Notes and Queries, Number 210, November 5, 1853
Author: Various
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Cruikston is now the property of Sir John Maywell of Nether Pollock. Of the trunk of the once—

" . . . . . green yew, The first that met the royal Mary's view; When bright in charms the youthful princess led The graceful Darnly to her throne and bed."—

Lady Maywell ordered to be made by an ingenious individual, at Pollockshaws, an exact model of the castle, and some table and other utensils, which are still in preservation at Pollock. Before its removal, many are the snuff-boxes, toddy ladles, &c. that have been made of it, and are still in preservation by the curious. The following couplet, composed by the late Mr. W. Craig, surgeon, is inscribed on one of these ladles, which has seen no little service:

"Near Cruikston Castle's stately tower, For many a year I stood; My shade was of the hallow'd bower; Where Scotland's queen was woo'd."

Another medal of Queen Mary's, of considerable size, of which I have seen a cast many years since, contained the following inscriptions:

"O God graunt patience in that I suffer vrang."

The reverse has in the centre:

"Quho can compare with me in grief, I die and dar nocht seek relief."

With this legend around:

"Hourt not the [heart symbol] quhais [heart whose] joy thou art."

"They all appear [says Mr. Pinkerton] to have been done in France by Mary's directions, who was fond of devices. Her cruel captivity could not debar her from intercourse with her friends in France; who must with pleasure have executed her orders as affording her a little consolation."

G. N.

MR. FRASER'S supposed medal is a ryal (or possibly a 3/4 ryal) of Mary and Henry, commonly known as a Cruickstown dollar; from the idea that the tree upon them is a representation of the famous yew-tree at Cruickstown Castle. It appears, however, from the ordinance for coining these pieces, that the tree is a "palm-tree crowned with a shell paddock (lizard) creeping up the stem of the same." The motto across the tree is "DAT GLORIA VIRES." (See Lindsay's Scotch Coinage, p. 51.)


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(Vol. viii., p. 344.)

The reply of Dr. Hincks appears to require the following. While seeking information upon the first of these matters, I took up one of my old school-books, and at the foot of a page found the following note: "Britannia is from Barat-anac, the land of tin." I do not recollect to have seen it elsewhere; but it appeared to me so apt and correct that I adopted it at once.

That the Shirutana of the Egyptian inscriptions, {446} or Shairetana, will be found to be the same people as the Ciratas of the Hindu Puranas, I have little doubt.

Ciratas is there applied as a name to the people who were afterwards known to us as the Phoenicians; but that either the Shirutana or the Ciratas will be found to have discovered Britain, though they may have given it a name, I do not expect. The Ciratas were a people of a later age to that of the first inhabitants of Britain. The first inhabitants of Britain I call the Celtae, as I know no other name for them; but there seems reason for thinking that this island was visited by an earlier tribe, though probably they were of the same race.

The origin of the Ciratas and first inhabitants of Britain is this:—A powerful monarchy appears to have been established at the earliest dawn of history in the country we now call Persia, long before there was any Assyrian government, and under this monarchy that country was the true centre of population, of knowledge, of languages, and of arts. Three distinct races of men appear to have migrated in different directions from this their common country. One of these divides into two parts, one proceeding to the west, the other to the south-east of the place where the division took place. The western party passed through Asia Minor, and also by the north of the Black Sea, carrying with it all that was then known of the different arts and sciences, until we find the descendants at this day in the British Isles. The south-eastern party, also, continued its progress to the part now known to us as India, where its descendants may be found at this day. Long after the settlement in India, various tribes, all proceeding from it, migrated from that country to the parts now known to us as Egypt and Syria; and one of these tribes was the Ciratas.

That the Ciratas, Shirutana, or Phoenicians, call them as you may, were the first who passed the Pillar of Hercules in ships on their way to obtain tin here at first-hand, is almost certain; and that the western party, as described above, had broken ground to supply it long before their customers came for it, is scarcely less so. They all had a common origin, and used nearly the same language, religion, and laws.

My Query has brought out a highly satisfactory elucidation of the origin of the term Britain; and this, looking at the position in which that term stood on the day the last Number of "N. & Q." was published is by no means a slight acquisition. I now leave it.

G. W.

Stansted, Montfichet.

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(Vol. vii., pp. 18. 91. 321.; Vol. viii., p. 318.)

The following list may prove an acceptable addition to those already printed in your pages. Some of your correspondents perhaps will make it more complete:

1707. Oxford. 8vo. Plates by John Sturt. 1710. London. 8vo. Forty-four plates, with no engraver's name. 1712. Oxford. 8vo. Plates by Sturt. 1717. London. 8vo. Ruled with double red lines. Plates by Sturt.

Lowndes speaks of a large paper impression in quarto of this same edition: "The volume consists of one hundred and sixty-six plates, besides twenty-two containing dedication, table, &c. Prefixed is a bust of King George I.; and facing it, those of the Prince and Princess of Wales. Sturt likewise published a set of fifty-five historical cuts for Common Prayer in small 8vo."

1738. London. 8vo. With Old Version of the Psalms; and forty-four curious plates, including Gunpowder Treason, the Martyrdom of Charles I., and Restoration of Charles II. (Booksellers' Catal.)

1794. London. Published by J. Good and E. Harding, with plates after Stothard by Bartolozzi and others (Lowndes).

Lowndes also mentions "Illustrations to the Book of Common Prayer by Richard Westall, London, 1813, 8 vo. (proofs) 4to.," and "Twelve illustrations to ditto, engraved by John Scott, from designs by Burney and Thurston, royal 8vo."

I have reserved for more particular description two editions in my own possession:—One is a small 8vo., ruled with red lines: "In the Savoy, printed by the assignees of John Bill and Christopher Barker, Printers to the King's Most Excellent Majesty, 1667." It contains fifty-nine plates: these are identical with those in the Antiquitates Christianae, or Bishop Taylor's Life of Christ, and Cave's Lives of the Apostles (folio editions), which, if I mistake not, were engraved by William Faithorn. The Act of Uniformity is given in black-letter. The Ordinal is wanting. The three State Services are not enumerated in the Table of Contents, but are added at the end of the book. The Old Version of the Psalms (with its usual quaint title), a tract of 104 pp., is appended: "London: printed by Thos. Newcomb for the Company of Stationers, 1671." The other edition is a 12mo.: "London, printed by Charles Bill and the Executrix of Thomas Newcomb deceased, Printers to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty, 1708" (ruled with red lines). In the frontispiece is represented a female figure kneeling with a prayer book open before her: an angel {447} in the air holds a scroll, on which is inscribed, "The Liturgy of the Church of England, adorned with fifty-five historical cuts, P. La Vergne del., M. Van der Gucht sc." Beneath the picture, "Sold by Robt. Whitledge at the Bible in Ave Maria Lane, near Stationers' Hall."

Some of the cuts are very curious, as No. 16., which represents the Devil (adorned with a crown, sceptre, and tail) standing on the top of a high conical rock, and our Blessed Lord at a little distance from him. The appearance and attitude of the Apostles are somewhat grotesque. One of the best is St. Philip (No. 39.), who is represented as a wrinkled, bearded old man, contemplating a crucifix in his hand.

No. 51. is a picture of Guy Fawkes approaching the Parliament House, with a lantern in his hand. A large eye is depicted in the clouds above, which sheds a stream of light on the hand of the conspirator. No. 52. is "The Martyrdom of King Charles I." No. 53. "The Restoration of Monarchy and King Charles II." A number of cavaliers on horseback, with their conical hats and long tresses, occupy the foreground of this picture; the army appears in the background. This is the last, though the scroll advertises fifty-five cuts.

The Prefaces and Calendar are printed in very small bad type. The four State Services are enumerated in the Table of Contents. After the State Services follow, "At the Healing;" the Thirty-nine Articles, and a Table of Kindred and Affinity. This edition neither contains the Ordinal nor a metrical version of the Psalms. Notwithstanding the date on the title-page, King George is prayed for throughout the book, except in the service "For the Eighth Day of March," when Queen Anne's name occurs.

Of the modern pictorial editions of the Book of Common Prayer may be mentioned that of Charles Knight "illustrated by nearly seven hundred beautiful woodcuts by Jackson, from drawings by Harvey, and six illuminated titles; with Explanatory Notes by the Rev. H. Stebbing," royal 8vo., London, 1838; reprinted in 1846. That of Murray, "illuminated by Owen Jones, and illustrated with engravings from the works of the great masters," royal 8vo., London, 1845; reprinted in 1850 in med. 8vo. That of Whittaker in 12mo. and 8vo., "with notes and illuminations." The last, and by far the best, pictorial edition is that of J. H. Parker of Oxford, "with fifty illustrations; selected from the finest examples of the early Italian and modern German schools, by the Rev. H. J. Rose and Rev. J. W. Burgon."


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(Vol. viii., p. 346.)

This has long been to me a vexed question, and I fear that none of your correspondents have given a satisfactory answer.

I have seen in London sprigs of yew and palm willow offered for sale before Palm Sunday. At this period they may, I think, be always found in Covent Garden Market. I saw them last year also in the greengrocers' shops at Brighton. To me these are evident traces of an old custom of using the yew as well as the willow. The origin is to be found in the Jewish custom of carrying "branches of palm-trees, and boughs of thick trees, and willows from the brook" (Leviticus xxiii. 39, 40.).

Wordsworth alludes to this in his sonnet on seeing a procession at Chamouny:

"The Hebrews thus carrying in joyful state Thick boughs of palm and willows from the brook, March'd round the altar—to commemorate How, when their course they from the desert took, Guided by signs which ne'er the sky forsook, They lodged in leafy tents and cabins low, Green boughs were borne."

In A Voyage from Leith to Lapland, 1851, vol. i. p. 132., there is an account of the funeral of the poet Oehlenschlaeger. The author states,—

"The entire avenue was strewn, according to the old Scandinavian custom, with evergreen boughs of fir, and bunches of fir and box, mingled in some instances with artificial flowers. It is customary at all funerals to strew evergreens before the door of the house where the body lies, but it is only for some very distinguished person indeed they are strewn all the way to the burial place."

Forby, in his East Anglican Vocabulary, says it is a superstitious notion that—

"If you bring yew into the house at Christmas amongst the evergreens used to dress it, you will have a death in the family before the end of the year."

I believe the yew will be found generally on the south side of the church, but always near the principal entrance, easy of access for the procession on Palm Sunday, and perhaps for funerals, and that it was used as a substitute for the palm, and coupled with "the willow from the brook," hence called the palm willow.


P. S.—I cannot agree with your correspondent J. G. CUMMING, that the yew is one of "our few evergreens." I doubt our having in England any native evergreen but the holly.

The etymology of the name of the yew-tree clearly shows that it was not planted in churchyards as an emblem of evil, but one of immortality. The name of the tree in Celtic is jubar, pronounced yewar, i. e. "the evergreen head." The town of {448} Newry in Ireland took its name from two yew-trees which St. Patrick planted: A-Niubaride, pronounced A-Newery, i. e. "the yew-trees," which stood until Cromwell's time, when some soldiers ruthlessly cut them down.

In the Note by MR. J. G. CUMMING, a derivation is evidently required for the English word yeoman, which he suggests is taken from "yokeman." Yeoman is from , pronounced yo, i. e. free, worthy, respectable, as opposed to the terms villein, serf, &c.; so that yeoman means a freeman, a respectable person.


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(Vol. viii., p. 270.)

Mr. H. T. Griffith asks where may any pedigree of the Osborne family, previous to Edward Osborne, the ancestor of the Dukes of Leeds, be seen. In reply, I am in possession of large collections relating to the Norman Osbornes, from whom I have reasons to believe him to have been descended. Those Osbornes can be proved to have been settled in certain of the midland counties of England from the time of the attainder and downfall of the son of William Fitzosborne, Earl of Hereford and premier peer, down to a comparatively late period. A branch of them was possessed of the manor of Kelmarsh in Northamptonshire; and their pedigree, beginning in 1461, may be seen in Whalley's Northamptonshire: but this is necessarily very imperfect, on account of the author's want of access to documents which have subsequently been opened to the public.

I may here notice that an inexcusable error has been committed and repeated in several of the collections of records published by the Parliamentary Commission, who have, in numerous instances, and without any warrant, interpreted Osb. of the MSS. as "Osbert." Thus they have deprived Fitzosborne, Bishop of Exeter (A.D. 1102), of some of his manors, and within his own diocese, and conferred them on Osbert the Bishop, although there never was a bishop of that name in England. I took the liberty of pointing out this error to one of the chief editors concerned in these works; but as he has taken no notice of my observations, I must infer that he thinks it most prudent to excite no farther inquiry.

The Osborns, now so numerous in London, appear to have come from the Danish stem from which the Norman branch was originally derived. Their number, which has increased even beyond the ordinary ratio of the population, may perhaps be dated from the wife of one of them who (temp. Jac. I.) had twenty-four sons, and was interred in old St. Paul's.

I shall be very happy to afford any assistance in my power to the gentleman who has occasioned these remarks.


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(Vol. vi., p. 554.; Vol. vii., pp. 454. 603.; Vol. viii., pp. 108. 248.)

Many thanks are due to your correspondent CUTHBERT BEDE, B.A., for his interesting series of inscriptions on bells. The following are, I think, sufficiently curious to be added to your collection:—

Rouen Cathedral:

"In the steeple of the great church, in the citie of Roane in Normandy, is one great bell with the like inscription." [Like, that is, to the inscription at St. Stephen's, Westminster: see "N. & Q." Vol. viii., p. 108.]

"Je suis George de Ambois, Qui trente-cinque mille pois; Mes luis qui me pesera, Trente-six mille me trouvera."

"I am George of Ambois, Thirtie-five thousand in pois; But he that shall weigh me, Thirty-six thousand shall find me."—Weever, Fun. Mon., edit. fol. 1631, p. 492.

St. Matthew, Great Milton, Oxfordshire:

1. "I as treble begin. 3. "I was third ring. 8. (Great bell) "I to church the living call, and to the grave do summons."

Inscription suggested as being suitable for six bells, in the Ecclesiologist (New Series), vol. i. p. 209.:

1. "Ave Pater, Rex, Creator: 2. Ave Fili, Lux, Salvator: 3. Ave Pax et Charitas. 4. Ave Simplex, Ave Trine; 5. Ave Regnans sine fine, 6. Ave Sancta Trinitas."

Inscriptions are often to be found in Lombardic characters, and on bells of great antiquity. Can any of your ecclesiological correspondents furnish me with the date of the earliest known example?


On bells in Southrepps Church, Norfolk:

"Tuba ad Juditium. Campana ad Ecclesiam, 1641."

"Miserere mei Jhesus Nazarenus Rex Judaeorum."


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(Vol. viii., pp. 37. 83. 277. 329.)

I broached a theory with a concluding remark that it would give me great pleasure to see one more reasonable take its place. I fear that, if all your readers anxious to clear up an obscure point in an interesting science take no more trouble than P. P., we shall find ourselves no {449} nearer our object in the middle of your eightieth volume than we are now in your eighth.

What P. P. is pleased to term the "routine" reason is after all but one among many, and is not better substantiated than some of the others quoted by me; for though the lozenge has a "supposed" resemblance to the distaff or fusil, heraldically it is but a supposed one, and by most writers the difference is very distinctly indicated.

Boyer says:

"A fusil is a bearing in heraldry made in the form of a spindle, with its yarn or thread wound about it. Fusils are longer than lozenges, and taper or pointed at both ends."

The same author thus describes a lozenge:

"A Rhimbus, in geometry, is a figure of four equal and parallel sides, but not rectangular."

Robson says:

"Fusil, a kind of spindle used in spinning. Its formation should be particularly attended to, as few painters or engravers make a sufficient distinction between the fusil and lozenge."

Nisbet describes a lozenge to be—

"A figure that has equal sides and unequal angles, as the quarry of a glass window placed erect pointways."

He adds:

"The Latins say, 'Lozengae factae sunt ad modum lozangiorum in vitreis.' Heralds tell us that their use in armories came from the pavement of marble stones of churches, fine palaces and houses, cut after the form of lozenges, which pavings the French and Italians call loze and the Spaniards loza."

Sylvester de Petra-Sancta of the lozenge says much the same:

"Scutulas oxigonias scu acutangulus erectas, et quasi gradiles, referri debere ad latericias et antiquas domus olim, viz. Nobilium quia vulgus, et infamiae sortis homines, intra humiles casus, vet antra inhabitantur."

Of the fusil Nisbet writes:

"The fusil is another Rhombular figure like the lozenge, but more long than broad, and its upper and lower points are more acute than the two side points."

He adds that:

"Chassanus and others make their sides round, as in his description of them: 'Fusae sunt acutae in superiore et inferiore partibus, et rotundae ex utroque latere;' which description has occasioned some English heralds, when so painted or engraven, to call them millers' picks, as Sir John Boswell, in his Concords of Armory, and others, to call them weavers' shuttles."

Menestrier says of lozenges:

"Lozange est une figure de quatre pointes, dont deux sont un peu plus etendues que les autres, et assise sur une de ces pointes. C'est le Rhomb des mathematiciens, et les quarreaux des vitres ordinaires en ont la figure."

Of fusils:

"Fusees sont plus etendues en longue que les lozanges, et affilees en point comme les fuseaux. Elles sont pieces d'architecture ou l'on se sert pour ornement de fusees et de pesons."

The celebrated Boke of St. Albans (1486) thus describes the difference between a lozenge and fusil:

"Knaw ye y^e differans betwix ffusillis and losyng. Wherefore it is to be knaw that ffusillis ar euermore long, also fusyllis ar strattyr ouerwart in the baly then ar mascules. And mascules ar larger ou'wartt in the baly, and shorter in length than be fusyllis."

The mascle is afterwards explained to be the lozenge pierced. Again:

"And ye most take thys for a general enformacion and instruccion that certanli losyng eu'more stand upright ... and so withowte dowte we have the differans of the foresayd signes, that is to wete of mascules and losynges."

Dallaway, an elegant writer on Heraldry, says:

"Of the lozenge the following extraordinary description is given in a MS. of Glover, 'Lozenga est pars vitri in vitrea fenestra.' But it may be more satisfactory to observe that the lozenge, with its diminutive, are given to females instead of an escocheon for the insertion of their armorial bearings, one of which is supposed to have been a cushion of that shape, and the other is evidently the spindle used in spinning; both demonstrative of the sedentary employments of women. On a very splendid brass for Eleanor, relict of Thomas of Woodstocke, who died 1384, she is delineated as resting her head upon two cushions, the upper of which is placed lozenge-wise."—P. 140.

The above is taken from his Miscellaneous Observations on Heraldic Ensigns, the following from the body of his great work:

"Females being heirs, or conveying feodal lordships to their husbands, had, as early as the thirteenth century, the privilege of armorial seals. The variations were progressive and frequent; at first the female effigy had the kirtle or inner garment emblazoned, or held the escocheon over her head, or in her right hand; then three escocheons met in the centre, or four were joined at their bases, if the alliance admitted of so many. Dimidiation, accollation, and impalement succeeded each other at short intervals. But the modern practice of placing the arms of females upon a lozenge appears to have originated about the middle of the fourteenth century, when we have an instance of five lozenges conjoined upon one seal; that of the heir female in the centre impaling the arms of her husband, and surrounded by those of her ancestors."—P. 400.

I think this quotation from so learned a writer goes far towards settling the whole question. I confess myself willing to have my theory placed second to this, while I must discard the "distaff" {450} notion, unless better substantiated than by the French saying from their Salique law, which I here give for P. P.'s information: "Nunquam corona a lance transibit ad fusum." I am willing to admit the antiquity of this notion; for while the shape of the man's shield is traced by Sylvanus Morgan to Adam's spade, he takes the woman's from Eve's spindle!

"When Adam delved, and Eve span, Who was then the gentleman?"

In Geoffry Chaucer's time the lozenge appears to have been an ornament worn by heralds in their dress or crown. In describing the habit of one, he says:

"They crowned were as kinges With crowns wrought full of lozenges And many ribbons and many fringes."

As for the difference between the lozenge and fusil, I could multiply opinions and examples, but hope those given will be sufficient.

I cannot conclude these few hasty remarks without expressing a wish that one of your correspondents in particular would take up this subject, to handle which in a masterly manner, his position is a guaranty of his ability. I refer to the gentleman holding the office of York Herald.


Bury, Lancashire.

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(Vol. viii., p. 173.)

From a very early period, and throughout life, I have been accustomed to shooting, and well remember the bird in question, but whether the term was local or general, I am unable to state, never having met with it save in one locality; and many years have elapsed since I saw one, although in the habit of frequenting the neighbourhood where it was originally to be seen. I attribute its disappearance to local causes. I met with it during a series of years, ending about twenty-five years since, at which period I lost sight of it. It was to be met with during the autumn and winter in bogs scattered over with bog myrtle, on Chobham and the adjacent common; I never met with it elsewhere. It is solitary. I am unacquainted with its food, and only in a single instance had I ever one in my hand. Its tongue is pointed, sharp, and appearing capable of penetration. Its colour throughout dusky light blue, slightly tinged with yellow about the vent. Tail about one inch, being rather long in proportion to the body, causing the wings to appear forward, with a miniature pheasant-like appearance as it flew, or rather darted, from bush to bush, with amazing quickness, its wings moving with rapidity, straight in its flight, keeping near the ground, appearing loth to wing, never passing an intervening bush if ever so near; and I never saw one fly over eight or ten yards, and never wing a second time, which induced our dogs (using a sporting phrase) to puzzle them, causing a belief that they were in most instances trodden under the water and grass in which the myrtle grew, and which nothing but a dog could approach. I never saw one sitting or light on a branch of the myrtle, but invariably flying from the base of one plant to that of another. I am not aware that any cabinet contains a preserved specimen, or that the bird has ever been noticed by any naturalist as a British or foreign bird.

Should W. R. D. S. covet farther information as to the probable cause of its disappearance, and my never having met with it elsewhere, perhaps he will favour me with his address. I cannot think the bird extinct.


Egham, Surrey.

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(Vol. viii., p. 385.)

The earliest memoir of captain John Davis, the celebrated arctic navigator, is that given by the reverend John Prince in his DANMONII ORIENTALES ILLUSTRES, or the worthies of Devon, Exeter, 1701, folio. It is, however, erroneous and defective in important particulars, and has misled some eminent writers, as Campbell, Eyries, Barrow, &c.

Despite the assertions of master Prince, I question if captain Davis married a daughter of sir John Fulford; I am sure he was not the first pilot who conducted the Hollanders to the East-Indies; I am sure the journal of the voyage is not printed in Hakluyt; I am sure the narrative of his voyage with sir Edward Michelborne is neither dedicated to the earl of Essex nor printed in Hakluyt; I am sure he did not write the Rutter, or brief directions for sailing into the East-Indies; I am sure he wrote two works of which Prince says nothing; I am sure he did not make five voyages to the East-Indies; and I am sure, to omit other oversights, that he did not "return home safe again." To the latter point I shall now confine myself.

In 1604 king James, regardless of the charter held by the East-India company, granted a license to sir Edward Michelborne, one of his gentlemen-pensioners, to discover and trade with the "countries and domynions of Cathaia, China, Japan," &c. This license, preserved in the Rolls-chapel, is dated the twenty-fifth of June. On the fifth of December sir Edward set sail from Cowes with the Tiger, a ship of 240 tons, and a pinnace—captain Davis being, as I conceive, the second in command. In December 1605, being near the island of Bintang, they fell in with a junk of 70 tons, carrying ninety Japanese, most of them {451} "in too gallant a habit for saylers:" in fact, they were pirates! The unfortunate result shall now be stated in the words of the pirate Michelborne:

"Vpon mutuall courtesies with gifts and feastings betweene vs, sometimes fiue and twentie or sixe and twentie of their chiefest came aboord: whereof I vould not suffer aboue sixe to have weapons. Their was neuer the like number of our men aboord their iunke. I willed captaine John Dauis in the morning [the twenty-seventh of December] to possesse himselfe of their weapons, and to put the companie before mast, and to leave some guard on their weapons, while they searched in the rice, doubting that by searching and finding that which would dislike them, they might suddenly set vpon my men, and put them to the sword: as the sequell prooued. Captaine Dauis being beguiled with their humble semblance, would not possesse himselfe of their weapons, though I sent twice of purpose from my shippe to will him to doe it. They passed all the day, my men searching in the rice, and they looking on: at the sunne-setting, after long search and nothing found, saue a little storax and beniamin: they seeing oportunitie, and talking to the rest of their companie which were in my ship, being neere to their iunke, they resolued, at a watch-word betweene them, to set vpon vs resolutely in both ships. This being concluded, they suddenly killed and droue ouer-boord, all my men that were in their ship; and those which were aboord my ship sallied out of my cabbin, where they were put, with such weapons as they had, finding certaine targets in my cabbin, and other things that they vsed as weapons. My selfe being aloft on the decke, knowing what was likely to follow, leapt into the waste, where, with the boate swaines, carpenter and some few more, wee kept them vnder the halfe-decke. At their first comming forth of the cabbin, they met captain Dauis comming out of the gun-roome, whom they pulled into the cabbin, and giuing him sixe or seuen mortall wounds, they thrust him out of the cabbin before them. His wounds were so mortall, that he dyed assoone as he came into the waste."—Purchas, i. 137.


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Clouds in Photographs.—I wish one of your photographic correspondents would inform me, how clouds can be put into photographs taken on paper? Mr. Buckle's photographs all contain clouds?


"The Stereoscope considered in relation to the Philosophy of Binocular Vision" is the title of a small pamphlet written by a frequent contributor to this journal, Mr. C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY, in which he has "attempted to sketch out such modifications of the theory of double vision as appear to him to be entailed on the rationale of the stereoscope." The corroboration thus indirectly afforded to the principles of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy of Perception has induced MR. INGLEBY to dedicate his word to that distinguished metaphysician. The essay will, we have no doubt, be perused with great interest by many of our photographic friends, for whose gratification we shall borrow its concluding paragraph.

"In conclusion we must not forget to acknowledge our obligations to the photographic art, not merely as one of the most suggestive results of natural science, but as a means of the widest and soundest utility. To antiquaries the services of photography have a unique value, for, by perpetuating in the form of negatives those monuments of nature and art which, though exempt from common accident, are still subject to gradual decay from time, it places in the hands of us all microscopically exact antitypes of objects which, from change or distance, are otherwise inaccessible. To the artist they afford the means of facilitating the otherwise laborious, and often mechanical, task of drawing in detail from nature and from the human figure.

"To the physician, to the naturalist, and to the man of science, the uses of photography are various and important, and already the discoveries which have been directly due to this modern art are of stupendous utility.

"To the metaphysician, its uses may be sufficiently gleaned from the applications considered in the preceding pages. But to all these classes of men the photographic art derives its chief glory from its application to the stereoscope; and if, for elucidating the principles of vision by means of this application, we have in any degree given a stimulus to the practice and improvement of the photographic processes, our pains have been happily and fruitfully bestowed."

Muller's Processes.—Would you inform me, through the medium of "N. & Q.," what manufacture of paper is best adapted to the two processes of Mr. Muller? I have tried several: with some I find that the combination of their starch with the iodide of iron causes a dark precipitate upon the face of the paper; and with those papers prepared with size, there appears to me great difficulty (in his improved process after the paper is moistened with aceto-nitrate of silver) to procure an equal distribution of the iodide over its surface, as it invariably dries or runs off parts of the paper, or is repelled by spots of size on the paper when dipped in the iodide of iron bath.—A reply to the foregoing question would greatly oblige



Positives on Glass.—Sometimes, when your sitter is gone, and you hold your portrait up to the light to examine its density, you find in the face and other parts which are dark, so viewed, minute transparent specks, scarcely bigger than a pin's point. When the picture is backed with black lacquer, you have consequently small black spots, which deform the positive, especially when viewed through a lens of short focus. A friend of mine {452} cures this defect very easily. After having applied the amber varnish, he stops out the spots with a little oil-paint that matches the lights of the picture; of course the paint is put upon the varnished side of the glass. When the paint is dry, the black lacquer is carried over the whole as usual.



* * * * *

Replies to Minor Queries.

Peculiar Ornament in Crosthwaite Church (Vol. viii., p. 200.).—I am exceedingly obliged to CHEVERELLS for his reply to any Query. I am sorry to say that I failed to make a note of the number of the circles; but, as far as I can remember, there are six windows in each aisle, so in all there would be twenty-four, each window having two carved upon it, one on the right jamb without, and the other on the left within.



Nursery Rhymes (Vol. viii., p. 455.).—I would suggest to L. that a consideration of rhymes may sometimes indicate, by the change in the pronunciation, the antiquity of the verse e.g.,

"Hush aby, baby, on the green bough, When the wind blows the cradle will rock, And when the bough breaks," &c.

Here, according to modern pronunciation, the rhymes of the first couplet are imperfect, so that it was probably composed in the Saxon era, or while the word bough was still pronounced bog or bock.

J. R.

Milton's Widow (Vol. vii., p. 596.; Vol. viii., pp. 12. 134. 200.).—Reading up my arrears of "N. & Q.," which a long absence from England has caused to accumulate, I find frequent inquiries made for some information which I once promised, relative to Milton's widow. I fear that your correspondents on this subject have formed an exaggerated idea of the importance of the expected note, and that they will see but a "ridiculus mus" after all. As I have no means at hand at the present moment wherewith to attempt to elucidate the Minshull genealogy, I shall content myself by simply sending my original notes, namely, brief abstracts of the wills of Thomas and Nathan Paget preserved at Doctors' Commons.

Thomas Paget, minister of the gospel at Stockport, in Cheshire, makes his will May 23, 1660; mentions his three daughters Dorothy, Elizabeth, and Mary; and leaves estates at different places in Shropshire to his two sons, Dr. Nathan and Thomas, whom he appoints his executors. He entreats his cousin Minshull, apothecarie in Manchester, to be overseer of his will, which was proved October 16, 1660.

[I have before (Vol. v., p. 327.) shown the connexion between the Pagets and Manchester.]

Nathan Paget, Doctor in Medicine, will dated January 7, 1678, was then living in the parish of St. Stephen's, Coleman Street, London, leaves certain estates, and his house in London where he resided, to his brother Thomas Paget, clerk. Bequests to his cousin John Goldsmith of the Middle Temple, gent., and his cousin Elizabeth Milton, to the Society of Physicians, and the poor of the parish of St. Stephen's. Will proved January 15, 1678.

I have omitted to note what the bequests were. I will only add, that some time ago I dropped my alias of CRANMORE, and have occasionally appeared in your sixth Volume as


Watch-paper Inscriptions (Vol. viii., p. 316.).—-I recollect, when at school, having an old silver watch with the following printed lines inside the case:

"Time is—the present moment well employ; Time was—is past—thou canst not it enjoy; Time future—is not, and may never be; Time present—is the only time for thee."


Poetical Tavern Signs (Vol. viii., p. 242.).—May I add to those mentioned by your correspondent MR. WARDE, one at Chatham. On the sign-board is painted "an arm embowed, holding a malt-shovel," underneath which is written,—

"Good malt makes good beer, Walk in, and you'll find it here."


Star Hill, Rochester.

At a small inn in Castleton, near Whitby, the sign represents Robin Hood and Little John in their usual forest costume, and underneath appear the following doggerel lines:

"To gentlemen and yeomen good, Come in and drink with Robin Hood; If Robin Hood is not at home, Come in and drink with Little John."

F. M.

Parish Clerks' Company (Vol. viii., p. 341.).—The hall is in Silver Street, Wood Street; the beadle is Mr. Bullard, No. 9. Grocers' Hall Court, Poultry.

If the circulars of the company were attended to, a great service would be rendered to the public; but as there are about one hundred and sixty churches in the metropolis, the chance of a parish clerk finding any particular marriage, &c. is, at the best, but as one to one hundred and sixty. Besides this, the parish registers are generally in the custody of the clergyman, and it is therefore feared that the searches are but too often {453} neglected, unless the reward is sufficiently tempting to induce the loss of time and the probability of an unsuccessful examination.


"Elijah's Mantle" (Vol. viii., p. 295.).—James Sayers, Esq., a solicitor of Staple Inn, was the author of this beautiful poem, and he was also the reputed author of some of Gilray's best caricatures.


Histories of Literature (Vol. viii., p. 222.).—In addition to the works of Hallam, Maitland, and Berrington mentioned by you, I would recommend your correspondent ILMONASTERIENSIS to procure an anonymous publication, entitled An Introduction to the Literary History of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries, London, 1798, 8vo. It is a much neglected work, replete with interesting information relative to the state of literature during the dark ages. I observe a copy in calf, marked 4s. 6d. in a bookseller's catalogue published lately in this city.

T. G. S.


Birthplace of General Monk (Vol. viii., p. 316.).—I regret to find I am in error in saying that Lysons positively assigns Landcross as Monk's birthplace in the Magna Britannia.

The mistake is of slight import as respects the Query, but accuracy in citing authorities is at least desirable, and ought (in common justice) to be ever most scrupulously regarded.

"General Monk appears to have been a native of this village; he was baptised at Lancras, December 11, 1608," is, I find, the actual passage, the substance of which (writing in Germany, far from any means of reference), at the time believed I was more correctly quoting.


Reform Club.

Books chained to Desks in Churches (Vol. viii., pp. 93. 273.).—In the library of St. Walburg's Church at Zutphen, consisting chiefly of Bibles and other Latin works, the books are fastened to the desks by iron chains. This was done, it is said, to prevent the Evil One from stealing them, a crime of which he had been repeatedly guilty. The proof of this is found in the stone-floor, where his foot-marks are impressed, and still show the direction of his march: they also teach us the important fact, that the feet of his tenebrious majesty are very like those of a large dog, and do not, as is generally supposed, resemble those of a horse.—From the Navorscher.

L. V. H.

In the chancel of Leyland Church, Lancashire, are four folio books chained to a window seat which makes a sloping desk for them: they are Foxe's Martyrs and Jewell's Apology, both in black-letter, title-pages torn, and much worn; and a Preservative against Popery, in 2 vols., dated 1738.

P. P.

A copy of the Bible was formerly affixed by a chain in Wimborne Minster, Dorset, but has been removed to a certain library.

The covers of a book are chained to a desk in the church of Kettering; the book itself is gone.

B. H. C.

In the parish church of Borden, near Sittingbourne, Kent, a copy of Comber on the Common Prayer is chained to a stand in the chancel.


Pedigree Indices (Vol. viii., p. 317.).—If CAPTAIN wishes to make a search for a pedigree in the libraries at Cambridge, he will learn from the MSS. Catalogue of 1697 in which of the libraries MS. volumes of heraldry and genealogy ought to be found; he should then apply, either through some master of arts, or with a proper letter of introduction in his hand, to the librarian for leave to search the volumes. He will find that generally every facility is afforded him which the safe keeping of historical evidences allows. He will do well to select term-time for the period of making a search; and before seeking admission to a college librarian, it will be found convenient to both parties for him to give a day's notice, by letter or card, to the librarian, who has often occupations and engagements that cannot always be got rid of at the call of a chance visitor.


There are not any published genealogical tables showing the various kindred of William of Wykeham or Sir Thomas White similar to those contained in the Stemmata Chicheliana. A few descents of kindred of Sir Thomas White may be seen in Ashmole's History of Berkshire, 3 vols. 8vo.


Portrait of Hobbes (Vol. viii. p 368.).—I have an etching (size about 6-1/2 in. by 8-1/2 in.) inscribed:

"Vera et Viva Effigies THOMAE HOBBES, Malmesburiensis."

and under this:

"I. Bapt. Caspar pinxit; W. Hollar fecit aqua forti, 1665."

It is a half-length portrait, and represents Hobbes uncovered, with his hands folded in his robe; and is without any arch or other ornament.

Did Caspar paint more than one portrait of Hobbes? Is this the one mentioned by Hollar, in his letter dated 1661, quoted by MR. SINGER.


Tenets or Tenents (Vol. vii., p.205.; Vol. viii., p. 330.).—Were there two editions of the Vulgar Errors published in the same year, 1646? For my copy, "printed by T. H. for Edward Dod, and {454} are to be sold in Ivie Lane, 1646," and which I have always supposed to be of the first edition, has "Tenents," very distinctly, on the title-page. On the fly-leaf, opposite to the title-page, is the approbation of John Downame, dated March 14, 1645, and commencing thus:

"I have perused these learned animadversions upon the common tenets and opinions of men," &c.

H. T. G.


Door-head Inscriptions (Vol. vii., pp. 23. 190. 588.; Vol. viii., pp. 38. 162.).—Over a house in Hexham, in the street called Gilligate, is the following inscription:

"C. D. 1683. J. D.

Reason doth wonder, but Faith he tell can, That a maid was a mother, and God was a man. Let Reason look down, and Faith see the wonder; For Faith sees above, and Reason sees under. Reason doth wonder what by Scripture is meant, Which says that Christ's body is our Sacrament: That our bread is His body, and our drink is His blood, Which cannot by Reason be well understood; For Faith sees above, and Reason below, For Faith can see more than Reason doth know."


The following is reported to have been inscribed by the Pope (1725) over the gate of the Apostolical Chancery:

"Fide Deo—dic saepe preces—peccare caveto— Sit humilis—pacem delige—magna fuge— Multa audi—dic pauca—tace secreta—minori Parcito—majori cedito—ferto parem. Propria fac—non differ opus—sis aequas egeno— Parta tuere—pati disce—memento mori."


Hour-glass Stand (Vol. vii., p. 489.; Vol. viii., pp. 82. 209. 328.).—There is an hour-glass stand attached to the right-hand side of the pulpit of Edingthorpe Church, Norfolk. The date of the pulpit is 1632.

I. L. S.

Bulstrode Whitlock and Whitelocke Bulstrode (Vol. viii., p. 293.).—Bulstrode Whitlock was the son of Sir James Whitlock, Kt., by Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Bulstrode, of Hedgley-Bulstrode, in the county of Buckingham; and Whitelocke Bulstrode was the son of Sir Richard, eldest son of the above-mentioned Edward Bulstrode. (See Lives of the Lords Chancellors, &c., by an Impartial Hand, vol. ii p. 1.; and Chalmers's Biographical Dictionary.)

[Greek: Halieus].


Movable Metal Types anno 1435 (Vol. vii., p. 405.).—Although I am not able to give any information concerning Sister Margarite, or the convent at Mur, I yet may observe, 1st, that the last three letters of the legend - - K can hardly refer to Laurens Janzroon Coster, for his name in 1435 was never spelt with K, but always with C; and, besides, if a proper name be here intended, it will certainly be that of the binder. 2ndly, that in the catalogue of the Haarlem City Library, from p. 77. to 112., mention is made of six works, which, though bearing no date, were, it is more than probable, printed with movable metal types before 1435. One of these, Aelii Donati Grammaticae Latinae Fragmenta duo, was printed before 1425, and the writer of the catalogue adds in his notes:

"Ipsos typos, quibus hae lamellae sunt excusae, fuisse mobiles, cum nonnullae literae inversae evidenter testantur, tum omnium expertissimorum typographorum reique typographicae peritissimorum arbitrum, qui has lacinias contemplati sunt, unanima et constans affirmavit sententia. Quin et fusos eos esse perhibuerunt plurimi, et in his Koningius, magno quamvis studio negaverat typorum ligneorum mobilium acerrimus propugnator Meermannus."

From the Navorscher. CONSTANTEE.

Oaken Tombs (Vol. vii., p. 528.; Vol. viii., p. 179.).—In the chancel of Brancepeth Church, co. Durham, are oaken effigies of a Lord and Lady Neville, of which the following is a description. The figure of the man is in a coat of mail, the hands elevated with gauntlets, wearing his casque, which rests on a bull's or buffalo's head, a collar round his neck studded with gems, and on the breast a shield with the arms of Neville. The female figure has a high crowned bonnet, and the mantle is drawn close over the feet, which rest on two dogs couchant. The tomb is ornamented with small figures of ecclesiastics at prayer, but is without inscription. Leland (Itin., i. 80.) says:

"In the paroche church of Saint Brandon, at Branspeth, be dyvers tumbes of the Nevilles. In the quire is a high tumbe, of one of them porturid with his wife. This Neville lakkid heires male, wherapoan great concertation rose betwixt the next heire male, and one the Gascoynes."


Stafford Knot (Vol. viii., p. 220.).—It was the badge or cognisance of the house of Stafford, Earls of Stafford.


Emberton, Bucks.

Hand in Bishop's Cannings Church (Vol. viii., p. 269.).—See an article on this "Manus Meditationis," with a copy of the inscription, in the Ecclesiologist, vol. v. p. 150.


Emberton, Bucks.

Arms of Richard, King of the Romans (Vol. viii, p.265.).—I think it might be proved that the border refers not to Poitou (which is represented {455} by the crowned lion), but to Cornwall, the ancient feudal arms of which are Sable, fifteen bezants, referring, as it would seem, to its metallic treasures. See an article on the numerous arms derived from those of this Richard, in the appendix to Mr. Lower's Curiosities of Heraldry.


Emberton, Bucks.

Burial in an erect Position (Vol. viii., pp. 59. 233.).—So Ben Jonson was buried at Westminster, probably on account of the large fee demanded for a full-sized grave. It was long supposed by many that the story was invented to account for the smallness of the gravestone; but the grave being opened a few years ago, the dramatist's remains were discovered in the attitude indicated by tradition.


Emberton, Bucks.

In the Ingoldsby Legends, vol. i. p. 106., we have:

"No!—Tray's humble tomb would look but shabby 'Mid the sculptured shrines of that gorgeous Abbey. Besides, in the place They say there's not space To bury what wet-nurses call 'a Babby.' Even 'rare Ben Jonson,' that famous wight, I am told, is interr'd there bolt upright, In just such a posture, beneath his bust, As Tray used to sit in to beg for a crust."

Is there any authority for the statement?


Wooden Effigies (Vol. viii., p. 255.).—These are by no means uncommon, though it is to be feared that many have perished within comparatively recent times. In the church of Clifton Reynes, Bucks, there are wooden effigies of two knights of the Reynes family with their wives.


Emberton, Bucks.

Wedding Divination (Vol. vii., p. 545.).—The following mediaeval superstition may be quoted as a pretty exact parallel of the wedding divination alluded to by OXONIENSIS. It is from Wright's selection of Latin stories of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, Harl. MS. 463.:—

"Vidi in quibusdam partibus, quando mulieres nubebant, et de ecclesia redibant, in ingressu domus in faciem corum frumentum projiciebant, clamantes: 'Abundantia! Abundantia!' quod Gallice dicitur plente, plente; et tamen plerumque, antequam annus transiret, pauperes mendici remanebant et abundantia omni bonorum carebant."

H. C. K.

—— Rectory, Hereford.

Old Fogie (Vol. viii., p. 154.).—If it will throw any additional light on the controversy as to "fogie," I may add that for a long period of years I have heard it applied only to the discharged invalided pensioners of the army. On a late Queen's birthday review on the Green, the boys and girls were in ecstasies at seeing the "old fogies" dressed out in new suits. It is very often spoken derisively to a thick-headed stupid person, but which cannot determine accurately its primary signification.

G. N.

* * * * *


Notes on Books, Etc.

The noble President of the Society of Antiquaries is fast bringing to completion the cheaper and revised edition of his History of England from the Peace of Utrecht to the Peace of Versailles, 1713-1783. The sixth volume, which is now before us, embraces the eventful six years 1774-1780, which saw the commencement of the great struggle with America, which ended in the independence of the United States. In this, as in his preceding volumes, the new materials which Lord Mahon has been so fortunate as to collect from the family papers of the representatives of the political leaders of the period, and which he has inserted in his appendix, contribute very materially to the value and importance of his history.

Cheshire; its Historical and Literary Associations, illustrated in a series of Biographical Sketches; and The Cheshire and Lancashire Historical Collector, a small 8vo. sheet originally issued every month, but now every fortnight, in consequence of increase of materials, and the great encouragement which the undertaking has received, are two contributions towards Cheshire topography, local history, bibliography, &c., for which the good men of the Palatinate are indebted to the zeal of Mr. T. Worthington Barlow, of the Society of Gray's Inn.

It is always a subject of gratification to us when we see cheap yet handsome reprints of our standard authors; for no better proof can be given of the increase among us not only of a reading public, but of a public who are disposed to read well. It is therefore with no small pleasure that we have received from Mr. Routledge copies of his five shilling edition of The Canterbury Tales, by Geoffrey Chaucer, from the Text, and with the Notes and Glossary of Thomas Tyrwhitt, condensed and arranged under the Text. It is obvious that considerable labour has been taken by the editor in its preparation, for he has not contented himself with merely transferring the contents of Tyrwhitt's Notes and Glossary to their proper places beneath the text; but has availed himself of the labours of Messrs. Craik, Saunders, Sir H. Nicolas, and our able correspondent A. E. B., to give completeness to what is a very useful edition of old Dan Chaucer's masterpiece. We have to thank the same publisher for a corresponding edition of Spenser's Faerie Queene; so that no lover of those two glorious old poets need any longer want a cheap and compact edition of them.

BOOKS RECEIVED.—History of the Guillotine, revised from the Quarterly Review, by the Right Hon. J. W. Croker, which forms the new part of Murray's Railway {456} Reading, is not only valuable as a precis of all that is known upon this very obscure subject, but for all its illustration of the difficulty of arriving at historical truth.—A Love Story; being the History of the Courtship and Marriage of Dr. Dove of Doncaster, that delightful episode in Southey's most delightful book, The Doctor, forms Part L. of Longman's Traveller's Library.—The First Italian Book appears a very successful attempt on the part of Signor Pifferi and Mr. Dawson W. Turner to furnish a companion to the First French Book of that accomplished scholar, the late Rev. T. K. Arnold.

* * * * *





EXAMINER (Newspaper), No. 2297, February 7, 1853.

WILLIAM SHAKSPEARE: A Biography, by Charles Knight (First Edition).

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TWO DIALOGUES IN THE ELYSIAN FIELDS, BETWEEN CARD. WOLSEY AND CARD. XIMENES. To which are added Historical Accounts of Wolsey's two Colleges and the Town of Ipswich. By Joseph Grove. London, 1761. 8vo.

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KANT'S LOGIC, translated by John Richardson.

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SONGS—"The Boatmen shout." Attwood. "Ah! godan lor felicita" (Faust). Spohr.

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The above two Ballads are by Edmund Gayton.

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JONES'S CLASSICAL LIBRARY (the 8vo. Edition). The Volume containing Herodotus, Vol. I.


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Notices to Correspondents.

Owing to the length of PROFESSOR DE MORGAN'S very interesting article and the number of our Advertisements, we have enlarged our present Number to Thirty-two pages.

BOOKS WANTED. So many of our Correspondents seem disposed to avail themselves of our plan of placing the booksellers in direct communication with them, that we find ourselves compelled to limit each list of books to two insertions. We would also express a hope that those gentlemen who may at once succeed in obtaining any desired volumes will be good enough to notify the same to us, in order that such books may not unnecessarily appear in such list even a second time.

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X. Y. Z. We have no doubt the early numbers of The Press may be procured on application to the publisher of that paper.

F. M. The passage in King John,

"My face so thin That in my ear I dare not stick a rose, Lest men should say, See where threefarthings goes!"

contains an allusion to the very thin silver threefarthing pieces, coined by Elizabeth, which bore a rose. In Boswell's Shakspeare (ed. 1821), vol. XV. p. 209., will be found nearly two pages of illustrative notes.

A CONSTANT READER is informed that the line

"Men are but children of a larger growth"

is from Dryden's All for Love.

J. L. (Islington). DR. DIAMOND informs us that he procured his naphtha from Messrs. Simpson and Maule, of Kennington, but he would not advise the use of varnish so made. It is apt to dry up in round spots, and which sometimes print from the negative. He also adds, that one ounce of the collodio-amber varnish as recommended by him will, with care, from its great fluidity and ready-flowing qualities, effectually varnish upwards of thirty glass negatives of the quarter plate size: thus the real expense is very inconsiderable.

F. S. A. Photography is perfectly applicable to the copying of MSS. or printed leaves, either smaller, of the same size, or larger than the original, the only requisite beyond a good lens being a camera of sufficient length for a long focus. A plain surface exposed in front of a lens requires a range behind it of the same distance to produce an equal size copy; a magnified image being produced by a nearer approach to the lens, and a smaller the farther the object is distant. Prints are often copied by mere contact, without the use of any lens whatever. As a brother F. S. A., DR. DIAMOND will be happy to give you some personal instructions as to your requirements.

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* * * * *


LIBRARIAN.—Wanted a Gentleman of Literary Attainments, competent to undertake the duties of Librarian in the Leeds Library. The Institution consists of about 500 Proprietary Members, and an Assistant Librarian is employed. The hours of attendance required will be from 10 A.M. to 8 P.M. daily, with an interval of two hours. Salary 120l. a year. Applications, with Certificates of Qualifications, must be sent by letter, post paid, not later than 1st December next, to ABRAHAM HORSFALL, ESQ., Hon. Sec., 9. Park Row, Leeds.

* * * * *

XYLO-IODIDE OF SILVER, exclusively used at all the Photographic Establishments.—The superiority of this preparation is now universally acknowledged. Testimonials from the best Photographers and principal scientific men of the day, warrant the assertion, that hitherto no preparation has been discovered which produces uniformly such perfect pictures, combined with the greatest rapidity of action. In all cases where a quantity is required, the two solutions may be had at Wholesale price in separate Bottles, in which state it may be kept for years, and Exported to any Climate. Full instructions for use.

CAUTION.—Each Bottle is Stamped with a Red Label bearing my name, RICHARD W. THOMAS, Chemist, 10. Pall Mall, to counterfeit which is felony.

CYANOGEN SOAP: for removing all kinds of Photographic Stains. Beware purchasing spurious and worthless imitations of this valuable detergent. The Genuine is made only by the Inventor, and is secured with a Red Label bearing this Signature and Address, RICHARD W. THOMAS, CHEMIST, 10. PALL MALL, Manufacturer of Pure Photographic Chemicals; and may be procured of all respectable Chemists, in Pots at 1s., 2s., and 3s. 6d. each, through MESSRS. EDWARDS, 67. St. Paul's Churchyard; and MESSRS. BARCLAY & CO., 95. Farringdon Street, Wholesale Agents.

* * * * *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.—A Selection of the above beautiful Productions (comprising Views in VENICE, PARIS, RUSSIA, NUBIA, &c.) may be seen at BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be procured Apparatus of every Description, and pure Chemicals for the practice of Photography in all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

*** Catalogues may be had on application.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street.

* * * * *

PHOTOGRAPHY.—HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this beautiful Art.—123. and 121. Newgate Street.

* * * * *

PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERAS.—OTTEWILL'S REGISTERED DOUBLE-BODIED FOLDING CAMERA, is superior to every other form of Camera, for the Photographic Tourist, from its capability of Elongation or Contraction to any Focal Adjustment, its Portability, and its adaptation for taking either Views or Portraits.—The Trade supplied.

Every Description of Camera, or Slides, Tripod Stands, Printing Frames, &c., may be obtained at his MANUFACTORY, Charlotte Terrace, Barnsbury Road, Islington.

New Inventions, Models, &c., made to order or from Drawings.

* * * * *

IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.—J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand. have, by an improved mode of Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion equal, they may say superior, in sensitiveness and density of Negative, to any other hitherto published; without diminishing the keeping properties and appreciation of half tint for which their manufacture has been esteemed.

Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of Photography. Instruction in the Art.

* * * * *

PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION.—An EXHIBITION of PICTURES, by the most celebrated French, Italian, and English Photographers, embracing Views of the principal Countries and Cities of Europe, is now OPEN. Admission 6d. A Portrait taken by MR. TALBOT'S Patent Process, One Guinea; Three extra Copies for 10s.


* * * * *



HAMILTON'S DICTIONARY OF 3500 MUSICAL TERMS. Forty-second Edition. 1s.


"These works are all favorites with professors, because they are favourites with the pupils. Few know how to write a book of instruction; but Hamilton did, because he knew thoroughly well how to teach. The extreme popularity of these works (as may be noticed from the number of editions they have passed through) has called forth many imitations; but everybody will like the original, or prototype, rather than the copy. The Dictionary is famous as the most copious and correct extant; and the little catechism is as clever as it is unpretentious."—Vide Reading Mercury, Oct. 22.

ROBERT COCKS & CO., New Burlington Street, London.

* * * * *

Library of an eminent Scholar.—Six Days' Sale.

PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, Auctioneers of Literary Property, will SELL by AUCTION, at their Great Room, 191. Piccadilly, on Monday, November 14th, and Five following Days, a Large Collection of valuable Books, the Library of an eminent Scholar deceased, consisting of Historical and Critical Works in various Languages, Classics, Scientific Works, Books of Prints, &c. The whole in choice condition. Catalogues will be sent on application (if in the country on receipt of Six Stamps).

* * * * *

TO COLLECTORS OF AUTOGRAPHS AND MSS.—The following Documents are Missing, viz. Some Family Papers relative to the Second Marriage of the Duke of Somerset in 1725; other Letters on the Death of the Duke's Grandson; Autograph Notes of George III. to Charles, Earl of Egremont, in 1762 and 1763; a Letter of Charles II.; a Particular of the Duchess of Somerset's Debts, 1692; Commencement of a Letter of Lord Nelson; a Letter of Lord Lyttleton, with Complimentary Verses, dated Jan. 1, 1761, &c. Any information relating to the preceding will be thankfully received, and a liberal reward paid on restoration of the papers.

Apply to MESSRS. PUTTICK & SIMPSON. Auctioneers of Literary Property, 191. Piccadilly.

* * * * *

DAGUERREOTYPE MATERIALS.—Plates, Cases, Passepartoutes, Best and Cheapest. To be had in great variety at

McMILLAN'S Wholesale Depot, 132. Fleet Street.

Price List Gratis.

* * * * *




Founded A.D. 1842.

* * * * *


H. E. Bicknell, Esq. T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M. P. G. H. Drew, Esq. W. Evans, Esq. W. Freeman, Esq. F. Fuller, Esq. J. H. Goodhart, Esq. T. Grissell, Esq. J. Hunt, Esq. J. A. Lethbridge, Esq. E. Lucas, Esq. J. Lys Seager, Esq. J. B. White, Esq. J. Carter Wood, Esq.

Trustees.—W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq., T. Grissell, Esq. Physician.—William Rich. Basham, M.D. Bankers.—Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in three-fourths of the Profits:—

Age L s. d. 17 1 14 4 22 1 18 8 27 2 4 5 32 2 10 8 37 2 18 6 42 3 8 2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions. INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a TREATISE ON BENEFIT BUILDING SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3. Parliament Street, London.

* * * * *

Solicitors' & General Life Assurance Society,


Subscribed Capital, ONE MILLION.


The Security of a Subscribed Capital of ONE MILLION.

Exemption of the Assured from All Liability.

Premiums affording particular advantages to Young Lives.

Participating and Non-Participating Premiums.

In the former EIGHTY PER CENT. or FOUR-FIFTHS of the Profits are divided amongst the Assured Triennially, either by way of addition to the sum assured, or in diminution of Premium, at their option.

No deduction is made from the four-fifths of the profits for Interest on Capital, for Guarantee Fund, or on any other account.

POLICIES FREE OF STAMP DUTY and INDISPUTABLE, except in case of fraud.

At the General Meeting, on the 31st May last, A BONUS was declared of nearly TWO PER CENT. per annum on the amount assured, or at the rate of from THIRTY to upwards of SIXTY per cent. on the Premiums paid.

POLICIES share in the Profits, even if ONE PREMIUM ONLY has been paid.


The Directors meet on Thursdays at 2 o'Clock. Assurances may be effected by applying on any other day, between the hours of 10 and 4, at the Office of the Society, where prospectuses and all other requisite information can be obtained.


* * * * *

ACHILLES LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY,—25. CANNON STREET, CITY.—The Advantages offered by this Society are Security, Economy, and lower Rates of Premium than most other Offices.

No charge is made for Policy Stamps or Medical Fees. Policies indisputable.

Loans granted to Policy-holders.

For the convenience of the Working Classes, Policies are issued as low as 20l., at the same Rates of Premium as larger Policies.

Prospectuses and full particulars may be obtained on application to

HUGH B. TAPLIN, Secretary.

* * * * *


7. St. Martin's Place, Trafalgar Square, London.

PARTIES desirous of INVESTING MONEY are requested to examine the Plan of this Institution, by which a high rate of Interest may be obtained with perfect Security.

Interest payable in January and July.

PETER MORRISON, Managing Director.

Prospectuses free on application.

* * * * *

ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price, and Description of upwards of 100 articles, consisting of

PORTMANTEAUS, TRAVELLING-BAGS, Ladies' Portmanteaus, DESPATCH-BOXES, WRITING-DESKS, DRESSING-CASES, and other traveling requisites. Gratis on application, or sent free by Post on receipt of Two Stamps.

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch-box and Writing-desk, their Travelling-bag with the opening as large as the bag, and the new Portmanteau containing four compartments, are undoubtedly the best articles of the kind ever produced.

J. W. & T. ALLEN, 18. & 22. West Strand.

* * * * *

W. H. HART, RECORD AGENT and LEGAL ANTIQUARIAN (who is in the possession of Indices to many of the early Public Records whereby his Inquiries are greatly facilitated) begs to inform Authors and Gentlemen engaged in Antiquarian or Literary Pursuits, that he is prepared to undertake searches among the Public Records, MSS. in the British Museum, Ancient Wills, or other Depositories of a similar Nature, in any Branch of Literature, History, Topography, Genealogy, or the like, and in which he has had considerable experience.


* * * * *

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION. No. 1. Class X., in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates, may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made Patent Levers. 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases. 8, 6, and 4 guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every watch skilfully examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers. 2l., 3l., and 4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen.


* * * * *


* * * * *

THE REVALENTA ARABICA FOOD, the only natural, pleasant, and effectual remedy (without medicine, purging, inconvenience, or expense, as it saves fifty times its cost in other remedies) for nervous, stomachic, intestinal, liver and bilious complaints, however deeply rooted, dyspepsia (indigestion), habitual constipation, diarrhoea, acidity, heartburn, flatulency, oppression, distension, palpitation, eruption of the skin, rheumatism, gout, dropsy, sickness at the stomach during pregnancy, at sea, and under all other circumstances, debility in the aged as well as infants, fits, spasms, cramps, paralysis, &c.

A few out of 50,000 Cures:—

Cure, No. 71, of dyspepsia; from the Right Hon. the Lord Stuart de Decies:—"I have derived considerable benefits from your Revalenta Arabica Food, and consider it due to yourselves and the public to authorise the publication of these lines.—STUART DE DECIES."

Cure, No. 49,832:—"Fifty years' indescribable agony from dyspepsia, nervousness, asthma, cough, constipation, flatulency, spasms, sickness at the stomach, and vomitings have been removed by Du Barry's excellent food.—MARIA JOLLY, Wortham Ling, near Diss, Norfolk."

Cure, No. 180:—"Twenty-five years' nervousness, constipation, indigestion, and debility, from which I had suffered great misery, and which no medicine could remove or relieve, have been effectually cured by Du Barry's food in a very short time.—W. R. REEVES, Pool Anthony, Tiverton."

Cure, No. 4,208:—"Eight years' dyspepsia, nervousness, debility, with cramps, spasms, and nausea, for which my servant had consulted the advice of many, have been effectually removed by Du Barry's delicious food in a very short time. I shall be happy to answer any inquiries.—REV. JOHN W. FLAVELL, Ridlington Rectory, Norfolk."

Dr. Wurzer's Testimonial.

"Bonn, July 19. 1852.

"This light and pleasant Farina is one of the most excellent, nourishing, and restorative remedies, and supersedes, in many cases, all kinds of medicines. It is particularly useful in confined habit of body, as also diarrhoea, bowel complaints, affections of the kidneys and bladder, such as stone or gravel; inflammatory irritation and cramp of the urethra, cramp of the kidneys and bladder, strictures, and hemorrhoids. This really invaluable remedy is employed with the most satisfactory result, not only in bronchial and pulmonary complaints, where irritation and pain are to be removed, but also in pulmonary and bronchial consumption, in which it counteracts effectually the troublesome cough; and I am enabled with perfect truth to express the conviction that Du Barry's Revalenta Arabica is adapted to the cure of incipient hectic complaints and consumption.

"DR. RUD WURZER. "Counsel of Medicine, and practical M.D. in Bonn."

London Agents:—Fortnum, Mason & Co., 182. Piccadilly, purveyors to Her Majesty the Queen; Hedges & Butler, 155. Regent Street; and through all respectable grocers, chemists, and medicine venders. In canisters, suitably packed for all climates, and with full instructions, 1lb. 2s. 9d.; 2lb. 4s. 6d.; 5lb. 11s.; 12lb. 22s.; super-refined, 5lb. 22s.; 10lb. 33s. The 10lb. and 12lb. carriage free, on receipt of Post-office order.—Barry, Du Barry Co., 77. Regent Street, London.

IMPORTANT CAUTION.—Many invalids having been seriously injured by spurious imitations under closely similar names, such as Ervalenta, Arabaca, and others, the public will do well to see that each canister bears the name BARRY, DU BARRY & CO., 77. Regent Street, London, in full, without which none is genuine.

* * * * *






* * * * *

Just completed, in 2 vols. 4to. With Prolegomena and Indexes. Published in Germany at 33-1/3 Thalers or 5l., offered for 3l. 12s.

SUIDAE LEXICON. GRAECE ET LATINE. Post GAISFORDIUM recensuit et annotatione critica instruxit GODOFREDUS BERNHARDY. Complete with a New Prolegomena and Indexes just published.

Having purchased a number of Copies of the above Work, we are enabled to offer them so long as the present stock lasts, for ready money at 3l. 12s. stitched, or strongly half bound in morocco or russia, for 4l. 4s.

Just completed, 2 stout vols. and Index volume.

NOTITIA DIGNITATVM ET ADMINISTRATIONVM Omnivm tam Civilivm qvam Militarivm in partibvs Orientis et Occidentis. Recensvit Commentariis indiceqve illvstravit EDVARDVS BOCKING. Vol. I., 540 pages, and 47 engravings; Vol. II. 1210 pages, and 45 engravings; Index, 194 pages.

This Work, just published at 10-2/3 Thalers or 1l. 12s. in Germany, we offer—as long as our present stock shall last—for 24s. only.

Just published, 2 vols. 8vo., price 24s.

GRAMMATICA CELTICA. E Monumentis Vetustis tam Hibernicae Linguae quam Britannicae dialecti Cambricae, Cornicae, Armoricae, nec non e Gallicae priscae reliquiis. Construxit T. C. ZEUSS. 2 vols. 8vo. 24s.

Just published in One Volume, 806 pages, royal 8vo., price 12s.

LEXICON ETYMOLOGICUM LINGUARUM ROMANARUM, ITALICAE, HISPANICAE, GALLICAE. Etymologisches Woerterbuch der Romanischen Sprachen, von FRIED. DIEZ. 806 pages, royal 8vo. 12s.

DUCANGE. Glossarium Mediae et infimae Latinitatis, c. Suppl. D. Carpentieri et additamentis Adelungii et aliorum, digessit O. Henschel. 7 vols. 4to. Paris, 1844-52. (Pub. at 14l. 14s.) 10l.

HUTTEN (Ulr. v.) Opera quae extant omnia.—Des deutschen Ritters Ulrich von Hutten saemmtliche Werke mit Einleitung, Anmerkungen, &c. herausg. v. E. Muench. 5 vols. 8vo. 1821-25. (Pub. at 3l.) 18s.

—— Vol. VI. Epistolae obscurorum Virorum. 8vo. (Pub. at 12s.) 5s.

BARTSCH. LE PEINTRE-GRAVEUR. Complete. 21 volumes 8vo. Vienne, 1803-21. Fine paper, uncut. For 7l. cash.

***This celebrated Work has long been out of print, and copies fetch at sales from 12l. to 18l. A few copies only remain at the above price.

NIEBUR'S LECTURES ON THE FRENCH REVOLUTION.—Geschichte des Zeitalters der Revolution. 2 vols. 8vo. Published at 16s. Offered for 6s.; or cloth, 7s.

CHARLES V. CORRESPONDENCE. 1513-1556, edited from the originals in the Archives Royales and the Bibliotheque de Bourgogne at Bruxelles, by DR. K. LANZ. One thousand and nine original letters, 1513-1556. 3 vols. 8vo. Leipzig, 1844-46. (Published at 48s.) 18s.

GOETHE'S CORRESPONDENCE WITH A CHILD; together with THE DIARY OF A CHILD, by BETTINA v. ARNIM, translated into English by herself. 3 vols. 8vo. Plates. 1833. (Published at 24s.) 6s. 6d.


DE ECCLESIASTICAE BRITONUM SCOTORUMQUE HISTORIAE, fontibus disseruit Carol. Guil. Schoell (Assistant Preacher, German Church, Savoy). Royal 8vo. 3s.


Just published, 8vo., cloth boards, price 8s.

CSINK'S COMPLETE PRACTICAL GRAMMAR OF THE HUNGARIAN LANGUAGE, with EXERCISES, SELECTIONS from the best Authors, and VOCABULARIES; to which is added a HISTORICAL SKETCH OF HUNGARIAN LITERATURE. A stout 8vo. volume of about 500 pages, beautifully printed.

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