* * * * *
Mr. Stoke: Would you consider chestnut hybrids worth while?
Mr. Slate: If you can get everything you need from the Chinese chestnut I see no reason for hybrids with any other.
Mr. Stoke: Dr. Arthur S. Colby has made a number of hybrids between Fuller and Chinese. I consider his hybrid No. 2 as promising; the nut is large, beautiful and of good quality. So far I have found no weevils in this hybrid. The bur is very thick and fleshy, with close-set spines. Possibly the curculio is not able to penetrate the thick husk in laying its eggs. Colby No. 2 is the most rapid grower of all my chestnuts.
PECANS WITH COMPANION EVERGREENS
Twenty years of experimenting with pecan trees at the Iowa Park station have revealed that pecans in the Wichita irrigated valley of Texas do very poorly in buffalo grass or Bermuda sod, much better when given clean cultivation, but best of all when planted with or near evergreens, particularly conifers.
[Footnote 15: Forty-Eighth Annual Report, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. P. 42. 1945.]
In 1926 some pecan trees were set along the west line of the farmstead. Most of these died soon after setting and the few that survived did not grow satisfactorily. Later, a general farmstead improvement program called for Arizona cypress along this line. In 1933, when these pecan trees were seven years old, they had made little growth and were in such poor condition that it was decided to ignore them and set the cypress on equal spacings. Some of the cypress trees were placed very near pecan trees while others were farther away. None of the pecans were removed, however.
As the cypress trees grew, the pecan trees near them began to take on new life, while the isolated pecan trees continued in their unthrifty state. As the years passed the pecans with companion cypress trees continued to increase in health and vigor until there was no doubt about the favorable influence of this companionship. At the time the cypress trees were set close to the older pecans, other pecan trees were being set in various locations on the farmstead; some in open sod and others with or near evergreens of various types. The behavior of these trees also confirms the value of companion evergreens for pecans in the Wichita irrigated valley.
At the age of seven years the pecan trees were about the same size and in equally poor condition. The treatment as far as cultivation and irrigation is concerned has been the same. Hence, the great contrast in size of the pecan trees is attributed to the favorable influence of the companion conifers.
[NOTE BY EDITOR—Heavy shade can reduce soil temperature, on summer afternoons, more than 20 deg.F six inches underground. This may largely explain the benefits of companion trees.]
* * * * *
SAWDUST MAKES GOOD FRUIT TREE MULCH
Many kinds of material ranging from paper to glass wool have been used as mulches for fruit trees, discloses J. H. Gourley, of the Department of Horticulture at The Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station. Straw, hay, and orchard mowings have been most commonly used.
In some areas, sawdust and shavings are available in quantity and have been used to some extent for mulches which raises the questions of whether they make the soil acid.
The Experiment Station has used both hardwood and pine sawdust and also shavings for a number of years in contrast with wheat straw, alfalfa, timothy, and others. No difference in appearance or behavior of the trees can be noted. Sawdust packs and gives poorer aeration than straw and it requires a large amount to mulch a tree. This mass also absorbs a large amount of rainfall before passing through to the soil but no injurious effects have been noted.
The chief question has been about soil acidity and it may be stated that after 12 years of treatment the soil is little or no more acid than it is under bluegrass sod. The soil under the latter has a pH of 5.22, the hardwood sawdust 5.07, the softwood sawdust 5.07, hardwood shavings 5.20, and wheat straw 5.35. Contrary to the common conception, no objection to sawdust from the standpoint of soil acidity is justified from Station experience.
* * * * *
TWO FAMOUS TREES
(Taken from "Bruce Every Month," December, 1938, page 17. Published by E. L. Bruce Company, Memphis, Tennessee.) Living monuments to a great governor of Texas are two nut bearing trees, a pecan and an old fashioned walnut. The last wish of Governor James S. Hogg was that "no monument of stone or marble" be placed at his grave, but instead there should be planted—"at my head a pecan tree and at my feet an old fashioned walnut; and when these trees shall bear, let the pecans and walnuts be given out among the plains people of Texas so that they may plant them and make Texas a land of trees." His wish has been fulfilled in its entirety, many trees from these two parent ones adorning the lawns of schools and court houses throughout the State of Texas.
* * * * *
OHIO TREES SERIES
No. 1.—Black walnut (Juglans nigra):—Black walnut is one of the most valuable of the forest trees native to the United States. It is regarded as the country's premier tree for high grade cabinet wood; it produces valuable nut crops; and under certain conditions is highly effective as an ornamental shade and pasture tree.
Lumber—As lumber, black walnut is used principally for furniture, radio cabinets, caskets, interior finish, sewing machines, and gun stocks. It is used either in the form of solid wood cut from lumber or in the form of plywood made by gluing sheets of plain or figured veneer to both sides of a core. Black walnut veneer is made by the slicing method and to a limited extent by the rotary-cut method.
Nuts—In recent years the black walnut has gained an important position in the kernel industry. There has never been a market surplus of black walnut kernels. The demand, mostly from confectioners and ice cream manufacturers, has steadily increased while the supply has been limited largely by the labor of cracking and extracting the kernels. The process of cracking the nuts and separating the kernels from the shells has been mechanized by a farmer in Adams County, Ohio, to the extent that he uses over 4,000 bushels of walnuts per year. He sends the kernels to markets in New York, Baltimore, Pittsburgh, Columbus, and Chicago. The facts all emphasize the economic importance of the black walnut in a market that is still far from saturated.
Ornamental Value—There are few trees whose utility is as great as the black walnut, that can rival it in beauty as a lawn tree. Its long graceful leaves provide a light dappled shade and grass will grow luxuriantly up to the very base of the tree. In its pleasing form and majestic size the black walnut can be a great addition to any landscape. Any tree yielding such fine timber and nuts, yet possessing beauty and utility for yard and pasture, can be nothing but a sound investment.
Soil Requirements—Black walnut grows best in valleys and bottom lands where there is a rich, moist soil but well drained. It does not generally grow on the higher elevations nor on wet bottom lands. It usually occurs as a scattered tree in hardwood stands and along roadsides, fence rows, and fence corners.
Distribution and Growth—The botanical range of this tree covers most of the eastern half of the United States. It is among the more rapid growing hardwoods. On good sites trees 10 years old will be about 20 feet high and in 40 years will reach 60 feet in height and 12 inches in diameter at breast height. According to Forest Survey figures, the estimated merchantable stand of walnut in Ohio in 1941 was 112,275,000 board feet while the cut during the same year was slightly over 3 million board feet.
Pests—The most serious pest is the walnut datana whose larvae eat the leaves. Other leaf-eating insects include the fall web worm and the hickory-horned devil. Several leaf spot diseases have attacked the leaves, also causing early defoliation. Leaf eating insects and leaf spot disease can be controlled by the application of one spray in June. This is composed of three pounds of arsenate of lead, ten pounds of powered Bordeaux mixture, and a good sticker in one hundred gallons of water.
Selected Varieties—Walnut trees vary greatly in the type of nut they produce. The most popular strains have been selected for propagation. The varieties which have been propagated by nurserymen are the Thomas, Ohio, Stabler, Ten Eyck, and Elmer Myers. Since the cost of grafted nut trees is rather high, many people are interested in planting the nuts of the better varieties for large scale planting. Seedling trees may be raised easily by anyone, whereas much skill and practice are required to produce grafted and budded trees. The degree to which the desirable characteristics of selected varieties are transmitted through seed is now being studied by the Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station.
A list of commercial nut nurseries may be obtained by writing to Miss Mildred Jones, Secretary, Northern Nut Growers Association, Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
References—A few of the most outstanding publications on black walnut are listed below.
1. Black walnut for timber and nuts. Farmers' Bulletin No. 1392, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
2. Nut Growing in New York. Bulletin 573, College of Agriculture, Ithaca, New York.
3. Top-working and Bench Grafting of Walnut Trees. Special Circular 69, Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, Wooster, Ohio.
4. Growing walnut for profit. The American Walnut Manufacturers Association, 616 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago 5, Illinois.
Gilbert Becker, Climax, Michigan.
Crath strains of J. regia, hickory, black walnut kernels.
Hebden H. Corsan, Hillsdale, Michigan.
Cases of nuts, folders on nut planting for success.
H. F. Stoke, Roanoke, Virginia.
Chinese chestnuts, hybrid chestnuts, tree hazel hybrid, Jones hybrid filberts, hazelberts, black walnuts, E. Golden persimmons, J. regia, hickories, nut ornaments.
Edwin W. Lemke, Washington, Michigan.
Heartnuts, black walnuts, filberts, tree hazels, black walnut wood, a vacuum nut cracker.
Jay L. Smith, Chester, New York. Books, black walnuts, hickories, chestnuts, hacksaws, grafts.
E. J. Korn, Kalamazoo, Michigan.
J. nigra, hickories, filberts.
S. H. Burton, Indiana.
Petrified nuts, wild hazels.
Harry R. Weber, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Breslau Persian walnuts, filberts.
E. P. Gerber, Kidron, Ohio.
Photos, hickories, chestnuts, hicans, black walnuts.
U. S. D. A., Beltsville, Maryland.
Green hickory nuts of several varieties.
A. G. Hirschi, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.
Heartnuts, J. regia, persimmons, chestnuts.
U. S. D. A., Beltsville, Maryland.
35 large pictures of famous nut and other trees fully described; many other smaller photos of famous trees remarkable for clearness.
John Davidson, Xenia, Ohio.
Cross-sections of seedling black walnut. A very remarkable exhibit of thin-shelled black walnuts.
Dr. A. S. Colby, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois.
A very desirable Crath (seedling I believe) Persian walnut.
Fayette Etter, Lemasters, Pennsylvania.
Large number of filbert varieties.
Dr. and Mrs. Truman A. Jones, Farkesburg, Penna. Geoffrey A. Gray, Cincinnati, O. John W. Hershey, Downingtown, Penna. Mr. and Mrs. C. A. Reed and Miss Betty Reed, Washington, D. C. Mrs. G. A. Zimmerman, Linglestown, R. I, Penna. S. B. Chase, Norris, Tenn. Thomas G. Zarger, Norris, Tenn. W. A. Cummings, Norris, Tenn. Mr. and Mrs. John Davidson, Xenia, O. H. C. Cook, Leetonia, O. Mr. and Mrs. H. F. Stoke, Roanoke, Va. Mr. and Mrs. Raymond E. Silvis, Massillon, O. Victor Brook, Rochester, N. Y. D. Ed. Seas, Orrville, O. L. H. MacDaniels, Ithaca, N. Y. C. F. Walker, Cleveland, O. Mr. and Mrs. J. F. Wischhusen, Cleveland, O. Mr. and Mrs. S. H. Graham, Ithaca, N. Y. Dr. R. H. Waite, Perrysburg, N. Y. Kenneth W. Hunt, Yellow Springs, O. J. F. Wilkinson, Rockport, Ind. William S. Clarke, Jr., State College, Penna. Ira M. Kyhl, Sabula, Io. Edwin W. Lemke, Detroit, Mich. William C. Hodgson, White Hall, Md. J. H. Gourley, Wooster, O. H. R. Gibbs, McLean, Va. Mr. and Mrs. S. Bernath, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Mr. and Mrs. Carl Weschcke, St. Paul, Minn. Joseph M. Masters, Wooster, O. George L. Slate, Geneva, N. Y. George H. Corsan, Toronto, Ont. Mrs. Katherine Cinadr, 13514 Coath Ave., Cleveland 20, O. O. D. Diller, Wooster, O. Emmet Yoder, Smithville, O. F. L. O'Rourke, E. Lansing, Mich. R. E. McAlpin, E. Lansing, Mich. G. J. Korn, Kalamazoo, Mich. L. W. Sherman, Canfield, O. H. H. Corsan, Hillsdale, Mich. J. L. Smith, and daughter, Chester, N. Y. A. J. Metzger, Toledo, O. A. W. Weaver, Toledo, O. S. Shessler, Genoa, O. A. A. Bungart, Avon, O. Sterling A. Smith, Vermilion, O. C. P. Stocker, Lorain, O. Dr. and Mrs. John E. Cannaday, Charleston, W. Va. Andres Cross Mr. and Mrs. R. B. Best, Eldred, Ill. G. M. Brand, Lincoln, Nebr. Wm. M. Rohrbacher, Iowa City, Io. D. C. Snyder, Center Point, Io. Wm. N. Neff, Martel, O. E. P. Gerber, Kidron, O. Geo. Kratzer, Dalton, O. A. G. Hirschi, Oklahoma City, Okla. Mr. and Mrs. Harry R. Weber, Cincinnati, O. Mr. Ford Wallick, Peru, Ind. Carl Prell, S. Bend, Ind. Albert B. Ferguson, Center Point, Io. E. F. Huen, Eldora, Io. John B. Longnecker, Orrville, O. Percy Schaible, Upper Black Eddy, Penna. Ruth Schaible, Upper Black Eddy, Penna. Mr. and Mrs. Blaine McCollum, White Hall, Md. Mrs. H. Negus, Mt. Ranier, Md. Dr. Elbert M. Shelton, Lakewood, O. H. M. Oesterling, Harrisburg, Penna. Frank M. Kintzel, Cincinnati, O. Dr. J. W. McKay, Plant Industry Station, Beltsville, Md. Dr. A. S. Colby, University of Illinois, Urbana, Ill. E. C. Soliday, Lancaster, O. L. E. Gauly, Cleveland, O. Mrs. Reuben Bixler, Apple Creek, O.