Notes and Queries, Number 216, December 17, 1853
Author: Various
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To excite the paper take 10 drops (minims) of solution of aceto-nitrate of silver, and 10 drops of saturated solution of gallic acid, mixed with 3 drachms of distilled water.

The aceto-nitrate solution consists of—

Nitrate of silver 30 grains. Glacial acetic acid 1 drachm. Distilled water[7] 1 ounce.

If the weather is warm, 6 drops of gallic acid to the 10 of aceto-nitrate will suffice, and enable the prepared excited paper to be kept longer.

This exciting fluid may be applied either directly {599} by means of the glass rod, or by floating, as before, and then the glass rod. But if floating is resorted to, then a larger quantity must be prepared. As soon as it is applied the paper should be blotted off by means of blotting-paper (which should never be used more than once in this way, although preserved for other purposes), and put into the dark frames for use.[8] It is not requisite that the paper should be perfectly dry. This exciting should be conducted by a very feeble light; the paper is much more sensitive than is generally supposed; in fact, it is then in a state to print from by the aid of gas or the light of a common lamp, and very agreeable positives are so produced by this negative mode of printing.

I would advise the aceto-nitrate of silver and the solution of gallic acid to be kept in two bottles with wooden cases differing in their shape, so that they may not be mistaken when operating, in comparative darkness. A of an ounce of gallic acid put into such a 3-ounce bottle, and quite filled up with distilled water as often as any is used, will serve a very long time.

I would also recommend that the paper should be excited upon the morning of the day upon which it is intended to be used; no doubt the longer it is kept, the less active and less certain it becomes. I have, however, used it successfully eight days after excitement, and have a good negative produced at that length of time. The general medium time of exposure required is five minutes. In the negatives exhibited, the time has varied from three minutes to eight, the latter being when the day was very dull.

The pictures should be developed by equal quantities of the aceto-nitrate of silver and the saturated solution of gallic acid, which are to be mixed and immediately applied to the exposed surface. This may be done several hours after the pictures have been removed from the camera. Care should be taken that the back of the picture does not become wetted, as this is apt to produce a stain which may spoil the printing of the positive.

If upon the removal of the paper from the dark frame, the picture is very apparent, by first applying little gallic acid, and immediately afterwards the mixed solutions, less likelihood is incurred of staining the negative, which will be more evenly and intensely developed. If a browning take place, a few drops of strong acetic acid will generally check it.

Should the picture be very tardy, either from an insufficient exposure, want of light, or other cause, a few drops of a solution of pyrogallic acid, made with 3 grains to the ounce of water, and a drachm of acetic acid, will act very beneficially. It sometimes gives an unpleasant redness upon the surface, but produces great intensity upon looking through it. Until the pyrogallic solution was added, there was scarcely anything visible upon the specimen exhibited, the failure having in the first instance happened from the badness of the iodized paper.

As soon as the picture is sufficiently developed it should be placed in water, which should be changed once or twice; after soaking for a short time, say half an hour, it may be pinned up and dried, or it may at once be placed in a solution almost saturated, or quite so, of hyposulphite of soda, remaining there no longer than is needful for the entire removal of the iodide, which is known by the disappearance of the yellow colour.

When travelling it is often desirable to avoid using the hyposulphite, for many reasons (besides that of getting rid of extra chemicals), and it may be relied on that negatives will keep even under exposure to light for a very long time. I have kept some for several weeks, and I believe Mr. Rosling has kept them for some months.

The hyposulphite, lastly, should be effectually removed from the negative by soaking in water, which should be frequently changed.

Some prefer to use the hypo, quite hot, or even boiling, as thereby the size of the paper is removed, allowing of its being afterwards readily waxed.[9] I have always found that pouring a little boiling water upon the paper effectually accomplishes the object; some negatives will readily wax even when the size is not removed. A box iron very hot is best for the purpose; but the most important thing to attend to is that the paper should be perfectly dry, and it should therefore be passed between blotting-paper and well ironed before the wax is applied. Negatives will even attract moisture from the atmosphere, and therefore this process should at all times be resorted to immediately before the application of the wax.

Some photographers prefer, instead of using wax, to apply a solution of Canada balsam in spirits of turpentine. This certainly adds much to the transparency of the negative; and, in some instances, may be very desirable. Even in so simple a thing as white wax, there is much {600} variety; some forming little flocculent appearances on the paper, which is not the case with other samples. Probably it may be adulterated with stearine, and other substances producing this difference.

Before concluding these remarks, I would draw attention to the great convenience of the use of a bag of yellow calico, made so large as to entirely cover the head and shoulders, and confined round the waist by means of a stout elastic band. It was first, I believe, used by Dr. Mansell. In a recent excursion, I have, with the greatest ease, been enabled to change all my papers without any detriment whatever, and thereby dispensed with the weight of more than a single paper-holder. The bag is no inconvenience, and answers perfectly well, at any residence you may chance upon, to obstruct the light of the window, if not protected with shutters.

I would also beg to mention that a certain portion of the bromide of silver introduced into the iodized paper seems much to accelerate its power of receiving the green colour, as it undoubtedly does in the collodion. Although it does not accelerate its general action, it is decidedly a great advantage for foliage. Its best proportions I have not been able accurately to determine; but I believe if the following quantity is added to the portion of solution of iodide of silver above recommended to be made, that it will approach very near to that which will prove to be the most desirable. Dissolve separately thirty grains of bromide of potassium, and 42 grains of nitrate of silver, in separate half-ounces of distilled water; mix, stir well, and wash the precipitate; pour upon it, in a glass measure, distilled water up to one ounce; then, upon the addition of 245 grains of iodide of potassium, a clear solution will be obtained; should it not, a few more grains of the iodide of potassium will effect it. It may be well to add that I believe neither of the solutions is injured by keeping, especially if preserved in the dark.

I would here offer a caution against too great reliance being placed upon the use of gutta-percha vessels when travelling, as during the past summer I had a bottle containing distilled water which came into pieces; and I have now a new gutta-percha tray which has separated from its sides. This may appear trivial, but when away from home the greatest inconvenience results from these things, which may be easily avoided.[10]

Dishes of zinc painted or japanned on the interior surface answer better than gutta-percha, and one inverted within another forms, when travelling, an admirable lid-box for the protection of glass bottles, rods, &c. On the Continent wooden dishes coated with shellac varnish are almost entirely used.

[Footnote 2: In a communication I formerly addressed to my friend the Editor of "N. & Q.," one of the arguments I used in favour of the collodion process was, that the operator was enabled at once to know the results of his attempts; and was not left in suspense concerning the probable success, as with a paper picture requiring an after development.

I made that observation not only from the partial success which had then attended my own manipulations, but from the degree of success which was attained by the majority of my photographic friends. But that objection is now almost entirely removed by the comparative certainty to which the paper process is reduced.]

[Footnote 3: The effect was illustrated in two negatives of the same subject, taken at the same time, exhibited to the meeting, and which may now be seen at Mr. Bell's by those who take an interest in the subject.]

[Footnote 4: For this purpose, strips of wood from 1 inch to 1 square will be found much more convenient to pin the paper to than the tape or string usually recommended. The pressure of a corner of the paper to the wood will render it almost sufficiently adherent without the pin, and do away with the vexation of corners tearing off.]

[Footnote 5: Some difference of opinion seemed to exist at the reading of the paper, as to the propriety of preparing iodized paper long before it was required for use, and I have since received some letters from very able photographers who have attributed an occasional want of success to this cause. I have, however, never myself seen good iodized paper deteriorated by age. Many friends tell me they have used it when several years old; and I can confirm this by a remarkable instance. On Tuesday (Dec. 6) I was successful in obtaining a perfectly good negative in the usual time from some paper kindly presented to me by Mr. Mackinly, and which has been in his possession since the year 1844. I should add, the paper bears the mark of "J. Whatman, 1842," and has all the characters of Turner's best photographic paper. It appears to be a make of Whatman's paper which I have not hitherto seen, and, from its date, was evidently not made for photographic purposes.]

[Footnote 6: The paper may be iodized by pouring over it 30 minims of the iodizing solution, and then smoothing it over with the glass rod. Care must however be taken not to wet the back of the paper, as an unevenness of depth in the negative would probably be the result.]

[Footnote 7: Much more attention should be paid to the purity of the distilled water than is generally supposed. In the many processes in which distilled water is used, there is none in which attention to this is so much required as the calotype process. I mention this from having lately had some otherwise fine negatives spoiled by being covered with spots, emanating entirely from impurities in distilled water purchased by me during a late excursion into the country.]

[Footnote 8: It is very requisite that the glasses of the frames should be thoroughly cleansed before the excited papers are put into them. Although not perceptible to the eye, there is often left on the glass (if this precaution is not used) a decomposing influence which afterwards shows itself by stains upon the negative.]

[Footnote 9: If boiling water is carefully poured in the negative in a porcelain dish, it will frequently remove a great deal of colouring matter, thereby rendering the negative still more translucent. It is astonishing how much colouring matter a negative so treated will give out, even when to the eye it appears so clean as not to require it.]

[Footnote 10: MR. SHADBOLT suggested a remedy for the disasters referred to by DR. DIAMOND with regard to the gutta-percha vessels. Gutta-percha is perfectly soluble in chloroform. MR. SHADBOLT therefore showed that if the operator carries a small bottle of chloroform with him, he would be able to mend the gutta-percha at any moment in a few seconds. It was not necessary that the bottle should hold above half an ounce of chloroform.]

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Replies to Minor Queries.

Belike (Vol. viii., p. 358.).—The reasoning by which H. C. K. supports his conjecture that "belike" in Macbeth is formed immediately by prefixing be to a supposed verb, like, to lie, is ingenious, but far from satisfactory. In the first place, we never used to like in the sense of to lie, the nearest approach to it is to lig. And in the next place, the verb to like, to please, to feel or cause pleasure, to approve or regard with approbation, as a consequential usage (agreeably to the Dutch form of Liicken (Kilian), to assimilate), is common from our earliest writers. Instances from Robert of Gloucester, Chaucer, and North, with instances also of mislike, to displease, may be found in Richardson and others in Todd's Johnson.

Now, when we have a word well established in various usage (as like, similis), from which other usages may be easily deduced, why not adopt that word as the immediate source, rather than seek for a new one? That like, now written ly, is from lic, a corpse, i.e. an essence, has, I believe, the merit of originality; so too, his notion that corpse is an essence, and the more, as emanating from a rectory, which probably is not far removed frown a churchyard.

H. C. K., it is very likely, is right in his conception that all his three likes "have had originally one and the same source;" but he does not appear inclined to rest contented with the very sufficient one in our parent language, suggested by Richardson (in his 8vo. dictionary), the Gothic lag-yan; A.-S. lec-gan, or lic-gan, to lay or lie.

I should interpret belike (for so I should write it with H. C. K.) by "approve."



Stage-coaches (Vol. viii., p. 439.).—The following Note may perhaps prove acceptable to G. E. F. The article from which it was taken contained, if I remember rightly, much more information upon the same subject:

"The stage-coach 'Wonder,' from London to Shrewsbury, and the 'Hirondelle' belonged to Taylor of Shrewsbury. The 'Hirondelle' did 120 miles in 8 hours and 20 minutes. One day a team of four greys did 9 miles in 35 minutes. The 'Wonder' left {601} Lion Yard, Shrewsbury, one morning at 6 o'clock, and was at Islington at 7 o'clock the same evening, being only 13 hours on the road."—The Times, July 11, 1842.

W. R. D. S.

Birthplace of King Edward V. (Vol. viii., p. 468.).—

"1471. In this year, the third day of November, Queen Elizabeth, being, as before is said, in Westminster Sanctuary, was lighted of a fair prince. And within the said place the said child, without pomp, was after christened, whose godfathers were the abbat and prior of the said place, and the Lady Scrope godmother."—Fabian's Chronicle, p. 659., Lond. 1811.


Fuller, in his Worthies, vol. ii. p. 414., says Edward, eldest son of Edward IV. and Elizabeth his queen, was born in the sanctuary of Westminster, November 4, 1471.


Ringing Church Bells at Death (Vol. viii., p. 55. &c.).—The custom of ringing the church bell, as soon as might be convenient after the passing of a soul from its earthly prison-house, in the manner described in "N. & Q.," existed ten years ago in the parish of Rawmarsh, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, and had existed there before I became its rector, twenty-two years ago. First a brisk peal was rung, if I mistake not, on one of the lighter bells, which was raised and lowered; then, upon the same, or some other of the lighter bells, the sex of the deceased was indicated by a given number of distinct strokes,—I cannot with certainty recall the respective numbers; lastly, the tenor bell was made to declare the supposed age of the deceased by as many strokes as had been counted years.


What is the Origin of "Getting into a Scrape?" (Vol. viii., p. 292.).—It may have been, first, a tumble in the mire; by such a process many of us in childhood have both literally and figuratively "got into a scrape." Or, secondly, the expression may have arisen from the use of the razor, where to be shaved was regarded as an indignity, or practised as a token of deep humiliation. D'Arvieux mentions an Arab who, having received a wound in his jaw, chose rather to hazard his life, than allow the surgeon to take off his beard. When Hanun had shaved off half the beards of David's servants, "David sent to meet them, because they were greatly ashamed: and the king said, 'Tarry at Jericho until your beards be grown, and then return'" (2 Sam. x. 4, 5.). The expedient of shaving off the other half seems not to have been thought on, though that would naturally have been resorted to, had not the indignity of being rendered beardless appeared intolerable. Under this figure the desolation of a country is threatened. "In the same day shall the Lord shave with a razor that is hired, by them beyond the river, even by the King of Assyria, the head, and the hair of the feet, and it shall consume the beard" (Isaiah vii. 20.). Again, as a token of grief and humiliation: "Then Job arose and rent his mantle, and shaved his beard," &c.—"There came fourscore men, having their heads shaven, and their clothes rent, and having cut themselves," &c. (Jer. xli. 5.). Or, thirdly, the allusion may be to the consequence of becoming infected with some loathsome cutaneous disease. "So Satan smote Job with sore boils from the sole of his foot unto his crown. And he took him a potsherd to scrape himself withal" (Job ii. 7, 8.).

J. W. T.


High Dutch and Low Dutch (Vol. viii., p. 478.).—Nieder Deutsch, or rather Neder Duitsch, is the proper name of the Dutch language; at least it is that which the people of Holland give to it. Low German does not necessarily mean a vulgar patois. It is essentially as different a language from High German, or rather more so, as Spanish is from Portuguese. I believe German purists would point out Holstein, Hanover, Brunswick (not Dresden), as the places where German is most classically spoken. I wish one of your German (not Anglo-German) readers would set us right on this point. The term Dutch, as applied to the language of Holland as distinguished from that of German, is a comparative modernism in English. High Dutch and Low Dutch used to be the distinction; and when Coverdale's Translation of the Bible is said to have been "compared with the Douche," German, and not what we now call Dutch, is meant. Deutsch, in short, or Teutsch, is the generic name for the language of the Teutones, for whom Germani, or Ger-mnner, was not a national appellation, but one which merely betokened their warlike character.

E. C. H.

Discovery of Planets (Vol. vii., p. 211.).—I should wish to ask MR. H. WALTER, who has a learned answer about the discovery of planets, whether the idea which he there broaches of a lost world where sin entered and for which mercy was not found, be his own original invention, or whether he is indebted to any one for it, and if so, to whom?


Gloves at Fairs (Vol. viii., pp. 136. 421.).—This title has changed into a question of the open hand as an emblem of power. In addition to the instances cited by your correspondents, the following may be mentioned.

The Romans used the open hand as a standard.

The Kings of Ulster adopted it as their peculiar cognizance; thence it was transferred to the shield of the baronets created Knights of Ulster by James I.; to many of whose families recent {602} myths have in consequence attributed bloody deeds to account for the cognizance of the bloody hand. The Holte family of Aston Hall, near this town, affords an instance of such a modern myth, which has, I think, already appeared in "N. & Q." The subject of modern myths would form a very interesting one for your pages.

An open hand occurs on tombs in Lycia. (Fellowes' Lycia, p. 180.)

The Turks and Moors paint an open hand as a specific against the evil eye. (Shaw's Travels in Barbary, p. 243.)

The open hand in red paint is of common occurrence on buffalo robes among the tribes of North America, and is also stamped, apparently by the natural hand dipped in a red colour, on the monuments of Yucatan and Guatemala. (Stephen's Yucatan.)



Awk (Vol. viii., p. 310.).—H. C. K. asks for instances of the usage of the word awk. He will find one in Richardson's Dictionary, and two of awkly:

"The auke or left hand."—Holland's Plutarch.

"They receive her aukly, when she (Fortune) presenteth herself on the right hand."—Ibid.

"To undertake a thing awkely, or ungainly."—Fuller's Worthies.



Tenet (Vol. viii., p. 330.) was used by Hooker and Hall, and is also found in state trial, 1 Hen. V., 1413, of Sir John Oldcastle. Sir Thomas Browne, though he writes tenets in his title, has tenent in c. i. of b. vii. But these variations may be generally placed to the account of the printers in those days. (See TENET, in Richardson.)



Lovett of Astwell (Vol. viii., p. 363.).—Since I wrote on this subject, I have consulted Baker's excellent History of Northamptonshire, and I find the pedigree (vol. i. p. 732.) fully bears out my strictures on Betham and Burke's account of Thomas Lovett, and his marriage with Joan Billinger. With regard to Elizabeth Boteler, Mr. Baker simply states that Thomas Lovett, Esq., of Astwell, married to his first wife Elizabeth, daughter of John Boteler, Esq., of Watton Woodhall, Herts; but I observe that (Idem. vol. i. p. 730.) there is in Wappenham Church (the parish of which Astwell is hamlet) a brass to the memory of "Constance, late the wife of John Boteler, Esq., and sister to Henry Vere, Esq., who died May 16, 1499:" this lady, I conjecture, was the mother of Elizabeth Boteler, afterwards Lovett; and her daughter must have been heir to her mother, as the arms of Vere and Green are quartered on her grandson Thomas Lovett's tombstone in the same church; as well as on another monument of the Lovetts, the inscription of which is now obliterated. The pedigree of the Botelers in Clutterbuck (Herts, vol. ii. p. 475.) does not give this marriage; but John Boteler, Esq., of Watton Woodhall, who was of full age in 1456, and whose first wife Elizabeth died Oct. 28, 1471, is said to have married to his second wife Constance, daughter of —— Downhall of Gedington, co. Northamptonshire. Can this be the lady buried at Wappenham? She was the mother of John Boteler, Esq., Watton Woodhall, Sheriff of Herts and Essex in 1490; therefore her daughter would not be entitled to transmit her arms to her descendants. Or could the last-mentioned John Boteler, who died in 1514, have had another wife besides the three mentioned in Clutterbuck? There can be no question that one of the two John Botelers of Watton Woodhall married Constance de Vere, as the marriage is mentioned on the monument at Wappenham. I hope some of your genealogical readers may examine this point.


Irish Rhymes (Vol. viii., p. 250.).—In "The Wish," appended to The Ocean of Young (afterwards suppressed in his collected works, but quoted by Dr. Johnson), are the following rhymes:

"Oh! may I steal Along the vale Of humble life, secure from foes."

And again:

"Have what I have, And live not leave."

And yet again:

"Then leave one beam Of honest fame, And scorn the labour'd monument."

And in his "Instalment" (which shared the same fate as "The Wish"):

"Oh! how I long, enkindled by the theme, In deep eternity to launch thy name."

Young was no "Milasian:" so these rhymes go to acquit Swift of the Irishism attributed to him by CUTHBERT BEDE; as, taken in connexion with those used by Pope and others, it is clear they were not uncommon or confined to the Irish poets. At the same time, I cannot think them either elegant or musical, nor can I agree with one of your correspondents, that their occasional use destroys the sameness of rhyme. If poets were to introduce eccentric rhymes at pleasure, to produce variety, the shade of Walker would I think be troubled sorely.


Passage in Boerhaave (Vol. vii., p. 453.).—As the passage is incorrectly given from memory, it {603} is not easy to say where it is to be found. I venture, however, to lay before the FOREIGN SURGEON the following, from the Institutiones Medic ct. digest, ab Herm. Boerhaave (Vienna, 1775), p. 382.:

"Unde tamen mors senilis per has mutationes accidit inevitabilis, et ex ipsa sanitate sequens."

And from Ph. Ambr. Marhesz, Prlectiones in H. Boerh., Inst. Med. (Vienna, 1785), vol. iii. p. 44.:

"Tum vivere cessat decripitus senex, sine morbo in mortem transiens, nisi senectutis vitium ineluctabile pro morbo habeas."

See also 475. Possibly the required passage may be found in Burton's Account of the Life, &c. of Dr. Boerhaave (London, 1743). Allow me, however, to quote the following from a discourse of Joannes Oosterdijk Schacht (Boerhaave's cotemporary), delivered by him September 12, 1729, when he entered on the professorship at Utrecht. From this it will appear that the words ascribed to Boerhaave may be attributed to other learned men:

"Nemini igitur mirum videatur, si innumeris stipata malis superveniat senectus, quam nec solam nec morbis tantum comitatam obrepere, sed ipsam morbum esse, et olim vidit vetustas, et hodierna abunde docet experientia."—Joann. Oosterdijk Schacht, Oratio Inauguralis ct. (Traj. ad Rhenum, 1729).

From the Navorscher.

L. D. R.


Craton the Philosopher (Vol. viii., p. 441.).—

"At that time two brothers, who were extremely rich, sold their inheritance by the advice of Crato the philosopher, and bought diamonds of singular value, which they crushed in the Forum before all the people, thus making an ostentatious exhibition of their contempt for the world. St. John, happening to be passing through the Forum, witnessed this display, and, pitying the folly of these misguided men, kindly gave them sounder advice. Sending for Crato their master, who had led them into error, he blamed the wasteful destruction of valuable property, and instructed him in the true meaning of contempt for the world according to Christ's doctrine, quoting the precept of that teacher, his own Master, when, in reply to the young man who inquired of Him how he might obtain eternal life, He said, 'If thou wilt be perfect, go and sell all that thou hast and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven; and come and follow me.' Crato the philosopher, acknowledging the soundness of the apostle's teaching, entreated him to restore the jewels which had been foolishly crushed to their former condition. St. John then gathered up the precious fragments, and, while he held them in his hand, prayed for some time with his eyes raised to heaven. His prayer being concluded, and all the faithful present having said Amen, the broken pieces of the jewels became so closely united, that there remained not the slightest appearance of any fracture. Then Crato the philosopher, with all his disciples, threw himself at the apostle's feet, believed, and were baptized; and Crato, preaching openly the faith of the Lord Jesus, became a true philosopher. Moreover, the two brothers who before destroyed their property to no purpose, now, in obedience to the evangelical precept, sold their jewels, and distributed the price in alms to the poor of Christ. And a multitude of believers began to attach themselves to St. John, and to follow his steps."—Ordericus Vitalis, b. II. ch. v. (Mr. Forrester's translation), Bohn's edit., vol. i. pp. 240, 241.


The Curfew (Vol. vii., pp. 167. 539.).—Add to the already long list of places where the curfew bell is still rung the following:

St. Werburgh's (Cathedral) Chester, Acton, Audlem, Nantwich, Wybunbury; all in Cheshire and adjoining parishes.

Madeley, Staffordshire. In this place also (Audlem) the very ancient custom of chiming at funerals is still maintained.


Audlem, Nantwich.

Thomas Blount (Vol. viii., p. 286.).—Since forwarding the monumental inscription inserted as above, which makes this gentleman's death to take place on Dec. 26, I find that Sir William Dugdale, with whom Blount was on terms of intimacy, as he calls him "my very worthy friend," has the following notice of him in his Diary under the year 1679:

"December 16. Mr. T. Blount dyed, at Orlton, Herefordshire, of an apoplexie."

Thus making a difference of ten days, which is probably an error made by the engraver of the inscription. It may be interesting to know from the same authority, that Mr. Blount's chamber was in Fig Tree Court, on the back side of the Inner Temple Hall, London, his country residence being at Orlton. From his correspondence with Sir William, it appears that he rendered him much assistance in his works.


Pronunciations of "Coke" and "Cowper" (Vols. iv. and v. passim; Vol. vi., p. 16.).—So much, and so well to the purpose, has already been said in "N. & Q.," in support of the averment that the former of these names was originally pronounced Cook, that it may appear needless to adduce additional evidence; still, considering the source from which the testimony I am now bringing forward is derived, I think I may stand excused for recurring to the subject. It is from the Court Books of the manor of Mitcham (the birthplace of Sir Edward Coke), and from the parochial registers; in which, and, indeed, in all cotemporary records where sound was followed in the spelling, I find the name of this family written {604} Cook or Cooke. The great Sir Edward's own baptismal register is thus entered—1551, Feb. 7. "Edward Cooke genero." Surely this is conclusive. The same pronunciation was vulgarly followed almost up to the present time. There must be many who remember at the Norfolk elections the cry of "Cook for ever," as well as that of the opposite political party who threw up their caps for Woodhouse; for so Wodehouse was in like manner pronounced. Again, the Hobarts, another Norfolk family, were always called Hubbarts; and more anciently Bokenham, Buckenham, Todenham, Tuddenham, and others I could name, showing that in the Norfolk dialect the usage was in pronunciation to soften the o.

Now as regards the sound of Cowper, the same class of authorities, old deeds, court rolls, and parish registers, appears to lead to a different conclusion from that of your other correspondents. We have now no Cowper family of Norfolk origin; of Coopers we have multitudes: the names of whose forefathers were written Couper or Cowper; and if written as pronounced, the analogical inference is that the original pronunciation was Cowper, Cooper being merely the modern way of spelling; and curiously enough, the parish of Hoo, in this county, is called and now usually spelt How.

G. A. C.

Unkid (Vol. viii., p. 353.).—Unketh, uncouth, are different writings of the same word. Jamieson has uncoudy, which he explains, dreary; and coudy, i. e. couth, couthy, nearly allied to cuth, notus (see couth (could), uncouth, unketh, in Richardson; and coudy, uncoudy, in Jamieson). Lye has "Uncwid, solitary; whence, perhaps, the not entirely obsolete unkid." Grose also tells us that, in the north, uncuffs and uncuds mean news. It is very plain that these are all the same word, differently written and applied.



To split Paper (Vol. viii., p. 413.).—

"Procure two rollers or cylinders of glass, amber, resin, or metallic amalgam; strongly excite them by the well known means so as to produce the attraction of cohesion, and then, with pressure, pass the paper between the rollers; one half will adhere to the under roller, and the other to the upper roller; then cease the excitation, and remove each part."—From the Civil Engineer and Architect's Journal.

A. H. B.

La Fleur des Saints (Vol. viii., p. 410.).—The work which Molire intended was in all probability the French translation of a Spanish work entitled Flos Sanctorum. The author of it was Alonso de Villegas. It was first printed at Toledo in 1591, and an English version appeared at Douay in 1615. Some idea of the contents may be gathered from the following title: Flos Sanctorum, Historia General de la Vida, y Hechos de Jesu Christo Dios y Seor nuestro; y de todos los Santos, de que reza, y haze fiesta la Iglesia Catolica, &c. My copy is the Madrid edition of 1653.


St. Catharine's Hall, Cambridge.

Dr. Butler and St. Edmund's Bury (Vol. viii., p. 125.).—Could this have been Dr. William Butler, of eccentric memory, born at Ipswich about 1535, and buried in St. Mary's Church, Cambridge, 1618?

G. A. C.

Major Andr (Vol. viii., p. 174.).—Two nephews of Major Andr, sons of his sister, Mrs. Mills, are resident in Norwich, both being surgeons there. Perhaps, on application, your correspondent SERVIENS would be able to obtain from them some serviceable information regarding this unfortunate officer.

G. A. C.

Wooden Tombs and Effigies (Vol. viii., p. 255.).—In the church of Chew-Magna, co. Somerset, is the effigy of Sir John Hautville, cut (says Collinson, vol. ii. p. 100.) in one solid piece of Irish oak. He lies on his left side, resting on his hip and elbow, the left hand supporting his head. The figure is in armour, with a red loose coat without sleeves over it, a girdle and buckle, oblong shield, helmet, and gilt spurs. The right hand rests on the edge of the shield. This monument was brought many years ago from the neighbouring church (now destroyed) of Norton Hautville. Sir John lived temp. Henry III. The popular story of him is that he was a person of gigantic strength, and that he carried, for a feat, three men to the top of Norton church tower, one under each arm, and the third in his teeth! (Collinson, vol. ii. p. 108.)

J. E. J.

Froissart's Accuracy (Vol. viii., p. 494.).—The accuracy of Froissart as an historian has never been questioned, says T. J. This assertion ought not to pass without a note. If T. J. will look into Hallam's Lit. of Europe, ch. iii., he will find that judicious and learned critic comparing Froissart with Livy for "fertility of historical invention," or, in other words, for his unhesitatingly supplying his readers with a copious and picturesque statement of the details of events, where they were palpably out of the reach of his knowledge.

As a gleaner of chivalrous gossip, and a painter of national manners, Froissart is perhaps unequalled. Take up his account of a campaign on the Scottish borders, and he relates the proceedings in his amusing style, as if he had been behind every bush with the Scotch, and hunting for them in vain with every English banner. But if his accuracy be inquired into, he tells you that Carlisle, which he calls Cardoel en Gales, is on {605} the Tyne, and was garrisoned in vain with "grand plant de Galois," to prevent the Scotch from passing the Tyne under its walls (vol. i. ch. xviii. xix. xxi.).

So much by way of note; but there is a Query which I should be glad to see answered. Bayle (art. Froissart) quotes a German critic as affirming that in the Lyons edition of Froissart, by Denys Saulvage, 1559: "Omnia qu Aul Gallic displicebant, deleta, vixque decimam histori partem relictam esse." Does Col. Johnes notice this inaccuracy in the edition generally procurable? And does he state whether he saw, or consulted, or received any benefit from the existence of the MS. copy of Froissart, once in the library of Breslaw?


Nursery Rhymes (Vol. viii., p. 452.).—I fear J. R.'s anxiety to find a Saxon origin to a nursery rhyme has suggested unconsciously a version which does not otherwise exist. The rhyme in my young days used to be,—

"Hushaby, baby, on the tree top, When the wind blows the cradle will rock."

—a sufficient rhyme for the nursery.



"Hip, hip, hurrah!" (Vol. viii., pp. 88. 323.).— SIR J. EMERSON TENNENT, in answering MR. BRENT'S observation at p. 88., seems to have been fighting a shadow. Upon reference to Mr. Chappell's Collection, vol. ii. p. 38., quoted by MR. BRENT, it appears that a note by Dr. Burney, in a copy of Hawkins's History of Music, in the British Museum, is the authority for the reading:

"Hang up all the poor hep drinkers, Cries old Sim, the King of skinkers."

In the folio edition of Ben Jonson's Works, published by Thomas Hodgkin, London, 1692, in which the "Leges Convivales" are I believe for the first time printed, the verses over the door of the Apollo are given, and the couplet runs:

"Hang up all the poor hop drinkers, Cries Old Sym, the King of skinkers."

Probably Mr. Chappell misread Dr. Burney's MS. note: at all events MR. BRENT'S ingenious suggestion is without foundation.

A. F. B.


Dodo (Vol. vii., p. 83.).—Dodo or Doun Bardolf married Beatrix, daughter of William de Warren of Wormegay. She was a widow in 1209, and remarried the famous Hubert de Burgh.


Oaths (Vol. viii., p. 364.).—Your correspondent assumes that the act of kissing the Bible, or other book containing the Holy Gospels, by a judicial witness, is a part of the oath itself. Is it such, or is it merely an act of reverence to the book? In support of the latter supposition, I would quote Archdeacon Paley, who says, that after repeating the oath,—

"The juror kisses the book; the kiss, however, seems rather an act of reverence to the contents of the book, as in the Popish ritual the priest kisses the gospel before he reads it, than any part of the oath."—Mor. and Pol. Ph., p. 193., thirteenth edition.

In none of the instances given by C. S. G. does kissing the book appear to be essential. Does not this rather favour Dr. Paley's explanation? which, if it be correct, would, I think, afford grounds for concluding that the practice of kissing the book accompanied the taking of ancient oaths, and is not, as C. S. G. suggests, an addition of later times.

Again, may I bring forward the same authority in opposition to that quoted by your correspondent with reference to the origin of the term corporal oath:

"It is commonly thought that oaths are denominated corporal oaths from the bodily action which accompanies them, of laying the right hand upon a book containing the four gospels. This opinion, however, appears to be a mistake, for the term is borrowed from the ancient usage of touching upon these occasions the corporale, or cloth, which covered the consecrated elements."—P. 191.

R. V. T.

Mincing Lane.

The old custom of taking the judicial oath by merely laying the right hand upon the book, is undoubtedly, thinks ERICA, of Pagan origin. In my humble opinion it is far too common with us to ascribe things to Pagan origin. I would venture to assert that the origin of this form of judicial oath may be traced to Deuteronomy xxi. 1-8., where at the sacrifice offered up in expiation of secret murder, the rulers of the city nearest the spot where the corpse was found were in presence of the corpse to wash their hands over the victim, and say, "Our hands did not shed this blood, nor did our eyes see it."


Mayors and Sheriffs (Vol. viii., p. 126.).—In answer to a SUBSCRIBER, there can be little or no doubt, I consider, but that the mayor of a town or borough is the principal and most important officer, and ought to have precedence of a sheriff of a town or borough. By stat. 5 & 6 Wm. IV. cap. 76. sec. 57., it is enacted, "That the mayor for the time being of every borough shall, during the time of his mayoralty, have precedence in all places within the borough." As sheriffs of towns, and counties of towns, do not derive their appointments from the Crown, but from the councils of their respective towns, &c. (see sec. 61. of the {606} above Act), I do not imagine that they can legally claim precedence of mayors, on the alleged ground of any "representation of Majesty," in the face of the particular enactment above quoted; which, indeed, seems to me to give to the mayor within his own borough precedence of a high sheriff of a county, if present on any public occasion. I am not aware that the sheriff of borough, as such, can "claim to have a grant of arms, if he has not any previous;" although I have no doubt he may readily obtain one, upon payment of the usual fees.

C. J.

Mousehunt (Vol. viii., p. 516.).—

"A Mousehunt is a little animal of the species of weasel; it has a very slender body, about the length of a rat, with a long hairy tail, bushy at the end; the back is of a reddish-brown colour, the hair long and smooth; the belly is white, as are also its feet; it runs very swiftly, swaying its body as it moves along from side to side. The head is short and narrow, with small ears, like those of a rat; the eyes are black, piercing, and very bright. Their chief food is rats, mice, young chickens, little birds, and eggs. They frequent mole-hills, and are often caught in the traps set for the moles; they are destroyed by ferrets and dogs. These mousehunts live, for the most part, in holes beneath the roots of trees, or in old buildings."

The above description of the Mousehunt is given in The History of a Field-mouse by Miss Black. Should it be thought of sufficient authority to deserve a place in "N. & Q.," the coincidence which led "Little Downy" to be read to a little girl on the morning of Nov. 26 will amuse.

E. B. R.

"Salus populi," &c. (Vol. viii., p. 410.).—Selden, in his Table Talk (art. PEOPLE), states, on what authority I know not, that this was part of the law of XII Tables.

E. S. T. T.

Love Charm from a Foal's Forehead (Vol. viii., p. 292.).—The word which H. P. wants is Hippomanes. The reference which the Lexicons give is to Aristotle's History of Animals, viii. 23. 5.

I shall be glad to have some of H. P.'s references to Tacitus, as I cannot now call one to mind. In connexion with the subject, I should like to know if the white star, which used to be so fashionable on horses' foreheads, was always or generally produced artificially.



Land of Green Ginger (Vol. viii., pp. 160. 227.). —So named, in all probability, from green ginger having been manufactured there. Green ginger was one of the favourite conserve of our ancestors, and great quantities of it were made in this country from dried ginger roots. In an old black-letter work without date, but unmistakeably of the sixteenth century, entitled The Book of pretty Cōceits, taken out of Latine, French, Dutch, and English, there is a receipt "To make Green Ginger," commencing thus:—"Take rases of cased ginger and use them in this sort." I need not quote the long-winded receipt. Suffice it to say that dried ginger was placed in alternate layers with fine white sand, and the whole mass kept constantly wet until the ginger became quite soft. It was then washed, scraped clean, and put into sirup. There can be no greater difficulty in finding a derivation for the Land of Green Ginger, than for Pudding Lane, or Pie Corner.



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The Members of the Camden Society have just received two volumes, with which we doubt not all will be well pleased. The first is a farther portion, namely, from M to R, of Mr. Way's most valuable edition of the Promptorium Parvulorum. A glance at the foot-notes, so rich in philological illustration, and a knowledge that Mr. Way's labours have been greatly impeded by his removal from London, where only he can meet with the authorities which he is obliged to consult, may well explain the delay which has taken place in its publication. But we doubt not that the Camden Council are justified in the hope which they have expressed that the favour with which the present portion is received, will encourage the editor to proceed with all possible dispatch to the conclusion of the work.

Rich, like the Promptorium, in philological illustration, and of the highest value as a contribution to the social history of the thirteenth century, is the next work; and for which the Camden Members are indebted to the learned Vicar of Holbeach, The Rev. James Morton. The Ancren Riwle; a Treatise on the Rules and Duties of Monastic Life, which he has edited and translated from a Semi-Saxon MS. of the thirteenth century, is a work which many of our best scholars have long desired to see in print,—we believe we may add, that many have thought seriously of editing. The information to be derived from it, with regard to the state of society, the learning and manners, the moral and religious teaching, and the language of the period in which it was written, is so various and so important, that it is clear the Camden Society has done good service in selecting it for publication; while the manner in which it has been edited by Mr. Morton, and the translation and complete Glossarial Index with which he has enriched it, show that the Council did equally well in their choice of an editor. The work does the highest credit both to that gentleman and to the Camden Society.

Mr Bridger, of 3. Keppel Street, Russell Square, is desirous of making known to our readers that he is engaged in compiling a "Catalogue of Privately Printed Books in Genealogy and kindred subjects," and to solicit information in furtherance of his design, {607} more especially with regard to privately printed sheet pedigrees. The Catalogue will be printed for private distribution, and he will be happy to give a copy to any one who may favour him with communications.

BOOKS RECEIVED.—As usual, we have a large item to enter under this head to the account of that enterprising caterer of good and cheap books, Mr. Bohn. We have two volumes of his Standard Library, namely, Adam Smith's Theory of Moral Sentiments; and Dissertation on the Origin of Languages, with the Biographical and Critical Memoir of the Author, by Dugald Stewart—and a work of greater present interest, though in itself of far less importance, namely, Ranke's History of Servia, and his Insurrection in Bosnia, translated from the German, by Mrs. A. Kerr, and the Slave Provinces of Turkey, chiefly from the French of M. Cyprien Robert, a volume which will be read with eagerness in the present condition of the political world. Justin, Cornelius Nepos, and Eutropius, literally translated, with Notes and a General Index, by the Reverend J. Selby Watson, M.A., forms the new volume of the same publisher's Classical Library. Mr. Bohn has this month commenced a New Series under the title of Bohn's British Classics. The first work is an edition of Gibbon's Decline and Fall, with the notes of Guizot, Wenck, and other continental writers; and farther illustrations by an English Churchman. In thus choosing Gibbon, Mr. Bohn has not shown his usual tact. He may not mean his edition to be a rival to that published by Mr. Murray under the editorship of Dean Milman; but he will find much difficulty in dissuading the reading world that it is not so intended. We speak thus freely, because we have always spoken so freely in commendation of Mr. Bohn's projects generally.—Catalogue of my English Library, collected and described by Henry Stevens, F.S.A., is a catalogue of the books essential to a good English library of about 5000 volumes, and such as Mr. Stevens, the indefatigable supplier of book rarities and book utilities to his American brethren, feels justified in recommending. It would be found so capital a Hand-book to all classes, that we are sorry to see it is only printed for private distribution.—The Botanist's Word-book, by G. Macdonald, Esq., and Dr. James Allan. This little vocabulary of the terms employed in the Science of Botany, which may now almost be described as the science of Long Names, will be found most useful by all who pursue that fascinating study.

* * * * *


THE FRIENDS. 1773. 2 Vols.


*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and addresses are given for that purpose:

ORMEROD'S CHESHIRE. Parts II. and X. Small Paper.

HEMINGWAY'S CHESTER. Parts I. and III. Large Paper.

Wanted by T. Hughes, 13. Paradise Row, Chester.

* * * * *



Wanted by F. Dinsdale, Leamington.

* * * * *





ANNALS OF PHILOSOPHY for January, 1824.

UNIVERSAL MAGAZINE for January, 1763.


Wanted by Mr. H. T. Bobart, Ashby-de-la-Zouch.

* * * * *


THE BIBLE in Shorthand, according to the method of Mr. James Weston, whose Shorthand Prayer Book was published in the Year 1730. A Copy of Addy's Copperplate Shorthand Bible, London, 1687, would be given in exchange.






Wanted by Rev. Richard Gibbings, Falcarragh, Letterkenny, Co. Donegal.

* * * * *



Wanted by Mr. J. Phillips, Stamford.

* * * * *

RECOLLECTIONS AND REFLECTIONS DURING THE REIGN OF GEORGE III., by John Nicholls. 2 Vols. 8vo. London, Ridgway, 1820.

Wanted by G. Cornewall Lewis, Kent House, Knightsbridge.

* * * * *

Notices to Correspondents.

We have this week the pleasure of again presenting our readers with a Thirty-two page Number, in consequence of the number of Advertisements and the length of DR. DIAMOND'S valuable paper. This latter we recommend to the attention of our antiquarian friends, who will find, as we have done, that the process is at once simple and certain, and one which may be mastered with very little trouble.

NON-MEDICUS. Your correction of an obvious blunder in the Registrar-General's Report is not fitted for our columns.

F. W. The proverb Good wine needs no bush has reference to the practice which formerly prevailed of hanging a tuft of ivy at the door of a vintner, as we learn from

"Now a days the good wyne needeth none ivye garland."

Ritson, in a note on the epilogue to Shakespeare's As You Like It, speaks of the custom as then prevalent in Warwickshire, and as having given the name to the well-known Bush Inn at Bristol.

B. W. C. (Barum). The subject is under serious consideration, but the difficulties are greater than our friendly Correspondent imagines.

J. D. Les Lettres Cabalistiques were written by M. D'Argens, the author of Les Lettres Juives and Les Lettres Chinoises.

MR. J. A. DUNKIN, of Dartford, Kent, would feel obliged with the loan of the following work: Memoirs of the Origin of the Incorporation of the Trinity House of Deptford Strond. It is not in the British Museum.

FOLK LORE.—We propose next week to present our readers with a Christmas Number, rich in Folk Lore, and other kindred subjects.

Many replies to Correspondents are unavoidably postponed.

"NOTES AND QUERIES" is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday.

"NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. i. to vii., price Three Guineas and a Half.—Copies are being made up and may be had by order.

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ATLAS of CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. By A. KEITH JOHNSTON, F.R.S.E., &c., Author of the "Physical Atlas," &c. With a complete Index of Places. by T. HARVEY, M.A.

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"Mrs. Bray's knowledge of the locality, her affection for her subject, her exquisite feeling for nature, and her real delight in fairy lore, have given a freshness to the little volume we did not expect. The notes at the end contain matter of interest for all who feel a desire to know the origin of such tales and legends."—Art Journal.

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ANECDOTES of the HABITS and INSTINCT of ANIMALS. Illustrations by H. WEIR. New Edition, 5s. cloth.

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THE BIBLIOGRAPHICAL MISCELLANY, NO. II., contains a reprint of the very rare, and probably unique, Tract of SIR DUDLEY DIGGES on the NORTH-WEST PASSAGE to India and China printed in 1611, and is appended to JOHN PETHERAM'S CATALOGUE OF OLD AND NEW BOOKS (upwards of 1000 articles) FOR DECEMBER, 1853.

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This Evening, at 6.—Remainders of numerous magnificent Illustrated Books.—By SOUTHGATE & BARRETT, at their Rooms, 22. Fleet Street, THIS EVENING, December 15th, and following Evenings (Saturday and Sunday excepted), at 6,

ROBERTS'S HOLY LAND, EGYPT, NUBIA, &c.; Digby Wyatt's Industrial Arts of the Nineteenth Century (of both of which the lithographic stones will be destroyed during the progress of the sale); Digby Wyatt's Metal Work, and its Artistic Design; Kirby Wyatt's Geometrical Mosaics of the Middle Ages; Darrell's China, India, and the Cape, coloured and mounted; Nash's Mansions of England in the Olden Time; Gruner's Specimens of Ornamental Art; Muse Royal (picked proofs before the letters); Richardson's Studies from Old English Mansions; and a great number of Books of Prints by eminent Artists will be sold in this Sale. Catalogues (1s. each, returnable to Purchasers) will be forwarded to gentlemen sending their Address.

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CHOICE ENGRAVINGS, including all the best Productions of Sir Edwin Landseer, R.A.; comprising the Stag at Bay (both large and small), the Cover Hack, the Drive, Three Sporting Dogs, Return from the Warren, the Mothers, complete Sets of his Etchings, and others; Turner's Dover and Hastings; Ansdell's Just Caught; the Halt, and the Combat; Webster's Rubber; Etty's Judgment of Paris; Harvey's Bowlers, and First Reading of the Bible in Old St. Paul's; Murillo's Holy Family; the Rainbow, by Constable; Mated and Checkmated, the Duet, and other graceful Compositions by Frank Stone; Going With and against the Stream, after Jenkins; and numerous others. All in the finest possible states.

* * * * *





* * * * *

These Works are printed in quarto, uniform with the Club-Books, and the series is now completed. Their value chiefly consists in the rarity and curiosity of the pieces selected, the notes being very few in number. The impression of each work is most strictly limited.

* * * * *


MORTE ARTHURE: The Alliterative Romance of the Death of King Arthur; now first printed, from a Manuscript in the Library of Lincoln Cathedral. Seventy-five Copies printed. 5l.

*** A very curious Romance, full of allusions interesting to the Antiquary and Philologist. It contains nearly eight thousand lines.


THE CASTLE OF LOVE: A Poem, by ROBERT GROSTESTE, Bishop of Lincoln; now first printed from inedited MSS. of the Fourteenth Century. One Hundred Copies printed. 15s.

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THE PALATINE ANTHOLOGY. An extensive Collection of Ancient Poems and Ballads relating to Cheshire and Lancashire; to which is added THE PALATINE GARLAND. One Hundred and Ten Copies printed. 2l. 2s.


THE LITERATURE OF THE SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES, illustrated by Reprints of very Rare Tracts. Seventy-five Copies printed. 2l. 2s.

CONTENTS:—Harry White his Humour, set forth by M. P.—Comedie of the two Italian Gentlemen—Tailor's Travels from London to the Isle of Wight, 1648—Wyll Bucke his Testament—The Booke of Merry Riddles, 1629—Comedie of All for Money, 1578—Wine, Beere, Ale, and Tobacco, 1630—Johnson's New Booke of New Conceites, 1630—Love's Garland, 1624.


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*** This Work contains upwards of 400 pages, and includes a reprint of the very curious Poem, called "Yorkshire Ale," 1697, as well as a great variety of Old Yorkshire Ballads.


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MEMOIRS OF THE LIFE AND WRITINGS of JOHN PYE SMITH, D.D., LL.D., &c., late Theological Tutor of the Old College, Homerton. By JOHN MEDWAY.

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XYLO-IODIDE OF SILVER, exclusively used at all the Photographic Establishments.—The superiority of this preparation is now universally acknowledged. Testimonials from the best Photographers and principal scientific men of the day, warrant the assertion, that hitherto no preparation has been discovered which produces uniformly such perfect pictures, combined with the greatest rapidity of action. In all cases where a quantity is required, the two solutions may be had at Wholesale price in separate Bottles, in which state it may be kept for years, and Exported to any Climate. Full instructions for use.

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POLICY HOLDERS in other COMPANIES, and intending Assurers generally, are invited to examine the Rates, Principles, and Progress of the SCOTTISH PROVIDENT INSTITUTION, the only Society in which the Advantages of Mutual Assurance can be secured by moderate Premiums. Established 1837. Number of Policies issued 6,400, assuring upwards of Two and a Half Millions.

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French Polished MAHOGANY STEREOSCOPES, from 10s. 6d. A large assortment of STEREOSCOPIC PICTURES for the same in Daguerreotype, Calotype, or Albumen, at equally low prices.


Beautifully finished ACHROMATIC MICROSCOPE, with all the latest improvement and apparatus, complete from 3l. 15s., at

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PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION.—An EXHIBITION of PICTURES, by the most celebrated French, Italian, and English Photographers, embracing Views of the principal Countries and Cities of Europe, is now OPEN. Admission 6d. A Portrait taken by MR. TALBOT'S Patent Process, One Guinea; Three extra Copies for 10s.


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PHOTOGRAPHY.—HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

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PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERAS.—OTTEWILL'S REGISTERED DOUBLE-BODIED FOLDING CAMERA, is superior to every other form of Camera, for the Photographic Tourist, from its capability of Elongation or Contraction to any Focal Adjustment, its Portability, and its adaptation for taking either Views or Portraits.—The Trade supplied.

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New Inventions, Models, &c., made to order or from Drawings.

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IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.—J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, have, by an improved mode of Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion equal, they may say superior, in sensitiveness and density of Negative, to any other hitherto published; without diminishing the keeping properties and appreciation of half tint for which their manufacture has been esteemed.

Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of Photography. Instruction in the Art.


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SPECTACLES.—Every Description of SPECTACLES and EYE-GLASSES for the Assistance of Vision, adapted by means of Smee's Optometer: that being the only correct method of determining the exact focus of the Lenses required, and of preventing injury to the sight by the use of improper Glasses.

BLAND & LONG. Opticians, 153. Fleet Street, London.

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ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price, and Description of upwards of 100 articles consisting of PORTMANTEAUS, TRAVELLING-BAGS, Ladies' Portmanteaus, DESPATCH-BOXES, WRITING-DESKS, DRESSING-CASES, and other travelling requisites, Gratis on application, or sent free by Post on receipt of Two Stamps.

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch-box and Writing-desk, their Travelling-bag with the opening as large as the bag, and the new Portmanteau containing four compartments, are undoubtedly the best articles of the kind ever produced.

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PRINCE OF WALES'S SKETCH-BOX.—Containing Colours, Pencils, &c., with printed directions, as now used by the Royal Family. Price 5s.

MILLER'S, Artist's Colour Manufacturer, 56. Long Acre, London; and at her Majesty's Steam Colour and Pencil Works, Pimlico.

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THE BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER. With Fifty Illustrations, from Designs by Ancient and Modern Artists. Selected by the REV. H. J. ROSE and REV. J. W. BURGON. In One handsome Volume, 8vo. The Prayer-Book is printed in very large type, with Rubrics in Red. Elegantly bound in antique calf, with vermillion edges, 2l. 5s.

DAILY CHURCH SERVICES. In One Portable Volume, containing the Prayers and Lessons for Daily Use: or, the Course of Scripture Readings for the Year, authorised by the Church. Also, a Table of the Proper Lessons for Sundays and Holydays, with References to the Pages. Price 10s. 6d., bound; 16s. in Hayday's morocco.

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OF THE IMITATION OF CHRIST. Four Books. By THOMAS KEMPIS. A New Edition, revised, handsomely printed in fcap. 8vo., with Vignettes and red florinted borders taken from the ancient MSS. Cloth, 5s. Also in antique calf binding, vermillion edges, 10s. 6d.

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A HISTORY of the CHURCH OF ENGLAND, to the REVOLUTION of 1688. By the late REV. J. B. S. CARWITHEN, B.D. A new Edition, edited by the REV. W. R. BROWELL, M.A., 2 vols. small 8vo., 12s.

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TEN SERMONS IN ILLUSTRATION OF THE CREED. By the REV. W. G. TUPPER, Warden of the House of Charity, Soho; and late Scholar of Trinity College, Oxford. Fcap. 8vo., cloth, 4s.

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OLD CHRISTMAS. A Tale. 16mo. 6d.

THE SINGERS OF THE SANCTUARY, and the MISSIONARY; Two Tales. By the Author of "Angels Work." 16mo. 2s. 6d.

ANGELS' WORK; or, the Choristers of St. Mark's. Second Edition. 2s.

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KENNETH; or, the Rear Guard of the Grand Army. By the Author of "Scenes and Characters," "Kings of England," "Heir of Redclyffe" &c. Second Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 5s.

SPECULATION A Tale. By the REV. W. E. HEYGATE. Fcap. 8vo. 5s.


LITTLE MARY. Third Edition. 18mo. 1s.

HENRY VERNON; or, the Little Anglo-Indian. A New Edition. 18mo. 1s.

ADA'S THOUGHTS; or, the Poetry of Youth. Fcap. 8vo., cloth, gilt edges, 2s. 6d. (Just Ready.)

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THE PRACTICAL CHRISTIAN'S LIBRARY: a Series of Cheap Publications for General Circulation.

s. d. Learn to Die (Sutton) 1 0 Private Devotions (Spinckes) 1 6 The Imitation of Christ ( Kempis) 1 0 Manual of Prayer for the Young (Ken) 0 6 The Golden Grove (Taylor) 0 9 Life of Ambrose Bonwicke 1 0 Life of Bishop Bull (Nelson) 1 6 Companion to the Prayer Book 1 0 Selections from Hooker (Keble) 1 6 Practical Christian (Sherlock). Part I. 2s. Part II. 2s.; 1 vol. 4 0 Learn to Live (Sutton) 2 0 Doctrine of the English Church (Heylin) 0 8 Holy Living (Bp. Taylor) 1 6 Holy Dying (Bp. Taylor) 1 6 Tracts on the Church (Jones of Nayland) 1 6 Figurative Language of Holy Scripture (Jones of Nayland) 1 6 Confessions of St. Augustine 1 6 Exposition of the Catechism (Nicholson) 1 6 Thoughts on Religion (Pascal) 1 6 Wilson on the Lord's Supper 1 0 Wilson's Sacra Privata 1 0

* * * * *



s. d. Words of Advice and Warning, limp 1 6 Baptism, limp 1 0 The Chief Truths, limp 1 0 The Church Service, limp 1 6 The Holy Catholic Church, limp 1 0 Tracts on the Ten Commandments, limp 1 0 Confirmation, limp 1 0 The Lord's Supper, limp 1 0 Meditation and Prayer, limp 1 0 Tracts for Female Penitents, limp 1 6 Tracts on the Prayer Book, cloth 3 0 Daily Office for the Use of Families, roan 1 0 Tales and Allegories, Illustrated, cloth, gilt 3 6 Parochial Tales, cloth, gilt 2 6 Tracts for Cottagers, cloth, gilt 2 0 Devotions for the Sick, cloth 2 6


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