Based on the amount of winter injury of catkins during the winter 1932-33, I am making four groups. First, those varieties in which all, or practically all the catkins were killed. In the varieties suffering such severe catkin injuries, much of the wood was killed, but this will be treated separately.
The varieties in this group are Nottingham, Early Prolific, Garibaldi, Kentish filbert, Pearson's Prolific, Princess Royal, the Shah, Webb's Prize Cobb, Bandnuss, Barr's Zellernuss, Berger's Zellernuss, Grosse Kugelnuss, Heynicks Zellernuss, Lange von Downton, Multiflora, Sickler's Zellernuss, and a Corylus rostrata brought into cultivation from a glen a few miles away. The planting of varieties in this list is not recommended.
The second group includes those sorts in which 50 to 90 per cent of the catkins were killed. The varieties are Barcelona, Daviana, Fertile de Coutard, Montebello, Cannon Ball, Duke of Edinburgh, Duchess of Edinboro, Prolific Closehead, Red Skinned, Kadetten Zellernuss, Kaiserin Eugenie, Kunzemuller's Zellernuss, Liegel's Zellernuss, Prolifique a coque serree, Romische Nuss, Schlesierin, Truchsess Zellernuss, Voile Zellernuss, Kruse, and Littlepage, a variety of Corylus americana from Indiana. Some wood killing occurred among the varieties in this group. None of these varieties should be depended upon for pollination purposes.
The third group includes those varieties experiencing 20 to 50 per cent winter injury. The varieties are Kentish Cob, Italian Red, Bollwiller, Red Aveline, White Aveline, and Vollkugel. These varieties may be planted with caution if too much dependence is not placed upon them as pollinators.
In the fourth group are those with less than 20 per cent of catkin injury. These are Clackamas, Cosford, Minna, Early Globe, English Cluster, Medium Long, Oregon, Purple Aveline, Red Lambert, White Lambert, D'Alger, Althaldensleber, Ludolph's Zellernuss, Luisen's Zellernuss, Neue Riesennuss, Eickige Barcelonaer, and Winkler and Rush, the latter two being varieties of Corylus americana. Varieties from this group and the third group should be used as pollinators and as parents in breeding work to develop catkin hardy varieties.
Winter killing of the wood has not been as extensive nor as serious as catkin killing. It is usually slight and confined to a few varieties but during the past winter 1932-33, many varieties killed back severely.
The varieties are grouped according to the amount of winter injury of wood. Varieties in which more than 50 per cent of the wood was killed are Nottingham, Early Prolific, Garibaldi, Princess Royal, Webb's Prize Cob, Bandnuss, Grosse Kugelnuss, Jeeves Samling, Kaiserin Eugenie, Multiflora, Kurzhullige Zellernuss, Lange von Downton, and the Corylus rostrata previously mentioned.
Varieties experiencing from 20 to 50 per cent of wood killing were Barcelona, Red Aveline, Montebello, Berger's Zellernuss, Einzeltragende Kegelformige, Heynick's Zellernuss, Prolifique a Coque serre, Sickler's Zellernuss, Voile Zellernuss, and Russ.
In the following varieties from 5 to 20 per cent of the wood was winter-killed: Minna, Bollwiller, Duchess of Edinboro, Pearson's Prolific, The Shah, Barr's Zellernuss, Kunzemuller's Zellernuss, Liegel's Zellernuss, Romische Nuss, Schlesierin, Truchsess Zellernuss, Vollkugel and Littlepage.
Varieties which are not injured at all or less than five per cent were Clackamas, Cosford, Daviana, Early Globe, English Cluster, Kentish Cob, Fertile de Coutard, Italian Red, Medium Long, Oregon, Purple Aveline, Red Lambert, White Aveline, White Lambert, D'Alger, Cannon Ball, Duke of Edinburgh, Kentish filbert, Prolific Closehead, Red Skinned, Eckige Barcelonaer, Kadetten Zellernuss, Ludolph's Zellernuss, Luisen's Zellernuss, Kruse, Neue Riesennuss and Rush and Winkler.
It is evident from this data that although many filbert varieties are subject to serious winter injury, there are still a number to choose from that are sufficiently hardy under western New York conditions.
The Station variety collection has grown considerably since I discussed filberts before you in 1929. At that time the collection consisted of 28 varieties; today there are under test at Geneva 99 varieties of Corylus avellana, five varieties of Corylus americana, five Jones seedlings, and six species of Corylus, or a total of 115 forms.
Later observations on the original orchard have indicated that the original variety recommendations should be modified. Certain varieties imported from Europe and renamed, or were misnamed when imported, and that have been disseminated by nurseries are apparently identical with certain German varieties recently imported by the Geneva Station. Preliminary observations indicate that some of these recently imported German sorts are worthy of further attention.
Barcelona which was the most productive variety during the first few years has been falling behind in yields the past two seasons. This, coupled with the winter killing of wood and catkins last winter, makes Barcelona a doubtful variety to plant.
Italian Red in 1932 averaged nearly eight pounds of nuts to the tree, the heaviest yield of any variety in the orchard. The crop this year promises to be satisfactory and one of the largest in the orchard, in a season when varieties generally are very light. S. H. Graham of Ithaca reports that "Italian Red has been the best and most regular bearer of any of the European filberts" that he has tried.
Kentish Cob averaged five pounds per tree last year and Cosford over four pounds. The latter variety is catkin hardy and should be in every planting. White Lambert and Red Lambert, still light croppers, possess very hardy catkins and for that reason deserve trial.
Oregon, Purple Aveline, and English Cluster bear heavy crops, but are difficult to husk and the nuts too small for market. For home use they should be very satisfactory.
Among the newer nuts fruiting last year for the first time, Neue Riesennuss, originating in Germany in 1871, is promising. It is one of the largest in the Station collection, is a bright light brown in color with slightly darker stripes, and last winter experienced very little catkin injury and no wood injury. As yet nothing is known of its productiveness in this country, but in Germany it is said to be productive.
Some of the nuts distributed in this country by Mr. Vollertsen of Rochester are proving identical with some of the German sorts recently imported by the Station. I do not intend to suggest now that the name of the varieties in this country be changed to those of the varieties with which they are identical. Later when all of these imported varieties are in full bearing the matter of changing names will be brought to your attention again.
Red Lambert (of Vollertsen) is identical with Beethe's Zeller, and Italian Red (of Vollertsen) is identical with Gustav's Zeller. Minna (of Vollertsen) is not the Minna of German descriptions.
The breeding work with filberts is following two lines. Hardiness of wood and catkin is of prime importance and to develop varieties satisfactorily in these respects those varieties that have proved hardy are being crossed with different sorts that have desirable nut and tree characters. Hardiness is also being sought by crossing the Rush native hazel with varieties of Corylus avellana. 535 trees from this cross, made by Mr. Reed, are now growing in a fruiting plantation at the Station, and several hundred more from other crosses are in the nursery row. With this wealth of material coming along, it is reasonable to assume that the day is not far distant when satisfactory varieties will be available for northern planting.
Developing a Walnut Grove as a Side Line Job as a Bee Keeper
L. K. HOSTETTER
In discussing this topic I shall give you some of my doings in my bee business and nut growing.
About 30 years ago, I started out in the bee business with three colonies of bees. This number increased gradually until I had 170 colonies. During these 80 years I would sometimes have a bumper crop of honey and then again sometimes a total failure. This past summer happened to be one of those off years. It is, however, the income from this bee business that started me off in the growing of a grove of 800 black walnut trees, also a few shellbarks, pecans, heartnuts, English walnuts, hicans, hardshell almonds and filberts.
In the spring of 1926, I had a nurseryman graft 6 small black walnut trees to the Thomas and Stabler varieties with 5 catches, 4 Thomas and 1 Stabler. In the spring of 1927, I bought the homestead farm and planted 2 Thomas, 2 Stabler, and 2 Ohio black walnuts, 2 shellbarks, 2 hardshell almonds and 6 filberts. This spring I also planted about a bushel of seedling black walnuts and, as it happened we had an exceptionally wet summer, these seedlings made a wonderful growth.
In the spring of 1928 I transplanted about 15 acres to these seedlings. In 1929 I planted another 20 acres, and in 1930 another 10 acres. Some of these trees were planted 60 feet each way and some 30 feet apart.
Some of these trees were grafted the same year they were planted but most of them were grafted two years later. At this time I had little experience in grafting and, naturally, my 2 acres in getting catches were accordingly. When I started out I thought it would be cheaper to plant seedlings and graft them, as explained above. I have gotten along fairly well in getting my grove started but I found it to be far more work than I expected it would be and I would not do it that way again. Because of some failures each year I still have many trees that have not yet been successfully grafted. I am not in a great hurry to get my grove on a paying basis as I am getting a lot of fun playing with the developing of it and I don't believe there will be so very much difference in the size of these trees 25 years from now. I would say, however, that for the man who wants to get a nut grove developed as soon as possible, he should buy his trees from the expert nut tree nurseryman.
My entire grove is now seeded to blue grass for a permanent pasture. About 25 acres is pastured by 160 head of sheep and the balance is cut for hay to feed the sheep in the winter time. My reason for seeding to blue grass is to prevent erosion. Possibly if I should keep my trees cultivated during the summer they would make a better growth. But then my sheep will make quite a bit of manure and I spread much of this manure under the trees every winter and, as it is, my trees are making a very good growth every year.
I now have a grove of about 800 black walnut trees. These are mostly of the Thomas, also quite a few Ohio and Stabler and a few Ten Eycks. The Stablers, Ohios, and Ten Eycks seem to fill the shell so full of meats with me that they are hard to remove in large pieces. I think I shall regraft most of these to the Thomas and some of the later varieties.
About 600 of my trees are now 7 years old from seed. These trees had about 1/2 bushel of hulled walnuts last summer and I expect to have about 2 bushels this summer. Last summer I also had about a peck of hard shell almonds from my two trees that were planted in 1927. In 1931 my 6 filberts had about 1/2 peck of nuts. These trees are now big enough to have at least a bushel or two of nuts if the catkins had not frozen this past winter.
Dr. Zimmerman: Mr. Hostetter, I would like to suggest, from the fact that we know so little about pollinization of nut trees, that you do not be in too big a hurry to cut out your odd varieties. Instead why not do this, let them come into bearing and then each year cut the variety out and note if there is any change in the bearing of the Thomas, of which you say your orchard is mostly made up? Should you happen to note a lack of pollinization or bearing in the Thomas the year after a certain variety is cut out, you can then start checking and may find that variety the best pollinator for the Thomas. I certainly would not be in too big a hurry to eliminate all my test varieties if I were you.
The President: Last year Prof. Reed gave us a very valuable paper on pollinization.
Dr. Zimmerman: I have a Taylor hickory at my place and every year it has several nutlets but as soon as they get any size they tumble off. I have never seen any catkins on that tree.
I have been fooling around for several years with persimmons. I have particular reference to the Kawakmi which is supposed to be a hybrid of Munson. I have never had any fruit from that particular tree. I wrote to Munson's and told them and they sent me some of the fruit. I wanted to get the seeds. My tree blooms heavily but has no pistillate flowers.
Nut Trees as Used in Landscaping
DR. LEWIS EDWIN THEISS
I was asked to speak on the subject of "Planting Nut Trees for Those Who Have Space for Only a Few," but I am going to speak on using nut trees in landscaping. We should know what is meant by the term landscaping. It may mean planting blue spruce or junipers around the house in a pleasing way, or you may use plants. The object is to make a picture which gives a certain impression of our home. We can just as well use nut trees in such a way as to make a beautiful picture, so that when one looks out any window of his home he gets a beautiful picture or vista, or when one goes by and sees your home, he sees a beautiful picture.
We tend to follow too stereotyped ways of doing things. There is no reason why we should make a liability of our property. We can just as well have nuts to help make an asset.
Trees are very much like words. We have two words in the English language that express more than any others. They are "home" and "mother." We also have trees that connote much. Of course, it depends on what picture we wish our homes to convey. I want mine to have a cozy yet prosperous look. Now you ask, "How are you going to produce that look?" It is by the materials you use and how you use them. And you can use any you wish.
We might divide plants into two groups, cultivated plants and wild plants. In trees we have some fruit trees which are never worth a cent. Apple trees suggest home. If you are driving through the woods and come upon an apple tree, you immediately think, "Someone had a home here once." Of course, it might have grown from a chance seed but that is the thought you have at once. The apple tree connotes the thought of home.
I happen to be a fruit tree as well as a nut tree grower. The difference between them is that you have to spray the fruit trees.
Longfellow said, "Under the spreading chestnut tree the village smithy stands." That was probably very true as there were lots of chestnut trees at that time. So we have nut trees that give us this connotation of domesticity. They make us think of home.
We must also consider the foliage. A tree with fine foliage such as the walnut is preferable for the lawn. The walnut gives a fine shade but does not interfere with the growth of grass. The English walnut makes a dense shade, nothing grows under it. Hickory also gives a dense shade. All these things we have to consider when choosing trees to plant about our yards.
In my own grounds I have black walnut, Persian walnuts, pecans, filberts, hicans and some others. I feel we might as well have something around our places to help pay the taxes. We might as well get a little pleasure out of our property. Some of us have vegetable gardens. Nut trees can be an asset to your property in the same way if you will plant the proper kinds.
You all know the black walnut. It grows to be a large spreading tree but it needs good soil. Another nice tree is the Japanese walnut. This tree is quite beautiful. A sport of this tree is the heartnut. It also is a very beautiful tree and a rapid grower. I have a little group of these trees and I have never seen trees grow so fast. I have a Japanese walnut, a grafted heartnut, and a Japanese seedling. They look exactly alike but bear different kinds of nuts. I have one tree which is a seedling. It is eight years old, beginning on the ninth year and is 20 to 25 feet high. I have a heartnut which is a little bit older which I bought from Mr. Jones. That tree has suffered a lot at my hands. I dug it up twice and changed its position, cutting it back, and still it is growing fine and a big tree for ten years. It has a spread close to 40 feet and reaches to the house top. It certainly looks more than 10 years old. I think a tree like that is very useful planted by a house because of its rapid growth. The foliage is very lovely. I have measured some of the leaves and some are a yard long. Another tree I have growing near the house is a Potomac English walnut. It is a very vigorous tree, has a dense shade and a very good grower. A very lovely tree to have in the yard.
I have also, the Butterick, Busseron and Indiana pecans in the side yard. They bear quite well, particularly the Butterick but I like the Busseron better. I think they are going to be very large trees. I think they will be like the elms in New England. The foliage is not so large and coarse and is a little different from the black walnut. They have been very successful for us.
We do not know much about getting revenue from our trees as we use all our nuts in the family. A pound of nuts I raise myself is worth much more to me than a pound I would buy in the grocery store because of the fun I get in growing them.
I have chestnuts that have escaped the blight so far. They say the Japanese variety is very hardy and very resistant to blight. As to the nuts, I do not know much about them.
Another nut tree that we do not often think of is the beech tree. I have never seen a beech tree that had nuts on big enough to amount to anything.
We have heard a lot about filberts this morning. Filberts make beautiful hedges. I shouldn't advise anybody to grow a filbert hedge along the road or where it would be a temptation to people to steal. But where you wish to erect a screen to shut out an undesirable view, they make a very nice hedge. They are very pleasing as to foliage. We have a very nice crop of filberts this fall. If you have a little place that you want to screen in, why not do it with a hedge that is both beautiful and productive.
We also have a peach almond. That is worth growing just for its blossom. People go to Washington to see the Japanese cheery blossoms but they are no more beautiful than the Ridenhower almond when in bloom. The blossom is 2 inches in diameter. The hull dries and parts through the middle leaving the nut easy to get out. My farmer calls my tree "the dried peach tree." The fruit looks more like a peach seed than an almond. It is more difficult to crack than the usual almond but it certainly is interesting in the springtime. I hope in your landscaping you will make use of nut trees, and when you want a hedge you do not have to have a privet or a barberry one. You can make a hedge of roses or of filberts.
Dr. Deming: Will your pecans have a good crop? Are they well filled?
Dr. Theiss: Yes, they are well filled and have a very delicious flavor. In the market you could not offer them in competition with the paper-shell variety, but we are quite well pleased with them.
Dr. Deming: Isn't that rather a record for distance north?
Dr. Theiss: I do not know. Mr. Reed, how far north do pecans grow well?
Mr. Reed: I believe our best authorities are Dr. Deming and Dr. Theiss. I am surprised as we have some pecans in Washington with which we were discouraged, although they are now developing.
Dr. Theiss: I must say we have very satisfactory trees and lots of nuts.
Mr. Hershey: About six weeks ago I saw a tree which had been bearing for 40 years. It was at Schuylkill Haven near Pottsville, in the mountainous country where it gets very cold. An old man told me the tree was 60 years old. Imagine my utter amazement since we believed that the pecan would not bear that far north. I showed the old man some Busseron nuts and he stated that his were slightly smaller but very thin shelled. The seed of this tree came from the Wabash in Illinois. He had another tree there about 30 years old which has been bearing for quite a few years.
Prof. Neilson: Have you had any experience with Turkish hazels?
Dr. Theiss: No, I have Barcelona, Du Chilly, Red Aveline, White Aveline, and Jones-Rush hybrids.
Prof. Neilson: It appears that they are very ornamental and very symmetrical and hardy trees.
There is a possibility of using nuts in a new confection made of honey. There is a new method of drying honey perfected by Dr. Philips and Dr. Dyke, and when this is mixed with nuts it forms a really good confection. My wife has worked out several good recipes.
Mrs. Neilson: The new method of drying the honey allows it to be wrapped in wax paper without sticking to the paper. This is quite an advantage in marketing it.
Prof. Neilson: The Broadview Persian walnut is a very ornamental tree and can be grown by those who live very far north.
My Experience in Growing Nut Trees on the House Lawn
By M. GLEN KIRKPATRICK
Orchard Editor, Farm Journal, Philadelphia, Pa.
Coming at the end of a program such as you have had here today, I am reminded of a story my father used to tell me as a boy.
"There was once a mouse that lived in a cellar. One day he was attracted by some moisture on the floor that was seeping from a barrel of cider. The cider was in the stage of becoming vinegar. The mouse took two or three helpings and then said, 'Now bring on the cat!'"
I would be just as foolish as the mouse if I tried to contribute any technical matter. Ten minutes will be ample to tell you of my experiences.
My interest in nut trees is due to Mr. John W. Hershey. I wish now that some of my apple trees were replaced by walnuts. I planted my trees about 8 years ago. The pecan is about 18 feet high, the English walnut about 12 feet high. The English walnut has blossomed but has never borne fruit. The pecan has blossomed this year for the first time. My Barcelona has about a pound of nuts on this year. It is from 12 to 14 feet high. My Du Chilly has produced fruit one year.
The thing I like about nut trees is their cleanness. My English walnut has never been troubled by pests, neither has the pecan, except there is one thing I hold against the pecans and that is the borers on the branches. It is ten times as bad as English walnuts. But the trees are clean and nice to have, and I really prefer them to apple trees. With apple trees you are at all times troubled with apples on the lawn and it is a job to keep them cleaned up. You have nothing of that sort to contend with in nut trees.
My trees have not been given special advantages. The pecan is in with a lot of shrubs and the English walnut is surrounded by roses. The filbert has just taken pot luck with the rest.
That is my experience and if I can tell you anything further I shall be glad to do it.
Dr. Zimmerman: I would like to ask you a question about the Japanese beetle. Have you had any trouble with your black walnuts?
Mr. Kirkpatrick: I have had one black walnut die.
Dr. Zimmerman: Do you know if the Japanese beetle attacks the chestnut or chinquapin?
Mr. Shaw: Maybe I can answer that question. In New Jersey the Japanese beetle attacks the chestnut but I do not know about the chinquapin.
Developing a Thousand Tree Nut Grove
By C. F. HOSTETTER
The natural title of this paper should be "Why I Planted a Nut Grove." Some years ago, especially when we were in the war, it occurred to me that with all the modern machinery and scientific methods on the farm it wouldn't be long before we would be producing much more food than could be consumed, hence the prices for farm commodities would fall so low there would be no profit in them. The last few years have proven my contention was right.
So I got to looking around for something to specialize in and became interested in the new improved thin shelled black walnuts that the late J. F. Jones was introducing. I know there is danger in specializing in any one thing but, in summing up the following regarding black walnuts, it looked to me like as good or better a bet than any thing else. First, we know that the demand for the high black walnut flavor has caused it to be profitable for carloads of kernels to be cracked and shipped to the cities from the natural black walnut belt. Although this seedling product has been somewhat improved in quality the last few years I still feel that the demand for this high flavored nut for home use, in confections and baking and ice cream making, will make a high demand for an improved and uniform meat such as can be produced with the grafted trees. With the growing interest in natural foods, and less animal meat, I believe the demand will increase as our groves come into bearing.
In 1926 I hazarded a planting of 150 trees, the next year I was steamed up to the place where I decided I should plant more, and then each year following, until my last planting this year, gives me one thousand thrifty growing black walnuts, mostly Thomas variety which I think is the best from what I have observed in my own grove.
In planting I set the first ones 50 x 50 ft. Some thought it was too close but I couldn't see it.
The next planting I made 50 x 50 feet and then at the next planting I started to wake up after seeing how rapidly the first ones were growing, and I decided to make them 60 x 60 feet. The last planting I made this year 60 x 60 feet and I would advise 60 x 70 feet to any one who asks me how far apart to plant.
To me it seems queer just why more people don't plant them. On the basis of 60 x 70 feet you could farm indefinitely, with the tree crop coming on and even bearing for many years, while you are contenting your heart growing annual crops to lose money on.
As to bearing, two years ago I had the older planting and many of the younger trees loaded. One five year Thomas had about 400 nuts. Three to five year trees had 50 to 250 and 300 nuts. My crop that year was fourteen bushels which I sold for 15c per lb or $5.00 and $6.00 per bushel. Last year I didn't have so many but this year I first said I would have 50 bushels. I'm starting to believe now I was a little high in my guess but many trees are nicely loaded.
Now regarding cost of carrying the grove, as I'm a sweet corn drier I have the most of my farm in corn. I farmed the grove in corn the first five years and hardly missed the space used for trees. I proved what I stated above that one can plant trees and keep on farming and hardly miss the tree space. If planted 70 feet apart one can farm still more land. In cultivating the corn the trees are cultivated, which cuts down the extra cost of caring for them, although of course one must cultivate them if he expects to have them grow and develop rapidly.
I now have my oldest trees in sod, mostly weeds this year, but I intend to sow it to grass. I expect then to mow it early in June and use it for a mulch and then mow it maybe a couple of times more for looks sake and let the grass lie.
Now another interesting point I want to present to the intending planter of a nut grove is the error of following the foolish advice given out by some of planting seedlings and then grafting them. I say this not for the benefit of the nurserymen but for the financial benefit of the planter. First, the grafting of nut trees is a highly technical job and requires an enormous number of moves, from the first thing of cutting the grafting wood at the proper time in the winter and carefully storing it, until the cutting off of the stocks and knowing how long to let them bleed, and then grafting at the proper time, the proper shading of the graft, sprouting, staking, and tying up of the rapidly growing graft until the end of the growing season, so that the average man will have fallen down long before the season is over. And even if he has the time to do this, which the busy man hasn't, it will take him several years to learn to graft. By the time he has his legs run off over a period of five or seven years going from tree to tree set 60 or 70 feet apart doing more duties than he ever thought were needed, he will have a spotty grove of trees from one year old to bearing age, and then he will wake up and find that the first grafted ones are bearing so well, that should he have bought grafted trees and set them all out at one time the crop would have paid for the complete planting and he would have saved the long agony of trying to get a grove started. Even then he might not have one started, for grafting nut trees is a job every body does not seem able to grasp.
At the same time I feel that everybody who has a planting should learn the art of grafting. The few nurserymen now growing grafted nut trees are very willing to teach you and it is nice to be able to turn the fence row seedlings into profitable trees, it's nice to have the kick of feeling you can develop a wonderful tree with your own hand. And again, although I have had, I would say 95 per cent of my planted trees to grow, still here and there a top will die and suckers come up. As the tree roots are established it's nice to be able to stick a graft on these and save waiting a year to replant them with nursery trees.
In closing I wish also to suggest that, in making a large planting of black walnuts, plant a few pecans, hicans, hickories and any other good trees recommended by the nurserymen. They are all ornamental and bear fine nuts for home use and maybe local trade. If any wish to ask questions I will attempt to answer them now. And don't forget to come up to see my place on the bus tour tomorrow as I shall be very glad to welcome all and have you learn anything you can from what I have done and mistakes I have made.
Please bear in mind that in every move we must remember that this is a new industry of the soil and, although we believe it has a great future, all groving procedure must be felt out and experimented with as we have no guide to go by, just ideas, and you can expect to make some mistakes. But that is life.
* * * * *
The President asked Dr. Deming to speak of the death of Mr. Bixby.
Dr. Deming: On August 16th not a single member of this association, so far as I know, was aware that Mr. Bixby was even ill, and yet on that day he was dead. Mrs. Bixby has written me an account of his illness and his life. He had pneumonia in March from which he never fully recovered. The cause of his death was not known until after his death.
I knew Mr. Bixby very well and came to appreciate his very sterling qualities. He was always willing to take any amount of trouble and spend any amount of money on his nut culture experiments.
I will now read Mrs. Bixby's account of his life.
Willard G. Bixby was born July 13, 1868 at Salem, Massachusetts, the son of Henry M. and Eliza (Symonds) Bixby. In 1898, he married Genevieve Cole who died in 1901. He married second, Ida Elise Tieleke who survives him. His early education was received in the public schools in Salem and, after graduation from high school, he entered Massachusetts Institute of Technology from which he was graduated in 1889 with the degree of S.B. and the highest honors. After receiving this degree, he remained at the institute as an instructor in mechanical engineering, later becoming associated with the Pneumatic Dynamite Gun Company of New York, following which he became connected with the American Bell Telephone Company of Boston. In 1891, he entered the employ of S. M. Bixby and Company, manufacturers of shoe blacking. The firm became involved financially in 1895 and until 1898 was conducted by a receiver. Mr. Bixby interested capitalists and organized a corporation to take over the business of the old company. Mr. Bixby was elected treasurer and held that position until 1911, when he was chosen vice-president. He paid special attention to the manufacturing department. Under the new management the company met modern trade conditions and the business which developed was one of the largest and most prosperous in this line in the country.
Following the merging of the Bixby firm with the makers of the 2 in 1 shoe polish, Mr. Bixby retired from that business, and devoted his time to the propagation and cultivation of nut trees. On his Grand Avenue property in Baldwin, where he resided, he had gathered approximately 1,000 trees of almost every variety from all over the world. His experiments in grafting and in crossing varieties, were subject of several articles in national magazines and newspapers. One article, under the title of "Growing Timber for Profit," appeared in a recent issue of the American Forests. He was also interested in curly black walnut and birdseye maple woods. His latest experiment on which he was working at the time of his death was rooting hazels from leaf cuttings, and at this he was partly successful. Mr. Bixby was deeply interested in civic affairs. He was a charter member of the Baldwin United Civic Association, trustee of the Baldwin Public Library, director of the Baldwin Savings and Loan Association, former Fire Commissioner, chairman of the Baldwin Lighting Commission, member of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Baldwin, and organist of the Men's Bible Class, as well as a teacher of the Sunday School. Mr. Bixby's conservative New England training made him a valuable worker for any cause he espoused. He never sought honor and publicity, rather preferring to do his share quietly and modestly. Besides his wife, three children survive him, Willard F., a student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Katherine E., just recently graduated from the Baldwin High School, and Ida T., still at the Baldwin High School.
The President: I will also call on Dr. Smith.
Dr. Smith: Mr. Bixby had a great many fine qualities, but first of all he had that great characteristic, intelligent inquiry. He had great persistency and great industry, and a wide-awake mind.
Now the average American has no interest in anything but his job and his own particular pleasures. In other words, he has no avocation. We are here because we have the avocation of nut growing. One of the most interested members of this association was Mr. Bixby. He had applied to it his great brain and statistical equipment. He might have had a yacht or spent his money on race horses, but instead of that he picked out something new. It is a great pity that his life had to be snuffed out just when he was needed most. He used his spare time in having a useful avocation.
On motion of Prof. Neilson the organization expressed its appreciation of Mr. Bixby by rising and standing one minute in tribute to his memory.
At the suggestion of Mr. Reed the following night letter was sent to Dr. Morris who has been confined to his home for a long time and has not been able to attend the conventions.
Downingtown, Penn. Sept. 11, 1933
Dr. Robert T. Morris Merribrooke Farm Stamford Conn.
The Northern Nut Growers Association in convention at Downingtown, Pa., sends you its affectionate greetings. Your long years of association with us and your priceless service to the association and to nut growing and the gracious charm of your presence have so endeared you to us that our meetings are quite incomplete without you. We pray for your speedy restoration to health and return to our councils. Northern Nut Growers Association
The meeting was then adjourned to Mr. Hershey's nursery and nut grove and the members and visitors were privileged to inspect his large stock of nut trees and plants and the specimen plantings, some of which are very rare varieties. A delicious supper was then served by Mr. and Mrs. Hershey on the lawn of the Hershey home. Those present expressing their appreciation by a rising vote of thanks.
A Black Walnut Grove and Why
By DR. F. L. BAUM
I will give you the "why" first. Early in 1923, we realized the need of a diversion, something which would take us out into the open every day of the year and bring us closer to nature, which would be a source of pleasure with prospects of a material return in the future when I wish to retire from the active practice of medicine. After investigating several projects, we finally decided that a black walnut grove would best meet our needs.
In the December issue, 1925, of the American Nut Journal, I read "Eventually, why not now?" In that article, Mr. T. P. Littlepage said: "The time will come when the northern states will produce big groves of nut trees." The Journal's comment was "What are we waiting for?" I too wondered because, long before the trees had leaves, I had visions of them bearing to the extent of breaking the limbs from the weight of nuts.
When this picture was taken, I asked myself this question, "Was it a venture of fools rushing in where angels fear to tread?" Also I began to think that the quotations in the article I read were sales propaganda put forth by high-pressure salesmen. Encouragements came later when we discovered thirteen nuts on this tree and when my grafts grew on seedlings.
About this time pests came such as caterpillars, rose chafers, leaf hoppers, bud worms and, now my worst enemy, a borer which I believe is a cherry tree borer. I have placed a section of a tree on the table which was attacked by this insect. The question has been asked if it were not a blight canker which killed this tree. When I noticed the tree in distress the leaves were drooping and the bark was intact and smooth, with a wet spot the size of a pin point about three feet above the ground. A stab wound revealed the bark loose and full of holes which extended into the sapwood. All of our trees have been treated for the destruction of this pest. Next Spring they will receive a second treatment. By this method we will overcome our difficulty.
In July of this year my men who were picking caterpillars came with this information, "There is no necessity for hunting caterpillars as there is a fly stinging them." The insect, the size of a wasp, is part black and part yellow.
In the evening they said that if some of the trees in the backfield were not propped, they would break down due to the pressure of so many nuts on them.
(Lantern slide pictures of individual trees were then shown and described by Dr. Baum.)
The vision I had a few years ago is becoming a reality. I now wonder if it might not have been a case of angels rushing in and other fellows staying out. We may conclude "Now, not eventually."
Question: Do caterpillars give you any trouble?
Dr. Baum: Yes, they give me considerable trouble. I sprayed this year with arsenate of lead. For a few years I burned them off but last year I sprayed.
Question: Do seedlings come up?
Dr. Baum: A few, I mow them down.
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Dr. Smith: I want to talk to you about the possibility of making some small cash contributions next summer for a nut contest. We have not had any contributions for a nut contest for some time and it is the only way we can get any new varieties. I would like to start this nut contest next September. It will be necessary to get a lot of people interested and a lot of publicity in the newspapers. We could give a first prize of $25.00, some $5.00 and some $3.00 prizes. It means we would have to have $60.00 or $75.00.
Perhaps we can make a more definite call next September.
Dr. Theiss: I would like to get any information that is available on the pollinization of filberts. The difficulty seems to be in getting pollinators.
The President: There is full information on that subject in the bulletin issued of Prof. Slate of the Geneva Experiment Station.
Prof. Slate, what can you tell us about it? Have you any information other than what was published in that bulletin?
Prof. Slate: We have this difficulty, that the pollen bearing catkins seem to ripen very early and then the first cold snap freezes them.
Dr. Smith: I would like to know something about the market for shagbarks and if the market is for cracked nuts.
The President: There is a very small market for them in Cleveland, Ohio. Is there any information about hickory nuts?
Prof. Neilson: Hickory nuts frequently sell for about 10c a pound, sometimes as low as three pounds for a quarter.
After the discussion closed three telegrams were read, from the Kellogg Hotel, The Agard Hotel and The Chamber of Commerce of Battle Creek, Mich. inviting the association to hold its next meeting in that city. A motion was unanimously adopted to hold the next convention there September 10th and 11th, 1934.
Motion was made to give Mr. Z. H. Ellis a life membership in return for his contribution of $50.00. The motion carried.
Miss Sawyer: Is the mollissima chestnut blight proof?
The President: I should like to have Dr. Smith answer that question.
Dr. Smith: The mollissima chestnut came from China where it has been exposed to the blight for ages. It is blight resistant but not blight proof. An occasional tree gets the blight and dies; an occasional tree gets the blight and recovers. It is the opinion of Mr. G. F. Gravatt, of the United States Department of Agriculture, that the physical prosperity of the tree has much to do with its ability to throw off this disease. For example, some of the trees at Bell, Maryland, got to be a foot in diameter and bore crops, without any sign of blight until the terrible drought year of 1930 when some of them developed blight and then later recovered from it. I think mollissima chestnuts are less likely to die than cherries or peaches, and probably less likely than apples.
While the subject of blight resistance in chestnuts is up, I should like to call attention to the fact that there are many Japanese chestnuts in the eastern part of the United States that have survived the blight. Some of them bear good nuts, very good nuts, although most of the Japanese have a properly bad reputation for flavor. Doubtless an experimenter has a chance of producing something very valuable by breeding from the best blight resistant Japanese chestnuts now surviving in the eastern United States.
Green Shoot Grafting of Trees
By ROBERT T. MORRIS, M. D. New York
In the course of experimental work with trees I grafted scions of several species and varieties into stocks of their respective genera at times of the year when grafting is not commonly done.
Scions were taken directly from one tree and placed at once in another tree. To this method I gave the name of "immediate grafting" in order to distinguish it from grafting with stored scions which might be called "mediate grafting" indicating the intermediate step of storage. Immediate grafting was successful in mid-winter in Connecticut but I had no thought of making it a practical feature of our work beyond the recording of a research fact.
Immediate grafting was successful in mid-summer in Connecticut. The procedure was very different from that of winter grafting. In summer the new green growth of the year was cut away completely from a scion and the remaining wood of one or more previous year's growth was depended upon for sending out shoots from latent buds. That is what happens after accidents to limbs or to trunks of trees and it occurred in the same way with my scions. Furthermore, it seemed to offer new hope for the propagation of walnuts, maples, and grapes, for example, because the free flowing sap of such species in the spring and early summer has led to attacks upon the sap by bacteria and fungi which ruin repair cells.
I have already published elsewhere the statement that immediate grafting may be done in the way described in any month of the year with many kinds of plants. Exceptions to this rule will doubtless appear here and there. For example, the grafting of trees in August would not be safe in Connecticut because the new young shoots would be killed by September frosts. That is the reason for August cutting of brush by farmers. The tender new shoots that are sent out from latent stump buds become frosted and the entire plant may die.
On account of an illness that had kept me confined to the house most of the time for some months, I had allowed the spring grafting season to pass this year. Stored scions of many kinds lay under a heap of leaves at the rear of my garage. The drying-out process had been intensified by an employee who made a spring clean-up of the yard and who looked upon this heap of leaves as something upon which creditable showing for his work might be made. A month or so later I kicked over the few remaining broken remnants of scions for no reason in particular. Down near the ground I observed that two hybrid chestnut scions which had been trampled into the ground had retained some moisture. Each one had sent out a pale canary-colored shoot of the sort with which we are painfully familiar. The shoot on one scion was about an inch and a third in length with well-formed unfolding sickly yellow leaves. The other scion had a shoot of the same kind but only about one-third of an inch in length and with yellow leaves barely out of bud-bursting form. It occurred to me that my old method of waxing the entire scion, leaves and all in this case, might be done as an experiment in order to see how long these greatly started shoots would hold up if desiccation was prevented and always with the possibility of a surprise.
Some years ago I had waxed some hazel scions from the West that had burst their buds and they all grew but the test was by no means so severe as it was with these yellow chestnut upstarts. The rule of discarding scions that are not wholly dormant was about to be rudely broken; waxing changed the whole situation. A miser does not scrutinize his treasure more acutely than we horticulturists do when getting out scions that have been stored during the winter and the voice of Demeter is calling us to the side of our own wards. How sadly a million nurserymen have thrown away a billion started scions of valuable kinds. My two chestnut scions had gone far beyond the hopeless stage but now perhaps I could be a doctor to them. If my two canary birds could be made to sing then would I also sing.
They were dipped in a dish of melted parafin wax for an instant and then quickly shaken in the air before scorching could occur. The scions were then grafted into a small chinquapin stock. A few days later one of the larger leaves of the larger shoot had cleared itself from the wax coating and had begun to expand widely, turning to a natural green color. The stem of the shoot turned to a normal brownish red. Two tiny shoots then broke through the wax of the larger shoot, looking like axillary bud shoots until closer examination showed them to be scale bud shoots. That should interest plant physiologists. Eventually the cramped leaves remaining under wax coating that was unnecessarily dense finally dropped away useless. The single green leaf and the two scale bud shoots went on to natural development. The smaller shoot of the other scion managed to burst through the wax completely and made normal growth.
After these scions were well under way I went out and searched in the loose dirt and leaves of the old heap and found another hybrid chestnut scion that presented the allusive emblem of a canary bird. This one had a shoot of about half of one inch in length and it burst completely through the wax, to make a fine little twig.
So much for an experiment that led immediately to one of far greater importance. If canary bird shoots could be made to break rules of horticultural theory and of recorded fact perhaps we might note the principle and apply it to the experimental grafting of green shoots of the year in tree propagation. This is what lawyers might call a non sequitur. Such grafting had always been a failure so far as I knew, and certainly my own attempts had failed in former years. Grafting of new growth of the year upon new growth of the year in the growing season is an established feature of horticultural experiment with certain annual plants. Why had it so signally failed with perennial plants and most impressively with trees? Doubtless plants produce in their leaves a hormone which directs certain enzymes that conduct wound repair by cell division. If plants which do not lignify for winter manage to direct successful wound repair after grafting and if plants which do lignify for winter do not conduct successful repair of grafted new growth it occurred to me in a speculative way that the reason might perhaps be sought in the nature of the two different kinds of hormones or of enzymes belonging to annuals and to perennials respectively. The difference might possibly depend upon the arrangement of ions, anions and cations upon two sides of the permeable membrane of a repair cell. The cell is an electrolyte and therefore division of the cell in course of preparation for multiplication might perhaps depend upon an electric impulse so delicately in balance that Nature for some cryptic reason might prefer not to allow the necessary balance to go toward cell division in grafts consisting of green growth of the year in perennials. Perhaps I might defeat natural processes by leaving a leaf or part of one at the distal part of a green graft shoot. This leaf might perhaps elaborate the necessary hormones or enzymes for wound repair purposes—and also for conducting polarity of sap movement toward maintenance of that scion and leaf.
We need not speculate further upon the philosophy of the subject because I took it up at this point for pragmatic tests experimentally. The horticulturist does not have to go to the theatre for thrills. My advance report at this moment comes at a time when a scientist would demand more works along with faith and my only reason for presenting incomplete notes at this time is that they seem to be fascinating in their outlook and no one knows how much experiment may be permitted me for next year at Merribrooke.
The summer was well along when my canary bird shoots opened a vista. The vista appeared at a time of drought when plant propagators wait for better days. It seemed to be necessary to get in a part of the work at least on July 28th and we then had the drought intensified by five more days of great heat, temperatures ranged above 90 degrees F. in the shade and above 140 degrees F. in the sun. After this period of heat and drought we had abundant rains. All grafts were wax treated in these experiments. In no case was an entire leaf left at the distal end of a graft because it was felt that even one-fourth of one leaf would attend to the required functions.
Exp. No. 1. A growing persimmon shoot about two feet long was cut up into scions with a few buds each, and about one-fourth of a leaf allowed to remain at the distal end of each scion, other leaves on each scion being snipped off. Each scion including its remnant of leaf was dipped in melted parapin wax. Two of these were grafted upon green shoots of another persimmon, the latter cut back to make stubs for reception of cleft grafts. Three of the scions were inserted in bark slots in older wood. Note, Sept. 9th, Green leaf part including its petiole had dropped off from all five scions. A small slit in the bark of each graft for investigation showed that the cambium was green in four grafts, the fifth graft was completely dead.
Exp. No. 2. On July 28th three persimmon scions consisting of last year's wood and each one carrying a couple of inches of new growth with a terminal trimmed leaf were grafted into last year's wood on another persimmon tree. Note. Sept. 9th. All three grafts dead including both old and new wood.
Exp. No. 3. July 28th. One green persimmon scion with terminal leaf inserted in bark slot of branch one inch in diameter cut back for purpose. Note Sept. 9th. Dead.
On August 2nd the drought had been broken. All trees seemed to have put up top buds on account of drought and heat. The following experiments were made with green growth of the year but with new top buds much to my regret at having no actively unfolding shoots for furnishing scions.
Exp. No. 4. Aug 2nd. Persimmon tree (a) One graft, green on green; one green graft on old wood. Note. Sept. 9th. Terminal leaves remained green several days after grafting but by Sept. 9th all had fallen off. Small slit in bark showed cambium of grafts still green.
Persimmon tree (b) Two green grafts on green. One green graft in bark slot of older wood. Note Sept. 9th. Terminal leaves had finally died but two of the buds of green graft on green have burst forth into leaf. These will probably winterkill. Green in old wood has green cambium but no swelling bud.
Exp. No. 5 Aug 2nd. Persimmon tree (c) One green on old wood. Sept. 9th. Leaf dead, cambium of stem green.
Exp. No. 6. Aug 2nd. Persimmon tree (d) One green on old wood. Sept. 9th. Leaf dead, cambium of stem green.
Exp. No. 7. Aug. 2nd. Persimmon tree (e) Three greens on old wood. Sept. 9th. Leaves dead, one stem dead, cambium of two stems green.
Exp. No. 8. Aug. 2nd. Papaw tree. Two greens on green, two greens on old wood. Sept. 9th. Two greens on green have buds enlarged and ready to burst. One green on old wood is not enlarging its buds. One green on old wood is dead.
Exp. No. 9. Aug. 2nd. English walnut. Four greens on green. Sept. 9th. Leaflets dead on all. Petiole dead on one, stem cambium green. Petioles bright green on three and the cambium green on these.
Comment. I could not take daily notes which would have been very important. A general statement will cover the point that the terminal leaf on a scion seldom died until it had functioned for at least a week. Some of them functioned for more than two weeks and one of them for at least four weeks, failing only a day or two ago. This would seem to mean that the terminal leaves in scions conducted or helped to conduct repair in green graft wounds to a point where buds are now bursting on two persimmon scions. Two pawpaw scions have enlarged buds to the point of bursting. The terminal leaves on scions seemed to conduct repair up to a point where lignifying for the winter is now going on. This cannot be determined until winter passes but I have never obtained anything like this effect until experimenting with the terminal leaf theory for the first time this year. The most striking effect so far as appearance goes is with the English walnut grafts with their bright green stems.
If I may have opportunity for conducting experiments next summer I shall begin earlier by pinching off the buds of growing shoots, giving them a week of rest and then cutting these shoots up into scions. If buds then start off like those of two persimmons and two papaws they will have time for lignifying.
My whole lesson of this season would seem to mean that after properly checked experiments we may perhaps add what I call "green grafting" to the other form of immediate grafting. The practical feature of this whole new phase in grafting method is an extension of the grafting season to include every month of the year. Scion grafting of perennials in the latitude and longitude of Connecticut had formerly been confined to about two month's in the farmer's rush season, and with general failure in the grafting of some species which may now be grafted successfully.
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Letter from Prof. Colby
Agricultural Experiment Station Urbana, Illinois
I regret very much indeed that I cannot attend the meeting of the Nut Growers Association this year. This letter bears my very best wishes and hopes for a successful meeting. We shall miss Mr. Bixby's pleasing and helpful personality. Some time ago I promised to give you a report on some of our activities here and if you think it is worth while, I would appreciate your reading it to the group.
There is an increasing interest in nut culture in Illinois. Wholly aside from the commercial aspects which have been so profitably developed in southern Illinois is a project of recent development, one in Extension work in top working seedling walnuts and pecans with improved varieties. This project is sponsored by the Department of Horticulture, University of Illinois, and the Extension Forester of the State Natural History Survey, with the cooperation of the County Farm Advisers.
Last fall in Gallatin County native pecans of the best grades sold for 18 cents per pound on the market, while the average tree run stock was bringing six cents. With a native pecan crop from one county in Illinois, more or less ungraded, selling for $100,000 in a recent year, thinking horticulturists in the state are beginning to feel that there are potential profits in nut culture where better varieties are planted or top worked. Seedling trees for top working are already growing in abundance in many sections of the state with an ideal climate and soil for northern nut production.
Last year seven counties in Illinois carried on the top working project. This year approximately three times that number have been enrolled. In addition, groups from neighboring counties have been present at the demonstrations. Growers from Iowa and Indiana have also attended. The total attendance has run into the hundreds, both men and women, most of them actual growers.
All the meetings are held out of doors in the orchard or nursery and the group is instructed in the propagation of nut trees through grafting and budding. Nut growers of the immediate locality are glad to assist with the work. After the discussion and demonstration, all present are invited to learn how to do the work by actual participation and many become sufficiently skilled to top work their own trees upon their return home. Possibilities of this type of extension work are almost unlimited.
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Letter from J. U. Gellatly
I enclose a short chart or graph of the flowering habits of some of my leading walnut trees. I started in 1930 to keep a record of some of the trees and have added a number since till this year when I kept a record of 17 different trees. The ones shown cover the full time from May 12th to June 25th.
Some new ideas in budding procedure that may be of value and interest I also include herein that others may test them out as I am doing. But even if they fail with me it will not prove that they have no value, for the generally approved methods have failed to give commercial results here.
My main idea was to try to find a new system of handling the budding operations that would give more definite results and if possible to eliminate the use of a wax melter and the waxing of buds. My first trial consisted in the use of florist's tin foil. Cutting bud from bud stick with my new style bud cutter, I cut out the patch from stalk and placed bud in place and with two or three turns of raffia, or rubber bands, secured bud in place, then put 2 wraps of tinfoil around the bud and stalk extending from one inch below to one inch above bud, then with hand pressed tinfoil tightly to shape of bud and stalk, then completely wrapped with raffia and tied securely. This makes a neat job and is pleasant and convenient to work with.
I have today examined some buds so treated and put on the 13th of August and they appear to be in prime shape, no apparent flooding or souring of the bud patch. As this tin foil cost me 25c per pound, I had a happy thought of using cellophane which is much cheaper and is equally easy to use, on the whole, as the tinfoil as, while it is in the first operation of actually applying to stalk not just as easily put on, it has an important advantage that offsets this, which is the ease with which one can see that the bud is in the exact place, while the tying is taking place.
My present method of using the cellophane is to apply a double wrapping of cellophane directly over the bud then to securely wrap from one-half inch below bud to one-half inch above bud. This makes a good air and moisture proof job. Experience may modify or eliminate some parts of this procedure, and it is with this in view that I pass this on that others may take it up and work out the best procedure from a wider experience than one can give.
From my experience I would suggest that if one is marking or cutting the patch on the stalk 8 or 10 days ahead of placing the bud thereon, that one be very careful not to cut too deeply as a large percentage of those I so cut were so badly discolored that I had to cut a new place when placing the bud, as those done 10 days previous showed a one-eighth inch dead and discolored portion around the cut that extend one-sixteenth inch into the trunk of the tree, and no union could possibly take place on such a spoiled cambium surface.
Bus Tour September 12th
By J. W. HERSHEY
Leaving the Hotel Swan at 8:45 A.M. with a bus load and 8 cars the tour proceeded to Dr. Truman W. Jones' grove of 800 trees, 4 and 6 years old, 6 miles west of Coatesville on the Lincoln Highway. Dr. Jones has continually farmed his land which has helped greatly to carry the planting.
The next stop was at the nursery of the late J. F. Jones, now operated by his daughter Mildred, south of Lancaster. Here we saw the interesting test orchard of English walnuts, pecans and black walnuts. Most interesting was the test block of hybrid filbert-hazels started by Mr. Jones some years ago.
The next stop was at C. F. Hostetter's 1,000 tree grove at Bird-in-Hand, east of Lancaster, where we saw what Mr. Hostetter told about in his paper yesterday. His trees all looked nice and many trees were well loaded with nuts.
Next stop was at L. K. Hostetter's grove of 800 trees near Oregon. Here very interesting observations were made in tree and grove procedure. Part of the grove is now in blue grass and sheep, making a very beautiful setting. Part is interplanted with locust trees, the idea being to feed the ground with a legume tree and get something in return from the wood. As the locusts crowd the walnuts they will be cut.
Demonstrations were given in hulling walnuts with a Ford car which was done by jacking up one rear wheel. A trough is inserted under the wheel lined with a piece of truck tire. A mud chain is put on the wheel and as the wheel revolves, nuts are poured in via a metal chute and the nuts fly out the other end very well hulled. The jack is used to adjust the wheel to different sizes of nuts.
Lem's next eye-opener was a brand new method of separating the hulls from the nuts. Two 2-inch pipes are laid on an incline the thickness of a walnut hull, about a half inch, apart. The pipes revolve and the hulls and nuts are poured on at the top. As they roll down the incline, and the rolls revolve, the hulls are caught by the rolls or pipes and pulled through the crack between them. A most remarkable and simple method solving one of the major problems in commercial walnut growing.
The last stop was made at Dr. Frank Baum's grove at Yellow House, 8 miles east of Reading on the Boyertown highway. Here luncheon was served by Dr. and Mrs. Baum, the outstanding feature being walnut ice cream and walnut kisses.
After the luncheon at Dr. Baum's the following business was transacted:
Dr. Deming, Chairman Nominating Committee, presented the following nominations:
President Frank H. Frey Vice-President Dr. G. A. Zimmerman Secretary George L. Slate Treasurer Newton H. Russell
On motion duly made and carried these officers were elected by acclamation.
Motion was made, seconded and carried that the annual dues be $2.00 same not to include a subscription to our official journal the National Nut News.
Motion by Mr. Reed was seconded and carried that where the member wished to do so one check could be submitted to our treasurer to cover both dues and subscription to the official journal and the treasurer will remit the subscription to the National Nut News.
Mr. Reed then explained for the benefit of those present the arrangement whereby our association is affiliated with the American Horticultural Society and by maintaining its membership in that society each member of our association may secure a membership in the American Horticultural Society on payment of $2.00 dues per annum instead of the customary dues of $3.00. Each member of the society receives the National Horticultural Magazine of which Mr. Reed is the nut editor. The magazine is issued quarterly, at present, and it is the intention to have one or more articles on nut trees in each issue.
On motion by Dr. Smith, duly seconded and carried the board of directors are required to authorize a budget of expenditures for each year and this was fixed at $350.00 for expenses for year ending September 10th, 1934. The President to advise the officers each year of the sums appropriated for certain expenses.
On motion by Mr. Russell, seconded by Dr. Weber and carried, article two of the by-laws was revised to cover the proper dues for various memberships and will be so recorded in the by-laws on page 9.
On motion by Mr. Hershey, seconded by Dr. Weber and carried it was agreed that five copies of each annual bulletin be mailed by the secretary or the person in charge of printing the bulletin to each officer for distribution as he sees fit; and that one copy of the bulletin be sent gratis to each non-member who participates in the program at our annual conventions.
A rising vote of thanks was given Dr. and Mrs. Baum for the delectable luncheon served by them.
An inspection was then made of Dr. Baum's 1,200 tree grove. Many trees were loaded and all looking good. Here two cultural problems were discussed. Relative to the walnut blight, he showed us one tree that was afflicted near the ground and he started to mound soil around it. After three years of increasing the mound it is now 2-1/2 feet high and the tree is thriving and bearing, with every indication that it has overcome the disease. Opinion was expressed that it threw out new roots above the wound to save itself. The experiment is of immense value to orchard procedure.
In observing a few of such trees opinion was expressed that in walnut orcharding, as in fruit orcharding, there will be a few trees that will have to be replaced the first few years and is something not to be worried about. Dr. G. A. Zimmerman said, "Why worry about the blight? The wild ones have always had it to a small extent. Spread is so slow it isn't perceptible, damage being almost nil, so let's forget it."
Banquet Tuesday Evening September 12th
The convention closed with a banquet held in the private dining room of the Swan Hotel. On request of the President Mr. John W. Hershey introduced the speakers of the evening. Rev. G. Paul Musselman spoke briefly and was followed by the after-dinner speaker, Mr. Al Bergstrom, Superintendent of Police of Coatesville, Pa. His subject was "Nuts—I Crack Them as You Like Them," and with many interesting jokes and humorous stories he portrayed an interesting picture of the many problems that have to be met and solved by police officers. Each one privileged to hear this forceful speaker was deeply impressed with the responsibility that goes with citizenship.
The President: We will now hear the report of the committee on Hybrids and Promising Seedlings.
Dr. Zimmerman, Chairman, gave an oral report calling attention to some of the more important hybrids and new seedlings described by other members during the sessions of the convention and concluded by stating that the most important step in testing hybrids was to have interested people plant a number of promising hybrids of hickories and black walnuts and keep accurate records of these seedlings (second generation hybrids). There was some discussion as to whether the Norton was a pure pecan or a hybrid. Mr. C. A. Reed stated he had seen the parent tree himself and believed it to be a pure pecan. Mr. J. W. Hershey stated that he believed it to be a hican, basing his opinion in part on its showing hybridity as it is such a strong grower. He said he had a number of Norton trees in the nursery and would be glad to sell them at a nominal price to those who would be interested in testing them further.
The President: We will now have the report of the resolutions committee.
Report of the Resolutions Committee
Be it Resolved:
That we express our appreciation of the generosity and public spirit of Mr. W. K. Kellogg in making possible one of the largest experimental projects in nut culture in the northern United States.
That we express our sincere thanks to Mr. and Mrs. Hershey and Dr. and Mrs. Baum for the delicious luncheons served our members and guests.
That we express our sincere thanks to the Swan Hotel management and to the citizens and business men of Downingtown for accommodations and services rendered: to the program committee and committee on local arrangements for the very complete plans and their efficient execution; to the speakers who have taken part in the program; to the exhibitors and to the officers and members who have provided a most interesting and educational program and to Messrs. Hershey, L. K. Hostetter, C. F. Hostetter, the Jones Nurseries and Drs. Baum and Jones for the privilege of inspecting their nut tree plantings.
And we again express our regrets that Dr. Morris could not be with us and trust his health will improve.
That we express our sincere thanks to Mr. O. C. Lightner for the efficient manner in which articles and papers submitted by our members were published in our official journal, the "NATIONAL NUT NEWS," and for the excellent printing of our annual report.
We wish to express our deep sorrow over the loss of our faithful member, Past President and Secretary, Mr. Willard G. Bixby whose passing was so touchingly referred to in our business meeting.
Prof. James A. Neilson, Chairman Dr. Harry R. Weber Frank H. Frey
A motion was made and seconded to accept the report of the Resolutions Committee. (Carried unanimously.)
Professor A. C. McIntyre of the Pennsylvania State Forestry Service was then called upon and discussed the black walnut as a timber tree. He called attention to the fact that the black locust is a legume of high value and acts as a stimulant to the growth of other trees and are themselves excellent for use later as fence posts. In considering the relative value of various nut trees as shade trees he stressed the fact that the time of leafing out in the spring and the dropping of the leaves in the fall are important factors.
Motion was carried that the board of directors should formulate requirements for Honorary membership and have a proposition ready for discussion at the 1934 convention.
List of officers and committee members was then read. Same are recorded on pages 3 and 4.
The President: Attention is called to the fact that the annual dues are now only $2.00 and surely there are a large number of people interested in nut tree growing who will wish to join our association. I am sure each member will wish to subscribe for our official journal, the NATIONAL NUT NEWS, the subscription price of which is only $1.00 per year (in the United States) and remittance may be made through our Treasurer or direct to the News at 2810 South Michigan Ave., Chicago.
Those who desire to secure budded or grafted nut bearing trees will have their orders given proper attention by any of the following who are members of our association:
W. R. Fickes, Route 7, Wooster, Ohio.
Gerardi Nurseries, O'Fallon, Ill.
John W. Hershey, Downingtown, Pa.
Indiana Nut Nursery (J. W. Wilkinson, Prop.), Rockport, Ind.
J. F. Jones Nurseries, Box N. 356, Lancaster, Pa.
Michigan Nut Nursery (H. Burgart), Rt. 2, Union City, Mich.
E. A. Riehl Farm and Nursery, Godfrey, Ill.
Snyder Bros., Inc., Center Point, Iowa.
Sunny Ridge Nursery (Dr. J. Russell Smith), Round Hill, Va.
W. G. Bixby Nursery, 32 Grand Ave., Baldwin, N. Y.
J. U. Gellatly, West Bank, B. C., Canada.
The Living Tree Guild, 468 Fourth Ave., New York.
The latter has distributed a great deal of information on northern nut culture and I think a paper at our next convention outlining its work and accomplishments would be most valuable.
Each one present is cordially invited to attend our convention next year, September 10 and 11, 1934 at Battle Creek, Michigan.
As there is no further business, this the 24th Annual Convention of the Northern Nut Growers Association will be adjourned.
The Convention adjourned at 9:00 P.M.
By Clermont Co., Ohio
By Dr. Deming
Metal tree labels.
By W. R. Dunlap
Japanese walnut. Heartnut x butternut cross. Seedling English walnut.
By F. H. Frey
Black walnuts: Hillabolt, from Mrs. C. W. Freel, Pleasantville, Ia. Marion, from Mrs. C. W. Freel, Pleasantville, Ia. Metcalf, from Mrs. C. W. Freel, Pleasantville, Ia. Wheeling, from Mrs. C. W. Freel, Pleasantville, Ia. Worthington, from Mrs. C. W. Freel, Pleasantville, Ia. Kettler, from Fred Kettler, Plattesville, Wisc. Oklahoma Seedling (J. Rupestris, pp. 60 1932 report). Rohwer, from J. Rohwer, Grundy Center, Ia. Grundy, from J. Rohwer, Grundy Center, Ia. Stabler (one lobe), from O. H. Casper, Anna, Ill. Sample package of new method selling black walnuts, sliced shell and meats together. Mat made of cross sections of black walnuts fastened together with copper wire.
By J. U. Gellatly
Leaf tracing of bitternut x English walnut hybrid.
By Samuel Graham
Collection of black walnuts and hickory nuts from Ithaca, N. Y.
By J. R. Hershey
Little Giant nut cracker. Little Giant walnut huller.
By John W. Hershey
Collection of black walnuts, hickory nuts and pecans. One Thomas black walnut tree four feet tall, one year from graft bearing a Thomas walnut. John W. Hershey nut cracker.
By L. K. Hostetter
Monterey black walnut.
By F. F. Jones Nurseries
Ohio black walnut. Thomas black walnut. Ten Eyck black walnut. Pleas hicans. Buchanan filberts. Jones hybrid hazels and filberts. Alpine English walnuts. Hall English walnuts. Wiltz-mayette English walnuts.
By H. F. Stoke
Homeland black walnut. Exhibit of commercial 2-lb. package of black walnut kernels.
By Harry R. Weber
By Dr. G. A. Zimmerman
Collection of nuts.
Mrs. Laura Woodward Abbott, R. D. No. 2, Bristol, Pa. John Alcorn, Paoli, Pa.
Dr. Frank L. Baum, Boyertown, Pa. Mrs. Frank L. Baum, Boyertown, Pa. Miss Dorothy Baum, Boyertown, Pa. H. K. Beard, Schaefferstown, Pa. Mrs. H. K. Beard, Schaefferstown, Pa. Miss Elizabeth Beitler, Downingtown, Pa. Al. Bergstrom, Coatesville, Pa. Carl P. Birkinbine, Cynwyd, Pa. A. R. Buckwalter, Flemington, N. J.
G. Y. Clement, West Chester, Pa. Mrs. G. Y. Clement, West Chester, Pa. Oliver Croshaw, Hightstown, Pa. Elroy Curtis, Brookfield, Conn. Wm. Curtis, New York, N. Y.
Dr. W. C. Deming, 31 Owen St., Hartford, Conn. Milton Dull, Schaefferstown, Pa. Mrs. Milton Dull, Schaefferstown, Pa.
C. E. Endy, Yellow House, Pa. Mrs. C. E. Endy, Yellow House, Pa.
Prof. F. N. Fagan, State College, Pa. Frank H. Frey, Chicago, Ill.
Joseph B. Gable, Stewartstown, Pa. S. H. Graham, Ithaca, N. Y.
Paul W. Hafer, Lorane, Pa. J. W. Hartman, Sligo, Pa. Dr. Julian T. Hammond, Newtown, Pa. John K. Hershey, Ronks, Pa. J. R. Hershey, Kinzers, Pa. John W. Hershey, Downingtown, Pa. Mrs. John W. Hershey, Downingtown, Pa. C. F. Hostetter, Bird-in-Hand, Pa. Mrs. C. F. Hostetter, Bird-in-Hand, Pa. L. K. Hostetter, Lancaster, Pa.
Mrs. J. F. Jones, Lancaster, Pa. Miss Mildred Jones, Lancaster, Pa.
M. M. Kaufman, Clarion, Pa. Mortimer B. Kelly, Morristown, N. J. M. Glen Kirkpatrick, c/o Farm Journal, Philadelphia, Pa.
Mrs. Mary Laudermilch, Lebanan, Pa. E. J. Leitenberger, 3747 W. Park Ave., Philadelphia, Pa.
Wm. S. B. McCaleb, St. Davids, Pa. A. C. McIntyre, State College, Pa. Mrs. William McPherson, Downingtown, Pa. Upton Mehring, Keymar, Md. Mrs. Upton Mehring, Keymar, Md. F. K. Miller, Clarion, Pa. Lennard H. Mitchell, Washington, D. C. Mrs. Lennard H. Mitchell, Washington, D. C. Mrs. I. E. Murray, Downingtown, Pa. Rev. Paul Musselman, Downingtown, Pa.
Prof. J. A. Neilson, East Lansing, Mich. Mrs. J. A. Neilson, East Lansing, Mich.
Charles S. Phillips, Parkersville, Pa.
Prof. C. A. Reed, Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. John Rick, Reading, Pa. J. S. Rittenhouse, Lorane, Pa. Newton H. Russell, South Hadley, Mass. Mrs. N. H. Russell, South Hadley, Mass.
Miss Dorothy C. Sawyer, New York, N. Y. Adam S. Schultz, Hereford, Pa. George L. Slate, Geneva, N. Y. Samuel M. Smedlet, West Chester, Pa. Dr. J. Russell Smith, Swarthmore, Pa. Ella H. Snavely, R. D. No. 2, Manheim, Pa. H. R. Snavely, R. D. No. 2, Manheim, Pa. J. M. Somerville, Rimersburg, Pa. J. W. Sparks, R. D., Williamstown, N. J. C. D. Setler, Yellow House, Pa. H. F. Stokes, Roanoke, Va. Miss Ruth Stokes, Roanoke, Va. Jacob E. Stover, Springwood Farms, York, Pa. Mrs. Jacob E. Stover, Springwood Farms, York, Pa.
C. A. Tenney, Clear Spring, Md. Dr. R. E. Theiss, Lewisburg, Pa. Mrs. R. E. Theiss, Lewisburg, Pa.
Carl F. Walker, Cleveland Heights, Ohio. Robert Wallace, Paoli, Pa. Wm. S. Weaver, Macungie, Pa. Dr. Harry R. Weber, Cincinnati, Ohio. Mrs. Harry R. Weber, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Dr. G. A. Zimmerman, Harrisburg, Pa. Mrs. G. A. Zimmerman, Harrisburg, Pa.
BOOKS AND BULLETINS ON NORTHERN NUT GROWING
1. Nut Culture in the United States, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1896. Out of print and out of date but of great interest.
2. The Nut Culturist, Fuller, pub. Orange Judd Co., N. Y., 1906. Out of print and out of date but a systematic and well written treatise. These two books are the classics of American nut growing.
3. Nut Growing, Dr. Robert T. Morris, pub. MacMillan, N. Y. 2nd edition 1931, price $2.50. The modern authority, written in the author's entertaining and stimulating style.
4. Farmers' Bulletin No. 1501, 1926, Nut Tree Propagation, C. A. Reed, to be had free from U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. A very full bulletin with many illustrations.
5. Tree Crops, Dr. J. Russell Smith, pub. Harcourt, Brace & Co., N. Y., 1929, price $4.00. Includes the nut crop.
6. Annual reports of the Northern Nut Growers' Association from 1911 to date. To be had from the secretary. Prices on request.
7. Bulletin No. 5, Northern Nut Growers' Association, by W. G. Bixby. 2nd edition, 1920. To be had from the secretary. Price fifty cents.
8. Farmers' Bulletin No. 1392, Black Walnut Culture for both Timber and Nut Production. To be had from the Supt. of Documents, Gov. Printing Office, Washington, D. C. Price 5 cents.
9. Year Book Separate No. 1004, 1927, a brief article on northern nut growing, by C. A. Reed, to be had free from U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
10. Filberts—G. A. Slate—Bulletin No. 588, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, N. Y., December, 1930.
11. Leaflet No. 84, 1932, Planting Black Walnut, W. R. Mattoon and C. A. Reed, to be had free from U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
12. Harvesting and Marketing the Native Nut Crops of the North, by C. A. Reed, 1932, mimeographed bulletin, to be had free from U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
13. Dealers in Black Walnut Kernels, mimeographed bulletin by C. A. Reed, 1931, to be had free from U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
14. Eastern Nursery Catalogues Listing Nut Trees, mimeographed leaflet to be had free from U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
15. Twenty Years Progress in Northern Nut Culture. A 48-page booklet of valuable information and instruction by John W. Hershey, Nuticulturist, Downingtown, Penna. Price 25 cents.
16. The National Nut News, official organ of the Northern Nut Growers' Association, 2810 South Michigan Ave., Chicago, Illinois. Monthly, One Dollar a year.
17. Files of The American Nut Journal, to be had from the publishers, American Nurseryman Publishing Co., 39 State St., Rochester, N. Y.
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