its regular retainers, &c.

3. Hazlewood Chapel was the only Roman Catholic parish church in England which did not become a Protestant church at the Reformation.


Jan. 10. 1851.

"Breeches" Bible (Vol. iii., p. 17.).—In quoting from specimens of early printing, correctness of orthography, even in trivial matters, is desirable, and therefore I venture, in allusion to the interesting communication from [Curly-pi] on the subject of the Geneva or "Breeches" Bible, to state that the edition of 1576, in my possession, is "Imprinted by Christopher Barkar" (not Barker), "dwelling in Paternoster Rowe, at the signe of the Tygres Head."

The text quoted varies also in two or three words from my copy, and it is probably from the Geneva edition. The English edition of 1576 runs thus, (Gen. iii. 7.): "Then the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked, and they sewed figge tree leaves together, and made them selves breeches." I am, sir, yours truly,


Histoire des Sevarambes (Vol. iii., p. 4.).—On the subject of the authorship of this work I will transcribe a note which I subjoined to a short account of Isaac Vossius (Worthington's Diary, p. 125):—

"Whether the History of the Sevarites, of Sevarambi by Captains Thomas Liden, published in two parts (London, 1675-9, 12mo.), which is one of the ablest of the fictions written after the model of More's Utopia, and which has been ascribed to Isaac Vossius by J.A. Fabricius, be his, is a point yet unsettled. On a careful consideration of the internal evidence, and a comparison with his avowed publications, so far as such a comparison can be made between works so dissimilar in character, I incline to the conclusion that this tract is justly ascribed to Isaac Vossius."

On a reconsideration of the subject, I see no reason to alter this opinion. Morhof, who always attributed it to Isaac Vossius (see Polyhistor, vol. i. p. 74., edit. 1747), was thoroughly versed in the literary history, including the English, of the period, and was not likely to have been mistaken. Vossius lived in England from 1670 to 1688, when he died. I have seen several English letters of his, though his general correspondence was in Latin or French, and he seems quite able to have written it, as far as the language is concerned. Vairasse appears to have translated it into French but to have had no other part in it. I may observe, that the publication in English, London, 1738, is a retranslation from the French, not a reprint of the original work of 1675-9.


Verses attributed to Charles Yorke (Vol. ii., p. 7.; and Vol. iii., p. 43.).—These lines, "Stript to the naked soul," have been frequently printed, indeed so lately as in Lord Campbell's Lives of the Chancellors, at the end of the Life of Charles Yorke, as his, but without any observation. What is most singular is, that the excellent editor of Bishop Warburton's Literary Remains has overlooked the fact that they are driven in that prelate's correspondence with Bishop Hurd as Pope's. (See Letters, p. 362., edit. 1809, 8vo.) Warburton observes, "The little poem is certainly his." He remarks in a letter to Yorke—

"You have obliged me much (as is your wont) by a fine little poem of my excellent and endeared friend, Mr. Pope, and I propose to put in into use."—Letters from Warburton to C. Yorke. 1812, 4to. p. 64.

Warburton then gave them to Ruffhead, who inserted them in his Life of Pope, from which they were transferred in Bowles's editions of Pope's Works (vol. ii. p. 406), and in the supplementary volume to Pope's Works (1807, 4to.). The extraordinary circumstance is, that they had appeared as far back as 1753 in the miscellaneous works of Aaron Hill, published in 1753, in 4 vols. 8vo., and are included in that collection as his own. Roscoe observes (Life of Pope, in vol. i. of his edition of Pope's Works, p. 361., edit. 1824), without, however appearing to have been fully acquainted with the facts of the case:

"These verses are not the production of Pope, as might indeed readily have been perceived, but of Aaron Hill."

I must confess I cannot agree with the remark. If the point be to be decided by internal evidence, the verses are surely Pope's. The collection of A. Hill's miscellaneous works was a posthumous one for the benefit of the family, and includes several other poems, which were certainly not written by him. Little stress, therefore, can be laid upon the fact of the lines being included in this collection, which seems to have comprised whatever was found amongst Hill's papers, without any nice examination or scrutiny. My conclusion is, that the verses are Pope's; and it is at all events certain that they are not Charles Yorke's.


Archbishop Bolton of Cashel (Vol. iii., p. 39.).—He was born at Burrishool, in the county of Mayo, about 1678; graduated at Trinity College, Dublin; was ordained deacon in 1702; priest in 1703; became a prebendary of St. Patrick's, Dublin, in 1707; chancellor of that cathedral in 1714; vicar-general of the diocese of Dublin in 1720; vicar of Finglas, near Dublin, in the same year; praecentor of Christ Church, Dublin, in 1722; bishop of Clonfert in the same year; bishop of Elphin in 1724; archbishop of Cashel in 1729; to which diocese he bequeathed his valuable library.

He died in January, 1744, and was buried at St. Werburgh's Church, in Dublin.

{73} See my Fasti Ecclesiae Hibernicae, vols. i., ii., and iv., for a few more particulars, if required.


Thurles, Ireland, Jan. 20. 1851.

Erasmus and Farel (Vol. iii., p. 38.).—In my Life of Calvin, p. 46., I mention that Erasmus named Farel, Phallicus; and infer that he probably did so from some manifestation of amorous propensities on the part of that reformer.

A querist in your last number (J.C.R.) points out that D'Aubigne, or his translator, spells the word Fallicus, and refers it to the deceitful character of Farel.

Phallicus is a Greek word, and has a meaning—[Greek: phallikos], of or belonging to the [Greek: phallos]. Fallicus, to the best of my knowledge, is neither Greek nor Latin, and has no meaning. Erasmus, in his epistles, constantly spells the word Phallicus. (See Epp. 698. 707. &c. Leyden, ed. 1706.) And that I was justified in drawing from it an inference which is in analogy with its meaning, the following passages, in the last of the epistles just cited, will establish:—

"Hunc stomachum in me concepit (Phallicus) quod in spongia dubitem de Lutheri spiritu: praeterea quod scripserim, quosdam sordidos, et impurae vitae se jactitare nomine Evangelii."

And a little farther on—

"At tamen quicquid hactenus in me blateravit Phallicus, non minus vane quam virulente, facite condonabitur hominis morbo, modo posthac sumat mores Evangelii praecone dignos."


London, Jan. 20. 1851.

Early Culture of the Imagination, (Vol. iii., p. 38.).—The interesting article to which MR. GATTY refers will be found in the Quarterly Review, No. XLI. Sir Walter Scott, in a letter addressed to Edgar Taylor, Esq. (the translator of German Fairy Tales and Popular Stories by M.M. Grimm), dated Edinburgh, 16th Jan. 1823, says—

"There is also a sort of wild fairy interest in them [the Tales] which makes me think them fully better adapted to awaken the imagination and soften the heart of childhood, than the good-boy stories which have been in later years composed for them. In the latter case, their minds are, as it were, put into the stocks, like their feet at the dancing-school, and the moral always consists in good moral conduct being crowned with temporal success. Truth is, I would not give one tear shed over Little Red Riding-Hood for all the benefit to be derived from a hundred Histories of Jemmy Goodchild.... In a word, I think the selfish tendencies will be soon enough acquired in this arithmetical age; and that, to make the higher class of character, our wild fictions—like our own simple music—will have more effect in awakening the fancy and elevating the disposition, than the colder and more elaborate compositions of modern authors and composers."


Milnrow Parsonage.

Early Culture of the Imagination (Vol. iii., p. 38.).—MR. ALFRED GATTY will find what he inquires for in the 74th volume of the Quarterly Review, "Children's Books." With the prefatory remarks of that article may be compared No. 151. of the Rambler, "The Climacterics of the Mind."


William Chilcot (Vol. iii., p. 38.).—MR. HOOPER is referred to the History of Tiverton, by Lieut. Col. Harding, ed. Boyce, Tiverton; Whittaker, London, 1847, vol. ii., B. III., p. 167., for an account of the family of Chilcot alias Comyn; to which most likely the author belonged, and was probably a native of Tiverton. As MR. HOOPER many not have ready access to the book, I send the substance of an extract. Robert Chilcott alias Comyn, born at Tiverton, com. Devon, merchant, and who died, it is supposed, at Isleworth, com. Middlesex, about A.D. 1609, "married Ann, d. of Walter Cade of London, Haberdasher, by whom he had one son, William, who married Catherine, d. of Thomas Billingsly of London, Merchant, and had issue." Certain lands also in Tiverton, A.D. 1680-90, are described as "now or late of William Comyns alias Chilcott."—Ibid. p. 61.

If the first edition of the work were in 1698, most likely the author was a grandson of the above-named William Chilcot and Catherine his wife, which the Tiverton registers might show. If the search prove unsuccessful there, try that of Watford, Herts, where a branch of the same family was settled, and to which there are monuments in Watford churchyard.


By and Bye (Vol. ii., p. 424.).—Surely this means "by the way." Good by may mean "Bon voyage."


Mocker (Vol. ii., p. 519.).—In some of the provincial dialects of England, and in the Scotch of the lowlands of Scotland, there are a good many Dutch words. Moker, in Dutch, means a large hammer. This is probably the word used by the old cottager of Pembridge, and spelt Mocker by W.M.



Was Colonel Hewson a Cobbler? (Vol. iii., p. 11.).—Hume's History relates that "Colonel Hewson suppressed the tumult of London apprentices, November, 1659:" and that "he was a man who rose from the profession of a cobbler to a high rank in the army."

Colonel John Hewson was member for Guildford from September 17, 1656, to January 27, 1658-59. (Bray and Manning.)



Mole (Vol. ii., p. 225.).—This story is of course much older than the form which it now appears. Sir Bevil Grenville is the great hero of the N.W. coast of Cornwall most of the floating legend has been gathered about him.

Legends referring to the origin of different animals are common. Mrs. Jamieson (Canada) has a very beautiful Chippewa story of the first robin.

It is believed in Devonshire that moles begin to work with the flow, and leave off with the ebb of the tide. The same thing is asserted of the beaver.

Pillgarlick (Vol. ii., p. 393.; Vol. iii., p. 42.).—The word is given by Todd, in his edition of Johnson, under the forms Pilgarlick and Pilled-garlick. The same orthography is adopted by other lexicographers. The spelling, concerning which your querist desires information, is, however, the least important point. I trust that the question will elicit information of a valuable kind as to the origin of the term, by which I have I myself been sorely puzzled, and which, I think, has not been satisfactorily cleared up by any of those who have attempted it. Following the authority of Skinner, our philologists are satisfied with assuring us, that pilled means bald (French, pele) and about this there can be no dispute. Thus Chaucer (Reve's Tale) says:—

Round was his face, and camuse was his nose, And pilled as an ape was his skull."

Shakspeare also has:—

"Pieled priest! doost thou command me to be shut out?"

for "shaven priest." But pilled, in other cases as might be shown by quotations, which for the sake of brevity I omit, means pillaged, robbed, and also peeled, of which last sense the quotations above given seem only to be a figurative application. The difficulties which arise from these explanations are, first, if bald be the true meaning, why must we, with Todd, limit it to baldness, resulting from disease, or more especially (as Grose will have it) from a disgraceful disease?

Secondly, if peeled be taken as the equivalent to pilled, why is peeled garlick a more perfect type of misery than any other peeled root or fruit?

Thirdly, if pillage is an essential ingredient in the true meaning of the term "pilled garlick," what has the stolen garlick to do with wretchedness? And,

Lastly, how will any one, or all of these explanations together, tally with the following passage from Skelton:—

"Wyll, Wyll, Wyll, Wyll, Wyll He ruleth always styll. Good reason and good skyll, They may garlyck pyll, Cary sackes to the myll, Or pescoddes they may shyll, Or elles go rost a stone?" Why come ye not to Courte? 103-109.

Without further elucidation of this pilling, the existing definitions are pills which defy deglutition of


A Recent Novel (Vol. i., pp. 231, 285.).—May I be permitted to correct an error in a communication from one of your correspondents? ADOLPHUS (p. 231.) puts a Query respecting the title of a recent novel; and J.S. (p. 285) informs him that the title is Le Morne au Diable, by Eugene Sue. The fact is, that "La Morne au Diable" is the principal scene of the events described, and nothing more. The title is L'Aventurier, ou la Barbe-bleue; and an English translation, styled the Female Blue Beard, or the Adventurer, was published in 1845 by W. Strange, 21. Paternoster Row.


St. Lucia, W.I., Nov. 1850

Tablet to Napoleon (Vol. i., p. 461.).—The form and punctuation given to this inscription by C. suggest its true meaning. Napoleon is called the Egyptian, the Italian, for reasons similar to those for which Publius Cornelius Scipio obtained the name of "Africanus." There is, however, another sense in which the epithet "bis Italicus" is applicable to Napoleon: he was an Italian by birth as well as by conquest. It is in this sense that Voltaire has applied to Henri Quatre the second line of the following couplet:—

"Je chante ce heros qui regna sur la France Et par droit de conquete, et par droit de naissance."

As to the "lingual purity" of the inscription, there is not much to be said about it, one way or the other. It is on a level with most modern inscriptions and epitaphs in the Latin language; neither so elegant as the Latinity of Dr. Johnson, or Walter Savage Landor, nor yet so hackneyed as our "Latin de cuisine."


St. Lucia, W.I., Nov. 1850.

North Sides of Churchyards (Vol. ii., pp. 55. &c.)—In a chapter on the custom of burying on the south side of churches, in Thompson's History of Swine, published 1824, I find the following mention of the north side being appropriated to felons:

"The writer hereof remembers, that between fifty and sixty years ago, a man who was executed at Lincoln, was brought to Swine, and buried on the north side of the church, as the proper place in which to bury a felon."

I have heard it stated by several inhabitants of the parish, that it is only within a few years that burials began to be made irrespectively on the north side. Whilst speaking of things in connection with this church, I may mention for the {75} interest of antiquaries, that only a short time ago, the sexton discovered a very curious fresco of the Virgin on one of the pillars in the north aisle. There is an inscription beneath the figure, but so very indistinct, as not to admit of being deciphered.



Wisby (Vol. ii., p. 444.).—

"Wisby was fortified about 1200 against its country neighbours; and King Magnus, 1288, quieted another civil war, and allowed the citizens to restore their fallen walls."—Olaus Magnus, ii. 24.

"It was destroyed in 1361 (Koch) by Walderna, King of Denmark, who, taking advantage of the discords in Sweden, and having flattered the King Magnus till he made him a mere tool of his own, conquered or destroyed some valuable parts of the Swedish dominions, and among the rest Gothland."—Johannes Magnus, Rex Suev., xxi. 6.

and in 7.:

"... ob direptum insigne emporium Vis becense."

"As, therefore, it was not an individual event, probably it had not any individual cause, and that the pane of glass story is not true."—Olaus Magnus, x. 16

The same Olaus (ii. 24.) says, that pride and discord were its ruin; that its inhabitants scattered into the continental cities; and that in his time, 1545, there were splendid ruins, iron doors, brass or copper windows, once gilt or silvered.


Singing of Swans (Vol. ii., p. 475.).—If your correspondent T.J. will turn to Erman's Travels in Siberia translated by Cooley, vol. ii. p. 43., he will find that the singing of swans is by no means so groundless a notion as Bp. Percy supposed. Erman says the notes of the Cygnus Olor are most beautifully clear and loud—"and that this bird, when wounded, pours forth its last breath in such notes, is now known for certain." There is more also to the same purpose.


Dacre Monument at Herstmonceux (Vol. ii., p. 478.).—In answer to part of the third Query of your correspondent E.V., I beg to inform him that sable, a cross potent or, is the coat of Alleyn. Sable, a cross patonce or, belongs to Lascelles. Argent a fesse gules belongs to the Solers family. And barry of six argent and gules, with a canton ermine, is the coat of Apseley of Sussex.


Herstmonceux Castle (Vol. ii., p. 477.).—The elucidation of your correspondent's second Query suggests several further questions; for instance—Was Juliana wife of William, the owner of the estate? If so, did she die in the lifetime of her husband? If so, did she leave issue? semble not, and assuming her to have no direct heirs, the estate would escheat. Was the King lord of the fee? Were William de Warburton and Ingelram de Monceaux relatives of the half blood of Juliana? If so, a re-grant to them, if claimants, would not, I imagine, have been unusual upon payment of a fine to the crown. It would almost seems as if a doubt existed as to the heirship, from the expression "whose next of kin they SAY they are." This note is conjectural only, and is therefore offered with much diffidence.


Suem.Ferling.Grasson (Vol. iii., p. 7.).—It is obvious that your correspondent's extract from the Rotherfield court-roll is not accurately transcribed. The original most probably contains no such words as suem.

Ferling is a well-known word in old legal phraseology. As a term of superficial measure it denotes a quarter of an acre; of lineal measure, an eighth of a mile, or furlong.

Grassum is the term commonly used in the northern parts of the kingdom to signify the fine, or foregift in money, paid by a lessee for the renewal of his lease from a lay or ecclesiastical corporation. It is derived from the A.-S. Gaersum or Gaersame, a treasure; the root of which is still retained in the northern word Gear, goods or stuff.


Jan. 10. 1851.

Portrait of Archbishop Williams (Vol. iii., p. 8.).—Your correspondent Y.Y. desires to be informed of the "locus" of the portraits of several bishops, among them of John Williams, Archbishop of York. There is a full-length in the hall of this college, which I shall have great pleasure in showing to him should he ever find it convenient to pay Cambridge a visit.


St. John's College.

Swans hatched during Thunder (Vol. ii., p. 510.).—Some years ago I purchased a pair of swans, and, during the first breeding season after I procured them, they made a nest in which they deposited seven eggs. After they had been sitting about six weeks, I observed to my servant, who had charge of them and the other water-fowl, that it was about the time for the swans to hatch. He immediately said, that it was no use expecting it till there had been a rattling peal of thunder to crack the egg-shells, as they were so hard and thick that it was impossible for the cygnets to break them without some such assistance. Perhaps this is the reason why swans are said to be hatched during a thunder-storm. I need only say, that this is a popular fallacy, as swans regularly hatch after sitting six weeks, whether there happens to be a thunder-storm or not.


Etymology of Apricot (Vol. ii., p. 420.).—I cannot agree in the opinion expressed by your correspondent E.C.H., that this word is derived from the Latin praecox, signifying "early-ripening,"—that the words [Greek: prokokkia] and [Greek: prekokkia] are {76} Graecised Latin,—and that the Arabs themselves, adopting the word with a slight variation, made it al-bercoy.

The fact of the fruit itself being of Asiatic origin, renders it in the highest degree improbable that the Orientals would borrow a name for it from the Latin.

My own opinion is, that the reverse is the case—that the Latin is merely a corruption of the Arabic; and that the Latins, in adopting the word, naturally gave it the slight alteration which rendered the Arabic word, to them unmeaning, appropriately significant of the nature of the fruit.

I find that in various languages the word strolls thus in the Latin of the middle age, avercoccius—in the modern Greek, [Greek: berykokkion]—in the Italian, albercocco, albicocca—in the Spanish, albaricoque—and all these various words, undeducible from the Latin praecox, are readily derivable from the Arabic word, the prefix al, which is merely the article, being in some cases dropped, and in others retained.

I may add, as a curious fact, that, in the south of Italy, of which I am a native, the common people call the apricot verricocca, and the peach precucco, although the former ripen earlier than the latter.

A.P. DI PIO, Italo-Graecos.


"Plurima gemma latet caeca tellure sepulta" (Vol. ii., p.133.).—In the course of my reading, some time back, I met with a passage which was given as quotation from Bishop Hall. I transcribe it, as it appears to me to approach nearer to the above hexameter than even Gray's lines:

"There is many a rich stone laid up, in the bowels of the earth; many a fair pearl in the bosom of the sea, that never was seen, nor ever shall be."

Time when Herodotus wrote (Vol. ii., p. 405.).—The passage in Herodotus which shows that he was still employed on his history when he was seventy-five, is in his first book. But A.W.H. thinks, that, as it is a general introduction, showing why he mentioned all places, small or great, it must have been written at the beginning. I should infer the contrary; that he would give an account why he had done so after he had done it, and not while it rested merely in intention.

But perhaps it may be said, that [Greek: en] is in the former part of the sentence, and therefore might have been repeated in the latter part, which is the converse of it, though it might not be exactly the proper tense.

However, F. Clinton puts down his birth B.C. 484; 452 or 456 as the years in which he read his history at the Olympic Games; and 408 as a year in which he was still adding to it.

However, if he wrote the passage when he was thirty, that would justify the past tense, which perhaps, too, we have a right to construe have been, for that verb has no perfect preterite.


Lucy and Colin (Vol. iii., p. 7.).—The ballad adverted to, which is the one translated by Vincent Bourne, is by Tickel, and will be found in any collection of his works. Notwithstanding Southeys epithet "wretched!" it will always be admired, both in the original and the translation.


Manchester, Jan. 18. 1851.

Translations of Apuleius, &c. (Vol. ii., p. 464.).—In answer to your correspondent, G.P.I., concerning a translation of the Golden Ass of Apuleius, I beg you will insert the following particulars.

There is a copy in the British Museum (Press Mark, case 21. b.) of a translation by Adlington. The title is as follows—"The XI. Bookes of the Golden Asse, conteining the Metamorphosie of Lucius Apuleius, enterlaced with an excellent Narration of the Marriage of Cupido and Psiches, set out in the iiii. v. and vi. Bookes. Translated out of Latine into Englishe by William Adlington. Imprinted at London, in Fleet streate, and the sign of the Oliphante, by Henry Wykes. Anno 1566." This work is of extreme rarity. At the end of the Dedicatory Epistle there is a MS. note, which I transcribe:—"This translation and its author has escaped ye notice of the Industrious Oxford Antiquary[14], for I find not his name in the Athen. Oxon., nor is the book menconed (mentioned) in Mr. Ames's Typographical Antiquities, both which omissions add a singular rareness to this scarce book. R.E.W." The pagination of the book is only on one side, and contains 127 folios, including the table of contents. Ritson (vide note on fly-leaf) does not notice this edition (1566), nor the second in 1571, but quotes that of 1596.


[Footnote 11: Wood.]

Taylor's translation of Apuleius's Golden Ass, Lond. 1822, 2 vols., is said by Lowndes to be an esteemed version.

The French translations of the same work, according to De Bure (see Manuel du Libraire) are very inferior.


Etymology of "Grasson" (Vol. iii., p. 8.).—Grasson appears to be derived front "grassor," "to assail." Livy somewhere has the following—"Grassor in possessionem agri"—which would be rendered, "To enter upon it by force;" it being only by the payment of the fine (Grasson) that the entry, "Grassor," or alienation of copyhold lands, could be warded off: hence the act of the lord of the manor (Grassor) became the name for the fine paid by this tenant, "Grasson."


Lynch Law (Vol. iii., p. 24.).—Webster's {77} American Dictionary (1848) explains this phrase thus—

"The practice of punishing men for crimes and offences by private unauthorized persons, without a legal trial. The term is said to be derived from a Virginian farmer, named Lynch, who thus took the law into his own hands." (U.S.)

Webster is considered the highest authority in America, or I should not offer the above.


"Talk not of Love" (Vol. iii., p. 7.).—The song quoted by your Querist, A. M., was written by Mrs. MacLehose, the "Clarinda" of Burns, and is to be found in most of the lives of the Scottish poet.

[J.H., JR., says it is printed in Chambers's Journal, No. 1. New Series. DANIEL FERGUSON points them out at p. 212. of a Collection of Songs of England and Scotland, published by Cochrane, of Waterloo Place; and in vol. ii. of Johnson's Scots Musical Museum; and G.T. also refers to the last-named collection.]

The Butcher Duke (Vol. iii., p. 8.).—The song referred to by MEZZOTINTO is to be found in most of the collections of Scotch songs, under the name of "Bonnie Laddie, Highland Laddie," for which old air it was written; or, when only partially printed, by the commencing line of one of its stanzas:—

"Geordie sits in Charlie's chair."

It is one of the numerous Jacobite songs composed either about 1715, by some one "out in the Fifteen," or later by a poet of "the Forty-five." The author's name is unknown. In the collection of Scottish songs, published by Robert Chambers in 1829, the song, consisting of no less than twenty-two stanzas, will be found at p. 367.

[L.M.M.R. has also kindly transcribed the song from the Scots Musical Museum; and DR. C., of Newcastle, who says "it is well known in the remoter districts of Northumberland," obligingly offers to furnish MEZZOTINTO with a copy, if he should desire it.]

Curfew (Vol. ii., p. 103.).—The Curfew is rung at Handsworth, near Sheffield.


Robertson Struan (Vol. iii., p. 40.).—As one of those who quarter the coat of Robertson Struan, I may perhaps be able to afford C.R.M. some slight information. My maternal grandfather was a son of William Robertson, of Richmond, one of whose daughters married Sir David Dundas, Bart. The arms borne by him were, Gules, three wolves' heads erased, langued, azure. A selvage man in chains hanging beneath the shield. Crest, a bare cubit, supporting a regal Crown. Motto, "Virtutis Gloriae Merces."



* * * * *



The landing of Charles Edward Stuart, and the "Seven Men of Moidart," on the memorable 25th July, 1745, was the opening of the last, and, in many respects, the most brilliant and stirring chapter in the Romance of English History. That Mr. Murray has therefore done wisely in the publication, in a separate form, of The Forty-Five: by Lord Mahon, being the Narrative of the Insurrection of 1745, extracted from Lord Mahon's History of England, there can be little doubt. The memory of that eventful period is so kept alive among us, by snatches of Jacobite ballads, and recitals of the strange incidents in which it was so rich, that this separate publication of so much of Lord Mahon's History of England from the Peace of Utrecht (1713) to the Peace of Paris (1763) as relates to its "moving accidents by flood and field," will be a great boon to those numerous readers who have neither means, time, nor opportunity to peruse Lord Mahon's interesting narrative in that valuable contribution to our national history for which it was originally written.

Some time since the British Museum purchased for about 120l. a volume containing no less than sixty-four early French Farces and Moralities, printed between the year 1542 and 1548, of which a very large proportion was entirely unknown. How important a collection of materials for the early history of the Drama, especially in France, is contained in this precious volume, we learn from a work which has reached us, "pas destine au commerce," under the title of Description Bibliographique et Analyse d'un Livre unique qui se trouve au Musee Britannique, which contains a short but able analysis of the various pieces which formed the volume thus fortunately secured for our national library. Though the name of the editor is stated, on the title-page, to be Tridace-Nafe-Theobrome, Gentilhomme Breton, we strongly suspect that no such gentleman is to be found; and that we are really indebted for this highly curious and interesting book to a gentleman who has already laid the world of letters under great obligation, M. Delpierre, the accomplished Secretary of Legation of the Belgian Embassy.

Literature, Science, and the Arts have sustained a heavy loss in the death of that accomplished patron of them—that most amiable nobleman the Marquess of Northampton. His noble simplicity and single-mindedness of character, and his unaffected kindliness of manner, endeared him to all who had the good fortune to be honoured with his acquaintance, and by all of whom his death will be long and most deeply regretted.

Mr. Sandys, F.S.A., of Canterbury, has issued a Prospectus for the immediate publication, by Subscription, of the Consuetudines Kanciae: a History of Gavelkind and other remarkable Customs in the County of Kent.

Messrs. Sotheby and Wilkinson will sell on Monday next, and four following days, a very select and valuable Library, the property of a gentleman deceased, including among other choice lots, two early MSS. of the Divina Comedia, and an extensive, rare, and interesting series of early editions of Dante. {78}

Books Received.Clark's Introduction to Heraldry (London, Washbourne), fourteenth edition, which contains a chapter and plates, which are entirely new, on Heraldry in conjunction with Architecture;—Hints and Queries intended to promote the Preservation of Antiquities and the Collection and Arrangement of Information on the Subject of Local History and Tradition—a most useful little tract, highly creditable to the Kilkenny Archaeological Society, by whose order it has been printed for circulation;—The Peril of the Papal Aggression; or, the Case as it stands between the Queen and the Pope, by Anglicanus. London, Bosworth.

Catalogues Received.—Charles Skeet's (21. King William Street, Charing Cross) Catalogue No. 1. for 1851, of a Miscellaneous Collection of Books, New and Second-hand; John Petheram's (94. High Holborn) Catalogue, Part CXX. (No. 1. for 1851) of Old and New Books; Edward Stibbs' (331. Strand) Catalogue, Part II., of a valuable Collection of Books, including an extensive purchase of Italian, French, and Spanish Literature; Bernard Quaritch's (16. Castle Street, Leicester Square) Catalogue No. 23. of European and Oriental Philology and General Literature; John Miller's (43. Chandos Street) Catalogue No. XVII. of Books Old and New.

* * * * *


DE CULTU ET AMORE DEI. 2 Pts. London, 1745.


LEWIN, LEPIDUR, INSECTS OF NEW SOUTH WALES, 18 coloured Plates. 4to. 1805




*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

* * * * *


HANAP. Q.B., who asks the meaning of this old name given to certain cups and drinking vessels, is referred to our First Vol. pp. 477-8, our Second Vol. p. 150., and the Archaeological Journal, Vol. ii., p. 263.

MR. KENNETH MACKENZIE, MR. M.A. LOWER. MR. GEORGE STEPHENS (of Stockholm), and several anonymous Correspondents, who have written to us suggesting certain alterations either in our size, price, mode of publication, or other arrangements, are assured that fully appreciating the kind motives which have prompted their communications, their respective suggestions will receive our best attention; and that if we do not adopt them, it will be for reasons the force of which our Correspondents would, we have no doubt, if they could be made fully acquainted with them, be the very first to admit.

DELTA, who writes to us respecting the origin of the thought embodied in Cambell's line

Like angels' visits, few and far between,"

is referred to our First Vol. p. 102, and our Second Vol. p. 286., for two quotations from Norris of Bemerton, which embody the same idea.

If MR. JOHN POWERS, who in NOTES AND QUERIES for Jan. 12th. 1850, p. 163., offered to furnish an extract from Hardiman's Statute of Kilkenny, will have the kindness to so at this distance of time, and to forward it to us, the Querist to whom he replied, and whose direction we have just received, will be much obliged to him.

E.T., who inquires respecting the quotation in Sterne,—

"God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb,"

will find many earlier instances of this proverbial expression quoted in our First Vol. pp. 325. 357. 418.

REPLIES RECEIVED.—Breeches Bible—Curse of Scotland—John Sanderson—St. Saviour's, Canterbury—Frozen Horn—Under the Rose—Lynch Law—"Talk not of Love"—Darby and Joan—Robertson of Struan—Wolf and Hound—Difformis—Culture of Imagination—Lachrymatories—Synod of Dort—Bunyan and Hobbes—Booty's Case—Lucy and Colin—Black Rood of Scotland—Ferling—Portraits of Bishops—Time when Herodotus wrote—Fronte Capillata—Separation of Sexes in Church—Touching for the Evil—True Blue—St. Paul's Clock—Annoy—Umbrella.

VOLUME THE SECOND OF NOTES AND QUERIES, with very copious INDEX, is now ready, price 9s. 6d. strongly bound in cloth. VOL. I. is reprinting, and will, we hope, be ready next week.

NOTES AND QUERIES may be procured, by order, of all Booksellers and Newsvenders. It is published at noon on Friday, so that our country Subscribers ought not to experience any difficulty in procuring it regularly. Many of the country Booksellers. &c., are, probably, not yet aware of this arrangement, which will enable them to receive NOTES and QUERIES in their Saturday parcels.

All communications for the Editor of NOTES AND QUERIES should be addressed to the care of MR. BELL, No. 186. Fleet Street.

* * * * *

TO BOOK BUYERS.—WILLIAM BROUGH, 22. Paradise Street, Birmingham, has just published a Catalogue of upwards of 10,000 Volumes of Second-hand Books, which may be had Gratis on Application; by Post, Four Stamps. Books of every Description, and in any Quantity, purchased.

* * * * *

Mr. Maccabe's Romance of the Dark Ages,


"The book is able, learned, and instructive to a degree wholly unusual in works of its class."—Weekly Chronicle.

"We gladly recommend a work, the learning, purity, and interest of which must please all kinds of reader."—Morning Chronicle.

"The mere novel reader will value it for its exciting adventures, its touching incidents, and its dramatic interest; while it will be acceptable to the historical student for its vigorous grasp of historic character, and to the antiquarian for its information relating to the Dark Ages."—Morning Post.

"It is treated with the learning of a scholar, and the grace of an experienced writer."—News of the World.

See also NOTES AND QUERIES, January 11th.


"A work of great literary value."—The Times.

T.C. NEWBY, 30. Welbeck Street, Cavendish Square.

* * * * *

Now ready, fcap. 8vo., price 7s. 6d.

A THIRD SERIES OF PLAIN SERMONS, addressed to a Country Congregation. By the late REV. EDWARD BLENCOWE, Curate of Teversal, Notts, and formerly Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford.


"Their style is simple; the sentences are not artfully constructed; and there is an utter absence of all attempt at rhetoric. The language is plain Saxon language, from which 'the men on the wall' can easily gather what it most concerns them to know."—Theologian.

Also, 2 vols. 12mo., sold separately, 8s. each,

SERMONS. By the REV. ALFRED GATTY, M.A., Vicar of Ecclesfield.

"Sermons of a high and solid character—earnest and affectionate."—Theologian.

"Plain and practical, but close and scholarly discourses."—Spectator.

London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.


* * * * *


ASHBEE AND TUCKETT, LITHOGRAPHERS &c., 18. BROAD COURT, LONG ACRE, beg respectfully to draw attention to their Establishment for the Execution of ANCIENT AND MODERN FAC-SIMILES, both Plain and in Colours; comprising Autographs, Charters, Deeds, Drawings, Illuminations, Titlepages, Woodcuts, &c., which they produce with the utmost fidelity and exactness, also without the slightest injury to the Original. Specimens may be inspected at the Offices, or will be forwarded on Application.

Every Description of Plain and Ornamental LITHOGRAPHY executed with the greatest attention and punctuality.

* * * * *

Now ready, in one handsome vol. 8vo., illustrated with 37 Plates and 192 Woodcuts, half morocco, 1l. 1s.

THE ROMAN WALL: An Historical, Topographical, and Descriptive Account of the Barrier of the Lower Isthmus extending from the Tyne to the Solway, deduced from repeated personal Surveys. By the REV. JOHN COLLINGWOOD BRUCE, M.A.

London: JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, 4. Old Compton Street, Soho. Newcastle-on-Tyne: WILLIAM SANG and G. BOURCHIER RICHARDSON.

* * * * *

ARNOLD'S SCHOOL CLASSICS, WITH ENGLISH NOTES. Now ready, in 12 mo., price 3s.

THE AJAX OF SOPHOCLES, with ENGLISH NOTES, translated from the German of F.W. SCHNEIDEWIN, by the REV. R.B. PAUL, Vicar of St. Augustine's, Bristol, and late Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford. Edited by the REV. T.K. ARNOLD, M.A., Rector of Lyndon, and late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.

RIVINGTONS, St. Paul's Church Yard, and Waterloo Place;

Of whom may be had, by the same Editor,


2. THE OLYNTHIAC ORATIONS OF DEMOSTHENES, with copious Notes and Grammatical References. 3s. (nearly ready, ORATIO DE CORONA.)

3. HOMERI ILIAS, LIB. I.-IV., with a copious CRITICAL INTRODUCTION and NOTES. 7s. 6d.



A HANDBOOK of GREEK SYNONYMES. From the French of M. PILLON, Librarian of the Bibliotheque Royale, Paris. Edited, with NOTES, by the REV. THOMAS KERCHEVER ARNOLD, M.A., Rector of Lyndon, and late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.

RIVINGTONS, St. Paul's Church Yard, and Waterloo Place;

Of whom may be had,




4. THE ATHENIAN STAGE; a Handbook for the Student of the GREEK DRAMA. 4s.

* * * * *

THE LABOUR QUESTION.—MR. MAYHEW'S Letters in the MORNING CHRONICLE on the Working Classes, are now being republished in Weekly Numbers, price Twopence; and Monthly Parts, price Ninepence; with Engravings of the Scenes and People from Daguerreotypes by BEARD. To be had of all Newsmen.

Office, 69. Fleet Street.

* * * * *

MR. T. RICHARDS (late of St. Martin's Lane), PRINTER and Agent to the PERCY and HARLUYT SOCIETIES, has removed to 37. Great Queen Street, Lincoln's-Inn-Fields, where he respectfully requests all Letters may be addressed to him.

* * * * *

Just published, Fcap. 8vo., price 8d., or forwarded Post Free on receipt of 1s. in Postage Stamps.


"A people who can understand and act upon the counsels which God has given it, in the past events of its history, is safe in the most dangerous crisis of its fate."—M. Guizot.

London: T. BOSWORTH, 215. Regent Street; H. BASELEY, 9. Old Broad Street, and of all Booksellers.

* * * * *


In no article perhaps is caution more necessary than in the purchase of a Dressing Case, for in none are the meretricious arts of the unprincipled manufacturer more frequently displayed. MECHI, 4. LEADENHALL STREET, near Gracechurch Street, has long enjoyed the reputation of producing a Dressing Case in the most finished and faultless manner. Those who purchase of him will be sure of having thoroughly-seasoned and well-prepared wood or leather, with the fittings of first-rate quality. The prices range from 1l. to 100l. Thus the man of fortune and he of moderate means may alike be suited, while the traveller will find the Mechian Dressing Case especially adapted to his necessities.—4. LEADENHALL STREET.

* * * * *

WHITAKER'S CLERGYMAN'S DIARY AND ECCLESIASTICAL CALENDAR FOR 1851, containing a Diary with the Lessons, Collects, and Directions for Public Worship, with blank spaces for Memoranda for every Day in the Year, the Sundays and other Holidays being printed in red.

The Ecclesiastical Calendar contains a list of all the Bishops, Deans, Archdeacons, Canons, Prebendaries, and other dignitaries of the United Church of England and Ireland, arranged under their respective Dioceses. The Bishops and other Dignitaries of the Colonial Church, the Scottish and American Episcopal Churches; Statistics of the Roman Catholic and Greek Churches, the various bodies of Dissenters, Religious Societies in connexion with the Church, with their Income and Expenditure; Directions to Candidates for Holy Orders, Curates, and newly-appointed Incumbents; the Universities, Heads of Houses, Prizes, &c.

The Miscellaneous Part contains complete Lists of both Houses of Parliament, the Ministry, Judges, &c., Tables of the Revenue, Taxes, Wages, &c., with a variety of matter useful to all Clergymen, the whole forming a COMPLETE AND CONVENIENT CLERGYMAN'S POCKET BOOK. Price, in cloth, 3s., or with a tuck as a pocket book, roan, 5s., or in morocco, 6s. 6d.

"It appears to be exceedingly well got up, and to contain all that a clergyman or a churchman can desire."—Guardian.

"Well arranged, and full of useful matter."—John Bull.

"The most complete and useful thing of the kind."—Christian Remembrancer.

Oxford: JOHN HENRY PARKER; and 377. Strand, London.

* * * * *




Revised and corrected throughout to the Present Time from the Personal Communications of the Nobility, &c.

In 1 Vol. Royal 8vo., comprising as much matter as twenty ordinary volumes, with 1500 engravings of arms, &c. 38s. bound.

"The most complete, the most convenient, and the cheapest work of the kind ever given to the public."—Sun.

Also just published, in 2 vols. 8vo., 28s. bound,


New Edition, revised by the Author, and edited by his Son, B. DISRAELI, M.P.

"By far the most important work on the important age of Charles I. that modern times have produced."—Quarterly Review.

HENRY COLBURN, Publisher, 13. Great Marlborough Street. {80}


* * * * *

We are requested to notice the Re-issue by H. WASHBOURNE, NEW BRIDGE STREET. Of a New and enlarged Edition, with 4,000 Plates, 2 vols. 21s.

BOOK OF FAMILY CRESTS AND MOTTOES, accompanied by upwards of 4,000 Engravings, illustrative of the Crests of nearly every Family. The best recommendation as to its correctness (in the main) is, that it has been used as a book of reference in the Herald's College.

"No wonder this book sells."—Spectator.

BOOK OF FAMILY MOTTOES, borne by Nobility, Gentry, &c., with Translations and Names. 3s. 6d. Fourteenth Edition, and 74th Year of its Publication, with a New Chapter on Heraldry as in conjunction with Architecture, &c.

CLARK'S INTRODUCTION TO HERALDRY. Upwards of 1,000 Plates, including the Arms of numerous Families. Small 8vo. 7s. 6d.; Plates, correctly coloured, 18s.; or 12s. on paper prepared for Learners.

* * * * *


Now re-issued, at nearly half their published prices,


*** MISCELLANEOUS WORKS AND LIFE OF V. BEDE separate in 6 Vols. 1l. 10s.

ALDHELM'S WORKS. 8vo. 6s. A.D. 705.

ARNULF'S LETTERS, &c. 6s. A.D. 1141.

BONIFACE'S WORKS. 2 vols. 8vo. 12s. A.D. 720.

JOHN of SALISBURY'S WORKS. 5 vols. A.D. 1136.

LANFRANC'S WORKS. 2 vols. 12s. A.D. 1070.

PETER OF BLOIS' WORKS. 4 vols. 1l. 4s. A.D. 1100.

The Series, with the Works of THOMAS a BECKET, HERBERT of BOSHAM, and FOLIOT, complete in 35 vols. 8vo. 9l.

Those who wish to perfect their Sets are recommended to do so at once.

* * * * *


MILTON'S PARADISE LOST, with 24 large Engravings by MARTIN. Imperial 8vo. 1l. 11s. 6d. half-bound morocco; 2l. 2s. morocco, elegantly gilt.

"He is more original, more self-dependent than Raffaelle or Michael Angelo; they perfected the style of others—of Massaccio and Segnorelli. Martin borrowed from none"—Sir E.L.B. Lytton.

SPENSER'S POETICAL AND PROSE WORKS. With Memoirs. Royal 8vo. 10s. 6d. cloth; 20s. morocco.

SPECTATOR, with Portraits and Lives of the Authors. 9s. cloth; 18s. 6d. morocco.

HUDIBRAS, Gray's Edition. Edited by DR. NASH. Illustrated by above 100 Portraits, &c. 2 vols. 21s.; or without the Portraits. 10s.

"When ordering a Hudibras, we do not know what better edition could be supplied."—Douglas Jerrold.

BOSWELL'S LIFE OF DR. JOHNSON, by MALONE 8vo. 7s. cloth; 9s. half morocco.

"Neatly printed and to which the industry of all the Crokers has added little either curious or important."—Spectator.

ARABIAN NIGHTS ENTERTAINMENTS. Illustrated. Royal 8vo. 7s. 6d.; without Plates, 6s. 6d.

MOORE'S PICTORIAL BOOK OF OLD ENGLISH BALLADS and BORDER MINSTRELSY. Illustrated by 200 Wood Engravings. 8vo. 10s. 6d. cloth; 12s. half morocco; 20s. antique morocco.

"It contains a number of most curious and interesting ballads, profusely illustrated by clever and appropriate woodcuts."—Lit. Gazette.

MASSINGER'S WORKS by GIFFORD. Royal 8vo. 10s. 6d.

PERCY'S RELIQUES of ANCIENT ENGLISH POETRY. 3 vols. Fcp. 8vo. With illuminated Titles. 15s. cloth; 18s. half morocco; 24s. morocco; 30s. antique morocco.


"Washbourne's edition of Percy and Ellis are tempting books."—Gent. Magazine.


WALTON'S LIVES OF DONNE, WALTON, HOOKER, HERBERT, &c. 76 Engravings. MAJOR Edition. Small 8vo. 9s. cloth; 14s. morocco antique.

GEORGE HERBERT'S POEMS and COUNTRY PARSON. Super-royal 32mo. cloth, antique, 4s.; morocco antique, 8s.

==> It will be necessary to apply for WASHBOURNE'S Editions.

* * * * *

Committee for the Repair of the



The Tomb of Geoffrey Chaucer in Westminster Abbey is fast mouldering into irretrievable decay. A sum of One Hundred Pounds, will effect a perfect repair. The Committee have not thought it right to fix any limit to the contribution; they themselves have opened the list with a subscription from each of them of Five Shillings; but thy will be ready to receive any amount, more or less, which those who value poetry and honour Chaucer may be kind enough to remit to them.

Subscriptions have been received from the Earls of Carlisle, Ellesmere, and Shaftesbury, Viscounts Strangford and Mahon, Pres. Soc. Antiq., The Lords Braybrooke and Londesborough, and many other noblemen and gentlemen.

Subscriptions are received by all the members of the Committee, and at the Union Bank, Pall Mall East. Post-office orders may be made payable at the Charing Cross Office, to William Richard Drake, Esq., the Treasurer, 46. Parliament Street, or William J. Thoms, Esq., Hon. Sec., 25. Holy-Well Street, Millbank.

* * * * *



This Hospital is open every Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, and Friday, at 2 o'clock for the reception of Out-Patients without Letters of Recommendation. In-Patients admitted every Tuesday at 3 o'clock upon the Recommendation of a Governor or Subscribers.

Subscriptions to the Hospital Funds will be thankfully received by the bankers. Messrs. Strahan and Co., Strand, and Messrs. Prescott and Co., Threadneedle Street, and by

RALPH BUCHAN, Honorary Secretary, 32. Gold Square.

* * * * *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.—Saturday, January 25. 1851.


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