Notes and Queries, Number 227, March 4, 1854
Author: Various
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These Celtic etymologies, however, though amusing, do not touch the main point, which is simply this: the usual mode of pronouncing the word humble in good English society. What that is, seems to be so satisfactorily shown by your correspondent S. G. C., Vol. viii., p. 393., that all farther argument on the subject would be superfluous.

E. C. H.

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Improvements in the Albumenized Process.—Your expectation of being soon able to announce the successful manufacture of a new negative calotype paper, will, I am sure, be gladly received by many photographers, and especially by those who, like me, have been subjected to much disappointment with Turner's paper. For one sheet that has turned out well, at least half-a-dozen have proved useless from spottiness, and some sheets do not take the iodizing solution evenly, from an apparent want of uniformity in the texture of the paper, which causes the solution to penetrate portions the moment it is laid on the solution. Undoubtedly, when it does succeed, it is superior to Whatman's, but this is not enough to compensate for its extreme uncertainty.

In DR. DIAMOND'S directions for the calotype, he gave a formula for the addition of bromide of potassium to the iodide of potassium, but did not speak with much certainty as to the proportions. Will he kindly say whether he has made farther trials; and if so, whether they confirm the proportions given by him, or have led him to adopt any change in this respect? and will he likewise say whether the iodizing solution which he recommends for Turner's paper, is suitable also to Whatman's?

In albumenizing paper, I have not found it desirable to remove the paper very slowly from the solution. Whenever I have done so, it has invariably dried with waves and streaks, which quite spoiled the sheet. A steady motion, neither too slow nor too quick, I have found succeed perfectly, so that I now never spoil a sheet. I have used the solution with less albumen than recommended by DR. DIAMOND. My formula has been.—

Albumen 8 oz. Water 12 oz. Muriate ammon. 60 grs. Common salt 60 grs.

And this, I find, gives a sufficient gloss to the paper; but that of course is a matter of taste.

I have not either found it essential to allow the paper to remain on the solution three minutes or longer, as recommended by DR. DIAMOND. With Canson paper, either negative or positive, a minute and a half has been sufficient. I have used two dishes, and as soon as a sheet was removed, drained, and replaced, I have taken the sheet from the other dish. In this way I found that each sheet lay on the solution about one and a half minutes, and with the assistance of a person to hang and dry them (which I have done before a fire), I have prepared from forty to forty-five sheets in an hour, requiring of course to be ironed afterwards.

I have tried a solution of nitrate of silver of thirty grains to one ounce of distilled water, to excite this paper, and it appears to answer just as well as forty grains. I send you two small collodion views, takes by me and printed on albumenized paper prepared as mentioned, and excited with a 30-grain solution of nitrate of silver.

Is there any certain way of telling the right side of Canson paper, negative and positive? On the positive paper on one side, when held in a particular position towards the light, shaded bars may be observed; and on this side, when looked through, the name reads right. Is this the right or the wrong side?

C. E. F.

Since I wrote to you last, I have tried a solution of twelve grains only of nitrate of silver to the ounce of distilled water, for the paper albumenized, as mentioned in my letter of the 13th of February, and have found it to answer perfectly. The paper I used was thin Canson, floated for one minute exactly on the solution; but I have no doubt the thick Canson will succeed just as well; and here I may observe that I have never found any advantage in allowing the paper to rest on the solution for three or four minutes, as generally recommended, but the contrary, as the paper, without being in the least more sensitive, becomes much sooner discoloured by keeping. My practice has been to float the thin Canson about half a minute, and the thick Canson not more than a minute.

C. E. F.

Mr. Crookes on restoring old Collodion.—I am happy to explain to your correspondent what I consider to be the rationale of the process.

The colour which iodized collodion assumes on keeping, I consider to be entirely due to the gradual separation of iodine from the iodide of potassium or ammonium originally introduced. There are several ways in which this may take place; if the cotton on paper contain the slightest trace of nitric acid, owing to its not being thoroughly washed (and this is not as easy as is generally supposed), the liberation of iodine in the collodion is certain to take place a short time after its being made.

It is possible also that there may be a gradual decomposition of the zyloidin itself, and consequent liberation of the iodide by this means, with formation of nitrate of potassa or ammonia; but the most probable cause I consider to be the following. The ether gradually absorbs oxygen from the atmosphere, being converted into acetic acid; this, by its superior affinities, reacts on the iodide present, converting it into acetate, with liberation of hydriodic acid; while this latter, under the influence of the atmospheric oxygen, is very rapidly converted into water and iodine.

I am satisfied by experiment that this is one of the causes of the separation of iodine, and I think it is the only one, for the following reason; neither bromised nor chlorised collodion undergo the slightest change of colour, however long they may be kept. Now, if the former agencies were at work, there is no reason why bromine should not be liberated from a bromide as well as iodine from an iodide; but on the latter {207} supposition, could take place, the affinities of acetic acid being insufficient to displace hydrobromic acid.

A great many experiments which I tried last autumn, for the express purpose of clearing up this point, have convinced me that, caeteris paribus, the addition of free iodine to the iodizing solution, tends to diminish the sensitiveness of the subsequently formed iodide of silver. On paper, this diminution of sensitiveness is attended with some advantages, so that at present I hardly know whether to introduce the free iodine or not; but in collodion, as far as my experience goes, I see no reason for retaining it; on the contrary, everything seems to be in favour of its removal.

I can hardly imagine that the increased sensitiveness mentioned by MR. HENNAH is really due to the free iodine which he introduces. Such a result being so contrary to all my experience, I would venture to suggest that there must be some other cause for its beneficial action; for instance, commercial iodide of potassium is generally alkaline, owing to impurities present; the tincture of iodine in this case would render the collodion neutral, and unless a very large excess of iodine were introduced, its good effects would be very apparent. This, however, involving the employment of impure chemicals, is a very improbable explanation of a phenomenon observed by so excellent an operator as MR. HENNAH: there is most likely some local cause which would be overlooked unless expressly searched for.

With regard to the point, whether the free iodine is the sole cause of the deterioration of old collodion, I should say decidedly not, at least in a theoretical view; the liberation of free iodine necessitates some other changes in the collodion, and the result must be influenced by these in one way or another, but practically I have as yet found nothing to warrant the supposition that they perceptibly interfere with the sensitiveness of the film.

In the above I have endeavoured as much as possible to avoid technicalities, in order to make it intelligible to amateurs; but if there be any part which may be considered obscure, on its being pointed out to me, I will endeavour to solve the difficulty.



Photographic Queries.—1. Would you, Sir, or DR. DIAMOND (DR. MANSELL is too far off), be kind enough to inform your readers whether DR. MANSELL'S process, recommended in No. 225., is equally applicable to inland as to sea-side operations; or must we, in the one case, follow DR. DIAMOND, and in the other DR. MANSELL, and thus be compelled to prepare two sets of papers?

2. DR. MANSELL recommends, as a test for the iodized paper, a strong solution of bichloride of mercury; may we ask how strong?

3. MR. SISSON'S developing fluid has undergone so many changes, and has been so much written about, that we are at a loss to discover or to determine whether it has been at length settled, in the mind of the inventor, that it will do equally well for negatives as for positives.


[1. Both papers are equally available for both purposes. In actual practice we have not ourselves experienced any difference in their results.

2. It is quite immaterial. A drachm of bichloride dissolved in one ounce of spirits of wine will cause a cloudiness and a precipitate, if a very few drops are added to the tested water.

3. In general the salts of iron are more adapted for positives, and weak pyrogallic acid solutions for negatives; say one and a half grain of pyrogallic acid, twenty minims of glacial acetic acid, and an ounce of distilled water.]

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Replies to Minor Queries.

London Fortifications (Vol. ix., p. 174.).—In last week's Number is an inquiry as to "London Fortifications" in the time of the Commonwealth.

There is a Map by Vertue, dated 1738, in a folio History of London; there is one a trifle smaller, copied from the above; also one with page of description, Gentleman's Magazine, June, 1749. I subscribed to a set of twenty etchings, published last year by Mr. P. Thompson of the New Road; they are very curious, being facsimiles of a set of drawings done by a Capt. John Eyre of Oliver Cromwell's own regiment, dated 1643. The drawings are now I believe in the possession of the City of London.


[The drawings referred to by our correspondent are, we hear, by competent judges regarded as not genuine. Such also, we are told, is the opinion given of many drawings ascribed to Hollar and Captain John Eyre, which have been purchased by a gentleman of our acquaintance, and submitted by him to persons most conversant with such drawings. Query, Are the drawings purporting to be by Captain John Eyre, drawings of the period at which they are dated?]

Burke's Domestic Correspondence (Vol. ix., p. 9.).—In reference to a Query in "N.& Q." relative to unpublished documents respecting Edmund Burke, I beg to inform your correspondent N. O. that I have no doubt but that some new light might be thrown on the subject by an application to Mr. George Shackleton, Ballitore, a descendant of Abraham Shackleton, Burke's old schoolmaster, who I believe has a quantity of letters written to his old master Abraham, and also to his son Richard, who had Burke for a schoolfellow, and continued the friendship afterwards, both by writing and personally. When Richard attended yearly meetings in London, he was always a guest at Beaconsfield. Burke was so much attached to Richard, that on one of these visits he caused Shackleton's portrait to be painted and presented it to him, and it is now in the possession of the above family. I have no doubt but that an application to the above gentleman would produce some testimony.

F. H.


Battle of Villers-en-Couche (Vol. viii. passim).—A good account of this celebrated engagement, with several authentic documents relating to what happened on the occasion, will be found in that very interesting little work, Risen from the Ranks, by the Rev. E. Neale (London, Longmans, 1853).


"I could not love thee, dear, so much" (Vol. ix., p. 125.).—These lines are from an exquisite morceau entitled To Lucasta, on going to the Wars, by the gay, gallant, and ill-fated cavalier, Richard Lovelace, whose undying loyalty and love, and whose life, and every line that he wrote, are all redolent of the best days of chivalry. They are to be found in a 12mo. volume, Lucasta, London, 1649. The entire piece is so short, that I venture to subjoin it:

"Tell me not, sweet, I am unkinde, That from the nunnerie Of thy chaste breast and quiet minde, To warre and armes I flie.

"True, a new mistresse now I chase, The first foe in the field; And with a stronger faith imbrace A sword, a horse, a shield.

"Yet this inconstancy is such, As you too shall adore; I could not love thee, deare, so much, Loved I not honour more."

To the honour of Kent be it remembered that Lovelace was CANTIANUS.

[We are also indebted for Replies to E. L. HOLT WHITE, GEO. E. FRERE, E. C. H., J. K. R. W., H. J. RAINES, M.D., F. J. SCOTT, W. J. B. SMITH, E. S. T. T., C. B. E., F. E. E., &c. "Lovelace (says Wood) made his amours to a gentlewoman of great beauty and fortune, named Lucy Sacheverel, whom he usually called Lux casta; but she, upon a strong report that he was dead of his wound received at Dunkirk (where he had brought a regiment for the service of the French king), soon after married."—Wood's Athenae Oxonienses, vol. iii. p. 462.]

Sir Charles Cotterell (Vol. viii., p. 564.).—Sir Charles Cotterell, the translator of Cassandra, was Master of the Ceremonies to Charles II.; which office he resigned to his son in 1686, and died about 1687. I cannot say where he was buried. I am in possession of a copy of—

"The Memorialls of Margaret de Valoys, first Wife to Henry the Fourth, King of France and Navarre; compiled in French by her own most delicate and Royal hand, and translated into English by Robert Codrington, Master of Arts: London, printed by R. H. 1661."

It is dedicated to "To the true lover of all good learning, the truly honourable Sir Charles Cotterell, Knight, Master of the Ceremonies," &c. On the fly-leaf of it is written, "Frances Cottrell, her booke, given by my honor'd grandfather Sir Cha. Cottrell." This edition is not mentioned by Lowndes; he only speaks of one of the date of 1662, with a title slightly different.

C—S. T. P.

Muffins and Crumpets (Vol. ix., p. 77).—Crumpet, according to Todd's Johnson, is derived from A.-S. [Anglo-Saxon: crompeht], which Boswell explains, "full of crumples, wrinkled." Perhaps muffin is derived from, or connected with, the following:

"MOFFLET. Moffletus. Mofletus Panis delicatioris species, qui diatim distribui solet Canonicis praebendariis; Tolosatibus Pain Moufflet, quasi Pain molet dictus; forte quod ejusmodi panes singulis diebus coquantur, atque recentes et teneri distribuantur."—Du Cange.

The latter part of the description is very applicable to this article.

Under Panes Praebendarii, Du Cange says, "Innoc. Cironus observat ejusmodi panes Praebendarios dici, et in Tolosano tractu Moufflets appellari." (See "N. & Q," Vol. i., pp. 173. 205. 253.)


Todd, for the derivation of crumpet, gives the Saxon [Anglo-Saxon: crompeht]. To crump is to eat a hard cake (Halliwell's Archaisms). Perhaps its usual accompaniment on the tea-table may be indebted for its name to its muff-like softness to the touch before toasting.


"Clunk" (Vol. viii., p. 65.).—The Scotch, and English, clunk must have different meanings: for Jamieson defines the verb to clunk "to emit a hollow and interrupted sound, as that proceeding from any liquid confined in a cask, when shaken, if the cask be not full;" and to guggle, as a "straight-necked bottle, when it is emptying;" and yet I am inclined to believe that the word also signifies to swallow, as in England. In the humorous ballad of "Rise up and bar the door," clunk seems to be used in the sense of to swallow:

"And first they eat the while puddins, and then they eat the black; The gudeman said within himsel, the Deil clunk ower ai that."

That is, may you swallow the devil with the black puddings, they perhaps being the best to the good man's taste. True, I have seen the word printed "clink," instead of clunk in this song; but erroneously I think, as there is no signification of clink in Jamieson that could be appropriately used by the man who saw his favourite puddings devoured before his face. To clink, means to "beat smartly", to "rivet the point of a nail," to "propagate scandal, or any rumour quickly;" none of which significations could be substituted for clunk in the ballad.


Picts' Houses (Vol. viii., p. 392.).—Such buildings underground as those described as Picts' {209} houses, were not uncommon on the borders of the Tweed. A number of them, apparently constructed as described, were discovered in a field on the farm of Whitsome Hill, Berwickshire, about forty years ago. They were supposed to have been made for the detention of prisoners taken in the frays during the Border feuds: and afterwards they were employed to conceal spirits, smuggled either across the Border, or from abroad.


Tailless Cats (Vol. ix., p. 10.).—The tailless cats are still procurable in the Isle of Man, though many an unfortunate pussey with the tail cut off is palmed off as genuine on the unwary. The real tailless breed are rather longer in the hind legs than the ordinary cat, and grow to a large size.

P. P.

Though not a Manx man by birth, I can assure your correspondent SHIRLEY HIBBERD, that there is not only a species of tailless cats in the Isle of Man, but also of tailless barn-door fowls. I believe the latter are also to be found in Malta.



"Cock-and-bull story" (Vol. v., pp. 414. 447.).—DR. MAITLAND, in his somewhat sarcastic remarks respecting "cock-and-bull stories," extracted from Mr. Faber's work, has, no doubt, given a true account of the "cock on the church steeple, as being symbolical of a doctor or teacher." Still I cannot see that this at all explains the expression of a "cock-and-bull story." Will DR. MAITLAND be so good as to enlighten me on this point?

I. R. R.

Market Crosses (Vol. v., p. 511.).—Does not the marriage at the market cross allude simply to the civil marriages in the time of the Commonwealth, not alluding to any religious edifice at all? An inspection of many parish registers of that period will, I think, prove this.

I. R. R.

"Largesse" (Vol. v., p. 557.).—The word largesse is not peculiar to Northamptonshire: I well remember it used in Essex at harvest-time, being shouted out at such time through the village to ask for a gift, as I always understood. A. B. may be referred to Marmion, Canto I. note 10.

I. R. R.

Awkward, Awart, Awalt (Vol. viii., p. 310.).—When fat sheep roll over upon their backs, and cannot get up of themselves, they are said to be lying awkward, in some places awalt, and in others awart. Is awkward, in this sense, the same word that treated by H. C. K.?


Morgan Odoherty (Vol. viii., p. 11.).—In reference to the remarks of MR. J. S. WARDEN on the Morgan Odoherty of Blackwood's Magazine, I had imagined it was very generally known by literary men that that nom de guerre was assumed by the late Captain Hamilton, author of the Annals of the Peninsular Campaigns, and other works; and brother of Sir William Hamilton, Professor of Logic in the University of Edinburgh. I had never heard, until mentioned by MR. WARDEN, that Dr. Maginn was ever identified with that name.


Black Rat (Vol. vii., p. 206.).—In reply to the question of MR. SHIRLEY HIBBERD, whether the original rat of this country is still in existence, I may mention, that in the agricultural districts of Forfarshire, the Black Rat (Mus rattus) was in existence a few years ago. On pulling down the remains of an old farm-steading in 1823, after the building of a new one, they were there so numerous, that a greyhound I had destroyed no fewer than seventy-seven of them in the course of a couple of hours. Having used precautions against their lodgment in the new steading, under the floors, and on the tops of the party walls, they were effectually banished from the farm.


Blue Bells of Scotland (Vol. viii., p. 388.).—Your correspondent [Old English W]. of Philadelphia is in error in supposing that the beautiful song, "Blue Bells of Scotland," was any reference to bells painted blue. That charming melody refers to a very common pretty flower in Scotland, the Campanula latifolia of Linnaeus, the flowers of which are drooping and bell-shaped, and of a blue colour.


Grammars, &c. for Public Schools (Vol. ix., p. 8., &c.).—Pray add to the list a Latin grammar, under the title of The Common Accidence Improved, by the Rev. Edward Owen, Rector of Warrington, and for fifty years Master of the Grammar School founded in that town, under the will of Sir Thomas Boteler, on April 27, 1526. I believe it was first published in 1770, but the copy now before me is of an edition printed in 1800; and the Preface contains a promise (I know not whether afterwards fulfilled) of the early publication of the rules, versified on the plan of Busbey and Ruddiman, under the title of Elementa Latina Metrica.

J. F. M.

Warville (Vol. viii., p. 516.).—As regards the letter W, there is a distinction to be made between proper names and other words in the French language. The exclusion of that letter from the alphabet is sufficient proof that there are no words of French origin that begin with it; but the proper names in which it figures are common enough in recent times. Of these, the greater number have been imported from the neighbouring countries of Germany, Switzerland, and {210} Belgium: and some too are of local origin or formation.

In the latter category is the name of Warville, which is derived from Ouarville, near Chartres, where Brissot was born in 1754. Between the French ouar and our "war," there is a close similarity of sound; and in the spirit of innovation, which characterised the age of Brissot, the transition was a matter of easy accomplishment. Hence the nom de guerre of Warville, by which he was known to his cotemporaries.


St. Lucia.

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The Camden Society has just issued a volume of domestic letters, which contain much curious illustration of the stirring times to which they refer. The volume is entitled Letters of the Lady Brilliana Harley, wife of Sir Robert Harley, of Brampton Bryan, Knight of the Bath, with Introduction and Notes, by the Rev. T. T. Lewis. The writer, Lady Brilliana, was a daughter of Sir Edward Conway, afterwards Baron Conway, and is supposed to have been born whilst her father was Lieut.-Governor of the "Brill." The earlier letters (1625-1633) are addressed to her husband, the remainder (1638-1643) to her son Edward, during his residence at Oxford. The appendix contains several documents of considerable historical interest.

Elements of Jurisprudence, by C. J. Foster, M.A., Professor of Jurisprudence at University College, London, is an able and well-written endeavour to settle the principles upon which law is to be founded. Believing that law is capable of scientific reduction, Professor Foster has in this little work attempted, and with great ability, to show the principles upon which he thinks it must be so reduced.

Mr. Croker has reprinted from The Times his correspondence with Lord John Russell on some passages of Moore's Diary. In the postscript which he has added, explanatory of Mr. Moore's acquaintance and correspondence with him, Mr. Croker convicts Moore, by passages from his own letters, of writing very fulsomely to Mr. Croker, at the same time that he was writing very sneeringly of him.

A three days' sale of very fine books, from the library of a collector, was concluded on Wednesday the 22nd ult. by Messrs. Sotheby and Wilkinson, at their house in Wellington Street. The following prices of some of the more rare and curious lots exhibit a high state of bibliographical prosperity, notwithstanding the gloomy aspect of these critical times:—Lot 23, Biographie Universelle, fine paper, 52 vols., 29l.; lot 82, Donne's Poems, a fine large copy, 7l. 10s.; lot 90, Drummond of Hawthornden's Poems, 6l.; lot 137, Book of Christian Prayers, known as Queen Elizabeth's Prayer Book, 10l.; lot 53, a fine copy of Coryat's Crudities, 10l. 15s.; lot 184, Breydenbach, Sanctarum Peregrinationum in Montem Syon, first edition, 15l. 15s.; lot 190, the Book of Fayttes of Armes and Chyvalry, by Caxton, with two leaves in fac-simile, 77l.; lot 192, Chaucer's Works, the edition of 1542, 10l. 5s.; lot 200, Dugdale's Warwickshire, 13l. 10s.; lot 293, a gorgeous Oriental Manuscript from the Palace of Tippoo Saib, enriched with 157 large paintings, full of subject, 112l.; lot 240, Horae Virginis Mariae, a charming Flemish Manuscript, with 12 exquisite illuminations of a high class, 100l.; lot 229, Milton's Minor Poems, first edition, 6l. 6s.; lot 315, Navarre Nouvelles, fine paper, 5l. 5s.; lot 326, Fenton's Certaine Tragicall Discourses, first edition, 11l.; lot 330, Gascoigne's Pleasauntest Workes, fine copy, 14l.; lot 344, Horae Virginis Mariae, beautifully printed upon vellum, by Kerver, 26l.; lot 347, Latimer's Sermons, Daye, 1571, 14l.; lot 364, Milton's Comus, first edition, 10l. 10s.; lot 365, Milton's Paradise Lost, first edition, 12l. 17s. 6d.; lot 376, The Shah Nameh, a fine Persian manuscript, 10l. 12s. 6d.; lot 379, Froissart Chroniques, first edition, 22l. 15s.; lot 381, a fine copy of Gough's Sepulchral Monuments, five vols., 69l.; lot 390, the original edition of Holinshed's Chronicles, 16l. 10s.; lot 401, Lancelot du Lac, Chevalier de la Table Ronde, Petit, 1533, 16l.; lot 406, the original edition of Laud's Book of Common Prayer, 12l. 15s.; lot 412, Meliadus de Leonnoys, a romance of the round table, 11l.; lot 417, a superb copy of Montfaucon's Works, with the La Monarchie Francaise, 50l.; lot 418, Works of Sir Thomas More, with the rare leaf, 14l. 5s.; lot 563, Shakspeare's Life of Sir John Oldcastle, 11l.; lot 564, A Midsomer Night's Dream (1600), 18l. 5s.; lot 611, Shakspeare's Comedies, fine copy of the second edition, 28l.; lot 599, the celebrated Letter of Cardinal Pole, printed on large paper, of which two copies only are known, 64l.; lot 601, Purchas, his Pilgrimes, five vols., a fine copy, with the rare frontispiece, 65l. 10s. The 634 lots produced 2,616l. 4s. 6d.

BOOKS RECEIVED.—Dante translated into English Verse, by J. C. Wright, M.A., with Thirty-four Engravings on Steel, after Flaxman. This new volume of Bohn's Illustrated Library is one of those marvels of cheapness with which Mr. Bohn ever and anon surprises us.—Curiosities of Bristol and its Neighborhood, Nos. I.-V., is a sort of local "N. & Q," calculated to interest not Bristolians only.—Poetical Works of John Dryden, edited by Robert Bell, Vol. II., forms the new volume of the Annotated Edition of the English Poets.—The Carafas of Maddaloni: Naples under Spanish Dominion, the new volume of Bohn's Standard Library, is a translation from a German work of considerable research by Alfred Reumont.

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SCHILLER'S POEMS, translated by Merivale.



—— POEMS. 1 Vol.


THE CIRCLE OF THE SEASONS. London, 1828. 12mo.

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CAMBRIDGE INSTALLATION ODE, 1835, by Chr. Wordsworth. 4to. Edition.



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MASTERMAN READY. Vol. I. First Edition.

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Notices to Correspondents.

F. T. The characteristic description of The Weekly Pacquet, by the author of the continuation of Sir James Mackintosh's History of England, seems perfectly just. We had marked for quotation, as a sample of its virulent tone, "The Ceremony and Manner of Baptizing Antichrist," in No. 6., p. 47.; but we found its ribaldry would occupy too much of our valuable space, and after all would perhaps not elicit one Protestant clap of applause even at Exeter Hall.

JOHN WESTON. The insertion of paginal figures to the Advertisement pages of "N. & Q." was considered at the time the change was made, when it was hinted to us that many of our subscribers would wish to retain those pages. We may probably dispense them in our next Volume.

FOREIGNER. The Canon inquired after will be found to be the 18th of the "Constitutions and Canons Ecclesiastical, A.D. 1603." Its partial observance complained of by our Correspondent has been of late years frequently discussed in the various Church periodicals and newspapers, especially in the British Magazine, vols. xviii., xix., and xx. See also the official judgment of the Bishop of London on this Canon in his Charge of 1842, p. 43.

PRIMERS OF THE REIGN OF ELIZABETH.—With reference to the article under this heading in last week's Number, we have been reminded that the Liturgies and Private Prayers put forth by authority during the reign of Elizabeth, which were reprinted by the Parker Society, have been sold by that Society to Mr. Brown, of Old Street, and may be purchased of him at a very moderate price. The introductions contain much valuable information.

COMUS. We cannot learn that there is an edition of Locke on the Understanding epitomised published at Oxford. There is one in the London Catalogue, published some years ago by Whittaker and Co., price 4s. 6d., which may perhaps still be had.

A BORDERER. Our Correspondent MR. C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY wishes to address a letter to A BORDERER; how will it reach him?

FRANCIS BEAUFORT. Biblia Sacra Latina, two volumes in one, printed by R. Rodt and B. Richel circa 1471, folio, was bought by Thorpe for 4l. 4s. at the sale of the Duke of Sussex's library.

CLERICUS RUSTICUS asks "Whence the term 'Mare's nest,' and when first used?"

HUGH HENDERSON (Glasgow). It is not needful to use any iodide of silver in the iodizing of collodion, or to make any change in the ordinary 30-grain solution bath. The sensitizing fluid recommended by DR. DIAMOND is all that is required.

OUR EIGHTH VOLUME is now bound and ready for delivery, price 10s. 6d., cloth, boards. A few sets of the whole Eight Volumes are being made up. price 4l. 4s.—For these early application is desirable.

"NOTES AND QUERIES" is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday.

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MESSRS. UPHAM & BEET (late RODWELL) having recently made great addition to their EXTENSIVE STOCK OF BOOKS in all Languages, beg respectfully to invite an inspection of them. CATALOGUES are NOW ready, and will be sent by Post on receipt of Two Stamps.

46. New Bond Street, corner of Maddox Street.

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GREAT TRUTHS FOR THOUGHTFUL HOURS. (Preliminary Essay.) HUMAN HAPPINESS. BY C. B. ADDERLEY, Esq., M.P.—"Labour, if it were unnecessary to the existence, would be necessary to the happiness of men."—18mo. 1s. 6d.

"Reminds us of the best works of Coleridge."—Baptist Magazine.

"A charming little manual of wisdom and philosophy."—Church and State Gazette.

"The most philosophical precision, logical sequence, and language the most perspicuous and chaste."—Commonwealth.


BLACKADER & CO., 13. Paternoster Row.

* * * * *

Just ready, in fcap. 8vo., with six etchings, designed by GILLRAY, now first added, price 6s.

THE POETRY OF THE ANTI-JACOBIN; comprising the celebrated Political and Satirical Poems, Ballads, Songs, Parodies, and Jeux d'Esprit of the RT. HON. G. CANNING, EARL OF CARLISLE, MARQUIS WELLESLEY, RT. HON. J. H. FRERE, G. ELLIS, W. GIFFORD, RT. HON. W. PITT, and others. With Explanatory Notes, the Originals of the Parodies, a History of the Work, and a complete List of the Authors. By CHARLES EDMONDS. SECOND EDITION, considerably enlarged.

G. WILLIS, Great Piazza, Covent Garden.

* * * * *


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This Day is published, price 3-1/2d.


Containing the Whole of the Ecclesiastical, Political, and General News of the Week, advocating a thorough Conservative Reformation in the Church, the Reform of our Social Laws, and the most determined Opposition to Popery and Infidelity.

The Country Edition of the COURIER, containing the Latest Intelligence, will be despatched by the Friday Evening Mails, so as to be received in all parts of the Kingdom on Saturday Morning.

CHURCHMEN, your hearty support is absolutely requisite to enable us to bring about the SECOND REFORMATION.

Advertisement Terms.—Five Lines and under, Half-a-Crown; and Sixpence per Line afterwards.

London: HOPE & CO., 16. Great Marlborough Street.

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No. 3. Pall Mall East, and 7. St. Martin's Place, Trafalgar Square, London.

Established A.D. 1844.

INVESTMENT ACCOUNTS may be opened daily, with capital of any amount.

Interest payable in January and July.

PETER MORRISON, Managing Director.

Prospectus and Forms sent free on application.

* * * * *

In 1 vol., Etchings by the Author, and Woodcuts, price 28s.

LEGENDS of the MADONNA; so represented in the Fine Arts. Forming the Third Series of "Sacred and Legendary Art." By MRS. JAMESON.

In the same Series. New Editions, price 28s. each.




* * * * *

In One Volume, medium 8vo., price 14s.

THESAURUS OF ENGLISH WORDS AND PHRASES, classified and arranged so as to facilitate the Expression of Ideas, and assist in Literary Composition. By P. M. ROGET, M.D., F.R.S. Second Edition.

*** Several thousand Words and Phrases, not contained in the First Edition, have now been added; many improvements have been made in the arrangement of the expressions; and the whole Work has undergone careful revision with the view of increasing its general utility.


* * * * *

CHUBB'S LOCKS, with all the recent improvements. Strong fire-proof safes, cash and deed boxes. Complete lists of sizes and prices may be had on application.

CHUBB & SON. 57. St. Paul's Churchyard, London; 28. Lord Street, Liverpool; 16. Market Street, Manchester; and Horseley Fields, Wolverhampton.

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THE EXHIBITION OF PHOTOGRAPHS, by the most eminent English and Continental Artists, is OPEN DAILY from Ten till Five. Free Admission.

L s. d. A Portrait by Mr. Talbot's Patent Process 1 1 0 Additional Copies (each) 0 5 0 A Coloured Portrait, highly finished (small size) 3 3 0 A Coloured Portrait, highly finished (larger size) 5 5 0

Miniatures, Oil Paintings, Water-Colour, and Chalk Drawings, Photographed and Coloured in imitation of the Originals. Views of Country Mansions, Churches, &c., taken at a short notice.

Cameras, Lenses, and all the necessary Photographic Apparatus and Chemicals, are supplied, tested, and guaranteed.

Gratuitous Instruction is given to Purchasers of Sets of Apparatus.


* * * * *



Founded A.D. 1842.

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H. E. Bicknell, Esq. T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M.P. G. H. Drew, Esq. W. Evans, Esq. W. Freeman, Esq. F. Fuller, Esq. J. H. Goodhart, Esq. T. Grissell, Esq. J. Hunt, Esq. J. A. Lethbridge, Esq. E. Lucas, Esq. J. Lys Seager, Esq. J. B. White, Esq. J. Carter Wood, Esq.

Trustees.—W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq., T. Grissell, Esq. Physician.—William Rich. Basham, M.D. Bankers.—Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in three-fourths of the Profits:—

Age L s. d. 17 1 14 4 22 1 18 8 27 2 4 5 32 2 10 8 37 2 18 6 42 3 8 2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions. INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a TREATISE ON BENEFIT BUILDING SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3. Parliament Street, London.

* * * * *

HEAL & SON'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF BEDSTEADS, sent free by post. It contains designs and prices of upwards of ONE HUNDRED different Bedsteads, in iron, brass, japanned wood, polished birch, mahogany, rosewood, and walnut-tree woods; also of every description of Bedding, Blankets, and Quilts.

HEAL & SON, Bedstead and Bedding Manufacturers, 196. Tottenham Court Road.

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COLLODION PORTRAITS AND VIEWS obtained with the greatest ease and certainty by using BLAND & LONG'S preparation of Soluble Cotton: certainty and uniformity of action over a lengthened period, combined with the most faithful rendering of the half-tones, constitute this a most valuable agent in the hands of the photographer.

Albumenised paper, for printing from glass or paper negatives, giving a minuteness of detail unattained by any other method, 5s. per Quire.

Waxed and Iodized Papers of tried quality.

Instruction in the Processes.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians and Photographical Instrument Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street, London.

*** Catalogues sent on application.

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THE SIGHT preserved by the Use of SPECTACLES adapted to suit every variety of Vision by means of SMEE'S OPTOMETER, which effectually prevents Injury to the Eyes from the Selection of Improper Glasses, and is extensively employed by

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, 153. Fleet Street, London.

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KNIGHT & SONS' Illustrated Catalogue, containing Description and Price of the best forms of Cameras and other Apparatus. Voightlander and Son's Lenses for Portraits and Views, together with the various Materials, and pure Chemical Preparations required in practising the Photographic Art. Forwarded free on receipt of Six Postage Stamps.

Instructions given in every branch of the Art.

An extensive Collection of Stereoscopic and other Photographic Specimens.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, London.

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PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERAS.—OTTEWILL & MORGAN'S Manufactory, 24. & 25. Charlotte Terrace, Caledonian Road, Islington. OTTEWILL'S Registered Double Body Folding Camera, adapted for Landscapes or Portraits, may be had of A. ROSS, Featherstone Buildings, Holborn; the Photographic Institution, Bond Street; and at the Manufactory as above, where every description of Cameras, Slides, and Tripods may be had. The Trade supplied.

* * * * *

PHOTOGRAPHY.—HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest Daguerrotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this beautiful Art.—123. and 121. Newgate Street.

* * * * *

IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.—J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists. 289. Strand, have, by an improved mode of Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion equal, they may say superior, in sensitiveness and density of Negative, to any other hitherto published; without diminishing the keeping properties and appreciation of half-tint for which their manufacture has been esteemed.

Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of Photography. Instruction in the Art.


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PIANOFORTES, 25 Guineas each.—D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho Square (established A.D. 1785), sole manufacturers of the ROYAL PIANOFORTES, at 25 Guineas each. Every instrument warranted. The peculiar advantages of these pianofortes are best described in the following professional testimonial, signed by the majority of the leading musicians of the age:—"We, the undersigned members of the musical profession, having carefully examined the Royal Pianofortes manufactured by MESSRS. D'ALMAINE & CO., have great pleasure in bearing testimony to their merits and capabilities. It appears to us impossible to produce instruments of the same size possessing a richer and finer tone, more elastic touch, or more equal temperament, while the elegance of their construction renders them a handsome ornament for the library, boudoir, or drawing-room. (Signed) J. L. Abel, F. Benedict, H. R. Bishop, J. Blewitt, J. Brizzi, T. P. Chipp, P. Delavanti, C. H. Dolby, E. F. Fitzwilliam, W. Forde, Stephen Glover, Henri Herz, E. Harrison, H. F. Hasse, J. L. Hatton, Catherine Hayes, W. H. Holmes, W. Kuhe, G.F. Kiallmark, E. Land, G. Lanza, Alexander Lee, A. Leffler, E. J. Loder, W. H. Montgomery, S. Nelson, G. A. Osborne, John Parry, H. Panofka, Henry Phillips, F. Praegar, E. F. Rimbault, Frank Romer, G. H. Rodwell, E. Rockel, Sims Reeves, J. Templeton, F. Weber, H. Westrop, T. H. Wright," &c.

D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho Square. Lists and Designs Gratis.

* * * * *

W. H. HART, RECORD AGENT AND LEGAL ANTIQUARIAN (who is in the possession of Indices to many of the early Public Records whereby his Inquiries are greatly facilitated) begs to inform Authors and Gentlemen engaged in Antiquarian or Literary Pursuits, that he is prepared to undertake searches among the Public Records, MSS. in the British Museum, Ancient Wills, or other Depositories of a similar Nature, in any Branch of Literature, History, Topography, Genealogy, or the like, and in which he has had considerable experience.


* * * * *

ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, containing Size, Prices, and Description of upwards of 100 articles, consisting of

PORTMANTEAUS, TRAVELLING-BAGS, Ladies' Portmanteaus, DESPATCH-BOXES, WRITING-DESKS, DRESSING-CASES, and other traveller requisites, Gratis on application, or sent free by Post on receipt of Two Stamps.

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch-box and Writing-desk, their Travelling-bag with the opening as large as the bag, and the new Portmanteau containing four compartments, are undoubtedly the best articles of the kind ever produced.

J. W. & T. ALLEN, 18. & 22. West Strand.

* * * * *

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION. No. 1. Class X., In Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates, may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4 guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Level, with Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and 4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen.


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Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.—Saturday, March 4, 1854.


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