78. Grafts of Laney hybrid hickory on bitternut.
79. Group of four filberts—not blighting, but not thriving this year or last. Reason unknown. Soil is heavy clay hardpan near top. Top swampy in spring.
80. Taylor shagbark on bitternut.
81. Taylor shagbark on shagbark stock.
82. Bitternut grafted to Lucado pecan. Grafts grew well for two summers, but died in second winter.
83. One poor graft of pecan on bitternut.
84. Pleas hybrid pecan.
85. Merribrooke chestnut grafted upon Chinese chestnut sprouts.
DR. ZIMMERMAN: Have you been able to bud chestnuts successfully?
DR. MORRIS: Yes.
86. Daviana filbert.
87. Hybrid hazel. (Colurna x Americana).
88. Avellana hazel. Variety Contorta.
89. Siebold walnut. Parthenogen.
90. Hybrid chinkapin. (C. pumila x C. dentata). Grafted to another hybrid, but stock now blighting.
91. One of a series of chinkapins, natural or hybrids, grafted over to other hybrids or to the Merribrooke variety of American sweet chestnut. Some are blighting.
92. Original Bony-Bush hazel. Blighting moderately. Treatment for blight not followed because of wish to note the degree of resistance.
That bush was named by Dr. J. Russell Smith. The nut is remarkably thin shelled, very long and curious in form.
93. Chinkapin, not grafted. These bear heavily every year notwithstanding the blight. From the same root common chinkapin will keep on bearing year after year. When one stock blights another takes its place so that heavy continuous bearing is the rule.
94. Original No. 1 Morris hybrid chinkapin. (C. pumila x C. dentata). Nuts of size and quality of American sweet chestnut. Tree blighted in its 13th year after bearing crops for 8 or 9 years. New stump sprouts now growing.
(Note: At this time, the guests were called to the lawn back of the house, where a luncheon was served by Mrs. Morris. The tables were laid sumptuously, and all enjoyed it the more because of the surroundings, where trees on one side bent over a clear trout-stream, and elsewhere old-fashioned gardens splashed colors over the green background.)
Held on Third Day
(Note: It was planned that this session should be held during the afternoon of the third day, after the trip through Dr. Morris's estate. However, while the members were exploring deep in a wooded portion of Merribrooke, a sudden downpour of rain occurred. The nearest shelter was found to be the barn, where the members agreed that the following session should be held, since it was not possible to reach the main house. All members were standing during the session, including the reporter who wrote with the notebook resting against one of Dr. Morris's cars.)
Session called to order by President Weber.
DR. SMITH: There should be added to the by-laws the following amendment:
ARTICLE V. Members all be sent a notification of annual dues at the time they are due, and if not paid within two months thereafter they shall be sent a second notice, telling them that they are not in good standing on account of non-payment of dues, and are not entitled to receive the annual report.
At the end of thirty days from the sending of the second notice, a third notice shall be sent, notifying such members that unless dues are paid within ten days from receipt of this notice, their names will be dropped from the rolls for non-payment of dues.
The President: The motion has been seconded; all in favor please signify by saying "Aye."
(Vote carried unanimously).
The Secretary: The association should have a fiscal year. Shall we discuss this or will the president authorize the secretary and the treasurer to agree upon a date most convenient to them for the beginning of the fiscal year?
MR. REED: I move that we leave this to the discretion of the secretary and the treasurer.
THE PRESIDENT: All in favor of the motion, please signify.
(Voted as presented).
THE SECRETARY: I move that combination membership in the Association with subscription to the American Nut Journal be $4.50, a deduction of 25 cents each by the Association and the Journal.
THE PRESIDENT: All in favor of the motion please so indicate.
THE SECRETARY: The next thing is to elect new officers.
THE PRESIDENT: Mr. Reed will please read the report of the Committee on Nominations.
MR. REED: The making of this report was one of both great pleasure and of extreme regret. Since Dr. Deming has found that it will not be possible for him to continue as secretary, the following names are offered:
President—Harry R. Weber. Vice-President—Mrs. W. D. Ellwanger. Secretary—Mrs. B. W. Gahn. Treasurer—H. J. Hilliard.
THE PRESIDENT: Are there any exceptions to this? Will those who are in favor please so state?
(Election carried unanimously).
DR. SMITH: Dr. Deming's retiring from the secretaryship is a matter which all old-timers will regret, and I want to move that this association record in its proceedings the fullest appreciation of his great and faithful service in helping to carry the organization through so many years. I do not know what we would have done without his service and it is with great regret that we see him step aside.
(Motion seconded and unanimously carried).
DR. DEMING: I wish to express my gratitude to the members for their kindness, but I also wish to say that although I have stepped aside, I have not entirely passed away. I am still with you and I shall always give the association the best of my efforts in whatever way they may be needed; its interests shall always be dear to me.
DR. MORRIS: It seems to me that we have an object lesson here. Excepting for Dr. Deming's efforts I doubt whether this organization could have held together and worked harmoniously during its years of existence. He has been the key-note of the work with which others have helped, and we have been successful because of concerted work on the part of a number of men who are looking forward to the great future of this new agriculture, this new source of agriculture for the entire world, wherein we are going to be able to depend upon the sub-soil for our sustenance. It is through untiring work and self sacrifice that those who are so interested in this work have been able to work as a mass unit. I do not know of anything more that I could say.
THE PRESIDENT: I am sure that we all regret to see Dr. Deming step aside, but we will still have him with us and I am very sure that he will do all possible for the good of the association always.
DR. DEMING: I stated a few moments ago that although I had stepped aside I had not passed away; but since then I have changed my mind. I believe that I have entirely passed away.
DR. SMITH: I move a resolution of great appreciation for Dr. Morris's and Mrs. Morris's hospitality to us, and for enabling us to enjoy the beautiful day we have had here.
(Motion seconded and unanimously passed).
THE PRESIDENT: Dr. Morris, you now have notice of the official action of the association in their desire to thank you.
DR. MORRIS: I thank you, but I must say that I have had very little to do with it; I may have made the suggestion, but the women always do all of the work and in this case my wife and daughters have done it all.
THE PRESIDENT: We have not yet decided on the place for our next convention. I would like to have your ideas.
DR. MORRIS: I had three ideas as to that; one is to go to Mr. Riehl's place next year. Prof. Colby said that if we should, he would assume the responsibility of the committee on arrangements. We are first to ask Mr. Riehl whether it would be in accordance with his ideas and wishes.
The second idea is this. We saw yesterday only a small part of Mr. Bixby's exhibit, one of the finest collections in the world. We should have to spend more than a day there to see it satisfactorily. In connection with a visit to the Hick's nurseries, and others in the vicinity, it would take more than a day.
The third idea is to go again to Lancaster to see Mr. Jones' nursery and other things in that vicinity. It seems to me that we must make a choice between these three.
MR. JONES: I would be very glad to have you come to Lancaster.
DR. MORRIS: The objection to that is that Mr. Riehl is now 86 years of age. In view of that our first choice ought to be Mr. Riehl's place.
DR. SMITH: I move that, if it prove acceptable to Mr. Riehl, we meet in western Illinois.
MR. JONES: Why not add, "If that is not satisfactory, to go to Lancaster?"
DR. MORRIS: We should go back to Long Island next year and complete what we did not see this year, if we do not go to Mr. Riehl's.
THE SECRETARY: The Secretary has received from the St. Louis Chamber of Commerce an invitation worded with rather more cordiality than usual to hold our next convention in St. Louis. They offer to provide a meeting place, speakers, publicity, to do all except give the cash prizes and entertainment. I do not know exactly how far St. Louis is from Alton, but I understand it is one hour's ride by rail.
MR. REED: We could also see the Botanical Garden and the collection of large trees.
THE PRESIDENT: I think the sentiment is in favor of the western meeting. We can easily get to Mr. Riehl's place from St. Louis.
MR. REED: It is 22 miles from St. Louis to Alton, and there you can change and go to Mr. Riehl's. I think it best to go to St. Louis for the convention and to take a day at Mr. Riehl's place.
THE SECRETARY: As to the date we would not be able to decide upon that without first consulting Mr. Riehl and learning the time convenient for him. However, we should express our opinion as to the best time, approximately.
MR. REED: I believe it would be to the advantage of the organization to go there at a time when the nuts are on the trees. We have seen the species and varieties in bearing, but we have not seen a paying orchard ready for harvest. I believe we should have the meeting about September 10, or a little later.
THE PRESIDENT: Then we will move that the convention next year be held at St. Louis on September 10, or a little later as may be decided by the Executive Committee after consultation with Mr. Riehl.
(Motion put, voted and carried).
DR. MORRIS: Another important matter is in regard to publicity. For this meeting I have sent notes to about 15 different publications, expecting that they would give us notices. Not a single one of them gave us notices. This morning one of the reporters called me and said he was sorry he could not be here as he had an important meeting to attend. He wanted to know what the Northern Nut Growers' Association was like, if it was something like the Tree Planting Association. The fact is that people do not understand, as yet, the meaning of this association or its purpose. They do not realize that California sends 25,000 tons of walnuts to market, worth millions of dollars, and 10,000 tons of almonds this year. They don't realize that down in Georgia, in the poor, puny pinewoods where men had a hard time to make a living at one time, they are now riding around in limousines because they are growing nuts. They do not realize the enormous social and economic importance and consequence of work of the nut growers of today in the part that they play in the agriculture of the world for tomorrow. The newspapers would rather send some representative to see a prince fall down with his horse. But I know from mutual acquaintances that the Prince would rather be with us here today at this meeting than to be listening to a thousand and one nonentities and taking part in conversations with no future meaning. I believe that if I had thought about inviting him in time I should have had him out here. I have had experience with members of royalty before and I know what serious-minded people they are.
The next subject discussed was that of dropping members who are not in general good standing. After the discussion the decision stood that no action could be taken unless specific charges against the member were presented and proven true.
Another matter discussed was that of compensation to Mrs. Gahn for doing secretarial work for the association. It was voted by those present that she should be compensated, but the amount of compensation should be left to the decision of the Executive Committee.
The President adjourned the session sine die, at 4 p. m.
Because of lack of time, several papers were not read. These are included herewith:
By Hon. Royal S. Copeland, U. S. Senator from N. Y.
Whenever there is a peculiar individual in the community, he is apt to be called a "nut." As ordinarily used this is a term of derision, but the more one studies the value of the nut the more he is impressed with the idea that this isn't a good word to apply to an abnormal individual, unless he happens to be abnormally good. The nut is one of the best of the products of nature. It is one of the oldest of foods, and among certain animals it is almost the only food depended upon for health and growth.
If Mr. Bryan is mistaken about the origin of man, and if his antagonists are right, the natural ancestors of the human race were all nut eaters. At least the gorillas and chimpanzees are fond of the nut. When we go back to the early history of the Greeks and the early inhabitants of Great Britain, we find that they depended largely upon the acorn for food.
When measured by the caloric method it is surprising how much richer in nourishment the nut is than almost every other food substance. Nuts average about ten times as many calories per pound as the richest vegetables.
It makes you hungry to hear the names of the nuts. In this country we have the walnut, butternut, hazel nut and the hickory nut, the chestnut and the beechnut. These are native to our land. Then there are cultivated orchards of Persian walnuts, pecans, almonds and peanuts.
Christmas and Thanksgiving would be a failure without nuts; they are a part of the hospitable fare and no stocking is well filled at Christmas time unless a handful of nuts is added to the surprises.
Isn't it amazing what popular ideas there are in existence about the digestibility of foods. Many of these are fallacious. For instance, it is common belief that nuts are difficult to digest. This is not well founded. Of course nuts like all foods which are used as a part of the dessert are considered merely as an addition to the meal, and not a part of the meal structure. You finish your meal, having eaten everything you need and having filled your stomach, then you are given a dish of ice cream and, perhaps, after that the nuts are passed. They taste so good that you are tempted to take one more about ten times. You fail to chew the nut thoroughly and you crowd it into an already overfilled stomach. Because it happens to be the first thing to come up in case of disaster you jump at the illogical conclusion that your indigestion is due to the nuts. I need not tell you how unscientific is your conviction.
Several varieties of nuts are used for the making of nut butter, and this food is a very excellent substitute for meat.
Certainly nuts have material advantage over a good many foods. They keep indefinitely. They never putrefy. They are not infested with harmful bacteria. You can never get tape-worm or any other parasitic trouble, which occasionally follows the eating of infected food.
I am glad there are societies organized to propagate the nut. A prominent concern of New York City is very active in promulgating the value of the nut, and is encouraging the planting of nut trees.
Somebody has estimated that there are three million miles of country roads, and that if nut trees were planted alongside these roads there would be enough protein food for the entire population.
Nuts are rich in protein, lime, iron and vitamins.
Many dishes may be made from the nut which have the appearance and flavoring of meat, without the objectionable effects of flesh diet.
Last year we imported twenty-five million pounds of almonds, forty million pounds of Brazil nuts, eighteen million pounds of filberts, and forty-four million pounds of walnuts,—about twenty million dollars worth of these nuts were brought into the country.
This shows that there is some appreciation certainly of an article of food which deserves to be even more commonly used than it is at present.
HARDINESS IN NUT TREES
By C. A. Reed, U. S. Department of Agriculture
Nut trees of most species commonly thrive at both latitudes and altitudes much greater than the limits of regular or even frequent crop production. This fact is seldom fully appreciated by prospective planters, particularly in the North, who, not unnaturally, assume that the presence of a group of vigorous appearing trees, or even of a single tree, particularly in a fruitful year, is sufficient evidence of local hardiness to justify commercial planting. However, practically all of our native species of nut-bearing trees are indigenous well beyond the range of regular crop production. This is made possible by occasional seasons favorable to seed production which enable such species to reproduce themselves. A crop once in a quarter century would be sufficient for this purpose.
Taking the pecan as an illustration of how a species may be affected by latitude, it has been found that, as the limits of hardiness are approached, the ill effects on the species in approximate order are:
(1) reduction in size of nut, especially with oblong varieties in length, (2) increased proportion of faulty kernels, (3) increased irregularity of crop, (4) practical crop failure, and lastly the (5) partial, then complete, destruction of the tree.
On the other hand, the fact that a tree is subject to occasional winter injury, or that it bears irregularly, or not at all in a particular site, is not necessarily to be taken that the same tree in a different site or under slightly changed environment would not perform satisfactorily, even in the same locality. A change in exposure or of cultural treatment, or of rootstock, or of variety, or a modified association of varieties, might and frequently does bring about entirely different results. Sometimes a southern exposure causes trees to respond to mild weather, in winter or early spring, and to be caught by subsequent, violent drops in temperature. Some of the best known and best performing Persian walnut trees in the East are on a northwestern exposure, yet the species is commonly not hardy in the temperate portions of this country.
To a certain extent the ability of orchard trees to withstand frost injury is subject to control. The danger is greatest with trees which have grown late or those which have become devitalized for some reason or with those which are in poorly drained soils. The kind of root stock which has been used, is known to have had an influence in some cases. Doubtless this will be better understood as different stocks are used by the leaders in pecan breeding. Varieties also are known to differ greatly in their degree of hardiness. However, failure upon the part of otherwise normal trees to bear paying crops with regularity is not necessarily due to low temperatures. Other factors, such as self-sterility, may be wholly responsible for at least the lightness of crops.
So far as the orchardist is concerned, a tree is not hardy unless it is capable of bearing crops the average of which are profitable. On the other hand, occasional winter injury does not prove that a species cannot be grown successfully in the same locality. Neither the peach nor the apple industries of the North nor those of the citrus in the South and California nor, in fact, any of the other horticultural commodities of this country are wholly unaffected by frost damage. Our forest trees may be more subject to winter killing than we suspect. A certain amount of winter-injury is to be expected in any part of the country no matter what the species of plant may be.
The frequency with which winter or spring injury is definitely known to occur gives color to a rising theory that freezing temperatures may play a vastly greater part in the development of the nut industry over the entire country than is commonly supposed. Much of the evidence of damage from this cause is of such nature as to be easily overlooked or attributed to other causes. Trees and plants of many kinds have become so accustomed to injury by freezing that they are able to recover without the injury always being apparent. A few illustrations of this which have come to the writer's attention might be cited.
In December 1919, a sudden drop in temperature of from 32 deg.F to 24 deg.F occurred at McMinnville, Oregon, with fatal result to cultivated trees and shrubs of many kinds. The damage was greatest in flat bottoms, especially those where neither land nor air drainage was good. Under such conditions, numerous apple orchards were killed outright. Prunes and Persian walnuts were so badly injured to the snow-line that subsequently great numbers of trees were cut down. Both staminate and pistillate buds of filberts above the snow were practically all destroyed. Later on, the entire tops of many of the older-bearing filbert trees succumbed. An instance of particular interest, in so far as this discussion is concerned, was afforded by the behavior of a shagbark hickory tree in McMinnville, some 20 or 30 years old, which had been grown from a Missouri seed. In February, when examination was made of the condition of this tree, it was found that all visible buds had been killed, yet the bark on the branches between the buds was in apparently perfect condition. The question as to what the tree would do, therefore, became one of great interest. The following September, when revisited, this tree was found to have such a wealth of luxuriant foliage that the observer felt that the accuracy of his February records was challenged. However, closer inspection showed that growth had entirely taken place from adventitious buds, and that the dead buds and spurs were still in evidence. There were no nuts on the tree but otherwise the casual observer would not have suspected that the tree had been affected in any way. In all likelihood, the owner of the tree would deny that it had been injured.
Another case of somewhat similar kind occurred early during the present year in a pecan orchard in South Georgia. The trees had been set in 1917, and in 1919, a portion selected by the Bureau of Plant Industry for conducting a series of fertilizer and cover-crop experiments. The summer of 1923 was extremely dry. This was followed by warm rains in the late fall and early winter. On January 6, during a period of high wind, the mercury dropped to within a few degrees of zero, official reports recording temperatures of from 6 to 8 degrees above zero at various nearby stations.
On March 31, Dr. J. J. Skinner, of the Office of Soil Fertility Investigations, in attending to the spring fertilizer applications, discovered that a high proportion of the trees had been badly winter injured, as indicated by the usual characteristic evidence. These included a considerable exudence of sour and frothy sap from the trunks of the trees, particularly those having smooth bark. This invariably occurred on the west side. Shot-hole borers, which not infrequently follow such injury, were already at work.
This situation was at once called to the attention of the owner of the orchard who lived some 50 miles away. He replied that although he made frequent visits to the orchard, the matter had not attracted his attention, nor had it been reported to him. On April 17, he inspected the orchard and the day following, reported to the Bureau by special delivery that as a result of a rather hasty inspection, he was convinced that from 16 to 20 per cent of the trees in the experimental tract were injured, but that in the rest of this orchard the injury was insignificant, probably not exceeding 4 per cent. His not unnatural deduction was that the high fertilization of the soil in the experimental tract had caused tender growth which, under the extreme conditions of the previous months, had been unable to survive.
On April 24, a careful record of the condition of all trees in this tract and of a representative number of those in adjacent parts of the orchard, was made by Mr. J. L. Pelham of the Bureau of Plant Industry and the writer, in company with the owner of the orchard and his superintendent. It was found that in the experimental tract, 50 per cent of the trees had been visibly injured, thus exceeding the owner's maximum estimate by about 30 per cent. Of the total number of trees, 20 per cent were regarded as being slightly injured, and 30 per cent severely so. Of the fertilized trees within the experimental tract, 55 per cent showed injury to some degree as compared with 58 per cent of the trees unfertilized, also within the tract.
Inspection of the trees outside of the experimental tract showed that 52.6 per cent were affected, 40.8 per cent being slightly, and 11.8 per cent severely injured. A second inspection made June 9 showed that while a few of the most severely injured trees had succumbed, the apparent condition of the majority was greatly improved. In the experimental tract 6 per cent were dead, 13.50 per cent in doubtful condition, and 80.25 per cent were apparently in good condition. Of the trees in outside tracts, the percentage dead, doubtful and apparently sound were 2.80, 9.008 and 87.42, respectively.
The lesson of present importance from this narrative is that afforded by the illustration not only of the ease with which the matter all but escaped the attention of a careful grower but of the difficulty of even impressing upon him the full gravity of the situation. In spite of a prejudice which he conceded was in his mind, when he first inspected the trees on April 17, he underestimated the number affected by from one-third to one-half.
This grower was not alone in his failure to detect evidence of winter injury as was subsequently proven by the negative replies to a general inquiry to growers in many sections sent out in May, together with numerous reports of severe injury received during June and early July. The fact is that winter injury was more or less general in the pecan orchards of much of the South. Had it been possible to observe further, it is highly probable that a direct relation would have been found between this damage and the lightness in the set of the crop of nuts in 1924 over the general pecan district.
Other instances of damages to nut trees which have largely escaped notice might be cited, but these will perhaps be sufficient to call similar cases to the minds of other observers. Of particular interest in the northern part of the country are specific instances of the behavior of individual species and their varieties with reference to ability to withstand local climatic conditions. To cite a few: Mr. E. A. Riehl, of Godfrey, Ill., 8 miles from Alton, reports that during his 60 years of residence on a high bluff overlooking the Mississippi, the pecan trees in the river bottoms of the immediate neighborhood have fruited with exceeding irregularity. A correspondent from Evansville, who cleared 200 acres of forest land along the Ohio of all growth other than pecan, reports that the yields have been disappointing. F. W. McReynolds of Washington, D. C. has 50 or more grafted trees now 8 or 10 years old, 10 miles north of the District, which, although in otherwise thrifty condition, have not fruited.
T. P. Littlepage of Washington, D. C., has some 30 acres of pecan trees, also grafted, on his farm near Bowie, Md., which have borne some nuts during the last three years, but the product has been undersized, poorly-filled and distinctly inferior. Mr. Littlepage reports that during the past spring, these trees suffered appreciable injury in the freezing back of the fruit spurs and that the nuts which formed were from a second set of spurs. His trees bore in the neighborhood of a bushel of nuts which looked more promising than usual until the middle of October when freezing temperature occurring between the 14th and the 24th, completely destroyed the crop. At Bell Station, near Glenndale, Md., about three miles nearer Washington than Bowie, at Marietta, a colonial plantation, there is a clump of pecan trees dating back to the days of Thomas Jefferson. These are apparently hardy except in the matter of yields. Dr. M. B. Waite, of the Bureau of Plant Industry, who has long known these trees, states that they bore heavily in one year, about 1912, but that since that time, they have borne very little.
On the other hand, Mr. Albert Stabler of Washington, has 6 or 8 trees of varieties similar to those in the plantings of Messrs. Littlepage and McReynolds and of about the same age, on a farm not far from that of the latter, one variety of which, Major, in 1923 bore some very fair quality nuts. Although small, they were typical for that variety both in respect to size and high quality. The crop of 1924 was practically a failure, the set being very light. In the test orchard of Mr. J. F. Jones of Lancaster, Pa., young trees of several of the better known varieties are making a good start in the way of beginning to yield and in showing no appreciable signs of winter injury. Most of these trees bore light crops last year, (1923) but are practically barren this year.
South of Waynesboro, Pa., on a farm belonging to Mr. G. H. Lesher, there are 7 seedling pecan trees some 50 years old, which not only show no signs of winter injury outwardly visible, but have the reputation of bearing fairly well on alternate years. The present (1924) being the favorable year, the trees had a good sprinkling of nuts in clusters of as many as 5 each, when seen on July 23. A few miles farther north, in the town of Mont Alto, at an altitude of about 1000 feet, near the location of the State Forestry School of Pennsylvania, another tree said to be 65 years old, and having a girth at breast height of 65 inches, on the residence grounds of Mr. H. B. Verdeer, is apparently as hardy as are the indigenous species of the neighborhood. It is claimed to have recently borne three pecks of nuts in a single season, and it now has a very good crop. Numerous other instances of pecan trees in the North might be cited, but these suffice to establish not only the uncertainty of hardiness of the pecan in the North, but also the probability of nut crops in occasional years or oftener, well beyond the generally accepted range of the species.
The hardiness of the Persian walnut is difficult to define. To again quote Dr. Waite, "Juglans regia, as we know it in the east and north, frequently succeeds over long intervals of time under conditions of climate, soil, elevation, and general environment suitable for the peach. It is perhaps a trifle more subject to injury by radical drops in temperature, but it recuperates with decidedly greater difficulty." Dr. Waite points out that there is a striking similarity between the requirements of local environment of the Persian walnut and the sweet cherry. It develops that this is a familiar comparison in southwestern British Columbia. Both require good drainage of air and soil, or the benefit of moderating influence such as is afforded by large bodies of water. Also both are endangered by warm spells during the dormant months.
These statements cover the situation quite correctly, as it is seen by the writer, although it might be added that beyond or west of the Ohio River, in the middle portion of the country, this species is seldom able to survive for more than one or two winters. Many trees have been planted in Michigan, but the great majority have passed out entirely even where peaches normally succeed. However, it is the experience of a few growers in Sanilac County, bordering Lake Huron, that within a half mile of the lake, there is a greater profit in Persian walnuts than in peaches. One grower at Lockport, New York, has found Persian walnuts to pay better than other orchard crops which he has raised at equal expense or upon equal areas of land. An orchard at East Avon, widely known at one time and visited by the Northern Nut Growers' Association in 1915, practically succumbed entirely after having borne but one good crop in about 35 years. Mr. F. A. Bartlett, of Stamford, Conn., who knows intimately many dozen trees of this species within a radius of 50 miles of New York City, finds that few bear significant crops except at long intervals. From Stamford, Conn., near the Atlantic Seaboard, south to Norfolk, Va., Persian walnut trees are not uncommon in door-yards. They are fairly frequent in southern Pennsylvania west over practically half the length of the State and through Maryland west to Hagerstown. There are perhaps more productive trees in Lancaster County, than in any other county in either Pennsylvania or Maryland, with the possible exception of some county of the Eastern Shore of the latter state, which section already has been referred to. In Lancaster county yields are sufficient to give considerable profit from trees not occupying expensive land.
The Japanese walnut affords a curious analogy in regard to hardiness. During normal years, it succeeds over practically the same range as that of the black walnut, yet it freezes in early fall, mild winter or late spring when conditions are adverse, even when black walnut and pecan nearby are not visibly affected. Mr. Jones finds the Lancaster heartnut, a variety originating in his county, to be subject to injury by spring freezing to such an extent that he has largely discontinued its propagation. Mr. Edwin A. Surprise, of Boston, reports that this variety grows well in summer but freezes back in winter about as much as it grows in summer. Mr. Bartlett regards it as one of the most valuable acquisitions in his nut planting at Stamford, Conn., as it is a handsome, vigorous grower, and promises to bear well. As a safer variety in the Lancaster district Mr. Jones has substituted the Faust from Bamberg, S. C., which vegetates later in spring and thus far has proved less subject to injury.
The twigs of young black walnut trees are occasionally injured by freezing in winter, but recorded instances of such damage are rare. This is a field which should be investigated, as there is evidently no data showing even the regularity with which the black walnut bears in any section, much less the extent to which fruiting is restricted by destruction of the buds or spurs as a result of severe temperatures in winter or spring. This also applies to hardiness of the butternut, the hickories and of introduced species of chestnut.
In conclusion, it is pointed out that planters should not assume that the presence of a healthy tree is proof of sufficient hardiness to warrant extensive plantings, neither should they over-look the fact that an occasional satisfactory crop may be but slim evidence of commercial possibilities. It requires years of trial before a species or variety can fully establish its hardiness. Yet, on the other hand, to wait to find a kind of nut a hundred per cent hardy under all conditions, would be not to plant at all. No varieties of any species are immune to winter injury over any great portion of the United States. The planting of nut trees in the northern part of the country is certain to go forward, but for the present, east of the Rockies, large orchards of nut trees of any species or variety must be regarded as fields promising for experimentation rather than of sound commercial investment.
A common error in the minds of the American people is the assumption that to be a success, a thing must be performed upon a large scale. To develop a nut industry, it is imagined that there must be great orchards of hundreds of acres. It is not realized that a great proportion of the walnuts, almonds, filberts, and chestnuts annually imported from Europe, are from roadside, hillside and door-yard trees which could as well have been grown in this country on what is now idle land in thickly populated agricultural districts. No one need expect to attain great wealth from the products of door-yard or waste land trees but the by-product which could readily be salvaged from nut trees, would likely be very acceptable when interest and taxes or other bills come due.
WALNUT GRAFTING INVESTIGATIONS
T. J. Talbert, Professor of Horticulture, University of Missouri, College of Agriculture
These investigations are to determine the best varieties of the improved black walnut for Missouri. Valuable information is also being procured in reference to the topworking or cleft grafting of the native seedling black walnut to the improved sorts.
Since practically every Missouri farm contains some waste land upon which the native walnut and other nut trees may be growing, it is believed that it is possible to topwork these seedling sorts to improved kinds which will not only supply a larger quantity of thinner shelled, more highly flavored nuts for home use, but a surplus for the market. There is a growing demand for the seedling black walnut.
At the present time Missouri leads all other states in the production of this nut. The results which are being obtained in this experiment are proving to be of unusual interest and profit to Missouri growers.
The investigation has been extended to include, besides black walnuts, pecans, hickories, hazel nuts, chinkapins and chestnuts. With each of these nuts our object is to determine better varieties for Missouri conditions, more profitable and economical methods of production and more satisfactory methods of culture, as well as to stimulate an interest in the marketing and larger use of these products.
The improved varieties of seedling black walnut have been found to be exceedingly easy to propagate by cleft grafting the native or common seedlings. The cleft graft has been used successfully upon seedling trees ranging in diameter from 1-1/2 inches to as much as 8 or 10 inches. In general, however, it has been found best to cleft graft branches or limbs of no greater diameter than from 4 to 6 inches. Such wounds, if properly handled, usually heal over completely within 3 or 4 years. When larger branches are used, decay is much more apt to develop in the wound before healing over is accomplished.
The cleft grafting work is accomplished in the usual way. The limb or branch is removed by sawing it off. The end of the branch is then split with a regular grafting implement used for this purpose; or the work may be accomplished with an axe. If the branch is large a wedge is driven in the center to hold the split cavity apart and to relieve the pressure upon the scions which are to be inserted. Wood of the last season's growth is procured from the variety which it is desired to propagate and the lower end of the scion, which is made about 4 inches long, is whittled to a wedge shape, after which it is inserted in the slit made upon the stock. Where the stock is more than 2 inches in diameter, it is usually advisable to place 2 scions; and where the stock is as large as 4 to 6 inches or more in diameter 4 scions should generally be used. After the placing of the scions all the cut surfaces should be carefully covered with grafting wax. Paper sacks are often used in our experimental work to cover the grafts and cut surfaces for a week or 10 days. It has been found that the inclosing of the grafted branches in paper sacks for this period lessens greatly the evaporation, and more of the inserted scions are apt to grow.
The scions may grow very rapidly, in which case it is usually necessary to brace them by tying a stick or branch to the stock and allowing it to extend for 2 or 3 feet above the point at which the grafting work was done. The inserted scions are then tied to this support. It is very important that the grower examine grafts after wind storms in order to repair damage which may have been done.
Investigations at this station have shown that grafts usually bear fruit in 4 years after the grafting operation. We receive some fruit, occasionally, in 3 years after the work is performed. It is also interesting to note that when seedling walnuts of the same size are selected, some topworked and others untreated, the grafted trees after 5 years' growth generally grow tops equally as large as the tops of the ungrafted trees.
The principal improved varieties of black walnut which are being used at this Station are as follows: Stabler, Ohio, Thomas and Ten Eyck.
(Note by the editor.—The cleft graft described by Prof. Talbert has been superseded in the East by other methods, chiefly the bark and the modified cleft grafts).
CARE AND PREPARATION OF NUTS FOR SEED PURPOSES
By Prof. E. R. Lake, U. S. Department of Agriculture
A nut is a seed, and a seed, normally, is an embryo plant asleep. To keep a nut-seed asleep and safely resting against the favorable time when it may awake, arise and go forth, as a vigorous seedling bent upon a career of earth conquest, requires no great or unusual attention and care save that which is necessary to maintain such conditions as will insure the complete maturing, ripening and curing of the seed, its protection against the ravages of rodents or other nut-eating animals, undue moisture and an unfavorably high temperature. In other words harvest the nuts as soon after they are mature as is possible, insure their complete curing, store them where they will be kept constantly so cool that germination cannot take place, and some nuts, as the black walnut and butternut, may germinate at a temperature just above zero (centigrade(?) Ed.) and keep them moist enough to prevent undue hardening of the tissues or enclosing structures (shell), at the same time prevent them from becoming saturated with moisture and thus rotting. Summarized, these conditions are: (a) a temperature just too low for vegetative activity. (b) A moisture content of the nut just below turgidity. (c) An immunity against ants, rats, mice and squirrels.
Curing. A man-devised method for hastening the ripening of a matured seed or fruit, is usually carried on in a more or less enclosed space where the moisture and temperature conditions are kept carefully regulated, or in a place where the seeds are kept away from direct contact with sunlight and the earth. Ordinarily, the nuts are placed in trays 2" to 3" deep, 2' to 2-1/2' wide and 5' to 6' long. The bottom tray is then placed upon a pair of sawhorses or other device, in a shady place and 2' to 2-1/2' above the ground then the other trays are placed on and above the first one until all the nuts are in the tier of trays, or until it is 2' to 3' tall. Sometimes a current of heated, circulating air is used to doubly hasten the curing process, but this practice is to be discouraged as too often the undue heating of the nut germ while in this stage of ripening injures it, and thus the nuts are rendered unfit for reproduction. The nuts in the trays should be frequently stirred or turned over during the first week or ten days while curing.
In the case of chestnuts, the crop should be harvested as soon as possible after the first nuts fall so that the damage from weevils may be kept at a minimum. Immediately after the nuts are surface-dried they should be treated to an application of carbon disulphide, one ounce to a tightly closed capacity content of an apple barrel; time of treatment about 24 hours. While this treatment probably will not kill all the weevils it will insure a much larger percentage of germination than there would be otherwise.
After fumigating the nuts should be spread out on wire-cloth bottom trays and placed under a shed or trees, where a free circulation of air will in a few days sufficiently cure the nuts, so that they may be stratified and set away in a pit in the ground on the north side of a building, wall, hedge-row or evergreen trees, thus insuring them ample moisture and protection against sudden changes of temperatures and the ravages of rodents and other pests.
Other nuts of the temperate zone may, in a general way, be treated without any special care other than that required to keep them from getting moist and warm, or destroyed by rodents or other nut-eating animals, or by fungous troubles.
On the whole probably the best method of treatment for the amateur or small grower of seedling nut trees, is to stratify the nuts as soon as harvested, assuming that the nuts have been fairly well cured by a few days' exposure to drying air currents.
Stratification consists in layering the nuts in clean, sharp sand, light loam or sawdust and placing them in a cold, moist place, as a well drained and shaded north hillside, where their contact with the soil and protection from the direct rays of the sun will insure complete dormancy and at the same time prevent the development of fungous troubles. To this end the common practice is to dig a somewhat shallow trench and place in it, one layer deep, the "flats" in which the nuts are stratified. The flat usually employed is a shallow, wooden box in which the bottom is provided with ample, narrow drainage cracks and the top covered with wire cloth that will keep out mice or larger rodents. Not infrequently the bottom is a wire cloth one instead of wood. Dimensions of the flats vary, somewhat, but a convenient size is 30" long, 15"-16" wide, 3"-4" deep, sides ends and bottom being made of lumber strips (creosoted for preservation purposes) 34" thick and 3"-4" wide.
In these flats the nuts are placed layer upon layer, with sand, loam or sawdust between, something as follows: one inch of sand or other medium on the bottom, then a single layer of nuts, another inch layer of sand, etc., until the flat is full, when it is covered with the wire cloth, placed in the trench, covered with a few inches to a foot of leaves, moist hay, cornstalks or even soil, and left for the winter. At the time the medium for layering the nuts is being prepared, it will be well, if ants are present in the section where the nuts are to be stored, or later placed in nursery bed, to mix a liberal percentage of unleached wood ashes with the sand, sawdust or loam, say one part in five, more or less.
Other flats are placed alongside or end to end in the trench until the stock is all in, when the whole may be covered uniformly. The layer of leaves or hay next to the wire cover of the flats assists in the work of uncovering when the inspections are made for the purpose of ascertaining the state of dormancy or germination.
One step more and the seed stage passes into the province of the seedling. As soon as the stratified nuts begin to germinate they should be removed from the flats and planted in the nursery or propagating bed. The site for this purpose should be one that is well drained, open to air and sunshine and possessing a clean, fine, mellow and rather light loamy soil. The size of this plat will vary to meet the needs of the quantity of nuts in hand and should be prepared, preferably the fall before, by stirring the soil deeply and thoroughly working into it a goodly supply of well rotted stable compost.
The rows for hand culture may be 18"-30" apart; for loose hoeing, 3' to 3-1/2' and should lie along north and south lines. The distance and depth of the nuts in the row will vary with their size. In general, one may say that a nut should be planted the length of the lateral diameter below the surface of the soil, when it has settled, or about double that depth when the soil is freshly worked over it. The distance apart in the row will vary somewhat with the rapidity of growth of the species; six to eight inches being a fair average for walnuts and chestnuts, and 4 to 6 for hickories and pecans.
Fifteenth Annual Convention of the Northern Nut Growers' Association, New York City, September 3, 4, 5, 1924
Species Variety Exhibitor Address Origin
1. Black walnut J. A. Neilson Vineland, Ont. St. Thomas, Ont. 2. Black walnut " " " " " Niagara-on-Lake. 3. Black walnut Walsh " " " " " Simcoe, Ont. 4. Black walnut " " " " " Electric, Ont. 5. Black walnut " " " " " Villoria, Ont. 6. Black walnut Ohio J. F. Jones Lancaster, Pa. 7. Black walnut Stabler " " " " " 8. Black walnut Thomas " " " " " 9. Persian walnut J. A. Neilson Vineland, Ont. Carpathian Mts. 10. Persian walnut " " " " " Grimsley, Ont. 11. Persian walnut " " " " " St. Catherines, Ont. 12. Persian walnut Alpine J. F. Jones Lancaster, Pa. 13. Persian walnut Mayette seedling " " " " " 14. Persian walnut Sinclair " " " " " 15. Persian walnut Wiltz Mayette " " " " " 16. Heartnut J. A. Neilson Vineland, Ont. Near Jordon, Ont. 17. Heartnut " " " " " Near Hamilton, Ont. 18. Heartnut " " " " " Near Scotland, Ont. 19. Heartnut Faust J. F. Jones Lancaster, Pa. 20. Heartnut Lancaster " " " " " 21. Heartnut Ritchey " " " " " 22. Sieboldiana walnut J. A. Neilson Vineland, Ont. Hamilton, Ont. 23. Sieboldiana walnut " " " " " OAC Campus, Guelph. 24. Shagbark J. A. Neilson Vineland, Ont. Electric, Ont. 25. Shagbark " " " " " Norfolk Co., Ont. 26. Shagbark hybrid Beaver J. F. Jones Lancaster, Pa. 27. Shagbark hybrid Siers " " " " " 28. Pecan J. A. Neilson Vineland, Ont. 15 miles N. of Toronto 29. Almond " " " " " Gellatly, B. C. 30. Filbert Tray of mixed " " " " " Gellatly, B. C. 31. Filbert White aveline J. F. Jones Lancaster, Pa. 32. Filbert Barcelona " " " " " 33. Filbert Cosford " " " " " 34. Filbert Daviana " " " " " 35. Filbert Du Chilly " " " " " 36. Filbert Giant de Halle " " " " " 37. Filbert Italian Red " " " " " 38. Filbert Merribrooke " " " " " 39. Filbert Noci Lunghe " " " " " 40. Filbert Rush " " " " " 42. Filbert hybrid Rush x Barcelona " " " " " 43. Filbert hybrid Rush x Barcelona " " " " " 44. Filbert hybrid Rush x Barcelona " " " " " 45. Filbert hybrid Rush Cosford " " " " " 46. Filbert hybrid Rush Cosford " " " " " 47. Filbert hybrid Rush Giant de Halle " " " " " 48. Filbert hybrid Rush Giant de Halle " " " " " 49. Filbert hybrid Rush Giant de Halle " " " " " 50. Filbert hybrid Rush Italian Red " " " " " 51. Photograph—Walnut-cracking machine Black Walnut Company, 509-11-13, Spruce St., St. Louis, Mo. 52. Budding Knife
[Transcriber's note: No. 41 is missing in the original]
Among those present at the Fifteenth Annual Convention of the Northern Nut Growers' Association, were the following:
Dr. N. L. Britton, Director of the N. Y. Botanical Gardens. Dr. Fred E. Brooks, Entomologist, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Dr. and Mrs. Frank L. Baum, Boyertown, Pa. Mr. Willard G. Bixby, Baldwin, N. Y. Dr. A. F. Blakeslee, Cold Spring Harbor, L. I. Mr. and Mrs. F. A. Bartlett, Stamford, Conn. Miss H. T. Bennett, Boston, Mass. Prof. J. Franklin Collins, Providence, R. I. Dr. John E. Cannaday, Charleston, W. Va. Mr. G. M. Codding, Mt. Vernon, N. Y. Prof. A. S. Colby, University of Illinois, Urbana, Ill. Dr. W. C. Deming, Hartford, Conn. Mr. Zenas H. Ellis, Fair Haven, Vt. Mrs. W. D. Ellwanger, Rochester, N. Y. Mr. Ammon P. Fritz, 55 E. Franklin St., Ephrata, Pa. Mr. A. F. Graf, Bardonia, N. Y. Mrs. B. W. Gahn, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Mr. and Mrs. Karl W. Greene, Washington, D. C. Dr. M. A. Howe, Assistant to Director, N. Y. Botanical Gardens. Mr. Henry Hicks, Baldwin, L. I. (Hicks' Nurseries). Mr. John W. Hershey, E. Downington, Pa. Mr. Lee Whitaker Jaques, 74 Waverly St., Jersey City, N. J. Mr. J. F. Jones, Lancaster, Pa. Mr. M. G. Kains, Suffern, N. Y. Mr. Thomas W. Little, Cos Cob, Conn. Dr. Robt. T. Morris, Cos Cob, Route 28, Box 95, Stamford, Conn. Dr. L. H. MacDaniels, N. Y. State College of Agriculture, Ithaca, N. Y. Prof. Jas. A. Neilson, Horticultural Exp. Station, Vineland, Ont., Can. Mr. Ralph T. Olcott, Ed. American Nut Journal, Rochester, N. Y. Mrs. R. T. Olcott, Rochester, N. Y. Mr. P. H. O'Connor, Bowie, Md. Mr. C. A. Reed, U. S. Department of Agriculture Mr. John Rick, Reading, Pa. Dr. J. Russell Smith, Columbia University, New York, N. Y. Dr. Oscar Stapf, F. R. S., late Curator of the Herbarium, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London, England. Mr. Harry R. Weber, Cincinnati, Ohio. Mrs. Laura E. Woodward, West Chester, Pa. Dr. and Mrs. G. A. Zimmerman, Piketown, Pa.
Naperville, Illinois. Established 1866
Transplanted Material for
FORESTRY PROJECTS TREES, SHRUBS, EVERGREENS
PERENNIALS—LINING OUT STOCK
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This space is paid for by Jas. L. Brooke, Pleasantville, Ohio, who is only too anxious at any time to assist in encouraging and promoting Nut Culture in the North.
While he has only recently taken up this work, and is therefore a practical stranger on the roster of The Northern Nut Growers' Association, he will only be too anxious and willing at any time to contribute to the cause in any way possible.
He is making a thorough search in his neighborhood where chestnuts, hickory nuts and black walnuts grow in abundance, for nuts of approved merit for propagation.
In case anything is found along this line of endeavor the active members of the association will hear from him and samples of nuts submitted.
An extra select varietal stock of nut trees for northern planting, grown here in Pennsylvania Nurseries. Trees grafted or budded on transplanted stocks and grown on land especially adapted to these trees, resulting in extra fine trees with exceptionally fine root systems. Write for catalogue and cultural guide.
TOOLS and SUPPLIES
For grafting or budding nut trees or top-working wild or natural trees. My methods are original and are used, with slight variation, by all the leading propagators, both north and south.
Write for booklet on propagation and price list of tools.
J. F. Jones, Nut Specialist