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Notes and Queries, Number 180, April 9, 1853
Author: Various
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Bishop Gobat was born in 1799, at Cremine, in the perish of Grandval, in Switzerland. His name is not to be found in the list of graduates of either Oxford or Cambridge. His degree of D. D. was probably bestowed on him by the Archbishop of Canterbury.

TYRO.

Dublin.

Etymology of Fuss (Vol. vii., p. 180.).—

"FUSS, n. s., a low, cant word, Dr. Johnson says. It is, however, a regularly-descended northern word: Sax. >fus<, prompt, eager; Su. Goth. and Cimbr. f u s, the same; hence the Sax. >fysan<, to hasten, and the Su. Goth. f y s a, the same."—Todd's Johnson.

Richardson gives the same etymology, referring to Somner. Webster says, "allied, perhaps, to Gr. physao, to blow or puff."

ZEUS.

A reference to the word in Todd's Johnson's Dictionary will show, and I think satisfactorily, that its origin is fus (Anglo-Saxon), prompt or eager; hence fysan, to hasten. The quotation given is from Swift.

C. I. R.

Palindromical Lines (Vol. vii., p. 178.).—The sotadic inscription,

"NIPSON ANOMEMA ME MONAN OPSIN,"

is stated (Gentleman's Magazine, vol. xl. p. 617.) to be on a font at Sandbach in Cheshire, and (Gentleman's Magazine, vol. lxiii. p. 441.) to be on the font at Dulwich in Surrey, and also on the font at Harlow in Essex.

ZEUS.

Nugget (Vol. vi., pp. 171. 281.; Vol. vii., pp. 143. 272.).—FURVUS is persuaded that the word nugget is of home growth, and has sprung from a root existing under various forms throughout the dialects at present in use. The radical appears to be snag, knag, or nag (Knoge, Cordylus, cf. Knuckle), a protuberance, knot, lump; being a term chiefly applied to knots in trees, rough pieces of wood, &c., and in its derivatives strongly expressive of (so to speak) misshapen lumpiness.

Every one resident in the midland counties must be acquainted with the word nog, applied to the wooden ball used in the game of "shinney," the corresponding term of which, nacket, holds in parts of Scotland, where also a short, corpulent person is called a nuget.

So, in Essex, nig signifies a piece; a snag is a well-known word across the Atlantic; nogs are ninepins in the north of England; a noggin of bread is equivalent to a hunch in the midland counties; and in the neighbourhood of the Parret and Exe the word becomes nug, bearing (besides its usual acceptation) the meaning of knot, lump.

This supposed derivation is by no means weakened by the fact, that miners and others have gone to the "diggins" from parts at no great distance from the last-mentioned district; and we may therefore, although the radical is pretty generally diffused over the kingdom, attribute its better known application to them.

It is no objection that the word, in many of its forms, is used of rough pieces of wood, as instances show that it merely refers to a rudis indigestaque moles characteristic of any article in question.

FURVUS.

St. James's.

Hibernis ipsis Hiberniores (Vol. vii., p. 260.).—This, which is no doubt the proper form, will be found in Southey's Naval History of England, vol. iv. p. 104., applied to "those of old English race who, having adopted the manners of the land, had become more Irish than the Irishry." The expression originally was applied to these persons in some proclamation or act of parliament, which I think is quoted in the History of England in Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia: but that work has so bad an index as to make it very difficult to find any passage one may want. Probably Southey would mention the source whence he had it, in his collections for his Naval History in his Commonplace Book.

E. G. R.

The Passame Sares (mel. Passamezzo) Galliard (Vol. vi., pp. 311. 446.; Vol. vii., p. 216.).—Will you allow me to correct a mistake into which both the correspondents who have kindly answered my questions respecting this galliard seem to have fallen, perhaps misled by an ambiguity in my expression?

My inquiry was not intended to refer to galliards in general, the tunes of which, I am well aware, must have been very various, but to this one galliard in particular; and was made with the view of ascertaining whether the air is ever played at the present day during the representation of the Second Part of King Henry IV.

C. FORBES.

Temple.

Swedish Words current in England (Vol. ii., p. 231.).—I beg to inform your correspondent that the following words, which occur in his list, are pure Anglo-Saxon, bearing almost the same meaning {367} which he has attributed to them:—wyrm; by, bya, to inhabit, becc; dioful; dobl, equivalent to doalig: goepung, a heap; lacan; loppe; nebb; smiting, contagion; staeth, a fixed basis.

Eldon is Icelandic, from elldr, fire: hence we have "At sla elld ur tinnu," to strike fire from flint; which approaches very near to a tinder-box. Ling, Icel., the heath or heather plant: ljung I take to be the same word. Gat, Icel. for way or opening; hence strand-gata, the opening of the strand or creek. Tjarn, tiorn, Icel., well exemplified in Malham Tarn in Craven.

C. I. R.

Gotch (Vol. vi., p. 400.).—The gotch cup, described by W. R., must have been known in England before the coming of the present royal family, as it is given in Bailey's Dictionary (1730) as a south country word: it is not likely to have become provincial in so short a time, nor its origin, if German, to have escaped the notice of old Philologos. The A.-S. verb geotan seems to have had the sense of to cast metals, as giessen has in German. In Bosworth's Anglo-Saxon Dictionary is leadgota, a plumber. In modern Dutch this is lootgieter. Thus, from geotan is derived ingot (Germ. einguss), as well as the following words in Halliwell's Dictionary: yete, to cast metals (Pr. Parv.), belleyetere and bellyatere, a bell-founder (Pr. Parv.); geat, the hole through which melted metal runs into a mould; and yote, to pour in. Grose has yoted, watered, a west country word.

E. G. R.

Passage in Thomson: "Steaming" (Vol. vii., pp. 87. 248.).—This word, and not streaming, is clearly the true reading (as is remarked by the former correspondents), and is so printed in the editions to which I am able to refer. The object of my Note is to point out a parallel passage in Milton, and to suggest that steaming would there also be the proper reading:

"Ye mists and exhalations, that now rise, From hill or streaming lake, dusky or gray, Till the sun paint your fleecy skirts with gold, In honour to the world's great Author, rise." Paradise Lost, Book v.

CUTHBERT BEDE, B.A.

[The reading is steaming in the 1st edition of Paradise Lost, 1667.—ED.]

The Word "Party" (Vol. vii., pp. 177. 247.).—The use of this word for a particular person is earlier than Shakspeare's time. It no doubt occurs in most of our earliest writers; for it is to be found in Herbert's Life of Henry VIII., in his translation of the "Centum Gravamina" presented to Pope Adrian in 1521, the 55th running thus:

"That, if one of the marryed couple take a journey either to the warres, or to perform a vow, to a farre countrey, they permit the party remaining at home, if the other stay long away, upon a summe of money payd, to cohabite with another, not examining sufficiently whether the absent party were dead."

It may also be found in Exodus xxii. 9., where, though it occurs in the plural, it refers to two individuals:

"For all manner of trespass, whether it be for ox, for ass, for sheep, for raiment, or for any manner of lost thing, which another challengeth to be his, the cause of both parties shall come before the judges; and whom the judges shall condemn, he shall pay double unto his neighbour."

H. T. ELLACOMBE.

Clyst St. George.

Curious Fact in Natural Philosophy (Vol. vii., p. 206.).—In reply to ELGINENSIS I send you a quotation from Dr. Golding Bird's Natural Philosophy in explanation of this well-known phenomenon:

"One very remarkable phenomenon connected with the escape of a current of air under considerable pressure, must not be passed over silently. M. Clement Desormes (Ann. de Phys. et Chim., xxxvi. p. 69.) has observed, that when an opening, about an inch in diameter, is made in the side of a reservoir of compressed air, the latter rushes out violently; and if a plate of metal or wood, seven inches in diameter, be pressed towards the opening, it will, after the first repulsive action of the current of air is overcome, be apparently attracted, rapidly oscillating within a short distance of the opening, out of which the air continues to emit with considerable force. This curious circumstance is explained on the supposition, that the current of air, on escaping through the opening, expands itself into a thin disc, to escape between the plate of wood or metal, and side of the reservoir; and on reaching the circumference of the plate, draws after it a current of atmospheric air from the opposite side.... The plate thus balanced between these currents remains near the aperture, and apparently attracted by the current of air to which it is opposed."

Dr. G. B. then describes the experiment quoted by ELGINENSIS as "a similar phenomenon, and apparently explicable on similar principles." (Bird's Nat. Phil., p. 118.)

COKELY.

Lowbell (Vol. vii., p. 272.).—I may add to the explanation of this word given by M. H., that low, derived from the Saxon loeg, is still commonly used in Scotland for a flame; hence the derivation of lowbell, for a mode of birdcatching by night, by which the birds, being awakened by the bell, are lured by the light into nets held by the fowlers. In the ballad of St. George for England, we have the following lines:

"As timorous larks amazed are With light and with a lowbell."

The term lowbelling may therefore, from the noise, be fitly applied to the rustic charivari described by H. T. W. (Vol. vii., p. 181.) as practised in Northamptonshire.

J. S. C.

{368} Life and Correspondence of S. T. Coleridge (Vol. vii., p. 282.).—There can be but one opinion and feeling as to the want which exists for a really good biography of this intellectual giant; but there will be many dissentients as to the proposed biographer, whose life of Hartley Coleridge cannot be regarded as a happy example of this class of composition. A life from the pen of Judge Coleridge, the friend of Arnold and Whateley, is, we think, far more to be desired.

Theta.

Coniger, &c. (Vol. vii., pp. 182. 241.).—At one extremity, the picturesque range of hills which forms the noble background of Dunster Castle, co. Somerset, is terminated by a striking conical eminence, well-wooded, and surmounted by an embattled tower, erected as an object from the castle windows. This eminence bears the name of The Coniger, and is now a pheasant preserve. Mr. Hamper, in an excellent notice of Dunster and its antiquities, in the Gentleman's Magazine, October, 1808, p. 873., says:

"The Conygre, or rabbit-ground, was a common appendage to manor-houses."

Savage, however, in his History of the Hundred of Carhampton, p. 440., is of opinion that

"Coneygar seems to be derived from the Anglo-Saxon Cyning, King; and the Moeso-Gothic Garas, the same as the Latin Domus, a house, that is, the king's house or residence. Mr. Hamper has some notion that Conygre means a rabbit-ground, &c., but Mr. H. does not go high enough for his etymology; besides, how does it appear that a rabbit-ground was at any time an appendage to manor-houses? There is no authority for the assertion."

I give you this criticism on Mr. Hamper valeat quantum, but am disposed to think he is right. At all events there are no vestiges of any building on the Coniger except the tower aforesaid, which was erected by the present Mr. Luttrell's grandfather.

BALLIOLENSIS.

In the Irish language, Cuinicear, pronounced "Keenekar," is a rabbit-warren. Cuinin is the diminutive of cu, a dog of any sort; and from the Celtic cu, the Greeks took their word kyon, a dog. I am of opinion that the origin of rabbit is in the Celtic word rap, i. e. a creature that digs and burrows in the ground.

FRAS. CROSSLEY.

Cupid crying (Vol. i., p. 172.).—I had no means (for reasons I need not now specify) of referring to my 1st Vol. of "N. & Q." until yesterday, for the pretty epigram given in an English dress by RUFUS and as the writer in the Athenaeum, whose communication you quote on the same subject (Vol. i., p. 308.), observes "that the translator has taken some liberties with his text," I make no apology for sending you a much closer rendering, which hits off with great happiness the point and quaintness of the original, by a septuagenarian, whose lucubrations have already been immortalised in "N. & Q."

"DE CUPIDINE.

Cur natum caedit Venus? arcum perdidit, arcum Nunc quis habet? Tusco Flavia nata solo: Qui factum? petit haec, dedit hic, nam lumine formae Deceptus, matri se dari crediderat."

"CUPID CRYING.

Wherefore does Venus beat her boy? He has mislaid or lost his bow:— And who retains the missing toy? Th' Etrurian Flavia. How so? She ask'd: he gave it; for the child, Not e'en suspecting any other, By beauty's dazzling light beguil'd, Thought he had given it to his mother."

F. T. J. B.

Westminster Assembly of Divines (Vol. vii., p. 260.).—Dr. Lightfoot's interesting and valuable "Journal of the Assembly of Divines," from January 1, 1643, to December 31, 1644, will be found in the last volume of the edition of his Works, edited by Pitman, and published at London, 1825, in 13 vols. 8vo. I believe a few copies of the 13th volume were printed to be sold separately.

The MS. Journal in three thick folio volumes, preserved in Dr. Williams's library, Redcross Street, London, is attributed to Dr. Thomas Goodwin.

A MS. Journal, by Geo. Gillespie, from Feb. 2, 1644, to Oct. 25, 1644, in 2 vols., is in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh.

The Rev. W. M. Hetherington published a tolerably impartial History of the Westminster Assembly, Edinburgh, 1843, 12mo.

The most important work, as throwing light upon the proceedings of the Assembly, is the Letters and Journals of Robert Baillie. The only complete edition of these interesting documents is that edited by David Laing, Esq., and published in 3 vols. royal 8vo., 1841-2.

JOHN I. DREDGE.

MR. STANSBURY will find the "Journal of the Assembly of Divines," by Lightfoot, in the new edition of his Works, vol. xiii. pp. 5. et seq. Some further light is thrown upon the subject by a parliamentary paper, printed "for the service of both Houses and the Assembly of Divines." A copy of it is preserved in our University library (Ff. xiv. 25.). I have referred to both these documents in A History of the Articles, &c., pp. 208-9.

C. HARDWICK.

St. Catharine's Hall, Cambridge.

The Journal kept by Lightfoot will be found in the 13th volume of his Works, as edited by the Rev. J. R. Pitman: London, 1825, 8vo. It should be studied by all those who desire to see a revived Convocation.

S. R. M.

{369} Epigrams (Vol. vii., pp. 175. 270.).—"Suum cuique" being a principle which holds good with regard to literary property as well as to property of every other description, I can inform your correspondent BALLIOLENSIS that the epigram on Dr. Toe, which he says was "represented to have proceeded from the pen of Thomas Dunbar, of Brasenose," was in reality the production of my respected neighbour, the Rev. William Bradford, M.A., rector of Storrington, Sussex. It was written by that gentleman when he was an undergraduate of St. John's College, Oxford. BALLIOLENSIS may rely upon the accuracy of this information, as I had it from Mr. Bradford's own lips only yesterday. The correct version of the epigram is that given by SCRAPIANA, p. 270.

R. BLAKISTON.

Ashington, Sussex.

"God and the world" (Vol. vii., pp. 134. 297.).—These lines are found, as quoted by W. H., in Coleridge's Aids to Reflection, p. 87., ed. 1831. Coleridge gives them as the words of a sage poet of the preceding generation (meaning, I suppose, the generation preceding that of Archbishop Leighton, a passage from whose works he has introduced as an aphorism just before). I have often wondered who this poet was, and whether the last line were really a quotation from Macbeth, or whether Shakspeare and the unknown poet had both but borrowed a popular saying. I also had my suspicions that Coleridge himself might have patched the verses a little; and the communication of your correspondent RT., tracing the lines in their original form to the works of Fulke Greville Lord Brooke, now verifies his conjecture. It may be worth while to point out another instance of this kind of manufacture by the same skilful hand. In the first volume of The Friend (p. 215., ed. 1818), Coleridge places at the head of an essay a quotation of two stanzas from Daniel's Musophilus. The second, which precedes in the original that which Coleridge places first, is thus given by him:

"Since writings are the veins, the arteries, And undecaying life-strings of those hearts, That still shall pant and still shall exercise Their mightiest powers when Nature none imparts; And the strong constitution of their praise Wear out the infection of distemper'd days."

Daniel wrote as follows (vol. ii. p. 373., ed. 1718):

"For these lines are the veins, the arteries And undecaying life-strings of those hearts, That still shall pant and still shall exercise The motion spirit and nature both imparts, And still with those alive so sympathize, As nourish'd with their powers, enjoy their parts."

C. W. G.

Skating Problem (Vol. vii., p. 284.).—The Query of your correspondent recalls the one said to have been put by King James to the members of the Royal Society: "How is it," said the British Solomon, "that if two buckets of water be equipoised in a balance, and a couple of live bream be put into one of them, the bucket containing the fish does not overweigh the other?" After some learned reasons had been adduced by certain of the philosophers, one of them said, "Please your Majesty, that bucket would be heavier by the exact weight of the fish." "Thou art right," said the sapient king; "I did not think there had been so much sense among you." Now, although I do not mean to say that A SKATER propounds for elucidation what he knows to be a fallacy, yet I do assert that he is mistaken as to the fact alleged. He recommends any one who is "incredulous" to make the trial—in which case, the experimenter would undoubtedly find himself in the water! I advise an appeal to common sense and philosophy: the former will show that a person in skates is not lighter than another; the latter, that ice will not fracture less readily beneath the weight of an individual raised on a pair of steel edges, than one on a pair of flat soles—all other circumstances being the same; the reverse, indeed, would be the fact. The true explanation of the "problem" is to be found in the circumstance, that "a skater," rendered confident by the ease with which he glides over ice on which he could not stand, will often also "stand" securely on ice which would break under the restless feet of a person in his shoes only. This has always appeared to be the obvious reason for the apparent anomaly to one who is

NO SKATER.

Parochial Libraries (Vol. vi., p. 432.).—Let me add to the list of parochial libraries that at Wendlebury, Oxon, the gift of Robert Welborn, rector, cir. 1760. It consists of about fifty volumes in folio, chiefly works of the Fathers, and, if I remember rightly, Benedictine editions. It was originally placed in the north transept of the church, but afterwards removed to the rectory. I believe that the books were intended for the use of the rector, but were to be lent to the neighbouring clergy on a bond being given for their restoration. After many years of sad neglect, this library was put into thorough order a few years ago by the liberality of the Rev. Jacob Ley, student of Ch. Ch.

CHEVERELLS.

* * * * *

MISCELLANEOUS.

NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC.

BOOKS RECEIVED.—Reynard the Fox, after the German Version of Goethe, with Illustrations, by J. Wolf. Part IV. carries us on to The Trial, which is very ably rendered.—Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, by various Writers, edited by W. Smith. This Sixth Part, extending from Cinabi to Cyrrhestica, contains {370} numerous interesting articles, such as Constantinople, which gives us an outline of Byzantine History, and Corinth, Crete, Cyrene, &c.—Mr. Darling's Cyclopaedia Bibliographica has now reached its Seventh Part, and which extends from Dr. Abernethy Drummond to Dr. John Fawcett.—The Journal of Sacred Literature, No. VII., containing articles on The Scythian Dominion in Asia; Modern Contributions to the Study of Prophecy; Heaven, Hell, Hades; Nature of Sin and its earliest Development; Life and Epistles of St. Paul; Slavery and the Old Testament; Biblical Criticism; Memphitic New Testament; and its usual variety of Correspondence, Minor Notices, &c.—Gentleman's Magazine for April, which commences with an article on Mr. Collier's Notes and Emendations to the Text of Shakspeare's Plays.—Mr. Akerman, although the number of subscribers is not sufficient to cover the expenses, continues his Remains of Pagan Saxondum. The Fourth Part just issued contains coloured plates, the full size of the respective objects, of a Fibula from a Cemetery at Fairford, Gloucester; and of Fibulae, Tweezers, &c. from Great Driffield, Yorkshire.

* * * * *

BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES

WANTED TO PURCHASE.

THE TRUTH TELLER. A Periodical.

SARAH COLERIDGE'S PHANTASMION.

J. L. PETIT'S CHURCH ARCHITECTURE. 2 Vols.

R. MANT'S CHURCH ARCHITECTURE CONSIDERED IN RELATION TO THE MIND OF THE CHURCH. 8vo. Belfast, 1840.

CAMBRIDGE CAMDEN SOCIETY'S TRANSACTIONS. Vol. III.—ELLICOTT ON VAULTING.

QUARTERLY REVIEW, 1845.

GARDENERS' CHRONICLE, 1838 to 1852, all but Oct. to Dec. 1851.

COLLIER'S FURTHER VINDICATION OF HIS SHORT VIEW OF THE STAGE. 1708.

CONGREVE'S AMENDMENT OF COLLIER'S FALSE AND IMPERFECT CITATIONS. 1698.

FILMER'S DEFENCE OF PLAYS, OR THE STAGE VINDICATED. 1707.

THE STAGE CONDEMNED. 1698.

BEDFORD'S SERIOUS REFLECTIONS ON THE ABUSES OF THE STAGE. 8vo. 1705.

DISSERTATION ON ISAIAH, CHAPTER XVIII., IN A LETTER TO EDWARD KING, &c., BY SAMUEL HORSLEY, Lord Bishop of Rochester. 1799. First Edition, in 4to.

BISHOP FELL'S Edition of CYPRIAN, containing BISHOP PEARSON'S ANNALES CYPRIANIA.

ATHENAEUM JOURNAL, 1847 to 1851 inclusive.

A DESCRIPTION OF THE ROYAL GARDENS AT RICHMOND IN SURRY. In a Letter to a Society of Gentlemen. Pp. 32. 8vo. With a Plan and Eight Plates. No date, circa annum 1770?

MEMOIRS OF THE ROSE, by MR. JOHN HOLLAND. 1 Vol. 12mo. London, 1824.

PSYCHE AND OTHER POEMS, by MRS. MARY TIGHE. Portrait. 8vo. 1811.

*** Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send their names.

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

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NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS.

W. S. G. is thanked. We have not inserted the two Folk Lore articles he has sent, inasmuch as they are already recorded in Brand.

W. S. D. The saying "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb," made so popular by its application to Sterne's "Maria," is from a French proverb "A brebis tondue Dieu mesure le vent," which, in a somewhat older form, is to be found in Gruter's Florilegium: Francfort, 1611, p. 353., and in St. Estienne's Premices, published in 1594.—See our 1st Vol., pp. 211. 236. 325. 357. 418.

C. M. I. We propose to insert some articles on Shakspeare in our next or following Number.

M. A. and J. L. S. are referred to our No. 172., p. 157.

PHOTOGRAPHY. Dr. Diamond's Photographic Notes are preparing for immediate publication in a separate form. We may take this opportunity of explaining that DR. D. is only an amateur, and has nothing to do with Photography as a profession. We are the more anxious to make this known, since, in consequence of holding an important public office, Dr. Diamond has but little leisure for pursuing his researches.

J. B. S. will find what he requires at p. 277. of our last volume.

C. B. (Birmingham). If the hyposulphite of soda is not thoroughly removed from a Photograph, it will soon become covered with reddish spots, and in a short time the whole picture may disappear. If cyanide of potassium has been used, it is requisite that the greatest care should be used to effect its removal entirely.

W. L. (Liverpool). A meniscus lens of the diameter of four inches should have a focal length of twenty inches, and will produce perfect landscape pictures fourteen inches square. It is said they will cover fifteen inches; but fourteen they do with great definition. We strongly advise W. L. to purchase a good article. It is a bad economy not to go to a first-rate maker at once.

J. M. S. (Manchester). You will find, for a screen to use in the open air, that the white cotton you refer to will be far too light. "Linsey woolsey" forms an admirable screen, and by being left loose upon a stretcher it may be looped up so as to form drapery, &c. If you cannot depend upon the collodion you purchase in your city, pray use your ingenuity, and make some according to the formulary given in Vol. vi., p. 277., and you will be rewarded for your trouble.

C. E. F. The various applications to your bath which you have used have destroyed it in all probability past use. All solutions containing silver will precipitate it in the form of a white powder, upon the addition of common salt; and from this chloride the pure metal is again readily obtained. The collodion of some makers always acts in the manner you describe; and we have known it remedied by the addition of about one drachm of spirits of wine to the ounce of collodion. Spirits of wine also added to the nitrate bath—two drachms of spirits of wine to six ounces of the aqueous solution—is sometimes very beneficial. When collodion is inert, and the colour remains a pale milk and water blue after the immersion, a few drops of saturated solution of iodide of silver may be added, as it indicates a deficiency of the iodide. Should the collodion then be turbid, a small lump of iodide of potassium may be dropped into the bottle, which by agitation will soon effect a clearance; when this is done, the fluid may be poured off from the excess of iodide which remains undissolved.

ALEX. RAE (Banff). You shall have a private reply at our earliest leisure. The questions you ask would almost comprise a Treatise on Photography.

H. N. (March 30th). 1st. You will find the opacity you complain of completely removed by the use of the amber varnish, as recommended by DR. DIAMOND, unless it proceeds from light having acted generally upon your sensitive collodion in the bath, or during the time of its exposure in the camera; in which case there is no cure for it.—2ndly. A greater intensity in negatives will be produced without the nitric acid, but with an addition of more acetic acid the picture is more brown and never so agreeable as a positive. 3rd. The protonitrate of iron used pure produces a picture as delicate, and having all the brilliancy of a Daguerreotype, without its unpleasant metallic reflexion—the fine metal being deposited of a dead white; and combined with the pyrogallic acid solution in the proportion of one part to six or ten, produces pictures of a most agreeable ivory-like colour.—4th. The protonitrate of iron, when mixed with the pyrogallic acid solution, becomes of a fine violet blue; but after some minutes it darkens. It should only be mixed immediately before using. The colour of the protonitrate of iron will vary, even using the same chemicals. The cheap nitrate of barytes of commerce answers exceedingly well in most cases; but a finer silver surface is obtained by the use of the purified.—5th. We have generally succeeded in obtaining portraits in an ordinary room, the sitter being placed opposite and near the window: of course, a glass-house is much better, the roof of which should be of violet glass, ground on the inner side. This glass can be bought, made especially for the purpose, at 11d. the square foot. It obstructs no chemical rays of light, and is most pleasant to the eyes, causing no fatigue from the great body of light admitted.

A few compete sets of "NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. i. to vi., price Three Guineas, may now be had; for which early application is desirable.

"NOTES AND QUERIES" is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday.

* * * * *{371}

A LITERARY CURIOSITY.—A Fac-simile of a very Remarkably Curious, Interesting, and Droll Newspaper of Charles II.'s Reign. Sent Free by Post on receipt of Three Postage Stamps.

J. H. FENNELL. 1. WARWICK COURT, HOLBORN, LONDON.

* * * * *

Just published, price 1s., free by Post 1s. 4d.,

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* * * * *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.—A Selection of the above beautiful Productions may be seen at BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be procured Apparatus of every Description, and pure Chemicals for the practice of Photography in all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street.

* * * * *

PHOTOGRAPHY.—Collodion (Iodized with the Ammonio-Iodide of Silver).—J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, were the first in England who published the application of this agent (see Athenaeum, Aug. 14th). Their Collodion (price 9d. per oz.) retains its extraordinary sensitiveness, tenacity, and colour unimpaired for months: it may be exported to any climate, and the Iodizing Compound mixed as required. J. B. HOCKIN & CO. manufacture PURE CHEMICALS and all APPARATUS with the latest Improvements adapted for all the Photographic and Daguerreotype processes. Cameras for Developing in the open Country. GLASS BATHS adapted to any Camera. Lenses from the best Makers. Waxed and Iodized Papers, &c.

* * * * *

TO PHOTOGRAPHERS.—MR. PHILIP DELAMOTTE begs to announce that he has now made arrangements for printing Calotypes in large or small quantities, either from Paper or Glass Negatives. Gentlemen who are desirous of having good impressions of their works, may see specimens of Mr. Delamotte's Printing at his own residence, 38. Chepstow Place. Bayswater, or at MR. GEORGE BELL'S, 186. Fleet Street.

* * * * *

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION. No. 1. Class X., in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates, may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 55. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4 guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and 4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen,

65. CHEAPSIDE.

* * * * *

TO PHOTOGRAPHERS.—Pure Chemicals, and every requisite for the practice of Photography, according to the instructions of Le Gray, Hunt, Brebisson, and other writers, may be obtained, wholesale and retail, of WILLIAM BOLTON (formerly Dymond & Co.), Manufacturer of pure Chemicals for Photographic and other purposes. Lists may be had on application.

Improved Apparatus for iodizing paper in vacuo, according to Mr. Stewart's instructions.

146. HOLBORN BARS.

* * * * *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.—Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's, Turner's, Sanford's, and Canson Freres' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's Process. Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13. Paternoster Row, London.

* * * * *

PHOTOGRAPHY.—HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this beautiful Art.—123. and 121. Newgate Street.

* * * * *

WESTERN LIFE ASSURANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY,

3. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON.

Founded A.D. 1842.

* * *

Directors.

H. E. Bicknell, Esq. W. Cabell, Esq. T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq. M.P. G. H. Drew, Esq. W. Evans, Esq. W. Freeman, Esq. F. Fuller, Esq. J. H. Goodhart, Esq. T. Grissell, Esq. J. Hunt, Esq. J. A. Lethbridge, Esq. E. Lucas, Esq. J. Lys Seager, Esq. J. B. White, Esq. J. Carter Wood, Esq.

Trustees.

W. Whateley, Esq. Q.C.; L. C. Humfrey, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq.

Physician.—William Rich. Basham, M.D.

Bankers.—Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE.

POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in three-fourths of the Profits:—

Age L s. d. 17 1 14 4 22 1 18 8 27 2 4 5 32 2 10 8 37 2 18 6 42 3 8 2

ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S., Actuary.

Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions, INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION; being a TREATISE on BENEFIT BUILDING SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3. Parliament Street, London.

* * * * *

ESTABLISHED 1841.

MEDICAL, INVALID, AND GENERAL LIFE OFFICE,

25. PALL MALL.

* * *

During the last Ten Years, this Society has issued more than Four Thousand One Hundred and Fifty Policies

Covering Assurances to the extent of One Million Six Hundred and Eighty-seven Thousand Pounds, and upwards

Yielding Annual Premiums amounting to Seventy-three Thousand Pounds.

This Society is the only one possessing Tables for the Assurance of Diseased Lives.

Healthy Lives Assured at Home and Abroad at lower rates than at most other Offices.

A Bonus of 50 per cent. on the premiums paid was added to the policies at last Division of Profits.

Next Division in 1853—in which all Policies effected before 30th June, 1853, will participate.

* * *

Agents wanted for vacant places.

Prospectuses, Forms of Proposal, and every other information, may be obtained of the Secretary at the Chief Office, or on application to any of the Society's Agents in the country.

F. G. P. NEISON, Actuary. C. DOUGLAS SINGER, Secretary.

* * * * *

UNITED KINGDOM LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY; established by Act of Parliament in 1834.—8. Waterloo Place, Pall Mall, London.

HONORARY PRESIDENTS.

Earl of Courtown Earl Leven and Melville Earl of Norbury Earl of Stair Viscount Falkland Lord Elphinstone Lord Belhaven and Stenton Wm. Campbell, Esq., of Tillichewan

LONDON BOARD.

Chairman.—Charles Graham, Esq. Deputy-Chairman.—Charles Downes, Esq.

H. Blair Avarne, Esq. E. Lennox Boyd, Esq., F.S.A., Resident. C. Berwick Curtis, Esq. William Fairlie, Esq. D. Q. Henriques, Esq. J. G. Henriques, Esq. F. C. Maitland, Esq. William Railton, Esq. F. H. Thomson, Esq. Thomas Thorby, Esq.

MEDICAL OFFICERS.

Physician.—Arthur H. Hassall, Esq., M.D., 8. Bennett Street, St. James's.

Surgeon.—F. H. Thomson, Esq., 48. Berners Street.

The Bonus added to Policies from March, 1834, to December 31, 1847, is as follows:—

- Sum added to Sum Time Policy. Sum Assured. Assured. payable In 1841. In 1848. at Death. - - - - L L s. d. L s. d. L s. d. 5000 14 years 683 6 8 787 10 0 6470 16 8 *1000 7 years - - 157 10 0 1157 10 0 500 1 year - - 11 5 0 511 5 0 - - - -

*EXAMPLE.—At the commencement of the year 1841, a person aged thirty took out a Policy for 1000l., the annual payment for which is 24l. 1s. 8d.; in 1847 he had paid in premiums 168l. 11s. 3d.; but the profits being 2-1/4 per cent. per annum on the sum insured (which is 22l. 10s. per annum for each 1000l.) he had 157l. 10s. added to the Policy, almost as much as the premiums paid.

The Premiums, nevertheless, are on the most moderate scale, and only one-half need be paid for the first five years, when the Insurance is for Life. Every information will be afforded on application to the Resident Director.

* * * * *{372}

THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE for APRIL contains:—1. The Text of Shakspeare's Plays. 2. Mrs. Hamilton Gray's History of Rome. 3. Lares and Penates (with Engravings). 4. Jacques van Artevelde. 5. Literary Relics of James Thomson and Allan Ramsey. 6. A Word upon Wigs. 7. The Income Tax. 8. Paris after Waterloo. 9. Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban: Concealed Lands; Richard of Cirencester; Artifice of a Condemned Malefactor; Billingsgate and Whittington's Conduit. With Notes of the Month; Review of New Publications; Reports of Archaeological Societies, Historical Chronicle, and OBITUARY; including Memoirs of the Earl of Belfast, Bishop Kaye, Bishop Broughton, Sir Wathen Waller, Rear-Admiral Austen, William Peter, Esq., the late Provost of Eton, John Philip Dyott, &c. &c. Price 2s. 6d.

NICHOLS & SONS, 25. Parliament Street.

* * * * *

NEW WORKS—PUBLISHED THIS DAY.

Demy 8vo., 8s.

HISTORICAL OUTLINES OF POLITICAL CATHOLICISM: ITS PAPACY—PRELACY—PRIESTHOOD—PEOPLE.

MONTENEGRO AND THE SLAVONIANS OF TURKEY. By COUNT VALERIAN KRASINSKI. Author of the "Religious History of the Slavonic Nations," &c. Fcap. 1s. 6d.

Being the New Volume of READING for TRAVELLERS.

CHAMOIS HUNTING in the MOUNTAINS of BAVARIA. By CHARLES BONER. With Illustrations. Demy 8vo., 18s.

THE DIARY OF MARTHA BETHUNE BALIOL, from 1753 to 1754. Post 8vo. 9s.

Forming the New Volume of Chapman & Hall's Series.

THE DELUGE. BY VISCOUNT MAIDSTONE. Dedicated to the Electors of Westminster. Second Edition. Price 2s. 6d.

London: CHAPMAN & HALL, 193. Piccadilly.

* * * * *

Just published, fcap. 8vo., price 5s. in cloth.

SYMPATHIES of the CONTINENT, or PROPOSALS for a NEW REFORMATION. By JOHN BAPTIST VON HIRSCHER, D.D., Dean of the Metropolitan Church of Freiburg, Breisgau, and Professor of Theology in the Roman Catholic University of that City. Translated and edited with Notes and Introduction by the Rev. ARTHUR CLEVELAND COXE, M.A., Rector of St. John's Church, Hartford, Connecticut, U.S.

"The following work will be found a noble apology for the position assumed by the Church of England in the sixteenth century, and for the practical reforms she then introduced into her theology and worship. If the author is right, then the changes he so eloquently urges upon the present attention of his brethren ought to have been made three hundred years ago; and the obstinate refusal of the Council of Trent to make such reforms in conformity with Scripture and Antiquity, throws the whole burthen of the sin of schism upon Rome, and not upon our Reformers. The value of such admissions must, of course, depend in a great measure upon the learning, the character, the position, and the influence of the author from whom they proceed. The writer believes, that questions as to these particulars can be most satisfactorily answered."—Introduction by Arthur Cleveland Coxe.

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford; and 377. Strand, London

* * * * *

Just published, price One Penny,

MEMOIR OF THE RIGHT HONOURABLE SIR JOHN SINCLAIR, Bart., with an Account of his Personal Exertions for the Agricultural and Social Improvement of Scotland. By CATHERINE SINCLAIR.

This interesting Memoir, forming one of the Number of CHAMBERS'S REPOSITORY of INSTRUCTIVE and AMUSING TRACTS, has already had a circulation of Fifty Thousand Copies.

W. & R. CHAMBERS, Edinburgh; W. S. ORR & CO., Amen Corner, London; D. N. CHAMBERS, Glasgow; J. M'GLASHAN, Dublin; and sold by all Booksellers.

* * * * *

On 1st of April, price 1s., No. IV. New Series.

THE ECCLESIASTIC.

CONTENTS:

Morgan on the Trinity of Plato and of Philo-Judaeus. Greek Hymnology. Montalembert's Catholic Interests. Second Notice. Illustrations of the State of the Church during the Great Rebellion. Reviews and Notices. Notices to Correspondents.

Now ready, price 1s., Part V. of

CONCIONALIA; Outlines of Sermons for Parochial Use throughout the Year. By the REV. HENRY THOMPSON, M.A., Cantab., Curate of Wrington, Somerset. It contains Sermons for the First, Second, Third, and Fourth Sundays after Easter; the Annunication of the Blessed Virgin Mary; St. Mark's Day. To be continued monthly.

London: J. MASTERS, Aldersgate Street, and New Bond Street.

* * * * *

8vo., price 12s.

A MANUAL OF ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY, from the First to the Twelfth Century inclusive. By the Rev. E. S. FOULKES, M.A., Fellow and Tutor of Jesus College, Oxford.

The main plan of the work has been borrowed from Spanheim, a learned, though certainly not unbiassed, writer of the seventeenth century: the matter compiled from Spondanus and Spanheim, Mosheim and Fleury, Gieseler and Doellinger, and others, who have been used too often to be specified, unless when reference to them appeared desirable for the benefit of the reader. Yet I believe I have never once trusted to them on a point involving controversy, without examining their authorities. The one object that I have had before me has been to condense facts, without either garbling or omitting any that should be noticed in a work like the present, and to give a fair and impartial view of the whole state of the case.—Preface.

"An epitomist of Church History has a task of no ordinary greatness.... He must combine the rich faculties of condensation and analysis, of judgment in the selection of materials, and calmness in the expression of opinions, with that most excellent gift of faith, so especially precious to Church historians, which implies a love for the Catholic cause, a reverence for its saintly champions, an abhorrence of the misdeeds which have defiled it, and a confidence that its 'truth is great, and will prevail.'

"And among other qualifications which may justly be attributed to the author of the work before us, this last and highest is particularly observable. He writes in a spirit of manly faith, and is not afraid of facing 'the horrors and uncertainties,' which, to use his own words, are to be found in Church history."—From the Scottish Ecclesiastical Journal, May, 1852.

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford; and 377. Strand, London.

* * * * *

Cheaper Editions, 3s. 6d.

READINGS IN SCIENCE;

Familiar Explanations of Appearances and Principles in Natural Philosophy.

READINGS IN POETRY;

Selections from the Works of the best English Poets, with Specimens of the American Poets; Notices of the Writers; and Notes.

READINGS IN ENGLISH PROSE LITERATURE;

Specimens of the Works of the best English Writers, with Biographical Sketches and Essays on the Progress of English Literature.

READINGS IN BIOGRAPHY;

A Selection of the Lives of the most Eminent Men of all Nations.

London: JOHN W. PARKER & SON, West Strand.

* * * * *

This Day, 2 vols. post 8vo., 18s.

HYPATIA; or New Foes with an Old Face. By CHARLES KINGSLEY, Jun., Rector of Eversley. Reprinted from "Fraser's Magazine."

By the same Author,

THE SAINT'S TRAGEDY, Cheaper Edition, 2s.

YEAST; A PROBLEM. Reprinted from "Fraser's Magazine." Cheaper Edition, 5s.

TWENTY-FIVE VILLAGE SERMONS. Cheaper Edition, 3s. 6d.

London: JOHN W. PARKER & SON, West Strand.

* * * * *

This Day is published, price 4s.

AISCHYLOU EUMENIDES. AESCHYLI EUMENIDES. Recensuit F. A. PALEY. Editio Auctior et Emendatior.

Cantabrigiae: apud J. DEIGHTON.

Londini: apud WHITTAKER ET SOC.; et SIMPKIN ET SOC.

* * * * *

3 vols. 8vo. price 2l. 8s.

A GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN GRECIAN, ROMAN, ITALIAN, AND GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE. The Fifth Edition enlarged, exemplified by 1700 Woodcuts.

"In the Preparation of this the Fifth Edition of the Glossary of Architecture, no pains have been spared to render it worthy of the continued patronage which the work has received from its first publication.

"The Text has been considerably augmented, as well by the additions of many new Articles, as by the enlargement of the old ones, and the number of Illustrations has been increased from eleven hundred to seventeen hundred.

"Several additional Foreign examples are given, for the purposes of comparison with English work, of the same periods.

"In the present Edition, considerably more attention has been given to the subject of Mediaeval Carpentry, the number of Illustrations of 'Open Timber Roofs' has been much increased, and most of the Carpenter's terms in use at the period have been introduced with authorities."—Preface to the Fifth Edition.

JOHN HENRY PARKER. Oxford; and 377. Strand, London.

* * * * *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 15. Stonefield Street, in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.—Saturday, April 9. 1853.

THE END

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